Conference Paper

SliceNet: End-to-End Cognitive Network Slicing and Slice Management Framework in Virtualised Multi-Domain, Multi-Tenant 5G Networks

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Abstract

Network slicing has emerged as a major new networking paradigm for meeting the diverse requirements of various vertical businesses in virtualised and softwarised 5G networks. SliceNet is a project of the EU 5G Infrastructure Public Private Partnership (5G PPP) and focuses on network slicing as a cornerstone technology in 5G networks, and addresses the associated challenges in managing, controlling and orchestrating the new services for users especially vertical sectors, thereby maximising the potential of 5G infrastructures and their services by leveraging advanced software networking and cognitive network management. This paper presents the vision of the SliceNet project, highlighting the gaps in existing work and challenges, the proposed overall architecture, proposed technical approaches, and use cases.

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... 5G networks will use softwarization and virtualization to accomplish new features such as flexibility, configurability, and scalability [12]. The network is expected to offer what is termed as ''networks as a service'' by creating logical network slices (NS) that are flexible and efficient in a multi-operator environment [13]. ...
... For further studies on the 5G network slicing using the SDN and NFV, a comprehensive review along with the solution can be found in [94]. The EU 5G Infrastructure Public-Private Partnership (5G PPP) sponsored the project called SliceNet [13], and NS was its focus in terms of managing, controlling the associated challenges, setting up new user services (vertical sectors). It intends to maximize the 5G services and infrastructures using advanced software networking and cognitive network management. ...
... Figure 17 illustrates the SliceNet overall system architecture. The framework applies to many vertical sectors [23], SliceNet UCs in eHealth, Smart Grid [95], FIGURE 17. SliceNet overall system architecture [13]. VOLUME 9, 2021 and Street Lighting were demonstrated. ...
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The mobile demands and future business context are anticipated to be resolved by the fifth-generation (5G) of mobile communication systems. It is expected to provide an utterly mobile device, connected society, and support the demanding services of various use cases (UCs). This is intended to meet the demand requirement by providing services at tens of Gbps in terms of data rates, higher mobility range, lower latencies, and massive connectivity density devices per square kilometer. A comprehensive and up-to-date survey of the different developed and proposed use cases is presented in this paper. The first part of the paper presents the overview of the new 5G Architecture by introducing new features such as the new radio interface (New Radio), an overview of the 5G Core Network, minimum requirements, and the Radio Access Network, 5G spectrum requirements and other fundamentals of the network. Secondly, a detailed review of the developed and proposed use cases for 5G communications by the standards development organizations (SDO) and other key players in mobile communication is provided. Thirdly, we went ahead to propose spectrum bands for the deployment of the various use cases based on the low-, mid-, and high-band spectrum and further classified the use cases with respect to their relevance and family, identifying the IMT-2020 test environments and the usage scenarios derived by the 3GPP, fourthly, the channel capacity and the bandwidth of the spectrum was studied, simulated and compared to ascertain the spectrum proposed in this paper for each UC family. Hence, this paper serves as a guideline for understanding the usage scenarios for the future 5G deployment in various environments. This would allow system developers to design and implement 5G channel characterization models specific to the usage scenarios to meet the system requirements.
... SELFNET will reduce remarkably the operational cost by improving user experience. • Maximizing the future potentials and services of 5G advanced network infrastructures and its services based on cognitive management in NFV/SDN-enabled 5G networks using an End-to-End Cognitive Network Slicing and Slice Management Framework in Virtualized Multi-Domain, Multi-Tenant 5G Networks (SLICENET) project [37]. One of its use cases was a smart city in Romania, in the city of Alba Iulia. ...
... Verticals are entire domains of the Internet of Things marketplaces such as Network domains, Industries, or special classes of users [37]. Verticals have appropriate environmental regulatory policies, procedures, and protocols that are widely used. ...
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Fog Computing (FC) is promising to Internet architecture for the emerging of modern technological approaches such as Fifth Generation (5G) networks and the Internet of Things (IoT). These are the advanced technologies that enable Internet architecture to enhance the data dissemination services based on numerous sensors generating continuous sensory information. It is tough for the current Internet architecture to meet up with the growing demands of the users for such a massive amount of information. Therefore, it needs to adopt modern technologies for efficient data dissemination services across the Internet. Thus, the FC and 5G are updating the data transmission using new technological approaches that are intelligently processing data to provide enhanced communications. This study proposes necessary measures to boost the growth of FC to 5G network usage. It is done by taking an extensive review of how 5G operates as well as studying its taxonomy, the idea of IoT, reviewed projects on IoT applicability, comparison of computing technologies, and the importance of FC. Moreover, it elaborates dynamic issues of computing network technologies, and information is provided on how to remedy these for future recommendations in the field of research and computing network technologies. This paper heavily focuses on the applications of FC as an enabler to the 5G network by identifying the necessary services and network-oriented features that are needed to be used in the place for an improved future enterprise network technology.
... In wide area networks (microwave, copper or fiber) CNs, cognitivity could be distributed across their components and network management centers (fault detection and remediation [64]) [3]- [5], [62], [65]- [71]. In CRNs, nodes are cognitive radios operating over the radio frequency spectrum [20], [72]- [74]. ...
... Looking at today's best SDR solutions, one finds field programmable gate-array (FPGA), radio frequency integrated circuit (RFIC) and digital signal processing (DSP) devices in support of military communications and electronic warfare, signals intelligence (SIGINT) and Fourth Generation (4G) phones. Future technologies integrating analog with digital circuits will support billion of Internet of Things (IoTs) and Fifth Generation (5G) smart phones, and other systems yet to be defined [71]. ...
Preprint
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In telecommunications, cognitive networks are distributed systems accelerating information exchange in support of decisions, enabled by learning software run on advanced specialized hardware, and used in distributed cognitive sensing and decision making to control effectors or inform users. If developed successfully showing endurance at low cost, they are likely to provide significant advantages to their early adopters.
... Fig. 11 shows two compute nodes deployed in a Kubernetes cluster, each with one service instance and traffic going through all the services to and from one endpoint to the other. The 5G e-health connected ambulance is one of the most important use cases of network slicing as envisioned by the SliceNet project [64]. The use case intends to improve ambulance services and provide real-time health care and first-aid to patients. ...
... Slicing federation among multiple administrative domains is an important network slicing challenge [64]. In a high mobility scenario when URLLC slicing is requested, e.g., V2X communications there is a need for slicing federation. ...
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Fifth-Generation (5G) mobile cellular networks provide a promising platform for new, innovative and diverse IoT applications, such as ultra-reliable and low latency communication, real-time and dynamic data processing, intensive computation, and massive device connectivity. End-to-End (E2E) network slicing candidates present a promising approach to resource allocation and distribution that permit operators to flexibly provide scalable virtualized and dedicated logical networks over common physical infrastructure. Though network slicing promises the provision of services on demand, many of its use cases, such as self-driving cars and Google’s Stadia, would require the integration of a Multi-Access Edge Computing (MEC) platform in 5G networks. Edge Computing is envisioned as one of the key drivers for 5G and Sixth-Generation (6G) mobile cellular networks, but its role in network slicing remains to be fully explored. We investigate MEC and network slicing for the provision of 5G service focused use cases. Recently, changes to the cloud-native 5G core are a focus with MEC use cases providing network scalability, elasticity, flexibility, and automation. A cloud-native microservices architecture, along with its potential use cases for 5G network slicing, is envisioned. This paper also elaborates on the recent advances made in enabling E2E network slicing, its enabling technologies, solutions, and current standardization efforts. Finally, this paper identifies open research issues and challenges and provides possible solutions and recommendations.
... Reliability in this work means successfully transmitting and delivering packets without exceeding the maximum latency supported by the application [4,6]. However, unlike the literature, PRIMUS does not refrain from other applications such as telemedicine [49]. Table 2 presents the main s-health applications and requirements. ...
Article
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The sixth-generation (6G) network intends to revolutionize the healthcare sector. It will offer smart healthcare (s-health) treatments and allow efficient patient remote monitoring, exposing the high potential of 6G communication technology in telesurgery, epidemic, and pandemic. Healthcare relies on 6G communication technology, diminishing barriers as time and space. S-health applications require strict network requirements, for instance, 99.999% of service reliability and 1 ms of end-to-end latency. However, it is a challenging task to manage network resources and applications towards such performance requirements. Hence, significant attention focuses on performance management as a way of searching for efficient approaches to adjust and tune network resources to application needs, assisting in achieving the required performance levels. In the literature, performance management employs techniques such as resource allocation, resource reservation, traffic shaping, and traffic scheduling. However, they are dedicated to specific problems such as resource allocation for a particular device, ignoring the heterogeneity of network devices, and communication technology. Thus, this article presents PRIMUS, a performance management architecture that aims to meet the requirements of low-latency and high-reliability in an adaptive way for s-health applications. As network slicing is central to realizing the potential of 5G–6G networks, PRIMUS manages traffic through network slicing technologies. Unlike existing proposals, it supports device and service heterogeneity based on the autonomous knowledge of s-health applications. Emulation results in Mininet-WiFi show the feasibility of meeting the s-health application requirements in virtualized environments.
... As the vision of SliceNet presented in Section 5.1.3 , Wang et al. [281] demonstrate a QoE-driven 5G network slicing framework focusing on cognitive network management and control for E2E slicing operation and slice-based/enabled services across multiple operator domains. Authors in [282] investigate the resource allocation problem of achieving maximum capacity with the transmit power, allocated bandwidth as part of the constraints in a sliced multi-tenant network. ...
Preprint
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In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review and updated solutions related to 5G network slicing using SDN and NFV. Firstly, we present 5G service quality and business requirements followed by a description of 5G network softwarization and slicing paradigms including essential concepts, history and different use cases. Secondly, we provide a tutorial of 5G network slicing technology enablers including SDN, NFV, MEC, cloud/Fog computing, network hypervisors, virtual machines & containers. Thidly, we comprehensively survey different industrial initiatives and projects that are pushing forward the adoption of SDN and NFV in accelerating 5G network slicing. A comparison of various 5G architectural approaches in terms of practical implementations, technology adoptions and deployment strategies is presented. Moreover, we provide a discussion on various open source orchestrators and proof of concepts representing industrial contribution. The work also investigates the standardization efforts in 5G networks regarding network slicing and softwarization. Additionally, the article presents the management and orchestration of network slices in a single domain followed by a comprehensive survey of management and orchestration approaches in 5G network slicing across multiple domains while supporting multiple tenants. Furthermore, we highlight the future challenges and research directions regarding network softwarization and slicing using SDN and NFV in 5G networks.
... Network slicing is still a hot research topic in the telecommunication and networking communities. Advanced researches are still expected on its standardization, realization, and implementation (exploiting SDN and NFV) [79], [80]. ...
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Immersive media services, such as augmented and virtual reality (AR/VR)a, 360-degree video, and freeviewpoint video (FVV), are popular today. They require massive data storage, ultra-high computing power, and ultra-low latency. It is hard to fulfill these requirements simultaneously in a conventional communication system using a cloud/centralized radio access network (C-RAN). Specifically, due to centralized processing in such a system, the end-to-end latency as well as the burden on the fronthaul network are expected to be high. Fog computing-based radio access networks (F-RAN), in contrast, have been widely considered as an enabler for immersive media. Our contribution in this paper is threefold: First, we propose various service scenarios reflecting the characteristics of immersive media. Second, we identify the technologies that are required to support the proposed service scenarios under F-RAN, and discuss how they can support the proposed scenarios efficiently. Third, we discuss possible research opportunities. a A list of acronyms can be found in Appendix A.
... Each type of services can then be instantiated by a series of NF sets, called network slice [8]. Network slicing has been considered as the foundation of 5G SBA to match with diversified service requirements and application scenarios [9] [10] [11]. ...
Preprint
Network slicing has been considered as one of the key enablers for 5G to support diversified IoT services and application scenarios. This paper studies the distributed network slicing for a massive scale IoT network supported by 5G with fog computing. Multiple services with various requirements need to be supported by both spectrum resource offered by 5G network and computational resourc of the fog computing network. We propose a novel distributed framework based on a new control plane entity, federated-orchestrator , which can coordinate the spectrum and computational resources without requiring any exchange of the local data and resource information from BSs. We propose a distributed resource allocation algorithm based on Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers with Partial Variable Splitting . We prove DistADMM-PVS minimizes the average service response time of the entire network with guaranteed worst-case performance for all supported types of services when the coordination between the F-orchestrator and BSs is perfectly synchronized. Motivated by the observation that coordination synchronization may result in high coordination delay that can be intolerable when the network is large in scale, we propose a novel asynchronized ADMM algorithm. We prove that AsynADMM can converge to the global optimal solution with improved scalability and negligible coordination delay. We evaluate the performance of our proposed framework using two-month of traffic data collected in a in-campus smart transportation system supported by a 5G network. Extensive simulation has been conducted for both pedestrian and vehicular-related services during peak and non-peak hours. Our results show that the proposed framework offers significant reduction on service response time for both supported services, especially compared to network slicing with only a single resource.
... On the other hand, FlexRAN [29], provides a flexible control over the RAN infrastructure allowing to dynamically instantiate radio slices. Finally, works such as [10] and [30], provide insight on the E2E orchestration of slicing mechanisms for verticals. ...
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The fifth generation (5G) telecommunications network aims not only to enhance traffic performance and allow efficient management, but also to enable it to dynamically and flexibly adapt to the traffic demands of different vertical scenarios. In order to support that enablement, the underlying network procedures (i.e., network functions) are being virtualized and deployed in cloud-based environments, allowing for a more optimized usage of the infra-structure resources. In addition, such resources can be sliced, allowing isolated provisioning to specific network functions allocated to disparate vertical deployments. As network slices are envisaged by network operators to fulfill a small number of slices, able to cater towards essential 5G scenario demands (i.e., enhanced mobile broadband, massive machine-type communications and ultra reliable low-latency communications), the total amount of slices existing in a system is currently dictated by the underlying operational overhead placed over the cloud infra-structure. This paper explores the challenges associated to a vision where the network slicing concept is applied with a much greater level of granularity, ultimately allowing it to become a core mechanism of the network’s operation, with large numbers of co-existing slices. In that respect, this paper proposes an architecture framework for instantiation of network slices among network providers, which in turn are able to instantiate sub-slices tailored to use cases and vertical tenants. The evaluation of this concept is done following a two-pronged approach: firstly, different slice dimensions (i.e., from micro to macro) are proposed and discussed, pointing out the benefits and challenges of each proposed slice; secondly, we deployed a mobile network provider (MNO), using OpenAirInterface and FlexRAN frameworks, and experimentally evaluated the its slicing mechanisms. The objective is to provide insight on the challenges and impact associated with the deployment of an increasing amount of slices, using the same available infra-structural resources.
... When mission-critical services are carried over public broadband networks, exact levels of security, resilience and reliability must be guaranteed. This is the challenge, and the Horizon 2020 5G Public-Private Partnership (5G PPP) SliceNet project [3] is investigating this challenge by designing the seamless deployment of media-rich public safety mobility services over future 5G broadband networks, by employing an advanced network slicing framework to ensure missioncritical QoS. ...
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Media use cases for emergency services require mission-critical levels of reliability for the delivery of media-rich services, such as video streaming. With the upcoming deployment of the fifth generation (5G) networks, a wide variety of applications and services with heterogeneous performance requirements are expected to be supported, and any migration of mission-critical services to 5G networks presents significant challenges in the quality of service (QoS), for emergency service operators. This paper presents a novel SliceNet framework, based on advanced and customizable network slicing to address some of the highlighted challenges in migrating eHealth telemedicine services to 5G networks. An overview of the framework outlines the technical approaches in beyond the state-of-the-art network slicing. Subsequently, this paper emphasizes the design and prototyping of a media-centric eHealth use case, focusing on a set of innovative enablers toward achieving end-to-end QoS-aware network slicing capabilities, required by this demanding use case. Experimental results empirically validate the prototyped enablers and demonstrate the applicability of the proposed framework in such media-rich use cases.
... In [19] the SliceNet, a 5G PPP project is presented. It proposes an architecture composed by two architectural domains; i) Advanced managed domain, which slice SDN and NFV to provide a slicing-ready, softwarised infrastructure for 5G; ii) Management and orchestration domain, where the technological challenges envisioned by 5G will be addressed. ...
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With the massive growth of cutting-edge media services such as Ultra-High Definition (UHD/4K) video and immersive media (i.e. Virtual and Augmented Reality-VR/AR), demand for large investments in a scalable, ubiquitous, and robust communication infrastructure and services increases enormously. The H2020 5GCity project aims to provide a solution for such issues by designing, developing, and deploying a sliceable, distributed Cloud/Edge & radio platform with neutral hosting capability to support the sharing between Information Technology (IT) infrastructure owners and media service providers (i.e. vertical media actors). In this work, we initially introduce the essential benefits of the 5GCity technology and neutral host model to facilitate the rise of highly-demanding media Use Cases (UCs) and its implication on how service providers typically operate (in terms of business model). Then, we show how the 5GCity architecture and infrastructure, in light of certain Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), address this demand through three media UCs (namely related to "video acquisition and production at the edge", "immersive services", and "mobile production and transmission") and we explain how they are implemented and deployed in real citywide pilots (in Bristol, Lucca, and Barcelona) to demonstrate the benefits for infrastructure owners and media service providers.
... Aligning with the direction of Elastic 5G RAN, several other projects investigated the SDN/NFV based resource management, such as 5G-PPP 5G-MONARCH [116], COHERENT [117], SELFNET [110], Sesame [118], ESSENCE [119] (a project that builds on the inherited implementation of small cells as NFV from Sesame). The focus on 5G network control for the support of multitenancy and network slicing continued with 5G PPP Phases 2 projects, such as 5GCity [120] and SliceNet [121] , as well as Marie Curie Innovative Training Network (ITN) projects, such as 5G-AURA [122], and SECRET [123]. Other projects, from the earlier program FP7, were also relevant. ...
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An expansion of services and unprecedented traffic growth is anticipated in future networks, aligned with the adoption of the long-awaited Fifth Generation (5G) of mobile communications. To support this demand, without exposing mobile operators to the pressure of CAPEX and OPEX, 5G uses new frequency bands, and adopts promising trends, including: densification, softwarization, and autonomous management. While the first technology is proposed to handle the traffic growth requirements, the softwarization and autonomous management are expected to play, in synergy, to ensure the desired trade-off between reducing the CAPEX and OPEX, while guaranteeing the quality of service (QoS). Softwarization is expected to transform the network design, from one size fits all, to more demand oriented adaptive resource allocation. In this work, we focus on this point, by discussing how these technologies act in synergy towards enabling RAN sharing. Particularly, we focus on how they fit into the issue of energy efficient Multi-Operator Resource Allocation (MO-RA). After a survey and classification of schemes leveraging this synergy for distinct resource allocation (RA) objectives, we present a detailed survey and qualitative classification of RA schemes with respect to energy efficiency. This work presents an innovative survey, since it concentrates on multiple operators, and the enabling of Mobile Virtual Network Operators (MVNOs), which will come into play with the complete virtualization of mobile networks. Based on the deep literature analysis of the different operations that can bring energy savings to MO-RA, we conclude the work with listing open challenges and future research directions.
... The architecture proposed in this work is very similar to the one presented in our work, however they do not present yet any empirical validation and not any QoS-aware implementation for these smart grid self-healing scenarios. [8] is an ongoing work of the H2020 5G-PPP SliceNet project [9]. Our work is also funded and has been tested in the SliceNet project infrastructure and offer now empirical results. ...
... However, as stated in [31], each Domain-Specific Orchestrator (DSO) will be handled by the Global Orchestrator (GO), and thus the orchestration remains centralized. The SliceNet [32] project is an end-to-end slice management framework for virtualized multi-domain and multi-tenant 5G networks. Hence, SliceNet presents a Cross-Plane Orchestration system to differentiate three planes: services, slices, and resources. ...
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Researchers in mobile technologies and services are currently requesting testbeds to validate their proposals in a realistic large-scale and controlled environment. Such demands are some times satisfied with private ad-hoc deployments in a given area of coverage. However, given national regulations related to the use of the spectrum and the cost of deployments, these solutions are not feasible for most researchers. In this paper, we introduce the architecture of the research infrastructure developed in the EuWireless project. EuWireless’ objective is to provide private networks that can be dynamically created as slices with different levels of configuration and control, as a cost-effective way to access large-scale testbeds with a licensed spectrum even in different countries. The paper focuses on the architecture of the Point of Presence, the key element in the EuWireless project, and how it will work in practice. We also present a proof of concept implementation that satisfies some of the design objectives and demonstrates the feasibility of the proposal.
... This research is done in the context of the SliceNet project [4] that aims to extend 5G infrastructure with cognitive management of cross-domain, cross-layer network slices [1], with emphasis on Quality of Experience (QoE) for vertical industries. The provisioning of network slices with proper QoE guarantees is seen as one of the key enablers of future 5G-enabled networks. ...
Conference Paper
This research is done in the context of the SliceNet project [4] that aims to extend 5G infrastructure with cognitive management of cross-domain, cross-layer network slices [1], with emphasis on Quality of Experience (QoE) for vertical industries. The provisioning of network slices with proper QoE guarantees is seen as one of the key enablers of future 5G-enabled networks. The challenge is to assess the QoE experienced by the vertical application and its users without requiring the applications or the users to measure and report QoE related metrics back to the provider. To address this challenge, we propose a method for deriving application-level QoE from network-level Quality of Service (QoS) measurements, easily accessible by the provider. In particular, we describe a PoC where QoE, perceived by application users, is estimated from low level network monitoring data, by applying cognitive methods. Our main goal is enabling the cloud provider to support the desired E2E QoE-based Service Level Agreements (SLAs), e.g. by monitoring QoS metrics within the provider's domain to optimize resource allocation through provider's actuators. Additional benefit can be achieved by applying the same technique to troubleshoot issues in the provider's infrastructure. In this work, we employed classical statistical methods to assess the relationship between the application-level QoE and the network-level QoS.
... For example, in the context of eHealth applications, network slices will require special parameters such as ultra-low latency and high reliability. In [11] [14] network slice management and orchestration across multiple administrative domains is investigated. A slice designer module is focused on the creation of verticals. ...
Conference Paper
The use of Network Function Virtualization (NFV) and Software-defined Networks (SDN) technologies in 5G networks provide Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) with new capacities to deploy and orchestrate network functions in a virtualized and programmable way, allowing them in turn to better provide and support new connectivity requirements demanded by users and vertical industries. The Network Slicing function provides the base functionality to virtualize the network and efficiently share it among customers. Besides, the extensive use of virtualization technologies in 5G provides a good support for the creation of virtual Mobile Network Operators (vMNO), that offer network services to its clients using the network resources provided by an MNO. However, the 3GPP architecture defined for the management of network slices fails to provide a good support for the vMNOs to have their own network slice management system. The main goal of the thesis work outlined in this paper is to address the integration of current technologies used by 5G networks into multi-domain and multi-client cloud computing scenarios, for the provision of vMNOs following a Network Slice as a Service (NSaaS) approach. The ongoing work focuses on defining mechanisms for the deployment, orchestration and management of diverse vMNOs available in the network slice ecosystem, proposing an extension to the network slice management capabilities proposed by 3GPP.
... The proposed architecture in the 5GEx project introduced a Multi-domain Orchestrator (MDO) that exposes the service specification APIs, thus allowing tenants to give their specific requirements under the same administrative domains. 5G Slicenet 5 project [21] introduced the concept of cognitive multi-domain network slicing. The proposed architecture is divided into two broad domains, the advanced managed domain that will include the infrastructure, service and control layer which are based on existing descriptions, and the innovative management domain which extensively describes the management and orchestration of the network slices based on cognitive operations. ...
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Local 5G networks are emerging as a new form for 5G deployment, targeting service delivery for vertical-specific purposes and other local users. These networks are also known as micro-operator networks for which prior work has established different deployment scenarios, namely Closed, Open and Mixed Networks. To achieve network flexibility, customization and privacy required by various vertical sectors, such as industry, health and energy, it is essential to have a well-defined network slicing architecture and adequate implementation procedure. In this paper, a sophisticated end-to-end network slicing architecture is proposed for different deployment scenarios of the local 5G micro-operator concept. The proposed architecture incorporates a broad four-layer concept, leveraging a multi-tenancy layer for different tenants and their end users, a descriptive service layer, a multi-domain slicing management and orchestration layer, and a resource layer. We further propose a network slice instance (NSI) communication service distribution technique for local 5G micro-operators. This is achieved by expanding/leveraging the communication service management function in the multi-tenant layer into a multi-tenant manager and an orchestrator of communication services. In addition, we describe how the communication service orchestrator will address all the possible multitenant-slice situations during the distribution of a network slice instance to multiple tenants. The novel methods described in the paper present a solution for not only network slice communication service distribution across different micro-operator’s tenants but also for future use cases, especially, when the allocated slice is responsible for multiple tenants or when a tenant requests multiple NSIs.
... They reduced the signalling cost comparing to the LTE system, but Network Slicing has not been implemented in the presented model. In 2018 [115], the authors proposed system architecture and explained each layer's benefit in their system. Moreover, there is no simulation result. ...
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In-network softwarization, Network Slicing provides scalability and flexibility through various services such as Quality of Service (QoS) and Quality of Experience (QoE) to cover the network demands. For the QoS, a set of policies must be considered in real-time, accompanied by a group of functions and services to guarantee the end-user needs based on network demand. On the other hand, for the QoE, the service’s performance needs to be improved to bring an efficient service to cover the demands of the end-user. The 3G Partnership Project (3GPP) defined the slice as a component of resources used to process a set of packets. These resources need to be flexible, which means the resources can be scaled up or down based on the demand. This survey discusses softwarization and virtualization techniques, considering how to implement the slices for future networks. Specifically, we discuss current advances concerning the functionality and architecture of the 5G network. Therefore, the paper critically evaluates recent research and systems related to mobility management as a service in real-time inter/intra slice control by considering the strengths and limitations of these contributions to identify the research gaps and possible research directions for emerging research and development opportunities. Moreover, we extend our review by considering the slice types and their numbers based on the 3GPP Technical Specification (3GPP TS). The study presented in this paper identifies open issues and research directions that reveal that mobility management at a service level with inter/intra slice management techniques has strong potential in future networks and requires further investigation from the research community to exploit its benefits fully.
... SLICENET [131,132] project has represented several technical applications detailing the steps needed to perform multiple operations. The main objective of SliceNet is to design innovative verticals oriented, 5G NS framework that focuses on cognitive management of the network, E2E slicing control, and slice-enabled services across multiple SDN / NFV 5G networks operator domains. ...
Article
Network slicing (NS) presents the key enabler of cellular network improvements. It allows enhancing the performance of diverse requirements supported for verticals industries. The concept of NS was carefully studied over the previous few years, and the primary operational principles were developed. However, there is an important need for more investigations on studying NS to enable further development. This article offers a deep study related to the NS principle, the recent standardization process for Third Generation Partnership Project and Fifth Generation Public Private Partnership, the diverse broad use cases, NS key concepts, NS architectures, and NS management and orchestration. Besides, it discusses radio access network slicing and sharing, the algorithms, the projects, and the NS practical experience and practices. Finally, this article proposes and highlights a possible solution to several open research issues.
... Each slice is logically isolated including network device, radio access, transport and Core Network (CN) and dedicated for different types of services with different characteristics and requirements. These slices can be created on demand with independent control and management [16]. Technologies like SDN and NFV are used to tailor the network for a given use case and create multiple logical networks on the top of a common physical or virtual network infrastructure [17]. ...
Article
Network slicing is expected to emerge as a promising solution for end-to-end resource management and orchestration together with Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Function Virtualization (NFV) technologies. In this paper, acomprehensive network slicing framework is presented to achieve end-to-end (E2E) QoS provisioning among customized servicesin 5G-driven VANETs, with the consideration of managing the cooperation of both RAN and Core Network (CN) using SDN,NFV and Edge Computing technologies. Furthermore, a dynamic radio resource slice optimization scheme is formulated mathematically, that handles a mixture of mission-critical and best effort traffic, by delivering the QoS provisioning of Ultra-reliability and low latency. The solution adjusts the optimal bandwidth slicing and dynamically adapt to instantaneous network load conditions in a way that a targeted performance is guaranteed.The problem is solved using Genetic Algorithm (GA) and results are compared with previously proposed 5G VANET architecture.Simulations results reveal that the proposed slicing framework is able to optimize resources and deliver the targeted KPIs of mission critical demands.
... AI based 5G autonomous network slice management, control and orchestration is achieved through an innovative architecture based on an enhanced Monitor-Analyse-Plan-Execute-Knowledge (MAPE-K) loop, as shown in Figure 4-1 [247]. Firstly, the Monitoring Sub-plane gathers concerned metrics and other contextual information such as metadata from the infrastructure especially the underlying 4G/5G network data and control planes regarding network and cloud resources, user traffic flows and network topology. ...
Technical Report
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This white paper on AI and ML as enablers of beyond 5G (B5G) networks is based on contributions from 5G PPP projects that research, implement and validate 5G and B5G network systems. The white paper introduces the main relevant mechanisms in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML), currently investigated and exploited for 5G and B5G networks. A family of neural networks is presented which are, generally speaking, non-linear statistical data modeling and decision-making tools. They are typically used to model complex relationships between input and output parameters of a system or to find patterns in data. Feed-forward neural networks, deep neural networks, recurrent neural networks, and convolutional neural networks belong to this family. Reinforcement learning is concerned with how intelligent agents must take actions in order to maximize a collective reward, e.g., to improve a property of the system. Deep reinforcement learning combines deep neural networks and has the benefit that is can operate on non-structured data. Hybrid solutions are presented such as combined analytical and machine learning modeling as well as expert knowledge aided machine learning. Finally, other specific methods are presented, such as generative adversarial networks and unsupervised learning and clustering.
... The set of threats described in this section comes from two different perspectives, a first one related to multitenant trust relationships where each side has its own interests, and a second one aligned with the current security problems associated with distributed environments and their technologies. Despite the fact that the trust and security threats described below may mostly be associated with intra-and inter-domain scenarios, we want to contextualize them in a multi-tenant and multi-domain environment since this is the basis for 5G scenarios [29]. ...
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With the expansion of 5G networks, new business models are arising where multi-tenancy and active infrastructure sharing will be key enablers for them. With these new opportunities, new security risks are appearing in the form of a complex and evolving threat landscape for 5G networks, being one of the main challenges for the 5G mass rollout. In 5G-enabled scenarios, adversaries can exploit vulnerabilities associated with resource sharing to perform lateral movements targeting other tenant resources, as well as to disturb the 5G services offered or even the infrastructure resources. Moreover, existing security and trust models are not adequate to react to the dynamicity of the 5G infrastructure threats nor to the multi-tenancy security risks. Hence, we propose in this work a new security and trust framework for 5G multi-domain scenarios. To motivate its application, we detail a threat model covering multi-tenant scenarios in an underlying 5G network infrastructure. We also propose different ways to mitigate these threats by increasing the security and trust levels using network security monitoring, threat investigation, and end-to-end trust establishments. The framework is applied in a realistic use case of the H2020 5GZORRO project, which envisions a multi-tenant environment where domain owners share resources at will. The proposed framework forms a secure environment with zero-touch automation capabilities, minimizing human intervention.
... In this light, to offer NSaaS to clients, MNOs must include 5G network function catalogs and SDN/NFV management technologies in their platforms to provide scalable and secure cross-domain slice orchestration, as detailed in [16]. In this context, in [17] and [18], architectures for a 5G operating system based on functional hierarchical controller and orchestrator domains were proposed. These architectures define functional service and resource management blocks in which all performance, QoS, and SLA parameters are monitored and secured. ...
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Network slicing is a key element in 5G networks. It allows a mobile network operator (MNO) to offer multiple logical networks tailored to the requirements of different industry verticals over a shared infrastructure. From the point of view of an MNO, a mobile virtual network operator (MVNO) is a particular type of vertical network requiring not only the provision of logical networks with specific infrastructure resources but also customized management capabilities to allow the MVNO to offer network slice-based services to its clients over the infrastructure of multiple MNOs. However, the lack of flexibility to provide a customized and efficient network slice management system per tenant under the current proposals of the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) and European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) limits the possibilities of MVNOs. This paper addresses this requirement by proposing a novel virtualized multidomain and multiclient orchestration system aligned with the functionalities of the network slicing management framework proposed by the 3GPP and ETSI. In particular, there are three contributions of this paper: (i) an extended service-based architecture is designed to provide an isolated management system to different MVNOs; (ii) a novel high-level slice instance template is defined to specify management and isolation requirements supporting network slicing as a service model; and (iii) finally, a teleoperated driving use case is described to showcase how our proposal provides an MVNO with an independent management system to orchestrate several network slices in cross-domain environments.
... With the proliferation of the fifth generation of mobile networks (5G), new technologies, approaches, entities, and communications rise to evolve and cover certain shortages from previous generations [1]. 5G also expects to support a multi-tenant business model [2] in which users may rent or buy service, resource, and infrastructure capabilities across multiple domains to cover feasible peak workloads and fulfill their Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). Therefore, the configuration of reliable cross-domain/operator service chains plays a pivotal role to guarantee the expected Quality of Services (QoS) as well as avoiding risky connections that may compromise data integrity in 5G-enabled scenarios. ...
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... As the vision of SliceNet presented in section 5.1.3, Wang et al. [280] demonstrate a QoE-driven 5G network slicing framework focusing on cognitive network management and control for E2E slicing operation and slicebased/enabled services across multiple operator domains in SDN/NFV-enabled 5G networks. Authors in [281] investigate the resource allocation problem of achieving maximum capacity with the transmit power, allocated bandwidth as part of the constraints in a sliced multi-tenant network. ...
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The increasing consumption of multimedia services and the demand of high-quality services from customers has triggered a fundamental change in how we administer networks in terms of abstraction, separation, and mapping of forwarding, control and management aspects of service. The industry and the academia are embracing 5G as the future network capable to support next generation vertical applications with different service requirements. To realize this vision in 5G network, the physical network has to be sliced into multiple isolated logical networks of varying sizes and structures which are dedicated to different types of services based on their requirements with different characteristics and requirements(e.g., a slice for massive IoT devices, smartphones or autonomous cars, etc.). Softwarization using Software-Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Function Virtualization (NFV)in 5G networks are expected to fill the void of programmable control and management of network resources. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review and updated solutions related to 5G network slicing using SDN and NFV. Firstly, we present 5G service quality and business requirements followed by a description of 5G network softwarization and slicing paradigms including essential concepts, history and different use cases. Secondly, we provide a tutorial of 5G network slicing technology enablers including SDN, NFV, MEC, cloud/Fog computing, network hypervisors, virtual machines & containers. Thidly, we comprehensively survey different industrial initiatives and projects that are pushing forward the adoption of SDN and NFV in accelerating 5G network slicing. A comparison of various 5G architectural approaches in terms of practical implementations, technology adoptions and deployment strategies is presented.. Moreover, we provide discussion on various open source orchestrators and proof of concepts representing industrial contribution.. The work also investigates the standardization efforts in 5G networks regarding network slicing and softwarization. Additionally, the article presents the management and orchestration of network slices in a single domain followed by a comprehensive survey of management and orchestration approaches in 5G network slicing across multiple domains while supporting multiple tenants. Furthermore, we highlight the future challenges and research directions regarding network softwarization and slicing using SDN and NFV in 5G networks.
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In 5G wireless networks, different types of services will be handled, including critical communications such as ultrareliable, low-latency communications (URLLC) and high-bit-rate communications [e.g. enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB) traffic]. To effectively handle such different types with diverse requirements, operators are working on network slicing concepts for dedicating resources to these services. As such, the purpose of this article is to design, develop, and validate mechanisms for creating and deciding on the dynamic resource allocation of network slices. Our proposed algorithm reconfigures and adjusts the slices so as to provide appropriate quality-of-service (QoS) levels toward mobile client nodes, and we evaluate its impact to resource usage and latency.
Chapter
Monitoring is an essential functionality that is required to provide the awareness and automation necessary to manage both performance and security of fixed and mobile networks. The advent of 5G introduces new concepts that both facilitate the monitoring and security management but have also introduced new vulnerabilities and challenges that need to be addressed. This section presents the different requirements, vulnerabilities, and concepts related to security monitoring and management. It introduces some of the solutions that are being developed and tested to obtain efficient security in 5G networks. It introduces the different network security monitoring techniques, software‐defined security and network slicing, cognitive network security management, liability management, and techniques to obtain efficient security. It also introduces recent trends that profit from 5G network programmability to optimize the security monitoring and management.
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As a core technology of future mobile communication networks, network slicing can provide users with end-to-end, customized, and isolated network connections. Thereby it is of great significance for improving network resource utilization and improving user experience. F-RAN, as a solution for 5G access network, has features such as low latency, support of mobility, and content awareness. Through the analysis of traditional network slicing control and service management and combined with the distributed computing and cache capabilities provided by the F-RAN architecture, this paper proposes a new type of network slice process. Different from traditional network slicing procedure, such procedure can respond to delay-sensitive services and reduce the fronthaul network load, and it could be used as a solution for network slicing in the F-RAN architecture.
Thesis
Fifth Generation of Mobile Networks (5G) is proposed to address the future networkcontext. This context is characterized by an everywhere-connected society where notonly persons will be connected to the network but also clothes, vehicles and smartobjects. Therefore, 5G has to serve an expanding number of users and terminals andthus an exponentially increasing traffic. This traffic will be generated from severalemerging services such as e-health, autonomous driving, IoT, etc. These services requestdifferent and stringent constraints mainly in terms of latency, reliability, and availability.For instance, for the smart city applications, current network architectures are not ableto handle neither the increased number of sensors and IoT devices nor the large amountof data exchanged over the network.5G networks try to cope with the limitations of current network implementationsby proposing a new system aiming to meet new challenges. Indeed, unlike previoustechnologies, 5G will not only enhance the network system but will also provide an endto-end infrastructure that will support emergent services and respond to stringent userrequirements. The key concepts for the 5G vision are the Software Defined Networking(SDN), Network Function Virtualization (NFV) and Network Slicing technologies. Thoseparadigms allow the network to provide services for various scenarios under differentrequirements. They permit to achieve higher performance and flexibility for the networkthrough the introduction of the network programming and the one size per serviceapproach instead of the traditional one size fits all approach.In this context, this thesis aims first to propose a new architecture for network slicesprovisioning and management. We propose the multi-level Delegation Architecturefor Network Slicing Orchestration (DANSO) architecture which considers the SDN,NFV and network slicing technologies in order to present a programmable and flexibleframework for services provisioning. The second aim is the optimization of the processvviof the network slices creation and the admission control of users’ request. For thispurpose, we propose heuristic algorithms in order to either map the users’ demands toexisting slices or to create a new network slices. Our algorithms consider the reliability,availability and latency requirements as well as the offered quality by the underlyinginfrastructure. The third aim is related to the management aspect. In fact, we intereston the management of sudden events that occur in the slice during its running time.In this regard, we study the congestion of the slices and users’ mobility events. Wepropose a fuzzy logic-based algorithm that considers the actual and the predicted loadstate of the slice in order to perform auto-scaling actions. The future load values aredetermined using the Support Vector Regression (SVR) technique. Finally we intereston the problem of vertical handover management in the context of network slices. Wepropose an algorithm that decides when to perform the handover and selects the targetslice
Ericsson and SK Telecom demonstrate 5G network slicing technology
  • Ericsson
Ericsson, "Ericsson and SK Telecom demonstrate 5G network slicing technology", Oct. 2015, [Online] available at https://www.ericsson.com/news/151029-ericsson-and-sk-telecom_244069644_c.
DOCOMO and Ericsson perform successful Proof of Concept of dynamic 5G network slicing
  • Ericsson
Ericsson, "DOCOMO and Ericsson perform successful Proof of Concept of dynamic 5G network slicing", Jun. 2016, available at https://www.ericsson.com/news/160613-DOCOMOproof-of-concept-of-dynamic-5G-network-slicing_244039855_c.
Huawei and Deutsche Telekom Demonstrate 5G E2E Network Slicing Technology
  • Huawei
Huawei, "Huawei and Deutsche Telekom Demonstrate 5G E2E Network Slicing Technology", Sept. 2016, [Online] available at http://www.huawei.com/en/news/2016/2/Demonstrate-5G-E2E-Network-Slicing-Technology.