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In practical engineering applications involving extremely complex geometries, meshing typically constitutes a large portion of the overall design and analysis time. In the computational mechanics community, the ability to perform calculations on tetrahedral meshes has become increasingly important. For these reasons, automated tetrahedral mesh generation by means of Delaunay and advancing front techniques has recently received increasing attention in a number of applications, namely: crash simulations, cardiovascular modelling, blast and fracture modelling.
Unfortunately, modern industry codes in solid mechanics (e.g. LS-DYNA, ANSYS AUTODYN, ABAQUS/Explicit, Altair Hypercrash) typically rely on the use of traditional displacement based Finite Element formulations which possess several distinct disadvantages, namely: (1) reduced order of convergence for strains and stresses in comparison to displacements; (2) high frequency noise in the vicinity of shocks; and (3) numerical instabilities associated with shear locking, volumetric locking and pressure checker-boarding.
In order to address the above mentioned shortcomings, a new mixed-based set of equations for solid dynamics formulated in a system of first order hyperbolic conservation laws was introduced. The new set of conservation laws has a similar structure to that of the well known Euler equations in the context of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). This enables us to borrow some of the available CFD technologies and to adapt the method in the context of solid dynamics.
This thesis builds on the work carried out in Lee et. al. 2013 by further developing the upwind cell centred finite volume framework for the numerical analysis of large strain explicit solid dynamics and its tailor-made implementation within the open source code OpenFOAM, extensively used in industrial and academic environments. The object
oriented nature of OpenFOAM implementation provides a very efficient platform for future development. In this computational framework, the primary unknown variables are linear momentum and deformation gradient tensor of the system. Moreover, the formulation is further extended for an additional set of geometric strain measures comprising of the co-factor of deformation gradient tensor and the Jacobian of deformation, in order to simulate polyconvex constitutive models ensuring material stability.
The domain is spatially discretised using a standard Godunov-type cell centred framework where second order accuracy is achieved by employing a linear reconstruction procedure in conjunction with a slope limiter. This leads to discontinuities in variables at the cell interface which motivate the use of a Riemann solver by introducing an upwind bias into the evaluation of numerical contact fluxes. The acoustic Riemann solver presented is further developed by applying preconditioned dissipation to improve its performance in the near incompressibility regime and extending its range to contact applications. Moreover, two evolutionary frameworks are proposed in this study to satisfy the underlying involutions (or compatibility conditions) of the system. Additionally, the spatial discretisation is also represented through a node-based cell centred finite volume framework for comparison purposes.
From a temporal discretisation point of view, a two stage Total Variation Diminishing Runge-Kutta time integrator is employed to ensure second order accuracy. Additionally, inclusion of a posteriori global angular momentum projection procedure enables preservation of angular momentum of the system.
Finally, benchmark numerical examples are simulated to demonstrate mesh convergence, momentum preservation and the locking-free nature of the formulation. Moreover, the robustness and accuracy of the computational framework has been thoroughly examined through a series of challenging numerical examples involving contact scenarios and complex computational domains.

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... For instance, one can consider a poorly calibrated thermometer that reads temperature 102 • C when immersed in boiling water and 2 • C when immersed in ice water at atmospheric pressure. Moreover, the construction and testing of the desired prototype has typically been costly, time-consuming and even in some cases impossible (soft tissue modelling) [13][14][15]. ...

It is evidently not trivial to analytically solve practical engineering problems due to their inherent nonlinearities. Moreover, experimental testing can be extremely costly and time-consuming. In the past few decades, therefore, numerical techniques have been progressively developed and utilised in order to investigate complex engineering applications through computer simulations. In the context of fast thermo-elastodynamics, modern commercial packages are typically developed on the basis of second order displacement-based finite element formulations and, unfortunately, that introduces a series of numerical shortcomings (e.g. detrimental locking, hour-glass modes, spurious pressure oscillations). To rectify these drawbacks, a mixed-based set of first order hyperbolic conservation laws for thermo- elastodynamics is presented in terms of the linear momentum per unit undeformed volume, the deformation gradient, its co-factor, its Jacobian and the balance of total Energy. Interestingly, the conservation formulation framework allows exploiting available CFD techniques in the context of solid dynamics. From a computational standpoint, two distinct spatial discretisations are employed, namely, Vertex-Centred Finite Volume Method (VCFVM) and Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). A linear reconstruction procedure together with a slope limiter is employed in order to ensure second order accuracy in space whilst avoiding numerical oscillations in the vicinity of sharp gradients. The semi-discrete system of equations is then temporally discretised using a second-order Total Variation Diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta time integrator. Finally, a wide spectrum of challenging examples is presented in order to assess both the performance and applicability of the proposed schemes. The new formulation is proven to be very efficient in nearly incompressible thermoelasticity in comparison with classical finite element displacement-based approaches.

The paper presents a new computational framework for the numerical simulation of fast large strain solid dynamics, with particular emphasis on the treatment of near incompressibility. A complete set of first order hyperbolic conservation equations expressed in terms of the linear momentum and the minors of the deformation (namely the deformation gradient, its co-factor and its Jacobian), in conjunction with a polyconvex nearly incompressible constitutive law, is presented. Taking advantage of this elegant formalism , alternative implementations in terms of entropy-conjugate variables are also possible, through suitable symmetrisation of the original system of conservation variables. From the spatial discretisation standpoint, modern Computational Fluid Dynamics code "OpenFOAM" [http://www.openfoam.com/] is here adapted to the field of solid mechanics, with the aim to bridge the gap between computational fluid and solid dynamics. A cell centred finite volume algorithm is employed and suitably adapted. Naturally, discontinuity of the conservation variables across control volume interfaces leads to a Riemann problem, whose resolution requires special attention when attempting to model materials with predominant nearly incompressible behaviour (κ/µ ≥ 500). For this reason, an acoustic Riemann solver combined with a preconditioning procedure is introduced. In addition, a global a posteriori angular momentum projection procedure proposed in [1] is also presented and adapted to a Total Lagrangian version of the nodal scheme of Kluth and Després [2] used in this paper for comparison purposes. Finally, a series of challenging numerical examples is examined in order to assess the robustness and applicability of the proposed methodology with an eye on large scale simulation in future works.

The current article presents a new implicit cell-centred Finite Volume solution methodology for linear elasticity and unstructured meshes. Details are given of the implicit discretisation, including use of a Finite Area method for face tangential gradients and implicit non-orthogonal correction. A number of 2-D and 3-D linear-elastic benchmark test cases are examined using hexahedral, tetrahedral and general polyhedral meshes; solution accuracy and efficiency are compared with that of a segregated procedure and a commercial Finite Element software, where the new method is shown to be faster in all cases.

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is an important design tool in engineering and also a substantial research tool in various physical sciences as well as in biology. The objective of this book is to provide university students with a solid foundation for understanding the numerical methods employed in todays CFD and to familiarise them with modern CFD codes by hands-on experience. It is also intended for engineers and scientists starting to work in the field of CFD or for those who apply CFD codes. Due to the detailed index, the text can serve as a reference handbook too. Each chapter includes an extensive bibliography, which provides an excellent basis for further studies. The accompanying CD-ROM contains the sources of 1-D and 2-D Euler and Navier-Stokes flow solvers (structured and unstructured) as well as of grid generators. Provided are also tools for Von Neumann stability analysis of 1-D model equations. Finally, the CD-ROM includes the source code of a dedicated visualisation software with graphical user interface.

This paper presents a new Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) computational framework for explicit fast solid dynamics. The proposed methodology explores the use of the Streamline Upwind Petrov Galerkin (SUPG) stabilisation methodology as an alternative to the Jameson-Schmidt-Turkel (JST) stabilisation recently presented by the authors in [1] in the context of a conservation law formulation of fast solid dynamics. The work introduced in this paper puts forward three advantageous features over the recent JST-SPH framework. First, the variationally consistent nature of the SUPG stabilisation allows for the introduction of a locally preserving angular momentum procedure which can be solved in a monolithic manner in conjunction with the rest of the system equations. This differs from the JST-SPH framework, where an a posteriori projection procedure was required to ensure global angular momentum preservation. Second, evaluation of expensive harmonic and bi-harmonic operators , necessary for the JST stabilisation, is circumvented in the new SUPG-SPH framework. Third, the SUPG-SPH framework is more accurate (for the same number of degrees of freedom) than its JST-SPH counterpart and its accuracy is comparable to that of the robust (but computationally more demanding) Petrov Galerkin Finite Element Method (PG-FEM) technique explored by the authors in [2–5], as shown in the numerical examples included. A series of numerical examples are analysed in order to benchmark and assess the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The resulting SUPG-SPH framework is therefore accurate, robust and computationally efficient, three key desired features that will allow the authors in forthcoming publications to explore its applicability in large scale simulations.

The Finite Volume discretization of non-linear elasticity equations seems to be a promising alternative to the traditional Finite Element discretization as mentioned by Lee et al. [Computers and Structures (2013)]. In this work, we propose to solve the elastic response of a solid material by using a cell-centered Finite Volume Lagrangian scheme in the current configuration. The hyperelastic approach is chosen for representing elastic isotropic materials. In this way, the constitutive law is based on the principle of frame indifference and thermodynamic consistency which are imposed by mean of the Coleman-Noll procedure. It results in defining the Cauchy stress tensor as the derivative of the free-energy with respect to the left Cauchy-Green tensor. Moreover, the materials being isotropic, the free-energy is function of the left Cauchy-Green tensor invariants which enables the use of the Neo-Hookean model. The hyperelasticity system is discretized using the cell-centered Lagrangian scheme from the work of Maire et al. [J. Comput. Phys. (2009)]. The 3D scheme is first order in space and time and is assessed against three test cases with both infinitesimal displacements and large deformations to show the good accordance between the numerical solutions and the analytic ones. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

We propose a stabilization method for linear tetrahedral finite elements, suitable for the implicit time integration of the equations of nearly and fully incompressible nonlinear elastodynamics. In particular, we derive and discuss a generalized framework for stabilization and implicit time integration that can comprehensively be applied to the class of all isotropic hyperelastic models. In this sense the presented development can be considered an important extension and complement to the stabilization approach proposed by the authors in previous work, which was instead focused on explicit time integration and simple neo-Hookean models for nearly-incompressible elasticity. With the goal of computational efficiency, we also present a two-step block Gauss–Seidel strategy for the time update of displacements, velocities and pressures. Specifically, a mixed system of equations for the velocity and pressure is updated implicitly in a first stage, and the displacements are updated explicitly in a second stage. The proposed mixed formulation is then embedded in Newton-type strategies for the nonlinear solution of the equations of motion. Various implicit time integration strategies are considered, and, particularly, we focus on high-frequency dissipation time integrators, which are preferable in transient mechanics applications. An extensive set of numerical computations with linear tetrahedral elements is presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach.

The current article presents a Lagrangian cell-centred finite volume solution methodology for simulation of metal forming processes. Details are given of the mathematical model in updated Lagrangian form, where a hyperelastoplastic J2 constitutive relation has been employed. The cell-centred finite volume discretisation is described, where a modified discretised is proposed to alleviate erroneous hydrostatic pressure oscillations; an outline of the memory efficient segregated solution procedure is given. The accuracy and order of accuracy of the method is examined on a number of 2-D and 3-D elastoplastic benchmark test cases, where good agreement with available analytical and finite element solutions is achieved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.