Effects of 4-week continuous ingestion of champignon extract on bowel movements and intestinal putrefaction products: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, parallel-group comparative trial

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DOI: 10.31989/ffhd.v8i5.517
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Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the putrefaction products in the feces of subjects from a previous study (age range 50–79 years) which assessed the improvement of breath, body, and fecal odor after ingesting champignon extract. Methods: The study was designed as a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, and parallel-group comparative trial. Subjects were divided into four groups, including the placebo (n=20), champignon extract at 50 mg/day (n=20), champignon extract at 500 mg/day (n=20), and champignon extract at 1000 mg/day (n=20) for 4 weeks. Results: The results revealed significant reduction in ammonia and p-cresol levels (both of which are intestinal putrefaction products) among subjects who ingested 50, 500, and 1000 mg of champignon extract per day compared with subjects in the placebo group. Additionally, a significant difference was observed in indole levels in the group that consumed 500 mg/day of the extract compared to the placebo group. Conclusions: The re-analysis of bowel movement in each test group revealed that the extract improved the number of days with bowel movement, number of bowel movements, and stool volume, which suggests the intestinal environment was improved. Clinical trial registration: UMIN000014256 Keywords: ammonia, champignon, fecal odor, p-cresol, putrefaction
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Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2018; 8(5): 280-291 Page 280 of 291
Research Article Open Access
Effects of 4-week continuous ingestion of champignon extract on bowel
movements and intestinal putrefaction products: A randomized, placebo-
controlled, double-blinded, parallel-group comparative trial
Jun Nishihira1, Mie Nishimura1, Aiko Tanaka1, Hiroyo Kagami-Katsuyama1, Akihiro
Yamaguchi2, and Toshio Taira2
1Department of Medical Management and Informatics, Hokkaido Information University, Ebetsu,
Hokkaido, 069-8585, Japan; 2Sapporo Division, Cosmo Bio Co., Ltd., 513-2, 3-Chome, Zenibako,
Otaru-Shi, Hokkaido, 047-0261, Japan
Corresponding author: Jun Nishihira, M.D., Ph.D., Department of Medical Management and
Informatics, Hokkaido Information University, Nishi Nopporo 59-2, Ebetsu 069-8585 Hokkaido,
Japan
Submission Date: April 6th, 2018, Acceptance Date: May 27th, 2018, Publication Date: May
30th, 2018
Citation: Nishihira J., Nishimura M., Tanaka A., Kagami-Katsuyama H., Yamaguchi A., Taira T.,
Effects of 4-week continuous ingestion of champignon extract on bowel movements and intestinal
putrefaction products: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, parallel-group
comparative trial. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2018; 8(5): 280-291
ABSTRACT
Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the putrefaction products in the feces of
subjects from a previous study (age range 50–79 years) which assessed the improvement of breath,
body, and fecal odor after ingesting champignon extract.
Methods: The study was designed as a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, and
parallel-group comparative trial. Subjects were divided into four groups, including the placebo
(n=20), champignon extract at 50 mg/day (n=20), champignon extract at 500 mg/day (n=20), and
champignon extract at 1000 mg/day (n=20) for 4 weeks.
Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2018; 8(5): 280-291 Page 281 of 291
Results: The results revealed significant reduction in ammonia and p-cresol levels (both of which
are intestinal putrefaction products) among subjects who ingested 50, 500, and 1000 mg of
champignon extract per day compared with subjects in the placebo group. Additionally, a
significant difference was observed in indole levels in the group that consumed 500 mg/day of the
extract compared to the placebo group.
Conclusions: The re-analysis of bowel movement in each test group revealed that the extract
improved the number of days with bowel movement, number of bowel movements, and stool
volume, which suggests the intestinal environment was improved.
Clinical trial registration: UMIN000014256
Keywords: ammonia, champignon, fecal odor, p-cresol, putrefaction
BACKGROUND
Intestinal bacteria produce various intestinal putrefaction products using nutrients that we ingest
daily through our food [1]. Ammonia, indole, skatole, and p-cresol are some of the components
produced by intestinal bacteria [2, 3]. Additionally, intestinal putrefaction products account for
odor specific to the stool and are toxic substances that damage the intestinal tract and worsen the
intestinal environment [4], which has to the assumption that decreasing intestinal putrefaction
products to sustain a good intestinal environment is effective for maintaining intestinal health.
Previously, a study investigating the decrease in intestinal putrefaction products [5]
illustrated a method of attempting to reduce the ammonia levels by ingesting Bifidobacteria and
dietary fibers. Bifidobacteria are known to reduce the ammonia levels. A study on dietary fiber
suggested that consuming a large quantity of dietary fiber facilitates partial absorption of intestinal
putrefaction products.
While it has been demonstrated that intestinal putrefaction could be reduced by the
consumption of champignon extract (Ricom Co., Ltd) the result was only obtained by an open-
labelled study [6]. Consequently, we needed to confirm these results using more reliable methods.
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of ingesting the champignon extract to
decrease intestinal putrefaction products and improve bowel movement through a randomized,
placebo-controlled, double-blinded, and parallel-group comparative trial.
Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2018; 8(5): 280-291 Page 282 of 291
Champignon extract contains polyphenols, amino acids, polysaccharides, flavonoids,
vitamins, and minerals. Champignon is produced by mixing the extract obtained from indoor-
grown mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus; Japanese name, tsukuritake) with hot water, dextrin, and
spray which dries the mixture into a powder [7]. Currently, the product has a patent and is
commercially available in Japan, Korea, the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, France,
Germany, Switzerland, Spain, and Sweden.
Many trials have been conducted to investigate the putrefaction product-decreasing functions
of champignon extracts. A study including 14 hospitalized elderly patients who ingested the extract
for 4 weeks found that the subjects had lower levels of intestinal putrefaction products, such as
ammonia, methyl mercaptan, amines, and hydrogen sulfide compared to those at the baseline [6].
Furthermore, 2-week ingestion of champignon extract in 9 residents and staff of an intensive-
care old-age home significantly lowered their levels of ammonia, phenol, cresol, indole, and other
intestinal putrefaction products compared with the baseline. Changes in intestinal flora, such as
a significant increase of Bifidobaceria and decrease of lecithinase-positive Clostridium,
Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus were also observed, suggesting that consumption of
champignon extract improved the intestinal environment [8].
Administering champignon extract to dairy calves was reported to decrease diarrhea compared
with the control group which suggests it was helpful for intestinal health [9]. Administering
champignon extract to domestic rabbits was reported to significantly decrease the blood
concentrations of indole and tryptamine, which are generated in the intestines and transferred to
the blood stream, compared with the control group [10].
The most recent study consisted of a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, and parallel-group
comparative trial on males and females aged 50–79 years with halitosis and body and fecal odor.
Ingesting champignon extract for 4 consecutive weeks at 50, 500, and 1000 mg/day significantly
decreased halitosis and body and fecal odor compared with the placebo group. The evaluation was
conducted using the visual analog scale, with significant differences among the test groups [11].
This study analyzed the feces collected from subjects who participated in the previous study
[11] which examined the effects of champignon extract on the levels of fecal putrefaction products,
such as ammonia, p-cresol, and indole between the test and placebo groups.
METHODS
Study design
The study was designed as a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, and parallel-group
Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2018; 8(5): 280-291 Page 283 of 291
comparative trial. Subjects were divided into four groups: those who consumed (1) the placebo
(placebo group, 20 subjects); (2) champignon extract at 50 mg/day (50 mg/day group, 20 subjects);
(3) champignon extract at 500 mg/day (500 mg/day group, 20 subjects); and (4) champignon
extract at 1000 mg/day (1000 mg/day group, 20 subjects) for 4 weeks. The test food comprised of
one package (2.0 g/day) but no restrictions were placed on when or how to ingest the test food.
From the three varieties (BX50FPD, BX100FPD, and BX150FPD) of champignon extract
products based on the concentration, we used BX100FPD in this study. Furthermore, the test
schedule comprised of medical interviews and blood tests of all subjects at the baseline and after
2 and 4 weeks of ingesting the test food. A washout period was implemented for 1 week before
starting the ingestion of the test food.
Study procedures
This study was approved by the Hokkaido Information University’s Committee of Bioethics.
Written informed consent was obtained from all participants as per the Declaration of Helsinki
after comprehensively explaining (both in writing and orally) the free nature of participation in
this study. For screening, individuals who provided their consent to participate in this study were
evaluated to assess whether they fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The principal
investigator considered 80 participants eligible for participation in this study. The staff of a third-
party data center (Media Educational Center, Hokkaido Institute of Information Technology,
Ebetsu city, Hokkaido) was responsible for assigning the subjects by stratified randomization to
groups with the consideration for age, sex ratio, and points on the survey form by referring to the
subject list. Furthermore, the staff stored documents associated with the group assignment,
including documents comprising subjects’ personal information, in a secure place. Next the date,
time, and place of the clinical trial were communicated to the subjects. Three subjects withdrew
before initiation of the trial due to personal reasons, so the final sample size of our study cohort
was 77.
All subjects were asked to continuously ingest one package of the test food comprising either
2.0 g of the champignon extract or placebo food every day for 4 weeks from the day of the study
initiation. All subjects were instructed to come to the laboratory on the first day and after 2 and 4
weeks of ingesting the test food for examination of the specified items. In this study, all the tests
were conducted at the Health Center, Hokkaido Information University, Ebetsu. Additionally, all
subjects were asked to maintain a diary to record their daily parameters. For example, physical
status, whether they consumed the test food, and bowel movement for approximately 5 weeks
starting 1 week before initiating the test food ingestion until after the completion of feces collection.
Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2018; 8(5): 280-291 Page 284 of 291
Subjects were also asked to submit these records on each test day and on the day of feces
submission.
The assignment list was disclosed by the staff in charge of the group assignment after all the test
results and analyzed data pertaining to this study were collected. The ingestion rate was calculated
using the following equation:
Ingestion rate (%) = (Actual number of test foods consumed) / (Scheduled number of test foods to
be consumed) × 100
Test items
Bowel movement and daily life diaries
In this study, all subjects maintained a daily life diary throughout the study period. The bowel
movement diary comprised of the following items: (a) number of bowel movements; (b) stool
quantity (measured by visual inspection, with reference to the size of the stool collection
container); (c) stool form; (d) stool color; (e) odor; and (f) sense of complete evacuation of stool.
Subjects were asked to keep records of these items every day. The evaluation period was the week
during the pre-observation period (non-ingestion period) and 4 weeks of the test food ingestion
period. With days where subjects experienced multiple bowel movements, subjects were only
asked to record items (b)–(f) on the first bowel movement. In the daily life diary, subjects were
instructed to record what they ate, physical status, and whether they consumed the test food every
day.
Measurements and blood tests
A physician conducted a medical interview and checked the following parameters at the baseline
(the first day of ingestion) and 4 weeks after ingestion: physical measurements (height, weight,
body mass index, and body fat percentage), vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, and body
temperature on arrival at the laboratory), general blood tests (white blood cell counts, red blood
cell counts, hemoglobin level, hematocrit level, and platelet count), liver function (aspartate
aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, alkaline
phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase levels), renal function (blood urea niterogen, carbapenem-
resistant enterobacteriaceae, and urea levels), blood lipids (total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-
density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels), and blood sugar
(blood sugar and hemoglobin A1c levels).
Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2018; 8(5): 280-291 Page 285 of 291
Analysis: Water and putrefaction products in stool
Water content
The mass lost through drying for 30 h at 80°C was considered the water content (percentage).
Measurement of ammonia levels
We suspended 0.2 g of stool in sterile water, sterilized for 15 min at 85°C, and filtered the solution.
The remaining liquid was used as the test liquid. All measurements were obtained using ion
chromatography system (ICS-1000; DIONEX, California, US) with IonPac CS12A columns (4
mm × 250 mm) using 10.7 mmo1/L H2SO4 as eluent at a temperature of 35°C and injection volume
of 25 µL using an electric conductivity detector (with suppressor).
Measurement of p-cresol and indole levels
After suspending 0.2 g of stool in phosphate buffer solution, it was sterilized for 15 min at 85°C,
cooled, and extracted with acetonitrile. The test liquid comprised of the extract processed in a
solid-phase cartridge. All measurements were obtained using a standard gas chromatograph-mass
spectrometer (GC/MS-QP-2010, Shimadzu Corporation, Kyoto, Japan). Furthermore, all
measurements were obtained under the following conditions: column, inert cap WAX (30 m × 0.25
mm × 0.25 µm); column temperature, 70°C (maintained for 2 min), 200°C (20°C/min, maintained
for 3 min), 240°C (10°C/min, maintained for 15.5 min); and carrier gas, helium.
Selection: Subjects for analysis
This study assessed fecal samples obtained from subjects who participated in a previous study [11].
For the subjects who fulfilled the above criteria with the amount of ammonia, the numbers of
subjects were 9, 8, 9, and 11 for the groups of the placebo, which were 50 mg champignon, 500
mg champignon, and 1000 mg champignon respectively. As for p-cresol, the respective numbers
of subjects were 6, 6, 8, and 11 for the placebo, 50 mg champignon, 500 mg champignon, and
1000 mg champignon. Similarly, for indole the numbers of subjects were 10, 8, 11, and 13 subjects
for the placebo, 50 mg champignon, 500 mg champignon and 1000 mg champignon respectively.
From these results, only subjects who fulfilled the following criteria were included in the analysis:
(1) no major change (10%) in water content of the feces; (2) concentrations of ammonia 0.5
mg/g, that of p-cresol 10 µg/g, and that of indole 10 µg/g before collection; (3) being within
standard values during the study period for the Smirnov–Grubbs test and Thompson rejection test
results. In particular, subjects who exhibited ammonia levels 1.7 mg/g, p-cresol levels 100 µg/g,
or indole levels 70 µg/g were excluded.
Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2018; 8(5): 280-291 Page 286 of 291
Statistical analysis
Data are presented as the mean ± the standard deviation. The amount of changes from before
ingestion to after ingestion were classified as increasing or decreasing. Then the frequency
distribution tables were obtained. We did not use internal standards for quantification. Appropriate
subjects were selected instead based on the numerical value of fecal metabolites without correction.
In statistical analysis, we did not examine whether normal distribution or not and thereby
performed Wilcoxon rank-sum test as discrete data. In order to explore the distribution of the effect
we used a chi-square test.
RESULTS
Analyses of intestinal putrefaction products and bowel movement
Table 1 summarizes the analysis results (mean, standard deviation) of stool putrefaction products,
including ammonia, p-cresol, and indole.
Ammonia levels declined after 2 weeks in the 50 and 1000 mg/day groups with a significant
difference compared with the placebo group. Additionally, ammonia levels significantly decreased
after 4 weeks in the 50 and 1000 mg/day groups compared with the placebo group.
Furthermore, p-cresol levels significantly decreased after 2 weeks in the 50 and 1000 mg/day
groups compared with the placebo group. Moreover, the p-cresol levels significantly decreased
after 4 weeks in the 500 mg/day group compared with the placebo group. Additionally, the levels
significantly decreased after 4 weeks in the 1000 mg/day group compared with the placebo group
Indole levels significantly changed after 4 weeks in the 500 mg/day group compared with the
placebo group.
Explicitly, the number of days with bowel movements (<7 per week) increased significantly
in the 50 mg/day group after 2 and 4 weeks (p<0.05) and in the 1000 mg/day group after 2 weeks
(p<0.05). Additionally, there was increase in all the test groups (50, 500, and 1000 mg/day) after
2 and 4 weeks (p<0.05). The number of bowel movements (<7 per week) increased significantly
after 4 weeks in the 500 and 1000 mg/day group (p<0.05). Furthermore, there was significant
increase after 2 weeks in all the test groups (50, 500, and 1000 mg/day), with a significant
difference compared with the placebo group (p<0.05). Furthermore, the stool volume (<2
units/day) significantly increased after 4 weeks in the 50, 500, and 1000 mg/day groups; there was
significant increase compared with the placebo group in the 50 and 500 mg/day groups (p<0.05).
Moreover, we observed a significant increase after 4 weeks in all the test groups (50, 500, and
1000 mg/day) (p<0.05).
Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2018; 8(5): 280-291 Page 287 of 291
Table 1. Changes in intestinal putrefaction products
Ammonia(mg/g)
p-cresol
indole
n
before
ingestion
after 2
weeks of
ingestion
after 4
weeks of
ingestion
n
before
ingestion
after 2 weeks
of ingestion
after 4
weeks of
ingestion
n
before
ingestion
after 2 weeks
of ingestion
after 4
weeks of
ingestion
9
0.79±0.19
1.00±0.29
0.78±0.23
6
39.88±15.14
44.76±32.11
49.31±32.03
10
22.19±14.59
22.13±14.05
24.02±13.92
0.21±0.24
-0.01±0.23
4.88±25.68
9.43±25.70
-0.06±10.84
1.83±9.04
8
0.87±0.40
0.74±0.22
0.83±0.35
6
47.08±35.82
37.95±26.39
48.49±34.38
8
28.91±17.68
27.40±11.40
35.96±17.64
-0.13±0.24
-0.04±0.38
-9.13±29.08
1.41±43.22
-1.51±10.94
7.05±17.99
9
0.85±0.19
0.87±0.30
0.75±0.28
8
46.05±27.05
48.23±30.59
49.89±32.09
11
25.82±12.31
26.91±15.36
26.05±11.23
0.02±0.26
-0.10±0.17
2.18±26.76
3.84±25.57
1.09±7.96
0.23±9.44
11
0.85±0.23
0.62±0.24*
0.81±0.30
11
46.63±24.27
32.14±25.50
26.27±28.16
13
25.89±11.19
24.54±10.49
24.47±12.51
-0.23±0.27
-0.04±0.26
-14.49±39.95
-20.36±35.58
-1.35±13.84
-1.42±6.87
statistically significant vs before taking test foods or placebo (p<0.05,Wilcoxon)
statistically significant compared with the placebo (p<0.05,Chi-square)
Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2018; 8(5): 280-291 Page 288 of 291
DISCUSSION
Previously, some studies reported a correlation between the decrease in stool putrefaction products
and improvement in bowel movement (stool volume, number of bowel movements) for a variety
of foods [12, 13]. Based on these findings, a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, and parallel group
comparative trial was conducted on 80 males and females aged 50–79 years to assess the effects
of consuming champignon extract (50, 500, and 1000 mg/day) for 4 weeks on the improvement of
intestinal environment with the following markers: levels of putrefaction products (ammonia,
indole, and p-cresol), number of days with bowel movement, number of bowel movements, and
stool volume.
The results demonstrated significant differences between the 50 mg/day and placebo groups
after 2 weeks and between the 500 mg/day and placebo groups after 4 weeks in terms of levels of
ammonia and p-cresol. Furthermore, compared with the placebo group, there was a significant
difference in terms of both ammonia and p-cresol levels after consuming 1000 mg/day for 2 and 4
weeks. Additionally, indole levels also changed, with a significant difference between the placebo
and 500 mg/day groups after 4 weeks. Polyphenol combines with a phenolic hydroxyl group of
polyphenol to form a complex compound which also shows inclusion effect toward pores inside
the three-dimensional structure formed by bonding polyphenols [14].
The decreases in these intestinal putrefaction products could be attributed to the formation of
complexes due to polyphenols in the champignon extract or due to the inclusion effect. The colon
environment also improved, resulting in the increase of the number of days with bowel movement,
number of bowel movements, and stool volumes. As the previous study [11] was a trial on healthy
subjects, no subject had outlier values for any of the data associated with bowel movement (number
of days with bowel movement, number of bowel movements, and stool volumes). As a result, the
improvement in parameters indicating bowel movement in the test group was not conclusive, as
the subjects who ingested the champignon extract already had regular, healthy bowel movement.
However, in the previous study a significant increase was still observed compared with the placebo
in the number of bowel movements and stool volume after 2 and 4 weeks of ingesting the test food
at 1000 mg/day.
In this study, we selected subjects with relatively slow bowel movements (e.g., those with <7
bowel movements per week, 7 bowel movements per week, <2 units of stool volume/day at the
baseline) and who demonstrated improved bowel movement in the test group for our analysis. No
changes were observed in the placebo group. Significantly, improvement in defecation was only
Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2018; 8(5): 280-291 Page 289 of 291
observed in subjects with poor bowel movement. In contrast, there was no change in subjects with
fair condition of defecation during the course of the study.
In a previous study, we demonstrated improvements in stool color, sense of complete
evacuation of stool, and stool odor [11], in which stool odor significantly decreased after 4 weeks
in all the test groups (50, 500, and 1000 mg/day) compared with the placebo group. This report is
consistent with the current results shown in this study.
This study suggested that ingesting champignon extract exerted a positive effect on the
intestinal environment, as demonstrated by markers of the number of days with bowel movement,
number of bowel movements, stool volume, stool color, and stool odor due to decreased levels of
intestinal putrefaction products. Additionally, we elucidated the safety of champignon extract
through acute and subacute oral toxicity testing and mutagenicity testing, which exhibited no
abnormal results. In this study, no major differences existed between the 50, 500, and 1000 mg/day
and placebo groups in terms of parameters of vital signs, blood components, liver and renal
function, lipid metabolism, blood sugar, and body composition. As most factors remained within
normal values, no findings indicated problems with the safety of champignon extract.
CONCLUSION
This trial indicated that consuming champignon extract (BX100FPD) at 50–1000 mg/day is
effective for decreasing intestinal putrefaction products and improving the intestinal environment.
The generation of intestinal putrefaction products is associated with the occurrence of diarrhea or
constipation [15]. Consequently, this study demonstrated how champignon extract improved the
intestinal environment and its effects tended to intensify in a dose-dependent manner.
Competing interests: There are no conflicts of interest to declare.
Authors’ contributions: J.N., M.N., A.Y., and T.T. designed and conducted the research. H.K-K.
performed statistical analyses. M.N., A.T. and J.N. wrote the manuscript. J.N. had primary
responsibility for the final content. All authors read and approved the final version of the
manuscript.
Acknowledgments: We are grateful to the members of Hokkaido Information University, Center
of Health Information Science (Y. Fukuda, T. Saito, Y. Anzai, N. Shima, N. Ito) for their technical
assistance during the course of the clinical trial.
Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2018; 8(5): 280-291 Page 290 of 291
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  • Chonai furora no seitai to yakuwari
    • T Mitsuoka
    Mitsuoka T: Chonai furora no seitai to yakuwari [Ecology and functions of the gut flora].
  • Isomaruto origo to no kinou tokusei to sono ouyou [Functional characteristics of Isomalto oligosaccharide and its application
    • T Kanno
    Kanno T: Isomaruto origo to no kinou tokusei to sono ouyou [Functional characteristics of Isomalto oligosaccharide and its application].
  • Bio-M (champignon extract) no keikou touyo no rinshourei
    • J Abe
    • K Kanaya
    • S Toyoshima
    Abe J, Kanaya K, Toyoshima S: Bio-M (champignon extract) no keikou touyo no rinshourei [Clinical case study of oral Bio-M (champignon extract)]. Minutes of the 36th Conference of the Tohoku Clinical Hygiene Testing 1995, 121.
  • Materials for Functional Food
    • O Taniguchi
    Taniguchi O: Materials for Functional Food. CMC Publishing Co.,Ltd. 2001, 336-342.
  • Shanpinion ekisu sesshu ni yoru chounai furora oyobi champignon extract oyobi fuhai sanbutsu no eikyou [Effects of champignon extract ingestion on gut flora and putrefaction products
    • A Terada
    Terada A: Shanpinion ekisu sesshu ni yoru chounai furora oyobi champignon extract oyobi fuhai sanbutsu no eikyou [Effects of champignon extract ingestion on gut flora and putrefaction products]. Collection of Presentations of the 21st Conference of the Japanese Society of Food Microbiology 2000, 90.
  • Shanpinion ekisu no shoushuu kouka to seitainai indoru, toriputamin seisei yokusei kouka [Odor-eliminating effects of champignon extract and in vivo inhibitory effects on indole and tryptamine
    • I Koizumi
    • Y Suzuki
    • J Shimura
    Koizumi I, Suzuki Y, Shimura J: Shanpinion ekisu no shoushuu kouka to seitainai indoru, toriputamin seisei yokusei kouka [Odor-eliminating effects of champignon extract and in vivo inhibitory effects on indole and tryptamine].
  • Article
    This was placebo-controlled double-blind parallel-group comparative clinical trial targeting 80 men and women aged 50–79 years with halitosis and body and fecal odor. We investigated whether daily champignon extract ingestion for 4 weeks improved these conditions. Subjects were divided into four groups: a placebo group and 50, 500, and 1000 mg/day ingestion groups. No severe adverse events or side effects were noted during the study period. Compared with the placebo group, all champignon extract ingestion groups showed improvement or tendency toward improvement in halitosis and body and fecal odor. Furthermore, our results suggested that the effectiveness of champignon extract in alleviating odors is dose-dependent, i.e., it increases with the dosage.
  • Article
    Bifidobacterium longum BB536 was administered to healthy adult volunteers and the effects on the intestinal environment (fecal flora, fecal putrefactive substance, fecal putrefactive enzyme activities and organic acid concentrations), defecation frequency and fecal characteristics were investigated. For the investigation of intestinal environment, twelve volunteers were assigned to two groups (persons 7 and 5 each) and each group was administered 2×109 or 2×1010 viable cells of BB536 daily in 200 ml of milk for 7 days. Forty women volunteers were assigned for the test of defecation frequency and fecal characteristics. They were administered 2×109 viable cells of BB536 daily in 200 ml of milk for three weeks. Milk was used as the control diet in both experiments. The administration of BB536 resulted in a decrease of fecal ammonia content and reduction in the activity of some fecal enzymes. Bifidobacterium percentage in the fecal flora was increased by the administration of BB536. The number of Enterobacteriaceae and C. perfringens tended to decrease at a dose of 2 x 1010 of BB536 per day. The fecal moisture content also tended to increase following the administration of BB536. In the test on the defecation frequency and fecal characteristics, the administration of BB536 was effective in increasing the frequency significantly and in changing the fecal visual characteristics for the better. These results indicate that the administration of BB536 improves intestinal environment, defecation frequency and fecal characteristics.
  • Article
    Six species of herbs of the family Rosaceae were extracted with water, 50% ethanol solution, or ethanol. The extracts were assayed by gas chromatography for methyl mercaptan (CH3SH) to search for oral deodorizers more effective than sodium copper chlorophyllin and tea catechins. Lignt extracts (water and 50% ethanol extracts of blackberry leaves, raspberry leaves, rose petals, and wild strawberry leaves and fruits)deodorized CH3SH. Of these extracts tested, the water extract of raspberry (Rubus idaeus) leaves was the strongest deodorant. The active components of raspberry leaves seemed to be a mixture of polyphenol compounds, mainly ellagitannins. © 1992, Japan Society for Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Agrochemistry. All rights reserved.
  • Article
    E.A. SMITH AND G.T. MACFARLANE. 1996. Concentrations of phenolic compounds in human gut contents were more than fourfold higher in the distal colon (6.2 mmol kg-1) compared to the proximal bowel (1.4 mmol kg-1). Tryptophan metabolites were never found in more than trace amounts in large intestinal contents and phenol substituted fatty acids were the major products of aromatic amino acid fermentation that accumulated in the proximal colon, whereas phenol and p-cresol were more important in the distal gut, accounting for 70% of all products of dissimilatory aromatic amino acid metabolism. In vitro incubations of colonic material showed that phenol was produced most rapidly (1.0 μmol g-1 h-1), whereas indole was formed comparatively slowly (0.06 μmol g-1 h-1). Most probable number (MPN) estimations demonstrated that large populations of phenol and indole producing bacteria occur in the large intestine (range log10 9.8–11.5 (g dry wt faeces)-1, mean 10.6, N=7). With respect to phenolic compounds, phenylacetate and phenylpropionate producers predominated, while indoleacetate-forming bacteria were the major tryptophan-utilizing organisms. Quantitation of products of dissimilatory aromatic amino acid metabolism in MPN tubes showed that phenol and phenylpropionate mainly accumulated at low sample dilutions, whereas phenylacetate, p-cresol, indoleacetate and indolepropionate were formed in greatest amounts at high sample dilutions. The significance of pH and carbohydrate availability with respect to aromatic amino acid metabolism was shown in batch culture fermentation studies, where net production of phenolic compounds by mixed populations of intestinal bacteria was reduced by approximately 33% during growth at pH 5.5 compared to pH 6.8, and by 60% in the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. Experiments with 16 species of intestinal bacteria belonging to six different genera showed that environmental factors such as low pH and high carbohydrate availability markedly reduced dissimilatory aromatic amino acid metabolism in some organisms, but stimulated this process in others. A three-stage continuous culture model of the colon was used to investigate the effect of system retention time (27.1 or 66.7 h) on aromatic amino acid fermentation. Qualitative and quantitative increases in phenol production occurred from vessel 1 to vessel 3 in this model. Concentrations of phenolic compounds in vessel 3 were three times greater at R=66.7 h compared to R=27.1 h. Phenol and p-cresol were not detected in vessel 1, though formation of these metabolites increased from vessel 2 to vessel 3, in a pattern similar to that observed in the distal colon.