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In an investigation of an auto supply company’s operations, it was discovered that their business process is prone to human error thus results to an inconsistent and unreliable historical information. This leads to inventory overstock which dramatically increases the business’ inventory costs. The goal of the project is to produce an automated sales and inventory management system which will allow the general manager and the employees of the company to achieve a better business workflow. The study attempts to apply a Problem Oriented perspective in creating a system to address the aforementioned issues. The created system was evaluated by the company with satisfactory results. This paper shares the systems implementation process and the results.
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A Problem Oriented Approach to Implementing an Auto Sales
and Inventory System through Agile Methodology
Jed Ronmar S. Lirios
University of Asia and the Pacific
Pasig, Metro Manila, 1603,
Michael Angelo F. Liwag
University of Asia and the Pacific
Pasig, Metro Manila, 1603,
Noel Christopher. Pedrosa
University of Asia and the Pacific
Pasig, Metro Manila, 1603,
Giuseppe Ng
University of Asia and the Pacific
Pasig, Metro Manila, 1603,
In an investigation of an auto supply company’s operations, it
was discovered that their business process is prone to human
error thus results to an inconsistent and unreliable historical
information. This leads to inventory overstock which
dramatically increases the business’ inventory costs. The goal of
the project is to produce an automated sales and inventory
management system which will allow the general manager and
the employees of the company to achieve a better business
workflow. The study attempts to apply a Problem Oriented
perspective in creating a system to address the aforementioned
issues. The created system was evaluated by the company with
satisfactory results. This paper shares the systems
implementation process and the results.
Restock Point, Inventory Cost, Scrum Framework, Agile
Method, ABC Classification System.
The company, located in San Pablo, Laguna, specializes in the
sale of car accessories and auto supplies. It is a family owned
business that has been established for the past 22 years. It offers
top quality car accessories from Thailand and China and can be
considered a specialty store catering to car enthusiasts. It offers
car accessories for car brands which include Toyota, Honda,
Kia, and Hyundai among many others. From a simple startup,
the company is now a profitable vehicle accessories and auto
parts supplier strategically positioned at a prime location with
high market traffic in Laguna. The company site is easily
accessible to its target market thus providing a competitive
advantage to other business competitors.
The researchers were tasked to investigate and develop a system
to solve the company's inventory issues. The study applies a
Problem Oriented Approach to solving the business issues over
the requirements given by the client. A Problem Oriented
Approach presents development as the representation and step-
wise transformation of real world business problems. It allows
for the identification and clarification of system requirements,
the understanding of the problem world, the specification of a
system that can ensure satisfaction of the requirements in the
problem world, and the construction of adequacy arguments,
convincing both to developers and to users that the system will
provide what is needed [1].
Using this approach, however, does not mean that the
researchers have disregarded the initial software specifications
agreed upon with the client; in fact, they investigated the
structure of the organizational problems with the use of software
engineering methods and disciplines. They concluded that a
majority of the problems will be solved using the ABC
Classification System and with the Agile Methodology as the
main development approach.
Basic Economic Order Quantity Model
With the present problem of the business having unreliable
inventory control with regards to supply and demand, the
researchers have decided to make use of the Economic Order
Quantity model to solve the dilemma. The Basic EOQ Model is
a formula for determining the optimal order size that minimizes
the sum of carrying costs and ordering costs. Refer to Figure 1,
which describes the continuous inventory order cycle system
inherent in the EOQ model. An order quantity, Q, is received
and is used up over time at a constant rate. When the inventory
level decreases to the reorder point, R, a new order is placed; a
period of time, referred to as the lead time, is required for
delivery. The order is received all at once just at the moment
when demand depletes the entire stock of inventory—the
inventory level reaches 0—so there will be no shortages. This
cycle is repeated continuously for the same order quantity,
reorder point, and lead time [2].
The ABC Classification System
To solve the problem of the business with regard to inflating
inventory cost due to inaccurate inventory listing, the
researchers have decided to use the ABC system to solve this
point at issue. The ABC system is a method for classifying
inventory according to several criteria, including its dollar value
to the firm. Figure 2 shows the approximate ABC classes. In
Figure 1. The Inventory Control Cycle [2]
Innovatus: 2018 Edition
Figure 2. ABC Classifications [2]
general, about 5 to 15% of all inventory items account for 70%
to 80% of the total dollar value of inventory. These are classified
as A, or Class A, items. B items represent approximately 30% of
total inventory units but only about 15% of total inventory dollar
value. C items generally account for 50 to 60% of all inventory
units but represent only 5 to 10% of total dollar value. In ABC
analysis each class of inventory requires different levels of
inventory monitoring and control—the higher the value of the
inventory, the tighter the control. The first step in ABC analysis
is to classify all inventory items as either A, B, or C. Each item
is assigned a dollar value, which is computed by multiplying the
dollar cost of one unit by the annual demand for that item. All
items are then ranked according to their annual dollar value,
with, for example, the top 10% classified as A items, the next
30% as B items, and the last 60% as C items. These
classifications will not be exact, but they have been found to be
close to the actual occurrence in organizations with remarkable
frequency [2].
The next step is to determine the level of inventory control for
each classification. Class A items require tight inventory control
because they represent such a large percentage of the total dollar
value of inventory. These inventory levels should be as low as
possible, and safety stocks minimized. The appropriate
inventory control system and inventory modeling procedure to
determine order quantity should be applied. In addition, close
attention should be given to purchasing policies and procedures
if the inventory items are acquired from outside the firm. B and
C items require less stringent inventory control. Since carrying
costs are usually lower for C items, higher inventory levels can
sometimes be maintained with larger safety stocks. It may not be
necessary to control C items beyond simple observation. In
general, A items frequently require a continuous control system,
where the inventory level is continuously monitored; a periodic
review system with less monitoring will suffice for C items [2].
The Agile Methodology
The customer system requirements changed frequently during
the development process, as more problems of the business
surfaced after each succeeding meeting with the client. This is
the primary reason why the researchers made use of the Agile
Methodology. Agile methods are incremental development
methods in which the increments are small, and typically new
releases of the system are created and made available to the
customer every two to three weeks [3]. The versatility of the
Agile Methodology makes it the most logical choice as a
problem oriented solution because not only is it client focused, it
bridges customer feedback as well.
The Agile Methodology relies on a very high level of customer
involvement throughout the project. The customer has frequent
and early opportunities to see the work being delivered by the
team, and to make decisions and changes throughout the
development of the project [3]. This methodology is the most
logical approach for solving the business’ current problem
because it focuses on the business value by allowing the client to
determine the priority of features such as the use of the ABC
system. The researchers also understand which factors are the
most important to the client’s business, and the team can deliver
the features that provide the most business value.
The framework of the Agile Methodology, called Scrum, was
implemented for this research. The Scrum framework was
centered on a set of sprints, which are fixed time periods when a
system increment is developed [4]. A Scrum involves daily
stand up meetings, the team, a product and sprint backlog, and
an end of sprint evaluation.
The Product Backlog is an ordered list of everything that is
known to be needed in the product. It is the single source of
requirements for any changes to be made to the product [5]. The
Sprint Backlog is the set of Product Backlog items selected for
the Sprint, plus a plan for delivering the product Increment [6].
The daily standup meetings are observed to optimize team
collaboration and performance by inspecting the work since the
last Daily Scrum and forecasting upcoming Sprint work [7].
The three roles in an Agile Scrum are as follows: (1) Product
Owner; (2) Scrum Master; and (3) Scrum Team. The Product
Owner set the requirements and make sure that the tasks are
always followed. The Scrum Master is a servant-leader for the
Scrum Team. He is responsible for promoting and supporting
Scrum by helping the members of the Scrum Team understand
Scrum theory, practices, rules, and values [8]. The Scrum Team
is composed of individuals responsible of building the product.
They are self-organizing and choose how best to accomplish
their work [4].
The researchers used the Agile approach because it made it
possible to establish constant communications between the
system customer and the development team. Furthermore, the
team also considered the project size in choosing what approach
or methodology to use. Since the project size can be considered
average, the Agile approach is the best methodology to use
because it works better in small projects where the team can
provide small deliverables in very short periods of time in order
to gradually build the final product.
Refer to Figure 3 for the Conceptual Framework used for the
study. The Problem Oriented Approach starts with the discovery
and analysis of the Problems of the business through interviews
and observation and selecting the best solutions in the form of
the Prototype which is then evaluated in the produced System.
Innovatus: 2018 Edition
Figure 3. Conceptual Framework
2 Research Objectives
The primary reason why the researchers used the Agile
Methodology is because it involved customer representatives
directly in the development process. This kind of methodology
focuses on reducing process overheads and documentation and
on incremental software delivery, which made it easier for them
to see the progress of the project without having to worry about
heavy documentation [3].
The research objectives of the project are:
1. To identify and describe the evolution of the problems
discovered during the Agile development;
2. To identify the changes to the system's functionality to
the discovered problems; and
3. To describe the sales and inventory system software
3 Methodology
3.1 Research Design
Problem oriented research is utilized in this paper. A problem
oriented research method is defined as a study undertaken to
know the exact nature of the problem that is required to be
solved. A ‘problem’, when used in this context, is a decision
making dilemma or a need to tackle a particular business
situation. It is appropriate with the current research because its
primary aim is to present a solution that would solve the
problems which are affecting the value of the business.
In the interim, the research technique used is a combination of
basic research and qualitative interrogation. For the basic
research, the researchers reviewed existing studies about current
inventory management systems and their rate of effectivity on
present businesses. Afterwards, they performed qualitative
interrogation with the client to verify if the relationship exists,
supplementing the argument on the two variables’ interaction.
3.2 Research Participant
The researchers interviewed the stakeholders of the
organization. They are namely: the general manager, the
bookkeeper, and the staff. The participants assessed are both
males and females, whose age ranges from 30 to 40 years old.
3.3 Data-Gathering Procedure
The researchers made use of existing academic materials to
discover the best applicable system that would solve the
problem of the business regarding its present problems. The
researchers also visited the company site to acquire more data
about the exact process of the business workflow environment
and conducted interviews with the stakeholders of the company.
The researchers conducted a client conference every four weeks
wherein they gathered feedback and suggestions from the
general manager. A total of 3 Sprints were conducted, with each
sprint consisting of 30 working days from Monday to Friday,
and each working day with a total of 8 working hours. The team
observed stand up meetings daily discussing the things that were
needed to be discussed such as the issues that every member of
the team were facing and what tasks have been finished.
Additionally, one day in one working week (every Wednesday)
is dedicated to a 15 minute consultation with the Scrum Master.
The researchers made use of Trello boards to keep track of the
tasks that were being done. The Trello board served as the
Product Backlog of the entire project. From there, the
researchers would pick tasks that were designed as User Stories
and label them according to an estimate of how many working
days it would approximately take to finish the said task. In the
event that a task would not meet the deadline of a Sprint, it was
moved as another task in the next Sprint.
3.4 Treatment of Data
For the great part of the analysis conducted, the researchers
utilized qualitative data analysis. The preliminary observation of
the researchers of the business workflow and business
environment supplemented the primary functions and design of
the system. Every meeting with the client may yield feedback
that will be incorporated in the next iteration of development.
Client evaluation scores were submitted under strict
confidentiality. The mean scores were calculated to determine
the final results of the system.
3.5 Prototyping
The researchers developed a prototype of the system based on
the primary software requirements specifications which defined
what services were required from the system and identified the
constraints on the system’s operation and development [3]. For
the prototyping phase, the researchers used the Scrum
framework of the Agile Methodology. At the end of each Sprint,
the researchers met with the client to present the implemented
changes to the system from the problems that surfaced from the
previous meeting, including his suggested changes.
An evaluation and certification form was also used to rate the
system for (1) ease of use, (2) pleasant appearance, (3)
reliability, (4) security, (5) efficiency, (6) completeness of
function, (7) completeness of system, and (8) readiness for
deployment. The 8 criterions were subdivided into 4 categories
according to good software attributes, which are as follows:
Usability, Dependability & Security, Efficiency, and
Acceptability. Each criterion was scored using the Likert Scale,
with 1(one) being the lowest, and five (5) being the highest.
4 Results and Discussion
Table 1 shows the problems the researchers have identified from
both observation and interview.
Based from the interview results in Table 1, the researchers
identified that the traditional system that the company uses is no
longer effective in managing their inventory. The standard
business process begins once the general manager entertains a
customer that enters the business premises, which approximately
Innovatus: 2018 Edition
Table 1. Interview and Observation Results
What are the positive and
negative location factors of
your company?
The business is located at
prime location with high
market traffic, making it a
smart choice for other auto-
supply companies as well.
What factors influence the
acquisition and allocation
of resources?
Low retail price of a wide
range of products from
trusted suppliers.
What kind of inventory
control system does your
company use?
The Traditional System for
inventory control, which is
done by manually recording
each item in the inventory.
Do you think that your
company can further
increase the quality of its
service to its customers?
By avoiding slow order
fulfillment, which means not
making them wait for a long
time when locating the
product they requested from
the storage room.
Manual inventory listing
Inaccurate, leads to inventory
overstock or understock.
High inventory costs.
Unorganized storage
Slow order fulfillment.
Manual sale transaction
Long hours of sales
takes 15 minutes depending on the number of items he wishes to
purchase. The general manager searches for the item in the store
which takes up an unnecessary amount of time. Once the item is
sold, the cashier records the transaction in a receipt. This process
is repeated until the end of working hours. Before the general
manager rests, he collects all the receipts of the day and records
them by hand one by one in a record journal, a task that
approximately takes 4 hours. At the end of each week, he checks
the record books and records all the items in the inventory
individually to determine which items to purchase from the
suppliers. The general manager and cashier of the business
reviews the actual inventory by checking each item separately
and comparing the total number with the log from the receipts
and the record journal. This type of inventory control is difficult
to manage as it introduces a number of problems, which include,
but are not limited to, the following: incorrect inventory, slow
order fulfillment, product overstock, excessive inventory costs,
and losing track of items.
4.1 Problems and Resolutions
Table 4 shows the problems the researchers discovered in the
business environment and the functionality they devised for the
software in order to solve them.
Table 2. Problems and Resolutions
Manual inventory listing.
Created the following
functionalities to automate
the recording of inventory:
Add Category, Add Supplier,
and Add Product.
Excessive inventory costs.
Used the principles of the
ABC Classification System
to develop a functionality
which classifies a product
according to their total peso
value to the business.
Unreliable inventory control
with regards to supply and
demand (Product overstock
and product understock).
Used the principles of the
Basic EOQ Model to
calculate the reorder point of
each item in the inventory.
Unorganized inventory
storage management leading
to slow order fulfillment and
long waiting times for
Created a function that
enables the printing of
consistent product labeling.
With the advent of the new
product labeling method, the
arrangement of the physical
inventory will have to adjust
and arrange the items
according to car brand. These
labels will be the basis on
how to properly locate the
item in the storage.
Long hours of calculating the
business sales of the day and
of the week.
Created a database that
records all the sale
transactions that occur in one
business day. The system
dashboard also shows the
total amount for the sales of
the day. In addition, the
system is able to generate
sales reports from a specific
Losing track of the number
of items in the inventory.
Created a database that
records the historical data of
the items in the inventory,
including the exact number
of items in stock. In addition,
the system has a function
which generates an inventory
report from a specific date.
Restrictive access of
employees to managerial
level business information.
Added filters to the system to
limit the access of
unauthorized employees to
confidential business data.
Innovatus: 2018 Edition
The information the researchers acquired by observing the actual
business process and business environment revealed several
problems. The inventory costs of the business is unnecessarily
huge due to inventory overstock when the general manager
orders more items than needed from the suppliers. This is caused
by the inaccurate information from the record journals of the
business which are managed manually. Aside from overstock,
the business also experiences item insufficiency because of
inconsistent inventory information caused by human error.
Furthermore, the products of the business in the storage room
are not organized properly. In the event that a customer requests
for a product that is not on display, this leads to long waiting
times for them while the employee searches for the product in
stock. As a result, this leads to a slow order fulfillment. Because
the company lacks a formal automated system in its
environment, the computation of the daily and weekly sales also
takes a very long time.
The system being proposed aims to automate the inventory
control of the business which will solve its present business
problems and benefit the business and its stakeholders in the
long run. The system should be able to determine the total
inventory of the business to address the inaccurate inventory
control caused by human error. In addition, the proposed system
will grant easy access to historical data for the business owner,
which is effortless compared to manually sifting through
countless record books that could also be lost or damaged.
Furthermore, this system will provide consistent product
labeling for a more organized physical inventory control. The
data for the product labeling feature for each item will include
the car brand, item price, supplier, color, and item code. Next,
the system will automatically notify the general manager if a
certain item in the inventory has reached its restock point so that
it can be added to the list of products that the owner needs to get
from his weekly meeting with the suppliers. Also, the system
should produce a daily and weekly sales and inventory report as
demanded by the business owner.
Figure 4 shows the specified actors in the client company’s
organization who are able to directly interact with the system.
Included are the General Manager, Cashier, Bookkeeper, and
other Employees. Each actor has different restrictions respective
to their role.
4.2 Software Context
Figure 4: Software Context
4.3 Initial Architectural Diagram
Servlet (Java)
Figure 5. Initial Architectural Diagram
Figure 5 shows the architectural diagram developed during the
initial data gathering procedure based on the interviews with the
research participants and the primary observation of the
researchers of the business process and environment. The
researchers aimed to used the Model-View-Controller (MVC) as
the architectural pattern that separates an application into three
main logical components: the model, the view, and the
controller. Each of these components are built to handle specific
development aspects of an application [9].
4.4 Entity Relationship Diagram
Figure 6 shows the different entities that the researchers have
developed for the data storage and retrieval of information
which is essential to the process of the system. These entities are
shown as tables with different attributes and keys that pertain to
the needed data and information that is connected among each
Figure 6: Entity Relationship Diagram
Innovatus: 2018 Edition
4.5 Class Diagram
Figure 7: Class Diagram
Figure 7 shows the class diagram which shows and describes the
overall structure of the system along with the different classes,
their attributes, methods, and relationship with other objects and
among each other. It is based on the Entity Relationship
Diagram found in Figure 6.
4.6 Client Modifications
Table 2 shows the requested changes of the client per sprint. At
the end of each Sprint, the client gave feedback to the delivered
system and suggested changes to the system according to the
needs of the business.
The prototype of the system changed according to the problems
highlighted in Table 4 during the meetings the researchers had
with the client after the end of each Sprint. Using the Agile
Methodology, the researchers adjusted the initial development of
the system and adapted to the changing specifications and
additional custom requests of the client. Since the Agile
Methodology involves a very high level of customer
participation, the researchers made sure that the client was
involved with the progress of the overall project development
and comfortable with suggesting additional features for the
system. In addition, the changes requested by the client every
sprint were necessary in using the said approach. These changes
served as guidelines in the development of the system for the
next Sprint and improving it towards the desired outcome of the
4.7 Revised Architectural Diagram
Figure 8 shows the modified architectural diagram after several
problems with the initial architectural design of the system arose
during the client meetings at the end of each Sprint. Since the
Agile Methodology allows changes to the system after small
increments, it was not very hard for the researchers to alter the
initial design of the system architecture. The updated
architectural diagram points to a more maintainable and multi-
faceted system. Several demands of the client and different
problems that were discovered after the end of Sprint meetings
made it clear that the initial system architectural design would
Table 2. Requested changes of the client per sprint.
1. Include the viewing of the sales of the
1. A request tab inside the header that
contains all the requests such as User
Request, Restock Request, and Depletion
2. Scrollable table for employee, category,
supplier, and product lists.
3. Approve and Reject button must be
beside in the status column.
1. Delete button for each item inside the
customer’s cart.
2. Alter table name into id.
3. Add total amount of sale.
4. Insert the first product depending on the
number of products inside the cart.
5. Keep data for when product was entered
into the database; rename "datetime"
column in Product table to
6. Create new column for reclassification
date in Product Table; will periodically
update annually depending on the exact
date of reclassification of the specific
7. Fix New Restock Request from
Incomplete Order.
8. Inserting multiple products using one
invoice_id in the database.
9. Deduct the number of quantity ordered to
the number of stocks.
10. Add “Restock Requests” to admin
11. Add “Highest Selling Item” to admin
API + Charts
Database (MySQL)
Figure 8. Revised Architectural Diagram
not be able to fulfill the new changes. Hence, the researchers
used a cross-platform JavaScript library like jQuery to simplify
the client-side scripting of HTML [10]. Modals were also used
as a fail-safe mechanism when the client needs to update several
Innovatus: 2018 Edition
records in the database; this means that the changes that the
system will implement after the user completes the action has
the clear consent of the user and thus is not liable for any
changes that the rest of the affected records might have. The
Google Visualization API + Charts was used to give the user a
bird’s eye view of the performance of the business in terms of
sales. Different functionalities of the system were also split into
different packages with each having its own data repository to
maintain data integrity. Lastly, the problem of concurrent users
having specific system privileges was solved by adding filters to
the system.
4.8 Client Feedback
Table 3 shows the mean score for the three sprints during the
Development Phase of the software engineering process. The
general manager evaluates the system at the end of each 30 day
sprint. The criteria follow the attributes of a good software. Ease
of use and Pleasantness of Appearance falls under the
characteristic of Usability. Reliable, Completeness of Function,
and Completeness of System falls under the characteristic of
Reliability. Efficient is under the Performance attribute.
Readiness for Deployment falls under Availability. And lastly,
the criteria of System Security falls under the attribute of the
same name.
Based on the scores given by the client, the present software was
still incomplete but already serviceable and able to perform the
major functionalities that the company requires. Furthermore,
the use of the Agile Methodology was helpful in developing the
software as it adapted to the problems that arose during the
length of the research.
5 Conclusion
The researchers were able to recognize several problems of the
company by conducting interviews with the general manager
and employees of the company and observing the business
process and the business environment firsthand. These problems
were a combination of the traditional method of maintaining
inventory and the unsystematic way of keeping them in storage.
The current method of inventory control of the company prone
Table 3. Mean Score of 3 Sprints
Mean Score
Ease of Use
Pleasantness of Appearance
Completeness of Function
Completeness of System
Readiness for Deployment
data which gave rise to multiple problems down the road. The
company would often experience product overstock and
excessive inventory costs. The present system of storing
inventory also led to slow order fulfillment which results to long
customer waiting time. Using the Agile Methodology, the
researchers were able to adapt to the changing client demands
and the problems that surfaced after each client meeting. At the
end of the third sprint, the researchers were able to complete a
functional prototype of the system. The client evaluation
reflected the prototype’s success.
[1] Clear Spider. Inventory Management Automation. Retrieved from
[2] Russell, R. S., & Taylor, B. W. 2011. Operations Management: Creating
Value Along the Supply Chain (7th ed.). WileyPLUS, New York, NY.
[3] Ian Sommerville. 2016. Software Engineering (10th. ed.). RR Donnelly, USA.
[4] WHAT IS SCRUM? Retrieved from
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[7] What is a Daily Scrum? Retrieved from
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[9] tutorialpoint. MVC Framework - Introduction? Retrieved from mvc_framework_introductio
[10] jQuery. What is jQuery? Retrieved from
Noel Christopher C. Pedrosa, Michael Angelo F. Liwag, &
Jed Ronmar S. Lirios Ronmar S. Lirios are 4t h year Bachelor
of Science in Information Technology students at the University
of Asia and the Pacific.
Giuseppe C. Ng has a degree in Master of Science in Computer
Science from De La Salle University and is a faculty member of
the IST Department of the University of Asia and the Pacific.
Mark Anthony Sabili, Ph.D is a faculty member of the IST
Department of the University of Asia and the Pacific. He
attained his Master’s Degree in Business Administration at
AMA University in Quezon City and his Doctor of Philosophy
in Information Technology Management at the Colegio de San
Juan de Letran.
Maria Veronica Quilinguin, Ph.D is a faculty member of the
IST Department of the University of Asia and the Pacific. She
attained her Doctor of Philosophy in Mathematics at the
University of the Philippines, Diliman.
Innovatus: 2018 Edition
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Software engineering implies an orderliness to the design and implementation of computer software. It also implies that the results will meet certain quality, performance, and cost objectives analogous to those traditionally set in the more classical engineering disciplines. A considerable body of knowledge and methods common to the traditional areas of engineering is also applicable to software engineering. It is argued that general engineering methods will be more readily applied in the development of software when software engineering is recognized as a legitimate engineering displine with its own educational cirriculum.
Inventory Management Automation
  • Clear Spider
Clear Spider. Inventory Management Automation. Retrieved from
What is a Product Backlog
  • Scrum
  • Org What is a Product Backlog? Retrieved from
What is a Sprint Backlog
  • Scrum
  • Org What is a Sprint Backlog? Retrieved from
What is a Daily Scrum
  • Scrum
  • Org What is a Daily Scrum? Retrieved from
What is a Scrum Master
  • Scrum
  • Org What is a Scrum Master? Retrieved from
  • Tutorialpoint
  • Mvc
tutorialpoint. MVC Framework-Introduction? Retrieved from n.htm
Operations Management: Creating Value Along the Supply Chain
  • R S Russell
  • B W Taylor
Russell, R. S., & Taylor, B. W. 2011. Operations Management: Creating Value Along the Supply Chain (7th ed.). WileyPLUS, New York, NY.