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Rathwa et al. European Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Dr. Ketan Rathwa*1 and Dr. Rakesh Salve2
1Final Year Post Graduate Scholar, Department of Rasa Shashtra & Bhaishajya Kalpana, Parul University, Parul
Institute of Ayurved, Limda, Vadodara, Gujarat, India.
2Associate Professor, Department of Rasa Shashtra & Bhaishajya Kalpana, Parul University, Parul Institute of
Ayurved, Limda, Vadodara, Gujarat, India.
Article Received on 20/05/2018 Article Revised on 10/06/2018 Article Accepted on 30/06/2018
The word pharmacognosy is formed by combination of
'Pharmakon' means a drug and 'gignosy' means 'to
acquire knowledge'. So Pharmacognosy can be defined
as a branch of biosciences that deals with the knowledge
and authentification of medicinal and related products of
crude or primary type originated from both plants and
animals in the detailed form. Pharmacognosy is an
important link between pharmacology and
Any plant which is used medicinally requires detail study
prior to its use because the therapeutic efficacy is
absolutely depends on the quality of theplant drug used.
The detailed Pharmacognostical study of plant help us to
differentiate between closely related species of the same
genus or relatedgenera of the same family. It is also the
first step to standardize a drug whichis the need of the
day. If the plant drugs are adulterated, then the quality of
preparation cannot give the desirable results. So before
using a drug it is very much essential to carry out its
detailed Pharmacognostical study as it is not only helpful
for correct identification butalso to get a clue for its
phytochemical, pharmacological and medicinal
1. To authentify fresh Amalaki fruit by Macroscopic
and Microscopic studies.
2. Powder microscopy of Amalaki powder.
Collection of samples
For the present study, fruits of fresh Amalaki were
collected from local market of vadodara and powder was
prepared in the department of RS&BK.
Sanskrit : Amalaki
English : Indian gooseberry, Emblicamyrobalan
Botanical Name : Emblica officinalis
Family : Phyllanthaceae
Common name / synonyms : Vayastha, Amla, Vrushyaa,
Jatiphalarasa, Shiv Dhatriphala, Shriphala, Amrutphala
Amalaki is available in small or moderate sized
deciduous trees. The leaves are small, simple, subsessile,
many in each branchlet, linear-oblong and entire.
Flowers are small, greenish yellow, unisexual in dense
axillary fascicles along the branchlets. There are 6 tepals.
The fruits are globose, fleshy, spherical, light greenish
yellow, quite smooth and hard on appearance, with 6
vertical stripes or furrows. The fruiting Period is autumn.
SJIF Impact Factor 4.918
Review Article
ejbps, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 7, 764-766.
European Journal of Biomedical
AND Pharmaceutical sciences
ISSN 2349-8870
Volume: 5
Issue: 7
Year: 2018
*Corresponding Author: Dr. Ketan Rathwa
Final Year Post Graduate Scholar, Department of Rasa Shashtra & Bhaishajya Kalpana, Parul University, Parul Institute of Ayurved, Limda,
Vadodara, Gujarat, India.
Rathwa et al. European Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences
According to ayurveda there are 2 varieties of Amla
Vanya (wild) Gramya (cultivated).
Rasapanchaka (Ayurvedic Pharmacodynamics)
Rasa: Amla (Sour), Kashaya (Astringent), Tikta (Bitter),
Katu (Pungent), Madhur (Sweet).
Guna: Guru (Heavy), Ruksha (Dry), Sheeta (Cold)
Veerya : Sheeta (Cold)
Vipaka : Madhur (Sweet)
Doshakarma : Tridoshashamak (Alleviate all the Three
* Due to its Amla Rasa (Sour) it alleviates Vata
* Due to MadhurVipaka (Sweet) it alleviates Pitta
* Due to Kashaya Rasa (Astringent) and Ruksha (Dry)
* Guna it alleviates Kapha
Medicinal Properties
Amla or the Indian Gooseberry is the richest source of
Vitamin C and natural anti oxidant. It is digestive,
aphrodisiac, laxative, diuretic and tonic. It helps in
detoxifying the body and regulates digestion. It promotes
Ojus and the reproductive fluids.
Useful Parts: Fruits
Chemical composition / key active constituents
The fruit contains Gallic acid, tannic acid, albumin,
cellulose and other minerals. It contains plenty of
vitamins C. it contains moisture 81.2%, proteins 0.5%,
fats 0.1%, carbohydrates 14.1%, calcium 0.05%,
phosphorus 0.02%, iron 1.2 mg and nicotinic acid 0.2 mg
per 100 gram. A seed contains the stable oil which is
Key Active Constituents
Emblicanin A&B, Puniglucanin, Pedunculagin, 2-keto-
gluconolactone (Vitamin-C equivalents). Ellagic acid,
Hexahydroxy-diphenic acid and conjugates.
Pharmacological activities
It is Vata, Pitta and Kapha suppressant. It reduces the
burning sensation in the body. It helps in providing the
essential minerals and vitamins required for good vision
and mental development. It helps in strengthening the
nervous system. It helps in improving the condition of
digestive system. It stimulates liver for proper secretion
of bile juices. It is helpful in supporting heart by fighting
its ailments. It is a good aphrodisiac agent and also a
good female tonic. It is helpful in skin related ailments. It
also helps in sorting out the urinary problems and
diabetes. It is a good general health tonic.
Dose: Swarasa (juice) 10 - 20 ml; Churna (Powder) 3 - 6
Important Formulations: Chyavanaprasha, Triphala,
Dhatriloha, Amalaki Rasayana., Brahmarasayana,
Dhatrirasayana, Amalakyavaleha, Phalarista,
Medicinal Uses
1. Respiratory Disorders- It is especially valuable in
seasonal cough and cold. Amla is also useful in recurrent
respiratory tract infections such as tonsilitis, sinusitis and
sore throat.
2. Diabetes- Amla, with its high vitamin C content, is
considered valuable in diabetes. It stimulates the Islets of
Lengerhans i.e. -the isolated group of cells that secrete
the hormone insulin. It therefore reduces the blood sugar
in diabetic patient. Being the best eye toner, it will also
prevent eye problems as complications of diabetes.
3. Heart Disease- It tones up the heart muscles and make
them strong. The heart then pumps the blood throughout
the body. Amla is also known to build the health by
destroying the heterogeneous elements and regenerating
the body energy.
4. Eye Disorders-The Amla, taken with honey, is useful
in preserving eye sight. It will also be beneficial in the
treatment of conjunctivitis and glaucoma. It reduces
intraocular tension in effective manner.
5. Rheumatism- Amla is useful in the treatment of
6. Scurvy-As an extremely rich source of vitamin C.
Indian gooseberry is one of the best remedies for scurvy.
It heals bleeding gums and spots over the body.
7. Prevents Aging- It has revitalizing effects. It contains
an element which is very valuable in preventing aging
and in maintaining strength in old age. It improves body
resistance and protects against infection. It strengthens
the heart, hair and different glands in the body. It is said
that the great ancient sage Maharishi Chyawan
rejuvenated himself in his late 70's and regained his
virility by the use of Amla.
8. Hair Tonic- Amla is an accepted hair tonic in
traditional recipes for enriching hair growth and hair
pigmentation. Amla is excellent for strengthening the
roots of hair and maintaining its color and luster.
9. Liver Functions- Regular use of pain killers,
antibiotics and medication, regular intake of alcohol, all
cause toxin build-up in the liver. Amla helps strengthen
the liver, and rid the body of these toxins. It thus helps
purify and clean the blood. This is why Amla is good for
the skin, and if taken in combination with Neem, it can
help clear out pimples that are caused due to impure
10. Other uses- It is also indicated in gastritis, colitis,
ulcers, heartburn or acid reflux. It expels excess heat
from the body. It cures thirst, burning sensation,
vomiting, anorexia, toxicosis, fever. Also useful in
cough, dysponea, jaundice, leucorrhoea and
menorrhagia. It is coolant, refrigerant, diuretic, laxative
and tonic.
Home remedies
1. Amalaki is the highest natural source of Vitamin C.
Consumption of one fresh fruit provides 3000 mg
Vitamin C to the body. It is particularly effective as
Rasayana (Rejuvenative) herb.
Rathwa et al. European Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences
2. Internal use of Amalaki powder in the dose of 3-5 gm
daily improves eyesight, cleanses mouth, and also
provides rejuvenative effects.
3. External use of paste of Amalaki on scalp provides
luster and shine to the hair.
4. Internal use of Amalaki in any form helps in
increasing immunity.
Macroscopic Characters[1]
Colour - Green changing to light yellow when matured.
Odour - None
Taste - Sour and astingent
Size - 1.5 to 2.5 cm in diameter.
Shape - The fruits are depressed, globose.
Extra Features - Fruits are obscurely 4 lobed with 6-
trygonus seeds.
Fresh fruit: transverse section
Procedure: The section was 1st studied under distilled
water and then under stain flouroglucinol + concentrated
Transverse section of mature fruit shows an epicarp
consisting of single layer of epidermis and 2-4 layers of
hypodermis. Epidermal cells tubular in shape covered
externally with a thick cuticle and appear in surface view
as polygonal, hypodermal cells tangentially elongated,
thick walled, smaller in dimension than epidermal cells.
Mesocarp forms bulk of fruit consisting of thin walled
parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces,
peripheral 6-9 layers smaller, ovoid or tangentially
elongated while rest of the cells are larger in size,
isodiametric and radially elongated. Several collateral
fibrovascular bundles are scattered throughout mesocarp
consisting xylem fibers. Tracheal elements show
reticulate, scalariform and spiral thickenings. 2 3 layers
of epidermal cells with tannin containing material,
Prysmatic crystal of calcium oxalate, Vascular bundle,
Yellowish brown tannin containing cells. Xylem fibres
are elongated with narrow lumen and pointed end.
Mesocarp contains large aggregates of numerous
irregular silica crystals.
Powder microscopy
The diagnostic characters of Amalaki powder under the
microscope are crystals of silica, mesocarp cells, group
of sclerides, fibers, simple starch grain and yellow brown
tannin containing cells, lignified fibre, parenchyma cells
and fragment of annular vessels.
Amla is an extensively used herb in making Ayurvedic
medicines. Amla is supposed to rejuvenate all the organs
and systems of the body, provide strength and wellness.
According to Ayurvedic experts regular usage of Amla
will make us live more then 100 years like a youth. Amla
keeps us away from all the diseases by boosting our
immune system.
1. Database on Medicinal plants used in Ayurveda,
P.C.Sharma, M.B.Yahe, T.J.Denw, 2005, volume-3.
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