Conference PaperPDF Available

5G Internet of Radio Light Virtual Reality System

978-1-5386-4729-5/18/$31.00 ©2018 IEEE
5G Internet of Radio Light Virtual Reality System
Ben Meunier, John Cosmas
WNCC, School of Engineering and Design
Brunel University London
Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB8 3PH, UK
E-mail: {, john.cosmas
Abstract— Virtual Reality (VR) is a technology that is rapidly
developing, leading to a whole array of innovative commercially
viable products. Some of the challenges facing the early
development of Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality
(AR) include high cost, restricted physical movement and
laborious setup. This paper highlights several of these challenges
and outlines an architecture in which systems can require less
specialised equipment, be used with greater freedom and are
simpler to setup. This paper shows how using the correct
applications, the Internet of Radio Light (IoRL) architecture
could lead to enhanced VR experiences. Specifically, a wireless
six Degrees of Freedom (DOF) VR system for both existing
mobile and PC operated VR. The aim is, to exploit the existing
IoRL architecture to provide a safer, wireless, high speed, less
laborious, more immersive and improved VR experience with
broader applications.
Virtual Reality (VR); Augmented reality (AR);
(IoRL); Degrees of Freedom (DOF);
Home Museum
High L1 Protocol
5G L2 L3
IHIPG- Dell 730-1
Intel i9
IHIPG- Dell 730-2
Radio Light
5G L2 L3
Radio Light
Fig.1. IoRL architecture
The IoRL [1][2] architecture shown in Fig.1, is designed to
provide 5G networking within buildings, delivering greater
than 10Gbs data rates with a latency under 1ms as well as
location sensing services with sub 10cm accuracy
. This is made
possible by modulating existing lighting infrastructure for
Visible Light Communications (VLC) and using millimetre
wave (mmWave) transmission to make Remote Radio Light
Heads (RRLH). These light heads act as an array of high-speed
transmitters, to replace a singular Wi-Fi radio-transmission
router commonly found in buildings. The RRLH as shown in
Fig.2 houses both the mmWave and VLC transceivers
discreetly within an existing light rose, acting as a frontend for
the IoRL system.
Fig.2. IoRL RRLH design
The IoRL project has the advantage of combining VLC and
mmWave transmission in close proximity to users and user
equipment (UE), thus reducing the distance between
transmitters and UE, thereby reducing latency and increasing
data rates. Furthermore, light fittings are regularly located in
raised, central positions,
which provide ideal data coverage.
Buildings often contain multiple light fittings in a single room,
increasing coverage, decreasing distance and allowing for
location sensing of UEs. At the UE terminal, an ‘IoRL dongle’
is required to transmit and receive data between the RRLH
transceivers and the UE. The dongle itself contains the
mmWave and VLC transceivers along with a processor and
adjustable interface for the required UE.
Indoor location sensing (IPS) is currently restricted to
accuracies of a few metres, using Global Positioning Systems
(GPS) [3] and Wireless Local Area Network fingerprint
techniques [4]. The IoRL project will use VLC and mmWave
transmission for location sensing to provide accuracies below
10cm. The IPS will require the IoRL RRLH controller to use
5G protocols to obtain the Round Trip Time Difference of
Arrival (TDoA), which it will measure using a 0.1ns clock
derived from the 4ns system
clock. The UE will
also measure
the Received Signal Strength for the VLC and mmWave
transmissions. This data is processed by an application within
the Software Defined Network (SDN) that computes the UE
VLC module
mmWave module
VLC transmitter/
Light source mmWave
location. Received Signal Strength (RSS) algorithm
simulations have already provided insight into possible sub
2cm accuracies using VLC alone, however this technology is
still in the developmental stage [5][6][7]. In these simulations,
four VLC transmitters tracked a single object in a 3mx3mx3m
Virtual reality (VR) systems are becoming more immersive and
opening up new exciting ways to experience, educate and
entertain. The main objective of VR systems is to provide users
with a greater sense of immersion in a virtual world. There are
a number of immersion factors [8] that contribute to this user
experience. Arguably, the greatest of these factors is the
freedom of movement within a virtual environment, making
wireless VR systems of great interest. This is evident from the
rise in wireless VR systems such as Oculus project Santa Cruz
[9] and the Vive Focus [10]. VR has developed an increasing
number of applications from military training, scientific
visualisation, and remote surgery to healthcare [11], all of
which could benefit from the wireless freedom to allow
enhanced user physical involvement. In order for VR to
provide an impressive and comfortable user experience, high
data rates and low latency are critical. Typical 4G networks
place limitations on VR applications and cannot provide the
bandwidth required. 5G networks however offer a substantial
increase in latency and bandwidth, which wi
ll improve existing
experiences and facilitate innovative ones. [12].
At present, there are three main VR systems; mobile
operated VR (MOVR), which uses a mobile phone, held in a
headset, PC operated VR (PCOVR), which uses computer
processing and external tracking, and Standalone VR (SaVR)
which requires only a HMD and no external components.
SaVR works differently and does not fit within the scope of
this paper, however it is valuable to use for comparison.
PCOVR is substantially superior to MOVR due to i
ts higher
resolution, faster processing and capacity to track user
movement, in general delivering a greater sense of immersion.
Tracking a user permits for more DOF [13] [14] within a
virtual world. MOVR systems are limited at 3DOF whilst most
PCOVR deliver 6DOF. Sensors within a mobile or Head
Mounted Display (HMD) can only provide 3DOF from
rotational movement (yaw, pitch and roll). Location data
provides an additional three DOF from translational movement
in x, y and z planes (surge, heave and sway).
Current new VR
systems leave substantial room for improvement. This proposal
aims to eliminate the following factors:
x The restricted level of immersion of MOVR systems.
Limited to 3DOF, through lack of external tracking
systems capable of monitoring user movement.
x The expensive, laborious to install, external trackers
of PCOVR. The positioning and arrangement of
which requires specific setup criteria and can only be
used by a single Operating System (OS).
x The number of cables necessary to connect the HMD
to the PC in current PCOVR systems. These can be a
trip hazard while additionally limiting the area a user
can travel. The combination of the trackers, fixed
tracking area and cabled HMD means users are
restricted by an approximate 4mx4m physical area
[15] thereby not able explore a virtual world fully.
Integrating the IPS proposed by the IoRL project for VR,
would make it possible to track the VR user’s movements,
eliminating the need for external trackers in addition to
providing MOVR systems with 6DOF capabilities. The high
data rates and wireless transmission of the IoRL project could
also eliminate the need for cables, providing wireless VR.
Fig. 3.
General PCOVR configuration
Fig. 3 illustrates the general setup of the common HTC
Vive [16] VR system. The two Base station trackers, located in
the corners of the playable area, scan the space for user
equipment. Tracking of the HMD and controllers provides the
necessary 6DOF movement data. The positional data obtained
from both the headsets internal sensors and the Base station
trackers is transferred to the PC for processing, via separate
USB cables. The appropriate multimedia data is transmitted
back to the headset via HDMI. The direction of data flow and
connections is illustrated in Fig4 below.
Fig. 4. General Dataflow of PCOVR system
European Commission for its financial support on the Horizon 2020
Internet of Radio-Light (IoRL) project No: 761992
Fig. 5. IoRL IPS enabled VR concept
Fig. 5 demonstrates the first stage and initial concept of this
project. The IoRL VLC and mmWave IPS tracks a dongle
located on the user’s HMD and thus their movements. This
positional data would replace the existing external tracking
system data, eliminating the need for external tracking
installation and setup. The PC VR application can then request
the positional data obtaine
d from the IoRL IPS.
can then direct this data to a second dongle connected to the
computer via USB. The PC then processes the location data for
the system through the internal VR application that delivers the
multimedia output to the HMD via HDMI.
Fig. 6. IoRL wireless VR concept
Using the same system configuration, Fig. 6 shows
how the IoRL RRLHs could relay information between the PC
processer and the HMD. Transmitting data wirelessly with 5G
super-fast data rates eliminates the need for wires. This multi-
hop method involves transmitting the multimedia data output
from the PC via the dongle to the RRLHs; the data then
transmits from the RRLHs to the dongle on the HMD. In this
case, the HMD dongle interfaces to the HMD via HDMI and
USB to substitute the existing cables. This process is similar to
the TPCAST [17] system, which uses a wireless mmWave
adapter to transmit data wirelessly between the VR HMD and
the computer. Fig.7. Illustrates the data flow for the proposed
Fig. 7. Dataflow of proposed IoRL VR system
In theory, it should also be possible to reduce induced
latency by transmitting the multimedia data from the PC
dongle directly to the HMD dongle as an ad hoc network,
however this is not within the scope of the IoRL project.
Fig. 8. IoRL Handover protocol fo
r VR tracking between rooms
Fig. 8 depicts how by using a handover protocol, suggested
by the IoRL project, for connecting UE to RRLHs between
rooms, it would be possible to expand the physical explorable
area. Users could easily setup a VR experience in any
connected area, freely moving between rooms, opening up all
available physical space.
Overall, this concept provides a safer, completely wireless,
high speed, less laborious and greater PCVR experience.
Fig. 9. Left to right respectively 9a, current MOVR and 9b, IoRL IPS enabled
Fig. 9a illustrates the movement currently available from
MOVR systems. With only 3DOF, users are limited in terms of
movement and immersion. By integrating the IoRL IPS, any
mobile device can be tracked via the connected dongle. This
provides positional data which if requested by the mobile
device could provide MOVR users the potential for 6DOF,
exploring the virtual world in a completely new way as shown
in Fig. 9b.
VR technology is evolving rapidly and so are t
he potential
applications. This proposed solution builds on an existing
architecture (IoRL) that will be used in buildings, with
potential to transform the VR experience. This solution reduces
equipment cost, improves the ease of setup and permits wider
use of VR. With the correct interface, this positional data could
be accessed by a variety of VR operating systems, using the
same tracking structure. In addition, there would be the
possibility for multiple users to engage in a VR experience
given that the IoRL system tracks and provides
IPS data for numerous devices.
So far, wireless VR has been achieved using millimeter
wave transmission between a HMD and computer, which is a
similar approach to that discussed in Fig.6. This method is
applied in TPCAST to deliver almost negligible induced
latency. Millimeter wave transmission has also been explored
for VR where simulations found it to reduce induced wireless
latency substantially [18]. This demonstrates the real potential
for this part of the project. In addition, standalone VR (SaVR)
headsets are becoming commercially available, offering a
complete all in one wireless experience.
In addition, standalone VR (SaVR) headsets are becoming
commercially availab
le, offering a complete all in one wireless
experience. These HMDs require no external computer and
typically incorporate some variant on inside-out technology
[19]. This generally requires outward facing cameras to
measure the user’s movements in respect to the physical world.
Headsets such as the Pico Neo [20], Oculus Project Santa-
Cruz, Vive Focus, Qualcomm VR [21] and Lenovo mirage solo
[22] all perform using the similar hardware with the exact same
processor, the Snapdragon 835 [23]. This processor is
commonly found in phones and thus provides a reduced level
of VR when compared to PCOVR. PCOVR offers much faster
processing, larger storage, higher RAM and GPU, all of which
can be utilised fully by using such a proposed system. Pricing
remains a challenge, the price of these commercial wireless VR
systems is highly competitive. With IoRL technology still in
development, the system and components are currently unique
and costly. Regarding MOVR, no system yet provides 6DOF
or has the potential to track remote handheld controllers, which
would provide mobile phone users with much greater control in
virtual environments.
Low latency is a heavily contributing factor towards viable
VR; this proposed approach relies greatly on providing as little
induced latency as possible. Given similar low latency
approaches, this remains optimistic.
While in development, the IoRL project remains a proof of
concept. Though eventually it will be possible to reduce the
size of the UE dongle aforementioned, the present dimensions
of the dongle are too large to permit a comfortably portable
While there are already certain existing solutions to
wireless VR and tracker-less systems none of these offer a
complete, high powered solution like t
he above proposal does.
PCOVR benefits from the increased freedom enabled by both
the lack of wires as well as the ability to expand a ‘playable
area’ beyond the pre-set tracker area, all while maintaining the
high processing power delivered from PCOVR. This proposal
also provides an innovative solution to deliver 6DOF to
MOVR. The all-in-one solution proposed within this paper
would greatly improve the Virtual Reality and Augmented
Reality industry, transforming how everyone uses these
systems. It is worth
noting however that this proposal relies
greatly on the backend of the IoRL project. With the
architecture still to be finalised and tested, it may be a while
before the technology for this proposed system is commercially
The authors gratefully acknowledge the European
Commission for its financial support on the Horizon 2020
Internet of Radio-Light (IoRL) project No: 761992
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An Introduction to positional Tracking and Degrees of Freedom (DOF)
  • lang
Factors Influencing Virtual Reality Immersion
  • J Guillermo
  • L Rojas
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