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Abstract

Several native and endemic tree species of the Atlantic Forest in Brazil, especially precious wood species, are highly endangered. In consequence, the legal extraction from wild forests is completely forbidden, and legal extraction from plantations is strictly regulated. Among them is Paubrasilia echinata Lam. – in Portuguese pau-brasil – Brazil’s national tree. Its precious wood is used worldwide as raw material for high-quality violin bows. For professional musicians, alternative wood species in violin bows are rarely accepted, even though some of them have been proven to meet the high technical standards of wood characteristics which pau-brasil guarantees. As an alternative solution to cover future wood demand, commercial pau-brasil plantations have been established and supported by violin makers, bow makers, and musicians. While several plantation types with pau-brasil exist, such as monospecific and mixed tree plantations and agroforestry systems, there is poor understanding concerning their long-term productivity, wood quality, and economic return. In order to guarantee continuous supply of planted pau-brasil for future wood markets and for these plantations to be sustainable, it is essential to identify potential ecological, economic, legal, and social assets and constraints including the potential contribution of wood supply by pau-brasil plantations. The presented data originate from a field study in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil with detailed inventories of nine plantations in Southern Bahia and Espírito Santo. Based on these data we discuss the future pau-brasil wood markets and estimate the conservation and utilization potential of paubrasil for the state of Rio de Janeiro, the southernmost range of the species.

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... As a result, its harvest is prohibited in natural forests, restricting its legal commercial use after 2007 (CITES 2007). P. echinata occurs in the Atlantic Forest biome on the coast of eastern Brazil, ranging from Rio Grande do Norte (5°11 56°S-35°27 39°W) to Rio de Janeiro (22°54 10°S-43°12 27°W) States and three morphotypes are recognized by the different sizes of leaflets: small (arruda), middle (café) and large (laranja) (Lewis 1998;Lima et al. 2002). Genetic investigations have been performed (Cardoso et al. 1998(Cardoso et al. , 2005Juchum et al. 2008), but the data were not sufficient to clarify the taxonomy of P. echinata. ...
... All these properties mentioned determine total performance of wood (Wegst 2006) and explain why it is used in the manufacture of many musical instruments. P. echinata wood is very hard and dense, varying in colour from chestnut-orange to blackish-red (Cunha & Lima 1992;Lewis 1998), and combines the ideal characteristics of resonance, density, durability and elasticity Angyalossy et al. 2005;Alves et al. 2008a). Schimleck et al. (2009) and Alves et al. (2008b) also noted that the uniformity of highest density and stiffness throughout the stick is very important for a highquality bow. ...
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Paubrasilia echinata is recognized as the best wood in the manufacture of high-quality bows for string instruments. The wood anatomy of five historic French violin bows of the 19th and 20th century made of Pernambuco wood were investigated in order to reveal the wood anatomic features of these historical bows, to determine which P. echinata morphotype ( arruda , café or laranja ) was used in their manufacture and to identify the state of origin of the wood. Five bow samples were compared to 33 P. echinata specimens from the Brazilian states of Rio de Janeiro, Bahia, Paraíba and Rio Grande do Norte. The wood anatomical features were compared by means of principal component analysis, which revealed the type of axial parenchyma and percentage of tissue to be the most important to sort specimens. The best wood anatomical features previously described for high-quality bows were corroborated here and the bows in general showed similar wood anatomical features. Based on wood anatomy we found that the violin bows were most similar to the samples from the arruda morphotype derived from the States of Paraíba and Rio Grande do Norte by presenting scanty, unilateral and vasicentric axial parenchyma without confluences forming bands, higher percentage of fibres and lower percentage of axial parenchyma. We can therefore suggest that the historical French violin bows studied here were all made of the arruda morphotype from the Brazilian Northeast region helping explain the preference of the French explorers for this region.
... Part of this diversity is due to the environmental heterogeneity of the Atlantic Forest which although mainly a rainforest biome, 45% of its tree species are narrow endemics in a variety of marginal habitats, including restinga, riverine forests, rocky outgroups, and high elevation mountains (Neves et al. 2017). mixed agroforestry plantations, potentially to support future wood demand from musical instrument manufacturers, especially for violin bows (Lichtenberg et al. 2019). ...
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Paubrasilia echinata (Lam.) Gagnon, H. C. Lima & G. P. Lewis (“Pau Brasil”) is the national tree of Brazil and an endangered species endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The extensive range of distribution, spanning over 2000 km distance, is matched by extensive plasticity in leaf morphology. Three morphotypes are commonly identified based on the size of the leaflets but it is unclear if they represent distinct taxa or a single polymorphic species. This study aims to clarify the taxonomic position of the three morphotypes to inform conservation decisions. A comprehensive morphometric study based on herbarium specimens from the entire distribution range of the species was coupled with genetic analyses of population structure using genotype-by-sequencing data. We found that the three morphotypes do not match separately evolving lineages. Rather, P. echinata is composed of five genetic lineages that are geographically structured, although we did find evidence of genetic admixture in two individuals. Leaflet size varied by over 35-fold and although morphological clustering generally matched the genetic patterns, there were some overlaps, highlighting the cryptic diversity within this group. Finally, our genetic and morphological results provide some evidence that cultivated trees from different states in Brazil seem to be most closely related to a genetic lineage from northern Brazil, which suggests that more care is needed to protect and preserve the overall genomic diversity of this highly endangered and iconic species.
... commercial plantations, taking into account local environmental legislation, legal registration procedures, and appropriate management plans (Lichtenberg et al. 2019). ...
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The wood of the pau-brasil tree (Paubrasilia echinata Lam., formerly Caesalpinia echinata Lam.) is used worldwide as raw material for the construction of high-quality bows for string instruments. Alternative tree species are rarely accepted by professional musicians, or by bow and violin makers. Historical overexploitation of this endemic species in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest biome (Mata Atlântica), a global biodiversity hotpot including UNESCO World Natural Heritage Sites, and illegal trade have caused drastic declines in its natural abundance. Pau-brasil is now classified as an endangered species and listed in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species. Traditional bow-making craftsmanship, an intangible cultural heritage, depends heavily on the high-quality pau-brasil wood. This complex situation presents unprecedented cross-continental transdisciplinary challenges. In order to target the protection of this coupled natural/cultural heritage, this work frames and examines the pau-brasil/bow-making cultural-ecological system as a complex telecoupled system linked by cultural ecosystem services provided by the pau-brasil, as well as the relationships and cultural exchanges among key actors. Using historical trajectory analysis, we identify past, present, and potential future trigger events, key drivers, and key system variables that explain the dynamics, feedback, and resilience of this complex multidimensional system. Furthermore, with a cross-scale social and power relations analysis, we examine the level of dependencies and influences of contemporary key actors on the ecosystem services provided by the pau-brasil and their interconnections, in order to ultimately identify their level of disadvantage regarding the pau-brasil. Finally, we discuss the potential of this novel cultural-ecological system approach to (i) interlink science, nature, and art, (ii) reconcile the currently competing protection aims of natural and cultural heritage elements, and (iii) provide future trajectories regarding the resilience and sustainable development of this pau-brasil/bowmaking cultural-ecological system. We advocate for this novel path forward toward sustainable transformation of complex culturalecological systems urgently needed to navigate our increasingly telecoupled world.
... The Brazilian colonial society was extremely dependent on wood as an array of technical instruments and daily activities required this raw material from the forest (Cabral 2014). Wood was also the first export product from Brazil, notably a hard- wood species known as pau brasil 1 which was used to dye fabrics, and this exploita- tion of pau brasil lasted more than 300 years ( Lichtenberg et al. 2018). In the sixteenth century, estimates indicate that approximately 2 million logs were exported; nevertheless, this activity cannot solely explain the great deforestation that the Atlantic Forest suffered after the arrival of the Europeans (Cabral 2014). ...
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Although Rio de Janeiro state (RJ) is the third smallest of the 27 Brazilian states in land area, its environmental diversity is vast; the variability of altitudes and geomorphological situations create significant ecological heterogeneity throughout the state. Human occupation in the region dates back approximately 8000 years, and when Europeans first arrived in Brazil in 1500, they discovered the agricultural practices developed by indigenous populations. The arrival of the Europeans, though, represented a sharp breaking point in land use patterns, ecosystem alteration, and erosion and soil depletion – all of which substantially altered the landscape. This chapter will focus on the historic economic eras of RJ, cycles that included sugarcane, coffee, charcoal energy production from firewood, and livestock. Each of these socioeconomic phases resulted from specific economic and historical contexts and caused distinct transformations to the landscape. As a direct consequence of its past use, only about 30% of RJ land area is presently covered by forest vegetation; the aforementioned economic eras have converted the remaining 70% of the state into pasture.
... Even the extensive extraction of timber and non-timber forest products from forest fragments is hindered by the widespread uncertainty and ignorance within the society about the legal framework of environmental law and Forest Code. Hence, wood harvesting of native tree species from plantations, such as Brazilwood or the extensive production of palm heart and fruit of native Euterpe edulis palms form trees planted in forest fragments is alicted by legal uncertainties and remains a legal gray zone (Ball & Brancalion 2016, Lichtenberg et al. 2018. Unfortunately, such legal uncertainties are one of the reasons why many farmers prefer precautionary and illegal burning of grown up forest at their properties to maintain all future land use opportunities. ...
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The Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro state has been pushed back by agricultural and infrastructural devel-opment, so that formerly contiguous forests were divided into numerous fragments. Deforestation and forest degradation have been accompanied by land degradation, which is reflected in the loss of habitats and biodiversity, in soil erosion and other forms of soil deterioration and in negative changes in the water balance. Pasture lands that dominate the rural landscape in the interior of the state, i.e. the lee of the coastal mountain range ‘Serra do Mar’, are particularly vulnerable to droughts, whereas the steep mountain slopes facing the wet leeward side are frequently affected by heavy rainfall, resulting in landslides and flooding. Climate scenarios project an increase in extreme weather and climate events, which could further aggravate the risk of natural hazards. The German-Brazilian research project INTECRAL and the Rural Development Program Rio Rural aim at increasing social-ecological resilience in rural areas. In this context, forest fragments play a crucial role as stabilizing landscape features and providers of ecosystem services. We present implemented pilot measures as well as land management strategies and tools that contribute to more resilient rural landscapes in Rio de Janeiro state.
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The Caesalpinia group is a large pantropical clade of ca. 205 species in subfamily Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae) in which generic delimitation has been in a state of considerable flux. Here we present new phylogenetic analyses based on five plastid and one nuclear ribosomal marker, with dense taxon sampling including 172 (84%) of the species and representatives of all previously described genera in the Caesalpinia group. These analyses show that the current classification of the Caesalpinia group into 21 genera needs to be revised. Several genera (Poincianella, Erythrostemon, Cenostigma and Caesalpinia sensu Lewis, 2005) are non-monophyletic and several previously unclassified Asian species segregate into clades that merit recognition at generic rank. In addition, the near-completeness of our taxon sampling identifies three species that do not belong in any of the main clades and these are recognised as new monospecific genera. A new generic classification of the Caesalpinia group is presented including a key for the identification of genera, full generic descriptions, illustrations (drawings and photo plates of all genera), and (for most genera) the nomenclatural transfer of species to their correct genus. We recognise 26 genera, with reinstatement of two previously described genera (Biancaea Tod., Denisophytum R. Vig.), re-delimitation and expansion of several others (Moullava, Cenostigma, Libidibia and Erythrostemon), contraction of Caesalpinia s.s. and description of four new ones (Gelrebia, Paubrasilia, Hererolandia and Hultholia), and make 75 new nomenclatural combinations in this new generic system.
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Por quase 200 anos, a madeira de Caesalpinia echinata tem sido referência para arcos modernos. No entanto, a ameaça de extinção e a proibição comercial têm motivado os arqueteiros a buscar madeiras alternativas. A hipótese testada foi a de que madeiras com propriedades físicas, mecânicas e acústicas semelhantes às de C. echinata, teriam grande potencial como madeiras alternativas para os arcos. Assim, foram investigadas Handroanthus spp., Mezilaurus itauba, Hymenaea spp., Dipteryx spp., Diplotropis spp. e Astronium lecointei. Os resultados mostraram que Handroanthus e Diplotropis apresentam o maior número de semelhanças com C. echinata, mas apenas Handroanthus teve resultados significativos na fabricação dos arcos, sugerindo a importância das seguintes propriedades chave: densidade aparente, velocidade de propagação do som e módulo de elasticidade. Na prática, Handroanthus e Dipteryx forneceram arcos com qualidade semelhante ao de C. echinata.
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Chapter
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Chapter
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The eradication of hunger and poverty are part of the challenges established in this century by various countries as members of the pact to meet the global Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This pact is expected to strengthen agricultural production systems that can reverse environmental degradation with the adoption of agroecological technologies and greater social participation of actors historically excluded from public policies, such as family farmers, women, and rural youth. This chapter deals with the Sustainable Rural Development Program of Rio de Janeiro state – RIO RURAL – initially implemented as a pilot project and later transformed into a public policy of sustainable rural development with the support of the GEF and World Bank. The methodology adopted was built on community-based rural development in micro-watersheds, with the support of rural organizations and decision-making actors at local, municipal, and regional levels, to strengthen the beneficiaries’ sense of governance and social management of the project. The financial resources are allocated to individual and collective projects with practices to encourage the agroecological transition of production systems, environmental adequacy of properties, water management, and conservation of rural roads. The autonomy of the project’s actions has been built through co-investments and a varied establishment of partnerships.
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The municipality of Itaocara is characterized by a pasture-dominated landscape (mainly dairy farming) at moderately to strongly inclined slopes. The major drivers for pasture degradation are poor and erosion-susceptible soils, a changing regional climate towards less frequent but stronger precipitation events, unsustainable pasture management practices as well as low awareness for degradation phenomena among farmers. Today, almost all sloped pastures in the NW of Rio de Janeiro state show various degradation levels, most noticeable in distinctive erosion forms such as rills, cattle tracks and gullies. If no rehabilitation measures and no sustainable pasture management will be applied to these fragile, historically strongly modified ecosystems, pastures will soon degrade to a degree and extent, where land use will not be profitable anymore and rural population might lose their main source of income. The paper presents the implementation, monitoring and management of a low-cost rehabilitation measure applied on a medium degraded sloped pasture in rural Itaocara. Slope-parcelling hedgerow terraces of various native tree species combined with erosion diminishing bioengineered measures and soil amelioration practices aim both at strengthening pasture resilience against degradation and enabling an extensive rotational pasture management at the same time. The measure will be discussed in the context of other advantageous vegetative and structural pasture rehabilitation approaches under given regional environmental and socio-economic conditions.
Chapter
Southeast Brazil is the economic backbone of the country where about 70% of the national GDP is generated. The continuously growing pressure from rural and industrial land use is causing progressive land degradation, especially within the unique Atlantic Forest dominion of this region. Restoration and rehabilitation of degraded areas or of impact caused by building activities are still scarce and carried out using mainly technical engineering methods. Natural engineering or soil bioengineering measures using living plant material are very rare, and if applied, they mostly use non-native plants already proven to work in other tropical regions. As the demand for bioengineered rehabilitation and ecological restoration is expected to increase, suitable plant material is urgently needed. The use of non-native plants for engineering carries several ecological risks, in particular the invasive spread of these plants. This chapter provides a brief overview of the actual state of the art regarding the use of native and non-native plant species in rehabilitation and restoration measures applied in the Atlantic Forest dominion. Furthermore, first results are presented from a case study on bioengineered rehabilitation of a degraded pasture where plants native to Southeast Brazil were successfully used.
Book
This book describes the scientific principles that are used throughout the world to ensure the rapid, healthy growth of forest plantations. As the population of the world increases so does the amount of wood people use. Large areas of natural forests are being cleared every year and converted to other uses. Almost as large an area of plantation forests is being established annually to replace those lost natural forests. Eventually, plantations will produce a large proportion of the wood used around the world for firewood, building, the manufacture of paper and bioenergy. Forest plantations can also provide various environmental benefits including carbon storage, rehabilitation of degraded land, serving as disposal sites for various forms of industrial or agricultural waste and enhancing biodiversity in regions that have been largely cleared for agriculture. Whatever their motivation, plantation forest growers want their plantations to be healthy and grow rapidly to achieve their purpose as soon as possible. This book discusses how this is done. It is written for a worldwide audience, from forestry professionals and scientists through to small plantation growers, and describes how plantations may be grown responsibly and profitably. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014. All rights are reserved.
Article
This book describes the scientific principles that are used throughout the world to ensure the rapid, healthy growth of forest plantations. As the population of the world increases so does the amount of wood people use. Large areas of natural forests are being cleared every year and converted to other uses. Almost as large an area of plantation forests is being established annually to replace those lost natural forests. Eventually, plantations will produce a large proportion of the wood used around the world for firewood, building, the manufacture of paper and bioenergy. Forest plantations can also provide various environmental benefits including carbon storage, rehabilitation of degraded land, serving as disposal sites for various forms of industrial or agricultural waste and enhancing biodiversity in regions that have been largely cleared for agriculture. Whatever their motivation, plantation forest growers want their plantations to be healthy and grow rapidly to achieve their purpose as soon as possible. This book discusses how this is done. It is written for a worldwide audience, from forestry professionals and scientists through to small plantation growers, and describes how plantations may be grown responsibly and profitably.
Article
With the purpose of discovery leishmanicidal secondary metabolites from natural products, crude ethanolic extract (EE) from stems of the Caesalpinia echinata was assayed to verify its in vitro leishmanicidal activity. The EE showed in vitro growth inhibition activities of 90% against amastigote-like of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. The EE was then submitted to fractionation by Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) yielding fifteen fractions (F1 to F15). The same biological assay was performed for the fifteen fractions and the fractions F9 to F11 showed in vitro growth inhibition activities around 80%. The fractions F9 to F11 were pooled to produce an enriched fraction named EF. Evaluation of the acute toxicity of the EE and EF were carried out with Swiss-Webster mice, orally treated by a single oral dose of 300mg of the samples (EE and EF)/kg of body to verify changes in hematological and biochemical profiles and 5.0g of the samples (EE and EF)/kg body to verify the toxicity and safety in using EE and EF as therapeutic agents in the treatment of the leishmaniasis. After preliminary results, the LD 50 concentration was estimated to be greater than 5.0g/kg body for both samples (EE and EF) by oral route. The EE and EF of the C. echinata were actives in vitro experiments and nontoxic for mice, moreover these experiments proved to be the first steps towards the development of leishmanicidal agents from C. echinata.
Article
As atividades agropecuarias e florestais e a expansao dos centros urbanos levaram a eliminacao de grandes areas da Floresta Pluvial Atlântica, onde ocorre o pau-brasil. A especie e considerada em perigo de extincao e, por seus valores historico, simbolico e cultural, e a arvore nacional. Buscaram-se informacoes sobre sua distribuicao geografica em consulta a herbarios, por meio de revisao bibliografica e pela realizacao de trabalho de campo. Elaboraram-se mapas da distribuicao geografica do pau-brasil a partir dos locais de coleta constantes nos rotulos das 196 exsicatas consultadas; e, pelas coordenadas geograficas das populacoes de pau-brasil encontradas durante o trabalho de campo. A falta de levantamentos floristicos dificultou a determinacao mais precisa de sua distribuicao geografica atual. Os mapas produzidos tem importância para implantacao de novas unidades de conservacao, criacao de corredores ecologicos e realizacao de estudos de dinâmica e variabilidade genetica das populacoes remanescentes, entre outras aplicacoes.
Article
Caesalpinia echinata (pernambuco or pau-brasil), is recognized as the premier wood for manufacturing stringed instrument bows. Owing to limited supplies and concerns regarding species survival, interest exists in establishing pernambuco plantations to provide future bow-quality wood. For native forest- and plantationgrown woods we examined several wood properties considered important in determining bow quality including basic density, modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR) measured using static bending samples, air-dry density, microfibril angle (MFA), and stiffness using SilviScan. Color, extractives content and loss tangent (tan δ) were measured for a subsample of the static bending samples. Finally, the samples were also ranked based on their potential for manufacturing high-quality bows (0 = poor, 1 = good and 2 = excellent) by an experienced bow maker. No evidence of differences between means for density, MOE and MOR for native, and 25- and 30-year-old plantation-grown pernambuco was observed; however, when sorted based on quality, the excellent group had higher density, MOE and MOR. MFA and tan δ were low, especially for native forest samples. Extractive contents were low for plantation samples; 5.7% and 12.7% respectively for the 25- and 30-year-old samples, compared to the native forest samples (set 1 = 23%, set 2 = 22.5 %) and few samples had heartwood. Overall, plantation-grown samples provided promising results in terms of their quality.
Article
Some few substances, such as salt and alum, have been part of the chemical scene from the dawn of civilization. Another is aniline which, although it does not exist freely in nature, has long been an extraordinarily versatile building brick. It has a particular significance in the making of dyes, as a chemical intermediary for a vast range of organic compounds, and — more recently — as the basis of the remarkable polyaniline polymers.
Article
A ibirapitanga era o nome dado pelos indígenas brasileiros a uma madeira que fornecia corante vermelho, utilizado para tingir penas e algodão. Os portugueses, que já conheciam uma madeira oriental que tinha a mesma função tintorial para tecidos de lã, seda e algodão, depois do descobrimento da Terra de Santa Cruz, passaram a explorar essa madeira americana, que se tornou conhecida por brasil ou pau-brasil. A história dessa árvore está intrinsecamente ligada à história do Brasil pois foi o primeiro produto natural extraído da colônia portuguesa e constituiu seu primeiro ciclo econômico. Essa importância e significado foram expressos de forma artística e marcante nas iluminuras dos mapas e cartas produzidos pelos mais importantes cartógrafos quinhentistas. A extração, comércio e tráfico do pau-brasil envolveram, desde o século XVI, portugueses, franceses, holandeses, espanhóis, ingleses e, finalmente, brasileiros. A designação da parte sul do Mundus Novus de Brasil substituiu a de Terra de Santa Cruz por causa da importância do pau-brasil. A origem da palavra Brasil e a justificativa dessa alteração têm várias explicações. O pau-brasil ocorre naturalmente no Domínio Atlântico Brasileiro e tem distribuição geográfica nos estados do Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, Bahia, Alagoas, Pernambuco, Paraíba e Rio Grande do Norte. O pau-brasil, Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae), é considerado uma espécie em perigo de ext. Tese (Doutorado).
Article
Conservationists are far from able to assist all species under threat, if only for lack of funding. This places a premium on priorities: how can we support the most species at the least cost? One way is to identify 'biodiversity hotspots' where exceptional concentrations of endemic species are undergoing exceptional loss of habitat. As many as 44% of all species of vascular plants and 35% of all species in four vertebrate groups are confined to 25 hotspots comprising only 1.4% of the land surface of the Earth. This opens the way for a 'silver bullet' strategy on the part of conservation planners, focusing on these hotspots in proportion to their share of the world's species at risk.
Livro vermelho da flora do Brasil. Centro Nacional de Conservação da Flora, Rio de Janeiro 1100
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