Several native and endemic tree species of the Atlantic Forest in Brazil, especially precious wood species, are highly endangered. In consequence, the legal extraction from wild forests is completely forbidden, and legal extraction from plantations is strictly regulated. Among them is Paubrasilia echinata Lam. – in Portuguese pau-brasil – Brazil’s national tree. Its precious wood is used worldwide as raw material for high-quality violin bows. For professional musicians, alternative wood species in violin bows are rarely accepted, even though some of them have been proven to meet the high technical standards of wood characteristics which pau-brasil guarantees. As an alternative solution to cover future wood demand, commercial pau-brasil plantations have been established and supported by violin makers, bow makers, and musicians. While several plantation types with pau-brasil exist, such as monospecific and mixed tree plantations and agroforestry systems, there is poor understanding concerning their long-term productivity, wood quality, and economic return. In order to guarantee continuous supply of planted pau-brasil for future wood markets and for these plantations to be sustainable, it is essential to identify potential ecological, economic, legal, and social assets and constraints including the potential contribution of wood supply by pau-brasil plantations. The presented data originate from a field study in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil with detailed inventories of nine plantations in Southern Bahia and Espírito Santo. Based on these data we discuss the future pau-brasil wood markets and estimate the conservation and utilization potential of paubrasil for the state of Rio de Janeiro, the southernmost range of the species.