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Stress causes and outcomes statistical analysis

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In medical term “stress” is the change in mental and physical status of the body caused by factors including physical, mental or emotional tension. Stress can cause a lot of clinical and psychological conditions such as depression and anxiety. Stress complications are common in people experiencing very high levels of negative stress leading to weakness and overwhelming. It could be a result of continuous stress incidence due to different scenarios. “Stressed out” is a phenomenon that is highly increasing and affecting almost everyone. Stress is all over around us in every situation and every day, but the importance is how to handle the changes and not experiencing the changes as good or bad. Generally, changes in our life as we go on happen all the time and our reaction to these changes is what causes stress. Life changes such as studying a new level of education (e.g Masters), getting new job, losing a job, moving to new romantic partner, or family problems. These changes are new stressful events considered either positive and life-enhancing or negative. The degree of stress varies between high and low, people don`t like to experience the extremes of stress. However; the capacity of each person to overcome the changes in feeling varies. On the other hand, some people enjoy being overwhelmed in important challenging changes and some don`t like the total absence of stress. In conclusion, people tend to reach the middle ground a balance between a lack of stress and too much stress, moreover; human by nature want to live in a calm atmosphere without experiencing high levels of stress. In this paper, we did an empirical study by collected data from health sciences post grad students who work and study using a survey that was administered by smart phone applications. The main idea is to detect the causes that lead to stress and could worsen the mental and physical activity of the body.
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Literature review
Everyone has different stress triggers, work stress tops the
list. According to surveys 40% of United States workers admit to
experience ofce stress, and one -quarter say work is the biggest
source of stress in their lives.1 Stress in everyday terms is a feeling
that people have when they are overloaded and struggling to cope
with demands which are related to nances, work, relationships and
other situations.2 According to the annual stress survey conducted by
the American Psychological Association (APA) average stress levels
in the United States (U.S) raised from 4.9 to 5.1 on a scale from 1 to
10 in 2015 the main reasons given are employment and money.3
Another study was done in accordance with international
coordination of labor conditions a Japanese campaign advocating less
work nally got under way recently in the form of work-reducing
policies of the government to prevent occupational and stress-related
diseases.4 However, long work hours among intermediate managers,
who are key persons in most organizations in Japanese industry,
are still considered to be prevalent.5,6 This study was conducted to
examine the work hours of intermediate managers and clarify the
effects of long work hours on the life-style, subjective stress, and
subjective quality of life among them.
Questionnaires were administered concerning, life-styles,
subjective stress, and subjective quality of life to 3870 heads of a
division or a section and 2666 foremen in 110 rms in Japan. The
prevalence of > or = 10 work hours was 69.7% for the divisional or
sectional heads and 53.2% for the foremen. Long work hours had
signicant effects on the managers’ life-style, such as sleeping pattern
and regularity of daily life and meals. The divisional or sectional
managers with long work hours perceived higher stress [odds ratio
(OR) 2.51, 95% condence interval (95% CI) 2.17-2.90] and lower
quality of life (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.02-1.36) than those who worked
relatively short hours. The foremen with long work hours perceived
higher stress (OR 2.35, 95% CI 2.01-2.75) and lower quality of life
(OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.08-1.46) than those who worked relatively short
hours. In conclusion, long work hours may be associated with poorer
life-style, higher stress, and lower quality of life among managers at
the intermediate level.
Data collection
The data was collected from health sciences department post grad
students who work and study using a survey that was administered by
smart phone applications. The main idea of this survey is to detect the
causes that lead to stress and could worsen the mental and physical
activity of the body.
a. Sample size, n= 100 students who study and work mainly lled
the survey.
b. Data was entered, tabulated and analyzed using SPSS Software.
c. The questionnaire design consists of one types of questions:
d. Close ended questions in which the respondents are given list of
predetermined responses from which to choose their answer.
e. The variables are designed to answer the research questions.
The variables in the data set are:
1. Stress: yes or no
2. Lack time to exercise: yes or no
3. Lack time to socialize: yes or no
4. Overworking: yes or no
Biom Biostat Int J. 2018;7(4):353358. 353
© 2018 Kadry et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which
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Stress causes and outcomes statistical analysis
Volume 7 Issue 4 - 2018
Seifedine Kadry,1 Maryam Kbaysi,2 Suhad Al-
Safadi,2 Dareen Al-Bakri2
1Department of mathematics and statistics, Faculty of Science,
Beirut Arab University, Lebanon
2Faculty of Health Sciences, Beirut Arab University, Lebanon
Correspondence: Seifedine Kadry, Department of
mathematics and computer science, Faculty of Science, Beirut
Arab University, Beirut, Lebanon, Tel +9613 7005 12,
Email skadry@gmail.com
Received: May 19, 2018 | Published: August 15, 2018
Abstract
In medical term “stress” is the change in mental and physical status of the body
caused by factors including physical, mental or emotional tension. Stress can cause
a lot of clinical and psychological conditions such as depression and anxiety. Stress
complications are common in people experiencing very high levels of negative
stress leading to weakness and overwhelming. It could be a result of continuous
stress incidence due to different scenarios. “Stressed out” is a phenomenon that is
highly increasing and affecting almost everyone. Stress is all over around us in every
situation and every day, but the importance is how to handle the changes and not
experiencing the changes as good or bad. Generally, changes in our life as we go
on happen all the time and our reaction to these changes is what causes stress. Life
changes such as studying a new level of education (e.g Masters), getting new job,
losing a job, moving to new romantic partner, or family problems. These changes
are new stressful events considered either positive and life-enhancing or negative.
The degree of stress varies between high and low, people don`t like to experience the
extremes of stress. However; the capacity of each person to overcome the changes in
feeling varies. On the other hand, some people enjoy being overwhelmed in important
challenging changes and some don`t like the total absence of stress. In conclusion,
people tend to reach the middle ground a balance between a lack of stress and too
much stress, moreover; human by nature want to live in a calm atmosphere without
experiencing high levels of stress. In this paper, we did an empirical study by collected
data from health sciences post grad students who work and study using a survey that
was administered by smart phone applications. The main idea is to detect the causes
that lead to stress and could worsen the mental and physical activity of the body.
Biometrics & Biostatistics International Journal
Review Article Open Access
Stress causes and outcomes statistical analysis 354
Copyright:
©2018 Kadry et al.
Citation: Kadry S, Kbaysi M, Al-Safadi S, et al. Stress causes and outcomes statistical analysis. Biom Biostat Int J. 2018;7(4):353358.
DOI: 10.15406/bbij.2018.07.00229
5. Unmotivated: yes or no
6. Overeating: yes or no
7. Loss of self-control: yes or no
8. Comforts you when you are stressed smoking or Eating or
Listening to music or Exercise or Going out with friends
9. Solution for work overload related stress: leave the work or
Manage your time or Decrease working hours or Go for a holiday
Descriptive statistics
Stress: 56% of the subjects were stressed while 44% were not stressed
(Table 1) (Figure 1).
Table 1 Stress
Frequency Percent Valid
percent
Cumulative
percent
Ye s 56 56 0 56
No 44 44 44 100
Total 100 100 100
Figure 1 Stress.
Lack time to exercise: 61% of the subjects lack time to exercise
while 39% have time to exercise (Table 2) (Figure 2).
Table 2 Exercise time
Frequency Percent Valid
percent
Cumulative
percent
Valid Yes 61 61 61 61
No 39 39 39 100
Total 100 100 100
Figure 2 Exercise time.
Socializing time: 55% of the subjects lack time to socialize while
45% have time to socialize (Table 3) (Figure 3).
Table 3 Socialize
Frequency Percent Valid
percent
Cumulative
percent
Valid Yes 55 55 55 55
No 45 45 45 100
Total 100 100 100
Figure 3 Socialize.
Sleepind disturbance: 55% of the subjects suffer from sleeping
disturbance while 45%sleep normally (Table 4) (Figure 4).
Table 4 Sleep
Frequency Percent Valid
percent
Cumulative
percent
Valid Yes 55 55 55 55
No 45 45 45 100
Total 100 100 100
Figure 4 Sleep.
Unmotivated: 53% of the subjects are unmotivated while 47% feel
normal (Table 5) (Figure 5).
Table 5 Unmotivated
Frequency Percent Valid
percent
Cumulative
percent
Valid Yes 53 53 53 53
No 47 47 47 100
Total 100 100 100
Stress causes and outcomes statistical analysis 355
Copyright:
©2018 Kadry et al.
Citation: Kadry S, Kbaysi M, Al-Safadi S, et al. Stress causes and outcomes statistical analysis. Biom Biostat Int J. 2018;7(4):353358.
DOI: 10.15406/bbij.2018.07.00229
Figure 5 Unmotivated.
Work overload: 71% of the subjects suffer from work overload while
29% do not suffer (Table 6) (Figure 6).
Table 6 Work overload
Frequency Percent Valid
percent
Cumulative
percent
Valid Yes 71 71 71 71
No 29 29 29 100
Total 100 100 100
Figure 6 Work overload.
Overeat: 53% suffer from overeating while 73% have normal eating
habits (Table 7) (Figure 7).
Table 7 Overeating
Frequency Percent Valid
percent
Cumulative
percent
Valid Yes 53 53 53 53
No 47 47 47 100
Total 100 100 100
Self-control: 40% of the subjects have loss of self-control while 60%
are normal (Table 8) (Figure 8).
Figure 7 Overeating.
Table 8 Self-control
Frequency Percent Valid
percent
Cumulative
percent
Valid Yes 40 40 40 40
No 60 60 60 100
Total 100 100 100
Figure 8 Self-control.
Comfort when stressed: Here we can assume that listening to music
is the most used way to reduce stress (Table 9) (Figure 9).
Table 9 Comfort
Frequency Percent Valid
percent
Cumulative
percent
Valid Smoking 15 15 15 15
Eating 16 16 16 31
Listening
to music 36 36 36 67
Exercise 18 18 18 85
Going
out with
friends
15 15 15 100
Total 100 100 100
Stress causes and outcomes statistical analysis 356
Copyright:
©2018 Kadry et al.
Citation: Kadry S, Kbaysi M, Al-Safadi S, et al. Stress causes and outcomes statistical analysis. Biom Biostat Int J. 2018;7(4):353358.
DOI: 10.15406/bbij.2018.07.00229
Figure 9 Comfort.
Management of stress due to work overload: Here we can see that
people preferred lowering working hour as an effective way to reduce
work related stress (Table 10) (Figure 10).
Table 10 Manage
Frequency Percent Valid
percent
Cumulative
percent
Leave your work 19 19 19 19
Mange your time 20 20 20 39
Lower work
hours 43 43 43 82
Go for a holiday 18 18 18 100
Total 100 100 100
Figure 10 Manage.
Inferential statistics
Research questions
Does lacking time to exercise cause stress?
H0= lacking time to exercise does not cause stress.
Ha= lacking time to exercise causes stress (Table 11).
According to the chi square test the p value=0.00 and when the
p value is lower than 0.05 it’s considered signicant. Therefore we
accept the Ha and we reject the H0. So we can conclude that lacking
time to exercise causes stress.
Does sleep disturbance cause stress?
H0= sleep disturbance does not cause stress.
Ha= sleep disturbance causes stress (Table 12).
According to the chi square test the p value=0.044 and when the
p value is lower than 0.05 it’s considered signicant. Therefore we
accept the Ha and we reject the H0. So we can conclude that sleeping
disturbance causes stress.
Table 11 Stress* exercise time Cross tabulation
Count
Exercise time Total
Ye s No
Stress Ye s 44 12 56
No 17 27 44
Total 61 39 100
Chi-Square tests
Value df
Asymp.
Sig.
(2-sided)
Exact
Sig.
(2-sided)
Exact
Sig.
(1-sided)
Pearson Chi-
Square 16.518a1 0
Continuity
Correctionb14.882 1 0
Likelihood
Ratio 16.852 1 0
Fisher's Exact Test 0 0
Linear-by-Linear
Association 16.353 1 0
N of Valid
Cases 100
a. 0 cells (0.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count
is 17.16.
b. Computed only for a 2x2 table.
Table 12 Stress* Sleep Cross tabulation
Count
Sleep Total
Ye s No
Stress Ye s 36 20 56
No 19 25 44
Total 55 45 100
Chi-Square tests
Value df
Asymp.
Sig.
(2-sided)
Exact
Sig.
(2-sided)
Exact
Sig.
(1-sided)
Pearson Chi-
Square 4.434a1 0.035
Continuity
Correctionb3.622 1 0.057
Likelihood Ratio 4.455 1 0.035
Fisher's Exact Test 0.044 0.028
Linear-by-Linear
Association 4.39 1 0.036
N of Valid Cases 100
a. 0 cells (0.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected
count is 19.80.
b. b. Computed only for a 2x2 table.
Stress causes and outcomes statistical analysis 357
Copyright:
©2018 Kadry et al.
Citation: Kadry S, Kbaysi M, Al-Safadi S, et al. Stress causes and outcomes statistical analysis. Biom Biostat Int J. 2018;7(4):353358.
DOI: 10.15406/bbij.2018.07.00229
Does lacking time to socialize causes stress?
H0= lacking time to socialize does not cause stress.
Ha=lacking time to socialize causes stress (Table 13).
Table 13 Stress* socialize Cross tabulation
Count
Socialize
Total
Ye s No
Stress Ye s 41 15 56
No 14 30 44
Total 55 45 100
Chi-Square tests
Value df
Asymp.
Sig.
(2-sided)
Exact Sig.
(2-sided)
Exact
Sig.
(1-sided)
Pearson Chi-
Square 17.060a1 0
Continuity
Correctionb15.429 1 0
Likelihood Ratio 17.5 1 0
Fisher's Exact Test 0 0
Linear-by-Linear
Association 16.89 1 0
N of Valid Cases 100
a. 0 cells (0.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected
count is 19.80
b. b. Computed only for a 2x2 table.
According to the chi square test the p value=0.00 and when the
p value is lower than 0.05 it’s considered signicant. Therefore we
accept the Ha and we reject the H0.
So we can conclude that lacking time to socialize causes stress.
Is being unmotivated causes stress?
H0= un-motivation does not cause stress.
Ha= un-motivation causes stress (Table 14).
Table 14 Stress* unmotivated
Count
Unmotivated
Total
Ye s No
Stress Ye s 34 22 56
No 19 25 44
Total 53 47 100
Chi-Square tests
Value df
Asymp.
Sig.
(2-sided)
Exact
Sig.
(2-sided)
Exact
Sig.
(1-sided)
Pearson Chi-
Square 3.041a1 0.081
Continuity
Correctionb2.377 1 0.123
Likelihood Ratio 3.052 1 0.081
Fisher's Exact Test 0.107 0.061
Linear-by-Linear
Association 3.01 1 0.083
N of Valid Cases 100
a. 0 cells (0.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected
count is 20.68.
b. b. Computed only for a 2x2 table.
According to the chi square test the p value=0.107 and when the
p value is higher than 0.05 it’s considered not signicant. Therefore
we accept the H0 and we reject the Ha. So we can conclude that being
unmotivated does not cause stress.
Does work overload causes stress?
H0= work overload does not cause stress.
Ha= work overload causes stress (Table 15).
Table 15 Stress* work overload Cross tabulation
Count
Work overload Total
Ye s No
Stress Ye s 39 17 56
No 32 12 44
Total 71 29 100
Chi-Square tests
Value df
Asymp.
Sig.
(2-sided)
Exact
Sig.
(2-sided)
Exact
Sig.
(1-sided)
Pearson Chi-
Square .114a1 0.736
Continuity
Correctionb0.013 1 0.908
Likelihood
Ratio 0.114 1 0.735
Fisher's Exact Test 0.826 0.456
Linear-
by-Linear
Association
0.113 1 0.737
N of Valid
Cases 100
a. 0 cells (0.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected
count is 12.76.
b. b. Computed only for a 2x2 table.
Stress causes and outcomes statistical analysis 358
Copyright:
©2018 Kadry et al.
Citation: Kadry S, Kbaysi M, Al-Safadi S, et al. Stress causes and outcomes statistical analysis. Biom Biostat Int J. 2018;7(4):353358.
DOI: 10.15406/bbij.2018.07.00229
According to the chi square test the p value=0.826 and when the
p value is higher than 0.05 it’s considered not signicant. Therefore
we accept the H0 and we reject the Ha. So we can conclude that work
overload does not cause stress.
Does stress result in overeating?
H0= stress does not cause overeating.
Ha=stress causes overeating (Table 16).
Table 16 Stress* overeating Cross tabulation
Count
Overeating Total
Ye s No
Stress Ye s 32 24 56
No 21 23 44
Total 53 47 100
Chi-Square tests
Value df
Asymp.
Sig.
(2-sided)
Exact
Sig.
(2-sided)
Exact
Sig.
(1-sided)
Pearson Chi-
Square .877a1 0.349
Continuity
Correctionb0.54 1 0.463
Likelihood Ratio 0.878 1 0.349
Fisher's Exact Test 0.421 0.231
Linear-by-Linear
Association 0.868 1 0.351
N of Valid Cases 100
a. 0 cells (0.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected
count is 20.68.
b. Computed only for a 2x2 table
According to the chi square test the p value=0.421 and when the
p value is higher than 0.05 it’s considered not signicant. Therefore
we accept the H0 and we reject the Ha. So we can conclude that stress
does not cause overeating.
Does stress cause loss of self-control?
H0= stress does not cause loss of self-control.
Ha= stress causes loss of self-control (Table 17).
Table 17 Stress* self control Cross tabulation
Count
Self control Total
Ye s No
Stress Ye s 24 32 56
No 16 28 44
Total 40 60 100
Chi-Square tests
Value df
Asymp.
Sig.
(2-sided)
Exact
Sig.
(2-sided)
Exact Sig.
(1-sided)
Pearson Chi-
Square .433a1 0.511
Continuity
Correctionb0.205 1 0.651
Likelihood Ratio 0.434 1 0.51
Fisher's Exact Test 0.543 0.326
Linear-by-Linear
Association 0.429 1 0.513
N of Valid Cases 100
a. 0 cells (0.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected
count is 17.60.
b. b. Computed only for a 2x2 table.
According to the chi square test the p value=0.543 and when the
p value is higher than 0.05 it’s considered not signicant. Therefore
we accept the H0 and we reject the Ha. So we can conclude that stress
does not cause loss of self-control.
Discussion
After analyzing our results using SPSS we found out that stress is
caused by lacking time to exercise, lack of socializing and sleeping
disturbance while overworking and un-motivation are not correlated
to stress. Regarding stress outcomes we found out that overeating and
loss of self-control are not associated with stress. Also we found out
the most people prefer listening to music when they are stressed, and
that if stress is caused by work-overload the solution is to decrease
working hours.
Acknowledgements
None.
Conict of interest
Author declares that there is no conict of interest.
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The objective of this study was to analyze gender differences in the impact of long workhours (>40 hours per week) on a variety of health outcomes and health-related behavior. The sample included all salaried contract workers aged 16-64 years (1658 men and 1134 women) and interviewed in the 2002 Catalonian Health Survey. Whereas the men with a high job status were more likely to work >40 hours a week, long workhours were associated with situations of vulnerability (low job status and being separated or divorced) among the women. For both genders, working >40 hours was related to a shortage of sleep [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.54, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.21-1.98, for the men and aOR 1.63, 95% CI 1.11-2.38, for the women]. Among the women, long workhours were also associated with poor mental health status (aOR 1.58, 95% CI 1.04-2.40), hypertension (aOR 2.25, 95% CI 1.17-4.32), job dissatisfaction (aOR 1.77, 95% CI 1.08-2.90), and smoking (aOR 1.71, 95% CI 1.22-2.39). In addition, among the women working more hours at home, long workhours were related to sedentary leisure time activity (aOR 1.98, 95% CI 1.06-3.71). The relationship between long workhours and health and health-related behavior was found to be directly related to long worktime and indirectly related to long exposure to poor work conditions among the women and, to a less extent, to domestic work. The pathways that explain the relationship between long workhours and health and health-related behavior seems to depend on the outcome being analyzed.
Article
In accordance with international coordination of labor conditions a Japanese campaign advocating less work finally got under way recently in the form of work-reducing policies of the government to prevent occupational and stress-related diseases. However, long workhours among intermediate managers, who are key persons in most organizations in Japanese industry, are still considered to be prevalent. This study was conducted to examine the workhours of intermediate managers and clarify the effects of long workhours on the life-style, subjective stress, and subjective quality of life among them. Questionnaires were administered concerning workhours, life-styles, subjective stress, and subjective quality of life to 3870 heads of a division or a section and 2666 foremen in 110 firms in Japan. The prevalence of > or = 10 workhours was 69.7% for the divisional or sectional heads and 53.2% for the foremen. Long workhours had significant effects on the managers' life-style, such as sleeping pattern and regularity of daily life and meals. The divisional or sectional managers with long workhours perceived higher stress [odds ratio (OR) 2.51, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.17-2.90] and lower quality of life (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.02-1.36) than those who worked relatively short hours. The foremen with long workhours perceived higher stress (OR 2.35, 95% CI 2.01-2.75) and lower quality of life (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.08-1.46) than those who worked relatively short hours. Long workhours may be associated with poorer life-style, higher stress, and lower quality of life among managers at the intermediate level.
Why stress happens and how to manage it. Medical News Today
  • C Nordqvist
Nordqvist C. Why stress happens and how to manage it. Medical News Today. 2017.