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Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation: Time for Expansion and Clarification

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Abstract

The goal of this paper is to provide a long overdue clarification and upgrade to what has been called the intrinsic-extrinsic dichotomy in the realm of motivation. We argue that the concept of intrinsic motivation should be limited to refer to the pleasure gained from an activity, divorced from any further elements. It means liking the doing. The term has been confounded with a different type of motivation, which is properly labeled achievement motivation and which refers to competition against some standard of excellence (subconscious or conscious). Achievement motivation means wanting to do well. One can like doing something and not care about how well
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation: Time for Expansion and Clarification
Edwin A. Locke
University of Maryland
Kaspar Schattke
Université du Québec à Montréal
Author Note
Edwin A. Locke, Dean’s Professor of Motivation and Leadership, Robert H. Smith
School of Business, University of Maryland, College Park, USA; Kaspar Schattke, Assistant
Professor in Work and Organizational Psychology, Department of Psychology, Université du
Québec à Montréal, Canada.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Kaspar Schattke,
Université du Québec à Montréal, Département de psychologie, CP 8888, Succ. Centre-Ville,
Montréal, Québec, H3C 3P8, Canada, Email: schattke.kaspar_philipp@uqam.ca. Tel: +1-514-
987-3000 ext. 5387.
© 2018, American Psychological Association. This paper is not the copy of record
and may not exactly replicate the final, authoritative version of the article. Please do not
copy or cite without authors' permission. The final article will be available, upon
publication, via its DOI: 10.1037/mot0000116.
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 2
Abstract
The goal of this paper is to provide a long overdue clarification and upgrade to what has been
called the intrinsic-extrinsic dichotomy in the realm of motivation. We argue that the concept of
intrinsic motivation should be limited to refer to the pleasure gained from an activity, divorced
from any further elements. It means liking the doing. The term has been confounded with a
different type of motivation, which is properly labeled achievement motivation and which refers
to competition against some standard of excellence (subconscious or conscious). Achievement
motivation means wanting to do well. One can like doing something and not care about how well
one does it. Conversely, one can strive to do well even if one does not like an activity. The third
type of motivation, known as extrinsic, has been focused heavily on the effect of withdrawing a
monetary incentive. We argue that this focus is far too narrow and that extrinsic motivation should
be generally defined as doing something as a means to an end. It means doing something now in
order to get something later. Nor should money be regarding as “controlling” since people
routinely make many choices in the realm of money. We suggest a research program on the three
types of motivation, their possible interrelationships, and their outcomes. We hope to spark a
discussion and invite comments on this paper.
Keywords: intrinsic motivation; extrinsic motivation; achievement motivation; work motivation;
satisfaction;
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 3
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation: Time for Expansion and Clarification
Going as far back as 1918 (Woodworth, 1918 and noted by Rheinberg & Engeser, 2018) it has
been generally assumed that there are two basic types of motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic. In
this conceptual article we argue that the traditional dichotomy is seriously inadequate particularly
with regard to applications to work and organizational psychology. We recommend a trichotomy,
which would include achievement motivation as well as clearer definitions of intrinsic and
extrinsic motivation. Both the expansion and clarifications have applied implications and
applications for future research. Our ultimate goal is to motivate a discussion and a research
program about the differences and the similarities of the three types of motivation and their
possible interrelationships.
The Concept of Motivation
We start by suggesting that the terms intrinsic and extrinsic themselves are somewhat
problematic when applied to humans. Intrinsic conventionally means inside the entity and
extrinsic means outside the entity or object. This makes sense at the physical (including
inanimate) level, but a human consciousness is always interacting with the environment
(observing, evaluating, choosing) and thus factors pertaining to motivation have both an internal
and an external aspect. Consequently, Schultheiss and colleagues (2009, p. 268) have called
motivation a natural linchpin between the person and the situation”, between internal and
external.
Motivation at the internal level means having desires or aversions. It means wanting or
fearing. One cannot be motivated if one is an empty organism as the behaviorists used to imply.
Motivation orients, energizes, and selects behavior towards anticipated goal states (Heckhausen
& Heckhausen, 2018; McClelland, 1987; Rheinberg & Vollmeyer, 2018). Thus, one can say that
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 4
all motivation involves people wanting to get or avoid something. Ordinarily we want or fear
something in the environment, although some desires are psychological such as wanting to
reduce anxiety. The ultimate source of the values that cause these wants are varied but there must
be an internal locus in some form to motivate action, even as external conditions play a role.
Consider an extreme case of situational influence: a person confronts you on the street with a gun
and demands your money. This represents obvious, external coercion but a normal person will
give over the money because they want safety. Of course, one may choose values out of
conformity but passively chosen values can still motivate action. Values differ in importance
within and between people and related to this, commitment to any given values varies along a
continuum. (Motivation, as we all know and will be noted later, can be conscious and/or
subconscious.)
Selected Concepts Related to Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
Aristotle. Aristotle identified a distinction in his Nicomachean Ethics between pleasure
as an essential element of an activity and pleasure that stems from outside the activity (see
Schneider, 1996). Presumably he was referring to what we would call intrinsic and extrinsic
motivation though he did not use those terms.
Woodworth. As noted, Woodworth (1918) first used the terms intrinsic and extrinsic in
psychology. The former referred to an “activity running by its own drive” (p. 70) and the latter to
an activity “driven by some extrinsic motive” (p. 70). He postulated that an extrinsic motive
would focus attention on the reward and distract attention from and absorption in the activity,
making intrinsic motivation less likely. He also argued that motivation for an activity might
change during its pursuit in the sense that one might start for extrinsic reasons but find the main
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 5
pleasure in its pursuit later (for an overview see Rheinberg & Engeser, 2018). Woodworth did
not include achievement motivation in the discussion.
Bühler. Bühler (1922) differentiated pleasure from doing or creating something
(“Funktionslust” and “Schaffenslust”) and the pleasure of having completed an activity or by
gaining satisfaction from the result (“Endlust” or “Befriedigungslust”). The first implies intrinsic
motivation and the second implies achievement motivation but Bühler did not use these terms.
Drive Reduction Theories. Classical drive-reduction theories (e.g., Freud, 1952; Hull,
1943; Spence, 1956, 1960) argued that people were driven to reduce the discrepancy between a
desired (goal) state and their current (goal) state, which were energized by a general drive or
need deprivation. The reduction of this drive was perceived as pleasurable (for an overview see
Heckhausen, 2018). The modern version of this is control theory (see Carver & Scheier, 1981).
However, the primary goal of action cannot be simply to remove discrepancies between wants
and reality as such, which logically would have to include abandoning goals. Life and thriving
demand that (at least some) goals are actually attained. Therefore, discrepancy reduction can
only be a correlate of goal directed action, not its primary cause (cf. Bandura & Locke, 2003).
Moreover, focusing on discrepancy-reduction is misguided in another way: it implies that all
motivation is negative, that is, aimed psychologically at reducing pain or discomfort. Of course,
some motivation is negative, but it cannot be the whole story since obviously people must and do
work for positives (Bandura & Locke, 2003).
Self-Determination Theory. Deci and Ryan’s (2000) self-determination theory (SDT)
conceptualizes intrinsic motivation as inside the person but not as an interaction with an activity.
Furthermore, SDT explicitly confounds intrinsic motivation (enjoying the task) and achievement
motivation (pursuing goals and challenges), when describing intrinsic motivation as “the inherent
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 6
tendency to seek out novelty and challenges, to extend and exercise one's capacities, to explore,
and to learn” (Ryan & Deci, 2000, p. 70). To add further confusion, extrinsic motivation can be
inside or outside the self, depending on the degree of self-determination by which goals are
sought. Self-determined goals reflect ones value systems (integrated regulation) or one finds
them important (identified regulation). Less self-determined goals are chosen because one feels
an inner pressure to seek them (introjected regulation) or because they are based on external
demands (external regulation). The more self-determined one’s goals are, the more they satisfy
the three basic human needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy. The theory includes
elements of determinism. Volition (autonomy) is viewed as a need, whereas we view it as an
axiom (Locke, 2018). Nor do we view money incentives as controlling as SDT often does. We
argue that people have the power, by thinking, to choose their own goals and that external
demands or incentives, in line with our previous definition of motivation, must work through the
value standards that one has chosen or accepted.
Means-Ends Fusion Theory. Kruglanski and colleagues (2018) introduced a theory not
based on human needs in contrast to SDT: the Means-Ends Fusion Theory (MEF). The theory
accepts the intrinsic-extrinsic dichotomy but posits that intrinsic motivation is a result of the
perceived fusion of the activity (means) to achieve a goal (end) with the goal itself. The authors
point out that any activity can be experienced as intrinsically or extrinsically motivated
depending on how similar the activity and the goal are perceived. They posit a continuum from
extrinsic (i.e., means and ends are completely separate) to intrinsic motivation (i.e., means and
ends are completely fused) rather than two qualitatively different types of motivation. For
example, the activity of running is perceived as very close to a fitness goal because running “is
subjectively experienced as (the attainment) of fitness” and therefore intrinsically motivated
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 7
(Kruglanski et al., 2018, p.167). But what this actually implies is that intrinsic and extrinsic
motivation can work together. The authors also claim that “the attainment of any goal is
satisfying by definition” (Kruglanski et al., 2018, p. 171). There is merit to this (e.g., goal setting
theory; Locke & Latham, 1990) but there are exceptions. Goals that do not integrate with one’s
underlying values and subconscious motive dispositions may lead to less emotional well being
(Brunstein, Schultheiss, & Grässmann, 1998), less life-satisfaction (Hofer, Busch, Bond, Kärtner,
Kiessling, & Law, 2010), and even psychosomatic symptoms (Baumann, Kaschel, & Kuhl,
2005).
The 3-C Model. This model is based on McClelland’s (1985) Motive Disposition
Theory. Kehr (2004) proposed that intrinsic motivation is enhanced when there is a
correspondence between implicit (unconscious) and explicit (conscious) motives. In other words,
when people enjoy what they find important at both levels, they will be intrinsically motivated,
which makes the pursuit of the activity less effortful because no volitional regulation (i.e., self-
regulation, will-power) is needed (Kehr, Strasser, & Paulus, 2018). Intrinsically motivated here
means motivated by ones implicit motives. The motivation type is actually classified in terms of
individual differences in the strength of three motives for achievement, power, and affiliation.
Each of the above models make some contribution in its own way but none of them make
a clear distinction between the three types of motivation which we propose. We argue that
intrinsic, achievement, and extrinsic motivation are three distinguishable forms of motivation.
There are particularly relevant at work, although we believe they are also relevant to other life
domains.
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 8
Intrinsic Motivation
We suggest confining the meaning of intrinsic motivation to liking or wanting an activity
for its own sake divorced from any specific outcome level. The enjoyment is in the doing; the
doing can range from passive to active. An example of the more passive form lies in the field of
art (defined broadly to encompass all of its forms, e.g., music, books, TV, movies, shows etc.)
where the pleasure is from contemplating or experiencing the art work. (For an explanation of
the critical, motivational role of art in life, see Rand, 1969). On the more active side, intrinsic
motivation can encompass hobbies, for example walking, cycling, gardening, cooking, games,
stamp collecting, etc. At work, active intrinsic motivation involves liking a certain type of work
or specific tasks, for example selling, analyzing, inventing, computing, programming,
coordinating, managing, experimenting, problem solving, or acting. It means liking a specific
type of job content, for example banking, sports, restaurant management, machining, repairing,
construction, law, medicine, teaching and subcategories within each (teaching math, etc.).
Traditionally, these would be called interests (which some researchers distinguish from intrinsic
motivation, e.g. Krapp, 1999). Although that term may seem emotionally mild, interests can
range from mild to passionate.
People can prefer different aspects of any activity and likings may come and go over
time. The goal in intrinsic motivation is pleasure and enjoyment from the action or experience. In
some form the activity makes one feel good, relaxed, happy, contented, and joyful. If activities
have a further goal than just the pleasure of engaging in them, then they are not purely intrinsic.
(We will talk about mixed motivation later).
We believe that it is an error to assume that simply because people like doing something
that they will necessarily attain a high level of skill at it. Pure intrinsic motivation involves doing
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 9
things for fun and the goal is not to improve as such. For example, the first author plays tennis
with other players his age. All of them have obvious weaknesses in their games. Not one of them
takes lessons in order to improve. For them the fun is in the playing and the exercise. They
definitely prefer winning but that is not their primary. While doing the same thing a lot may
improve skill up to a point, skill building and improvement is not the essence of intrinsic
motivation it is not the reason why one engages in the activity. To get to a high level of skill at
anything requires another form of motivation, achievement motivation, which unfortunately has
been almost universally confounded with intrinsic motivation (see Pinder’s 1998 discussion of
this literature).
Achievement Motivation
McClelland pioneered research on achievement motivation in the 1950s (McClelland,
Atkinson, Clark, & Lowell, 1953). He viewed its essence as competition with a standard, as a
striving for excellence in some form. The authors agree with this formulation. The issue is not the
doing or enjoyment of the activity as such but doing well and/or doing better than before, in
other words improvement. Note, however, that improvement, if it occurs, may be enjoyed but the
activity that leads to the improvement may or may not be. For example, a person may work hard
to succeed in the law profession but not really enjoy being a lawyer. Achievement motivation
can be conceptualized on different levels.
Dispositions and Traits. For McClelland, the achievement motive was subconscious
(implicit) and measured, as noted earlier, by projective tests, especially the Thematic
Apperception Test, which involved guided story telling based on pictures, which are then coded
for achievement imagery (e.g., Pang, 2010). He viewed it as most relevant to entrepreneurship
and it is in fact related to entrepreneurial occupational choice and performance (Collins, Hanges,
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 10
& Locke, 2004), though there are exceptions (Locke, 2015). Collins and colleagues also found
that conscious self-reported achievement motivation, based on trait scales, had the same effect.
However, the conscious and subconscious measures seem unrelated (no covariance, mediation or
moderation, Köllner & Schultheiss, 2014; Spangler, 1992).
Subconscious or implicit need for achievement has been found to be related to other types
of actions (e.g., Brunstein & Maier 2005; Spangler, 1992; Wegner & Teubel, 2014), particularly
after initial failure (Schattke, Taylor, Brandstätter, & Kehr, 2014). It may be related to
performance in professional service firms (cf. Spangler, Tikhomirov, Sotak, & Palrecha, 2014).
Quasi-traits. In recent years a quasi-trait approach has been proposed that includes what
are called learning and performance orientations (reviewed by Morisano, 2013). Both are
achievement related. Quasi traits are general but may also be framed in terms of specific
situations (e.g., learning in school). In a learning or mastery orientation (LO) the focus is on
acquiring new knowledge and skills, whereas performance orientation (PO) stresses doing well
on the task in some way.
There has been considerable confusion regarding PO because it has been measured in
quite different ways (Morisano, 2013) such as focus on success in order to impress others,
competition, or simply doing well, and the different conceptualizations can lead to very different
results. For example, impress through success goals can lead to setting very easy goals, which
would lead to low performance according to goal setting theory (Locke & Latham, 1990, 2013).
However, when the focus is on simply doing well, the combination of learning and performance
orientations seems to lead to the best performance, especially when the measures focus on an
“approach” rather than an “avoid” orientation, that is, seeking success rather than avoiding
failure (Morisano, 2013).
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 11
States. Conscious, state achievement motivation is task and situationally specific and is
most logically related to goal setting (Locke & Latham, 1990, 2013). In goal setting theory,
performance attainment is based on the type and level of task-specific goal that is set in addition
to various moderators (task knowledge, commitment, feedback). Performance is best if the
standard is specific and challenging and there is high commitment, relevant knowledge or skill,
and feedback showing progress in relation to the standard. Assigned goals work best if they are
accepted or committed to. This is most critical when goals are hard (Klein, Cooper, & Manahan,
2013). Satisfaction comes from goal success or the perception of progress toward one’s goal, not
just from taking action (Locke & Latham, 1990). Specific goals can be set for learning as a
means of improving task performance, in combination with performance goals, through
acquiring new or upgraded skills (Masuda, Locke, & Williams, 2015; Seijts, Latham, &
Woodwark, 2013). At a deeper level, performance improvement and goal achievement based on
one’s own efforts is a source of pride (Mento, Locke, & Klein, 1992). Achievement satisfaction
and pride, of course, give pleasure but the source is not just from action but action that leads to
attainment.
Morisano and colleagues (2010) found, contrary to the usual goal assumptions, that if
college students were made to reflect at length on their life goals in writing, their college
performance improved even if their list of goals did not include academics. This finding clearly
requires additional research studies.
Goals and goal orientations may be aroused through subconscious priming (Chen &
Latham, 2014; Latham, Brcic & Steinhauer, 2017). They work like conscious motivation but
regulate action separately (Friedman, 2013). However, there is mounting evidence that priming
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 12
effects have some conscious mediators. Latham and colleagues (2017) found that primed goal
difficulty was partly mediated by consciously, self-set goals.
Self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997), which is also a state theory, pertains to the confidence that
one can execute a course of action to bring about certain performance outcomes. Self-efficacy
plays critical and multiple roles in achievement related action. Aside from main effects, it affects
self-set goal level and goal commitment, it is affected by assigned goals, affects the response to
feedback, and leads to the use of better task strategies (Locke & Latham, 1990, 2013).
A note about flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990, 1996). The essential elements of flow appear
to be the experience, based on feedback from the current task that indicates smoothly running,
goal-directed progress on a valued activity and during which one loses track of time. The goal
must be clear so that one is not focused on other non-goal actions and one must feel up to the
challenge rather than being preoccupied with self-doubt. Csikszentmihalyi states that flow
appears particularly (but not exclusively) during autotelic activities, which people pursue for
the sake of doing it. In this sense, flow resembles intrinsic motivation and, consequently, Kehr
(2004, p.490) called flow “a special case of intrinsic motivation”, which also means that not
every intrinsically motivated or autotelic activity automatically leads to flow. Baumann and
Scheffer (2011) also see flow as a “state of intrinsic motivation in which people get fully
immersed in difficult tasks for the sake of the activity itself” (p. 267). In addition, these authors
proposed a “flow motive” as the disposition to seek flow in the achievement domain but others
have also discussed flow in contexts that are not achievement-related (Schiepe-Tiska & Engeser,
2012). Despite its clear relationship to intrinsic motivation, it is important to note that the
experience of flow shares many characteristics of achievement motivation such as clear goals
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 13
and goal progress, challenge, perceived skills, and feedback. These elements are all part of goal
setting theory (Locke & Latham, 1990) and also self-efficacy theory (Bandura, 1997).
Flow is a pleasant experience that does not occur all the time because in life everything
does not always go smoothly. Sometimes one fails, feels stymied, needs help, needs a new plan,
and has to persist in the face of failure, which all break the flow. All his requires self-efficacy,
goal commitment (Bandura, 1997; Locke & Latham, 1990, 2013), and often hard thinking. Flow
should be more likely to occur as one becomes more and more skilled on a task that one
performs repeatedly so long as boredom does not set in.
Extrinsic Motivation
There have been many confusions regarding extrinsic motivation. For example, it has
been tied into the demonization of money on the grounds that it causes problems because of the
capitalist system, (e.g., see Kasser, Cohn, Kanner & Ryan, 2007, and Locke’s, 2007, rebuttal).
Ironically, both Communists (Marxists), who are atheists, and religionists condemn money
making. The Communists claim that making a profit is evil (the exploitation theory) and
Christians claim that love of money is the root of all evil. (An exception was Calvinism, which
claimed that making money was proof of God’s grace).
Money has also been viewed (e.g., by Deci, 1975 and others) as controlling, an extension
of the idea of environmental determinism endemic to behaviorism. However, money cannot
control action unless one values it in a given circumstance in some way and the means of gaining
it. Money (specifically paper money) is only inanimate matter; it is a tool of exchange.
Consequently, it is not the money per se that motivates people but the value significance of the
money because nothing can motivate an empty organism. Further, people have the capacity to
choose their values (Locke, 2018b) and therefore money can have many different meanings for
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 14
people, which can be beneficial or detrimental for people’s psychological health (Thibault
Landry, Kindlein, Trépanier, Forest, Zigarmi, Houson, & Brodbeck, 2016). For example, money
can be seen as a means of gaining material goods, as a status symbol, as a means of supporting
one’s loved ones, as providing security for the future, as allowing freedom of choice in one’s
actions, as a backup in case of emergencies, as a way to relieve self-doubt and more (Srivastava,
Locke, & Bartol, 2001).
In psychology, the main focus has long been on what happens when money is given for
performing a task and is then withdrawn, aside from the fact there are a many moderators of this
phenomenon (e.g., Cerasoli, Nicklin, & Ford, 2014). (There have been bitter, conflicting meta-
analyses of this literature, which will not be discussed here, e.g. Eisenberger & Cameron, 1996;
Deci, Koestner, & Ryan, 1999; Cameron, Banko, & Pierce, 2001; Cerasoli et al., 2014).
Obviously, in a real work setting you do not get paid and then have it suddenly withdrawn.
Failing to attain a bonus can be discouraging but this does not eliminate one’s salary unless one
quits the job. Employees do not work for nothing. Not getting paid would lead to a very high
turnover rate! The fundamental issue, as some have acknowledged (Thibault Landry, Gagné,
Forest, Guerrero, Séguin, & Papachristopoulos, 2017) is how to design effective incentive
systems, which is a very complex matter (Weibel, Wiemann, & Osterloh, 2014).
We believe that research on the motivational effects of money has been far too narrowly
focused, not only with respect to the issue of money itself, but with respect to the issue of
extrinsic motivation in general. So what would be the best way to define extrinsic motivation?
We would define extrinsic motivation as involving means-ends relationships; it is doing
something in order to get some future value (or avoid some future disvalue). Because humans
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 15
need to live long range, acting for the future is not only not inferior to other forms of motivation,
as is sometimes suggested, but is essential to happiness and survival (e.g., see Locke, 2018a).
A critical point needs emphasis here: extrinsic does not mean outside the person but
rather outside the task; it pertains to what value a chosen activity can lead to (Rheinberg &
Engeser, 2018). Of course, achieving goals can lead to future benefits but the core of
achievement motivation is the pleasure one gets from task performance, improvement, or
mastery.
Because so much human action, to varying degrees, is taken as a means to an end, it
encompasses any number of action-outcome possibilities (i.e., instrumentality) relationships.
These include, for example, choice of food and drink (what makes your body function well and
free of damage), physical activity (exercise), health management, (e.g., brushing one’s teeth,
getting checkups, taking medication), psychological counseling (increased self-esteem, lowered
depression and anxiety), education (gaining knowledge and skill), saving and investment
(financial security), developing friendships and romantic relationships, having and raising
children, pursuing a career, etc.
We argue that money itself needs to be seen in a much broader framework than worrying
simply about whether, under some circumstances, it is harmful to intrinsic motivation. It is said
that money cannot buy happiness, but to an extent it can (Diener & Biswas-Diener, 2008; Smith,
2003). The former found that income, up to a certain level, was related to life happiness both
within and between cultures. Smith points out, that humans need material goods to survive and
money is one’s means of getting them. Further, money buys time, which means that one can
avoid things one likes doing less and spend more time doing things one likes more. Money
supports autonomy in the sense that it allows more choices in life. Money expands options.
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 16
Money makes life less precarious. Money provides resources for creating wealth through trade.
Honest wealth creation is a spiritual process in the sense that it requires the best use of one’s
rational faculty (Locke, 2008).
Srivastava and colleagues (2001) found in two studies that there were many self-reported
motives for seeking money. Subjective well-being was associated with wanting money for:
security, family support, getting just compensation for efforts, pride, leisure activities, starting
one’s own business, and supporting favorite charities. These “positive motives as a group were
related positively to subjective well-being among both student and entrepreneurial samples. Two
“negative” motives, social comparisons and alleviation of self-doubt as a group were negatively
related to subjective well-being in both samples. The rated importance of money was not directly
related to subjective well-being but was correlated with negative motives. Thus, it matters what
you seek money for and why you seek it. (See, for example, Rand’s famous money speech, e.g.,
“[Honestly earned] money is the product of virtue, but it will not give you virtue and will not
redeem your vices”; Rand, 1957, p. 384).
The money issue does not end there. In life, including career selection, job hunting and
job selection (when the job could possibly be gotten) or is offered, there are virtually always
trade-offs between money and other values, for examples, location, commuting, housing,
opportunities for learning and self-development, job security, the organization’s reputation,
company culture, family considerations (spouse’s career, children’s schooling) travel, life style,
saving, stress, hours of work, etc. It is grossly misleading to say that one is controlled by the
money offeredpeople make choices that involve money and other values based on their
personal value hierarchy virtually every day and have the power to determine and change that
hierarchy. Therefore, controlled by money” can only mean that it is very near the top of one’s
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 17
value hierarchy and unaffected by other values or moral principles. In reality, monetary values
can always be weighed against non-monetary values (e.g., self-esteem, moral character, romantic
love). Furthermore, character can affect one’s ability to earn money. To the degree that one is
pro: reason, honest, independent in thinking, productive in work, and pro-justice, one’s earning
potential is enhanced (Locke, 2008).
Table 1. Summary of the Trichotomy of Motivation
Intrinsic
Motivation
Achievement
Motivation
Extrinsic
Motivation
Short
Definition
Liking or wanting an
activity for its own
sake.
Recurrent concern for
a standard of
excellence.
Doing something in
order to get some
future value.
Core aspect
Enjoyment
Achievement
Outcomes
Related goals
Pleasure form the
experience
Meeting a standard,
improvement, skill
building
Attainment of valued
outcomes
Locus of
incentive
Inside the activity,
the pursuit of action
In the improvement,
in the challenge
Outside the activity,
in the consequences
Affective
reaction
Happiness during the
pursuit of action
Pride in achievement,
success, or progress
Satisfaction with
outcome
Example of a
salesman
Enjoying interacting
with others.
Improving one’s
sales’ rate.
Valuing the good
salary.
Example of
fencing
Enjoyment of one’s
movement, elegance,
and exercise.
Precise execution of
moves. Challenging
opponent.
Training to win a
bout or a tournament.
Example of
learning a
foreign
language
Enjoyment of
learning. Having fun
at expressing oneself
differently.
Improving one’s skill
level. Personal
development. Liking
the challenge.
Learning for a new
job. Relate better to
others. Requirement
for a study program.
Applications
in
Organizations
Reflect likes and
dislikes. Affective
task visualization.
Match task with
interests.
Clear performance
standards. Give
feedback. Encourage
Learning from
mistakes.
Make goals
meaningful. Link
goals to company
vision. Recognize
merits.
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 18
Extrinsic motivation, when it leads people to think, plan, and act long range, should help
to prevent or lower stress and put one on the road to life happiness insofar as that is in one’s
control. Of course, there are caveats. If one’s value choices are based on impressing others or
overcoming self-doubt by showing off (Locke & Kenner, 2016), one has surrendered control of
one’s life and may experience a life of not so quiet desperation. Table 1 summarizes our
trichotomy of motivation.
We end this section with a trick question: which of the three types of motivation is best?
We think the most likely answer is: an integration among all three tied into one’s idealized life
style. What could be better than loving the work (and other things) that you are doing, doing it
well by a rational, personally relevant standard, and gaining long term life benefits as a result of
your efforts and choices? Although the three types can be identified and discussed separately and
can vary independently, they can relate to one another in various ways. Below we suggest
possible relationships.
Interrelationships between Types
Mutual facilitation. Intrinsic motivation does not guarantee high achievement but it may
contribute to it. People who like an activity are usually anxious to spend more time on it and that
may facilitate some skill development. Achievement motivation, at the same time, may facilitate
intrinsic motivation because people tend to like things they are good at. Bandura (1997) has
noted that higher self-efficacy can lead to higher intrinsic motivation. Achievement motivation
can tie into extrinsic motivation. By propelling people to perform at a high level, it increases the
chances that one will be successful in some form, which may help them make money and gain its
associated rewards and benefits. Circling back, money can provide leisure to purse activities that
one loves but which do not bring income (e.g., travel). Completing the circle, intrinsically
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 19
motivated activities can provide ideas for turning the activity into a money-making business
which then involves achievement.
Compensation. Sometime people do not have and perhaps cannot get careers or jobs that
they love, or even like. Nevertheless, they can try to do a good job (achieve some excellence)
and take pride in it. It is often said that many or most lawyers hate their careers. But they can get
some satisfaction (happiness) and pride in being good lawyers. Further, they can make enough
money to allow them to pursue other ends in their leisure time. Thus, achievement and extrinsic
motivation can compensate to a degree for the lack of intrinsic motivation. Going in the other
direction, people can accept less achievement and lower salaries to give them more time to
pursue things they love doing, for example the lawyer who loves painting. The fun of painting
can help make up for the lack of pleasure in the other realms.
Conflict. The compensation issue implies that people can be in conflict about their wants.
They may want a high salary plus lots of free time but cannot get both. The usual reason for such
conflicts is conflicting value hierarchies; they want A and B but cannot have both and do not
want to give up either. This can be caused by family obligations: they need money for the
children’s education but can only get it by working 70 hours a week and giving up painting.
Conflict resolutions of this type require hard (creative) thinking and communication with
significant others who are involved, directly or indirectly. It usually means rethinking one’s
priorities. The existence of possible interrelationships between the three types of motivation is
shown in Figure 1.
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 20
Figure 1 Possible interrelationships between the different types of motivation.
Practical Applications for Organizations
How, specifically, could organizations apply these concepts?
Intrinsic Motivation. Look for employees who like or think they would like the type of
work available in your organization. Explain vividly the main tasks involved in the job. Give
work samples. Find out what previous experiences they have had that are similar to the open job.
Encourage affect-focused visualization of task and goal pursuits related to the intended job (Job
& Brandstätter, 2009). Place them in a job that matches their interests. Give them variety in order
to let new interests develop. Encourage them to grow the job around themselves. Make them
aware of new task opportunities. Encourage them to reflect on their likes and dislikes.
Achievement motivation. Make clear that there are standards of performance. Make
those transparent. Provide sufficient means to attain them. Support the required skill
development. Goals can be self-set (within limits) and/or be assigned. Fun and games in
Intrinsic Motivation
Liking or wanting an
activity for its own sake
Achievement Motivation
Competition with a
standard of excellence
Extrinsic Motivation
Doing something in order
to get some future value
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 21
organizations have to lead to results. Provide objective feedback about attainments or progress.
Encourage learning from mistakes. Goals in real life settings should be challenging but not
impossible (see Locke & Latham, 1990, Appendix D guidelines). The definition of challenge
should reflect business conditions, employee skills, and organizational resources. Stretch goals
do not have to be fully reached, but can be assigned to stimulate creative thinking (Kerr &
Lepelley, 2013). The appropriate time span depends on the context. Proximal goals can be tied to
distal (longer term) goals. Group (mutually shared) goals are effective (Kramer, Thayer & Salas,
2013) especially if they motivate knowledge exchange and intellectual stimulation. Build self-
and team-efficacy through training. Use learning goals when employees need to acquire new
skills (Seijts et al., 2013), though, it may be possible to combine them with performance goals
(Masuda et al., 2015).
Extrinsic Motivation. Give employees opportunities for self-development. Help them
upgrade their skills. Allow autonomy commensurate with trust in skill and ethics. Make goals as
meaningful as possible and provide a rationale for imposed goals (Güntert, 2015). Emphasize a
higher purpose by relating goals to the vision of the organization (Rawolle, Kehr, & Glaser,
2008). In addition to market sensitive base pay, recognize merit based on fair and objective
judgements (e.g., see Bock, 2015). Facilitate career progress. Encourage and support retirement
and life planning. Try to help coordinate the job with family responsibilities (e.g., flexible
schedules, work at home policies).
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 22
A Recommended Research Program
Frequently when presenting a conceptual paper, scholars are urged to formulate a theory
consisting of propositions deduced from other theories. We have chosen not to follow this
tradition. The first author has been a long-time fan of the inductive method, which means
building theory from accumulated evidence rather than building a theory in advance (cf. Locke,
2007; Locke & Latham, 1990). In our view, premature theorizing cuts off the discovery process.
In science there is an enormous amount of trial and error; if one knew what was going to be
discovered, no experiments would be needed at all. Trial and error can be guided by a
hypothesis, but a hypothesis does not necessarily have to be guided by a wider theory. There can
even be studies done with no hypotheses. The impetus can be: “Let’s see what will happen if I do
this.” In science, we need to try stuff in order to identify conditions and processes. Moreover,
trying will lead to new and creative ideas, albeit inevitably also to some failures, which should be
viewed as learning experiences.
Our view of replication is that exact replication of single studies, though useful, is
insufficient by itself (Locke, 2015). If you replicate one study 100 times, you still have only one
study. To be able to generalize across tasks, subjects, procedures, measures, and time you need
deliberate replication with variation (e.g., see Locke & Latham, 1990). This allows the discovery
of moderators (interactions) and causal mediators.
We recommend a research program on the three types of motivation described. It would start
simply with question asking. Here are some suggestions:
What are some concrete examples of the different type of motivation based on people’s
personal experiences? What are some intrinsically pleasurable activities that you have
experienced? What are examples of times you have attained excellence or succeeded in
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 23
reaching performance goals? What things do you do mainly for future benefits? What
types of attainments are most important to you?
Could questionnaires be constructed to measure people’s experiences in each category?
Should the questions be general or tied to specific life domains (e.g., work, family)?
Should both types of scales be developed?
Should there be attempts to use projective as well as conscious, self-report measures in
these realms? If so, which types?
How do scores on each type of scale correlate with various outcomes (e.g., life, family,
financial, career attainments, self-esteem and satisfaction)?
Does it matter how people weight the three types of motivation? Are there individual
differences?
How can or do the three types of motivation combine? Is the best job, career, or life when
one gets pleasure from all three types or are there exceptions?
Do people experience conflicts between the types? If so, why? How do people try to
reconcile them? How does that work?
Do some types compensate for failings in other types? How do people process this? Are
their different profiles that lead to the same outcome (e.g., life satisfaction)?
Have we overlooked other influential types of motivation (e.g., power lust)?
This is by no means a complete list. We do not suggest an a priori theory as we do not
want or can anticipate the research people will come up with. This is what inductive research is
all about (Locke, 2007).
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 24
Conclusion
Intrinsic motivation has often been inappropriately glorified, seen as somehow superior
(even morally superior) whereas extrinsic motivation, specifically wanting to make money, has
often been inappropriately demonized in the popular and scientific literature. Furthermore, the
debate about intrinsic and extrinsic motivation has almost entirely ignored a third, crucial type,
namely achievement motivation, which has often been confused with intrinsic motivation. The
concepts have also suffered from definitional problems. We suggest that all three types of
motivation are independent, yet related concepts (all are sources of pleasure) that can mutually
facilitate, compensate, or be in conflict with one another. We have proposed some guiding
questions for a future research program and we hope that this will spark the discussion about the
three types of motivation, their differences and communalities. In the end, a personally satisfying
combination of intrinsic, achievement, and extrinsic motivation, we predict, is optimal for a
fulfilled and happy life.
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 25
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Due to the multi-factorial nature of the self-report of happiness, an enhancement program was designed that focused on mental style (subjective processes), and relationships, work, money, health, and leisure (objective life domains). An examination of interventions revealed mindfulness training (subjective factors) and goal setting (objective factors) as effective change modalities. To address this, the Mindfulness-based Quality of Life and Well-being Program (MQW) was developed and evaluated against the Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale, Quality of Life Index, Personal Wellbeing Index–Adult, Positive and Negative Affect Scale, the Satisfaction with Life scale, and the newly developed Clinical Quality of Life Scale (CLINQOL). To explore training protocol effects, the program was delivered in a graduated (6 weekly sessions x 2 hours) and intensive (2 consecutive days x 6 hours) format. Using a randomized trial, participants were allocated across these conditions and a control. A total of 191 participants completed the study and were assessed at pre, post and follow up time points. Increases in mindfulness, quality of life, subjective well-being, and positive and negative affect (not life satisfaction), were greater in treated (combined formats) than control participants at post-test, and for mindfulness at follow up. Other than an increase in mindfulness for the 2 day condition at follow up, changes were similar in both intervention formats. Finally, to investigate what unique difference the MQW might have in comparison to teaching just mindfulness, the full version of the program was compared to an expanded section of the mindfulness component of the program. A total of 74 subjects began the program and filled out assessments across the three time periods. There was no difference between groups or an interaction between group and time. Overall, the findings provide preliminary evidence that a multi-dimensional training approach, using mindfulness and goal setting, may be a beneficial intervention model to enhance subjective and objective components in the perception of quality of life and well-being. However, further investigation into its added benefit to mindfulness alone is required.
... In the same manner, EM is divided into (1) external regulation, the gain of tangible outcomes, (2) introjected regulation, the infused pressure from other people, and (3) identified regulation, the congruence with personal relevant goals in identity-shaping. However, a recent theory in motivation science by Locke and Schattke (2019) states that intrinsic motivation is inappropriately defined as it combines both enjoyment and satisfaction. The reason behind this criticism is that doing something because it leads to self-satisfaction does not necessarily mean it is enjoyable. ...
... When she first came to the UK, she discovered that the 'imposed' English learning in Spain was invaluable for her social communication. This supports Locke and Schattke's (2019) claim that the definition of intrinsic motivation should not link enjoyment to self-fulfilment as Isabella used to 'hate' learning ...
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This study is an endeavour to explicate the dissonance of the linguistic quality outcome of study abroad (SA) experiences by exploring the second language (L2) motivation of six academic sojourners in Manchester. A person-in-context approach revealed that developing intimate relationships with ‘native-speakers’, providing L2-mediated interaction opportunities with international students, and social approval were key determinants of the extent to which SA students were invested in social practices. Such social engagements were found to stem from second language motivation that is part of identity construction process. In addition, the thematic analysis of the narrative inquiries suggests that the global status of the English language defies the traditional conceptualisations of L2 motivation as most participants’ motivations were formed despite their negative or neutral attitudes towards the English community. The findings also endorse the role of the other as a robust motivational source by which learners can replenish their motivation stream, leading to social identity investment to construct their ideological selves. The paper concludes with a recommendation to re-interpret the conceptualisation of the Ideal L2 Self system because ‘native-speakers’ are rarely the closest parallels to L2 learners, and it should incorporate explicit intrinsic orientations. Furthermore, language institutions in SA contexts should direct their focus on establishing conversation clubs and hosting social events for SA students to provide a safe space for their identities to be developed, enacted and reconstructed.
... We only considered data from students who had been employed for at least one year. This criterion was defined based on the assumption that the intrinsic factors associated with work just depend on the satisfaction achieved from doing the activity, without a direct relationship with other criteria (Locke & Schattke, 2019). Of the total number of participants, 48.8% (n = 237) were men and 51.2% (n = 249), women. ...
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Resumo Objetivo: O propósito do estudo foi explorar a associação entre inteligência emocional, congruência pessoa-ambiente e satisfação intrínseca no trabalho em dois grupos profissionais: o primeiro com foco nas relações interpessoais e o segundo voltado para o manuseio de coisas, dados e ideias. Originalidade/valor: O estudo apresenta a associação entre congruência, inteligência emocional e satisfação intrínseca no trabalho e testa o modelo em que a congruência modera a associação entre inteligência emocional e satisfação intrínseca em dois grupos profissionais. Design/metodologia/abordagem: Trata-se de estudo do tipo survey em que participaram 486 trabalhadores distribuídos em dois grupos de profissionais utilizando o modelo RIASEC. Os participantes responderam às medidas de interesse profissional e de ambientes ocupacionais necessárias para a mensuração da congruência, e em seguida às medidas de inteligência emocional e de satisfação intrínseca. Resultados: Foram identificadas associações positivas entre inteligência emocional, congruência pessoa-ambiente e satisfação intrínseca no trabalho, com associações mais altas no grupo com elevadas demandas interpessoais, destacando a relevância das habilidades emocionais nesse segmento profissional. Contudo, identificou-se que a congruência não modera a associação entre inteligência emocional e satisfação intrínseca em nenhum dos dois grupos, salientando que o ajuste pessoa-ambiente e as habilidades emocionais podem contribuir de maneira independente para explicar a satisfação do trabalhador com as atividades desenvolvidas na organização. / Abstract Purpose: The purpose of the study was to explore the association between emotional intelligence, person-environment congruence and intrinsic job satisfaction in two professional groups, the first focusing on interpersonal relationships and the second, on data, things, and ideas. Originality/value: The study presents the association between congruence, emotional intelligence and intrinsic satisfaction at work and tests the model in which congruence moderates the association between emotional intelligence and intrinsic satisfaction in two professional groups. Design/methodology/approach: Survey-type study in which 486 workers participated in two groups of professionals using the realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising and conventional (RIASEC) model. Participants responded to questionnaires of professional interest and occupational environments necessary to measure congruence, and, then, emotional intelligence and intrinsic satisfaction. Findings: Positive associations were identified between emotional intelligence, person-environment congruence, and intrinsic job satisfaction, with higher associations in the group with high interpersonal demands, highlighting the relevance of emotional skills in this professional segment. However, it was found that the congruence does not moderate the association between emotional intelligence and intrinsic satisfaction in either group, emphasizing that the person-environment fit and emotional skills can contribute independently to explain worker satisfaction with the activities developed in the organization.
... According to Yan and Davison (2013), it also involves "performing an activity and engaging in it for the sake of the activity itself rather than for external rewards". Locke and Schattke (2019) believed that intrinsic motivation is escalated by accomplishment of a specific task that is associated with one's own satisfaction, reward or profit. Zhang et al. (2014) argued that employees' intrinsic motivation leads toward employees' creativity as higher intrinsically motivated employees perform better than others. ...
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The employees’ innovative behavior is a novel domain that has remained a topic of interest for many decades. Many researchers have found that a particular leadership style boosts the innovative behavior of employees in various contexts. However, prior research on the association between the dark side of leadership known as abusive supervision and innovative behavior revealed conflicting results. IT sector requires highly innovative employees, but the major problem faced by this sector is escalating competition and high workload, which may lead supervisors towards abusive supervision. Many theoretical models have been developed and tested, but the association of abusive supervision with employees’ innovative behavior with intrinsic motivation and psychological safety as mediators has not been fully grasped in the IT sector of Pakistan. This study filled this gap and developed an explanatory model and tested the model by taking sample data from 98 respondents from IT organizations in Pakistan and applying PLS-based SEM for data analysis. The results revealed that abusive supervision is negatively associated with innovative behavior in this context. Moreover, abusive supervision is negatively associated with intrinsic motivation and psychological safety. Furthermore, intrinsic motivation and psychological safety are positively associated with innovative behavior. The results also demonstrated that the negative association of abusive supervision with innovative behavior is partially mediated by intrinsic motivation. However, psychological safety showed no mediating effect in this relationship. The results provide many theoretical and managerial implications.
... Intrinsic motivation refers to doing something because it is interesting or enjoyable, and extrinsic motivation refers to doing something because it leads to a separable outcome (Ryan and Deci, 2000). To Locke and Schattke (2019), these both types of motivation are independent, yet related concepts that can mutually facilitate, compensate or be in conflict with one another. According to Van den Broeck et al. (2021), more research is needed to understand the role of each type of motivation. ...
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Purpose This study explores the perception of employees in textile industry firms in Northern Portugal regarding the influence of leadership and reward systems (RS) on their motivation (intrinsic and extrinsic) and job satisfaction (JS). Design/methodology/approach A questionnaire was addressed to the employees of 12 firms, obtaining a sample of 256 valid responses, for which a structural equation model was estimated. Findings The results showed that leadership and RS influence JS only through the mediating effects of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Originality/value This study makes empirical and theoretical contributions, testing the relationship between leadership and employees' JS and how this relationship can be mediated by RS, and motivation – both intrinsic and extrinsic. Moreover, this study was conducted in Portugal, country where these issues have not been researched jointly before.
... The current most dominant theory is the intrinsic motivation theory of creativity (see Amabile & Pratt, 2016;Hennessey, 2010Hennessey, , 2019. Although there are different approaches to and definitions of intrinsic motivation (Locke & Schattke, 2019), most theorists agree that when people are involved in an activity for its own sake, they are intrinsically motivated. Motivational sources may refer to the enjoyment or pleasure gained from the activity, i.e., the flow sensation (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990), or the fulfillment of basic personal psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness as per the self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000. ...
Thesis
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Motivation plays an indispensable role in explaining and developing creativity. Decades of motivation theories and research give us insights into the nature and mechanisms of motivation in creative activities. This dissertation aims to address several theoretical and practical challenges by investigating different motivational aspects of creativity that pertain to personal, environmental, and cultural factors. With the fruitful collaboration of researchers worldwide, we investigated motivational constructs and mechanisms of creativity at different levels regarding motivational concepts (what they are), measurements (how to measure them), and mechanisms (how they work) in various cultural contexts. This dissertation begins by outlining the theoretical and empirical background of the research. In chapter 1, I give a brief overview of the growing importance of investigating and nurturing creativity and motivation. Then, several of the most representative concepts and models of creativity are presented to map modern creativity research. This is followed by a review of the main schools of motivation theories and research. Building on this, I highlight several major challenges the field faces and how my research series attempts to address these challenges and offer potential solutions. Chapters 2 to 5 contain four published empirical papers—papers 1–4. In each chapter, before delving into the article, a sub-introduction lays out a more detailed context and scope of that specific study. Following each article, the discussion part highlights the study’s main findings and contributions and presents its overarching relevance to this dissertation. The first empirical paper (chapter 2) included in this thesis introduced the Social Perception Theory of Creative Persons, which was originally developed and validated among German adolescents. This theory, construct, and the corresponding measurement instrument have been tested and validated on gifted Irish students (Hopp et al., 2019) and Chinese university students (Li et al., 2021; cf. chapter 4). This innovative construct and its cross-cultural validation formed a strong theoretical and empirical foundation for examining social perception as a potential motivational source in later studies. Paper 2 (chapter 3) developed a Creativity Motivation Theory, along with a conceptual construct and measurement scale. It dealt with two major problems in the research: most motivational theories and constructs have no clear clarification of the creative behaviors that they aim to explain, and there is a lack of rigorous cross-cultural validation across multiple countries of the existing motivational constructs and measurements. In fruitful collaborations with researchers worldwide, my coauthors and I conducted research with participants from six nations. This pioneer cross-cultural validation of creativity motivation confirmed that the theory developed, along with its concept and measurement instrument, can be applied across various cultural settings. Paper 3 (chapter 4) further explored the connections between people’s social perception of creative persons (from paper 1), creativity motivation (from paper 2), and creative achievements. First, we verified the motivational and behavioral consequences of the social perception theory of creative persons, as proposed in paper 1. Then, by integrating two implicit beliefs—the growth mindset of the creative self and the stereotype of creative others—we measured and compared their importance in people’s motivation and achievement in creative activities. Finally, the fourth paper (chapter 5) took a more integrated approach and focused on the interplay between individual motivational aspects and social-environmental factors in different cultural contexts. Specifically, we explored the underlying motivational mechanisms of responsive social others on people’s motivational aspects (i.e., creativity motivation, creative self-efficacy, and creative growth mindset) and creative achievements across eight countries and cultural groups. With the cross-cultural comparison, we examined the similarities and differences between the findings in various cultural contexts, thus presenting a more nuanced picture of the psycho-socio-cultural nature of motivation and creativity. The general discussion in chapter 6 summarizes the main findings and contributions of the research presented in this dissertation. The theories and research developed offer several lenses through which we can better understand, explain, and foster different motivational aspects of creativity. After the summary, I outlined the practical implications and provided an outlook for relevant ongoing and future research.
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Past work on motivation has primarily studied dichotomous distinctions of motivation (e.g., extrinsic or intrinsic). However, focusing on the overall motivational intensity may be better at accentuating the unique differences within and between varying motivators as it pertains to the impetus to act. Specifically, motivational intensity influences neural patterns of beta band frequency (13-30Hz) as measured by electroencephalography (EEG) that enable motor-action preparation, a neural correlate of motivated movement. The primary aim of across three experiments was to investigate neural motor-action preparation to modified flanker tasks within achievement (Experiment 1), autonomous (Experiment 2), and extrinsic vs. intrinsic (Experiment 3) motivational contexts. Experiment 1 revealed greater motor-action preparation for challenging trial cues, and did not differ in behavioral attentional and performance measures across both trial types. Experiment 2 revealed no significant difference in motor-action preparation, did not differ in behavioral attentional narrowing, and had worse behavioral performance in high autonomy relative to low autonomy trials. Experiment 3 revealed greater motor-action preparation for challenging trial cues, did not differ in behavioral attentional narrowing, and had faster performance for reward trials relative to high autonomy trials. These findings suggest motivators of the same category (i.e., intrinsic) may differ in motivational strength, as suggested by a neurophysiological measure of immediate motivated movement planning.
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Several approaches focus on how to automatically capture the latent features from original diffusion data and predict the future scale of cascades utilizing a black box framework. However, they ignore the penetrating insight into the underlying mechanism that how each participant is involved in the cascade. In this work, we bridge the gap between prediction and understanding of information diffusion by incorporating deep learning techniques and social psychology. To characterize individual participation driven by both subjective and objective impetus and integrate it into the macro-level cascade, we propose an end-to-end model, named PFDID, which is designed based on the field dynamics theory of psychology, including the intrinsic cognition field and the extrinsic environment field. We represent these two field dynamics respectively with the pairwise semantic relation between the message itself and corresponding comment and the forwarder’s micro-community activity embedding to provide educated explanations for forwarding behaviour. Afterwards, the cross infusion mechanism is designed to calculate the mutual influence of inhomogeneous field dynamics inside users and cross influence of homogeneous field dynamics among individuals, whose output is fed into the diffusion network aggregation layer for the cascade size prediction. Extensive experiments on two typical social networks, Sina Weibo and Twitter, manifest that the proposed PFDID outperforms state-of-the-art approaches. Our model achieves excellent prediction results, with MSLE = 1.856 on Sina Weibo and MSLE = 1.962 on Twitter, providing 6.54% and 10.53% relative performance gains, respectively. Furthermore, the interpretability is also discussed based on detailed visualization. We observe that the psychological impetus behind social behaviour varies mainly following two patterns with the spread of information, including gradual change and joint influence. Additionally, the indirect dependencies have also been verified.
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Purpose: The purpose of the study was to explore the association between emotional intelligence, person-environment congruence and intrinsic job satisfaction in two professional groups, the first focusing on interpersonal relationships and the second, on data, things, and ideas. Originality/value: The study presents the association between congruence, emotional intelligence and intrinsic satisfaction at work and tests the model in which congruence moderates the association between emotional intelligence and intrinsic satisfaction in two professional groups. Design/methodology/approach: Survey-type study in which 486 workers participated in two groups of professionals using the realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising and conventional (RIASEC) model. Participants responded to questionnaires of professional interest and occupational environments necessary to measure congruence, and, then, emotional intelligence and intrinsic satisfaction. Findings: Positive associations were identified between emotional intelligence, person-environment congruence, and intrinsic job satisfaction, with higher associations in the group with high interpersonal demands, highlighting the relevance of emotional skills in this professional segment. However, it was found that the congruence does not moderate the association between emotional intelligence and intrinsic satisfaction in either group, emphasizing that the person-environment fit and emotional skills can contribute independently to explain worker satisfaction with the activities developed in the organization.
Chapter
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Chapter
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The performance of an activity can have positive incentives per se and individuals may engage in an activity purely for the enjoyment of it. The engagement due to the enjoyment of an activity is often called intrinsic motivation. Beside this understanding of intrinsic mo-tivation other conceptions are presented (self-determination, experience of competence, interest and involvement, mean-end-correspondence, learning-goal orientation). In doing so, the problem became evident, that the term intrinsic motivation refers to different, even conflicting conceptions. With the “Extended Cognitive Model of Motivation” different as-pects of motivation are theoretically integrated. Instead of using the term intrinsic motiva-tion, we use the term activity-related motivation. Qualitative and quantitative ways to measure activity-related incentives are outlined. Finally we present an intensively studied activity-related incentive, i.e. the experience of flow.
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Chapter
Work motivation is an important determinant of the success of individuals, teams, and organizations. Researchers and professionals are therefore interested in motivation as a key variable that can explain performance, commitment, and work satisfaction. This chapter provides an introduction to classic theories of employee motivation and current applied research. Finally, the chapter will introduce the 3C-model of motivation as a framework for the comprehensive classification of the determinants of employee motivation.
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of the various different historical branches of research on motivation. In general, research on motivation can be divided into four conceptually different approaches based on the problems they address: first, volitional approaches which conceptualize volition as externally caused (heterogenetic position) or internally driven (autogenetic position) and examine them phenomenologically or experimentally; second, approaches of instinct theory, which describes the content of motivation with more or less comprehensive lists of instincts and tries to assess motivational processes with concepts of behavioral ethology such as innate causal mechanisms; third, approaches of personality theory, which can be distinguished based on whether their orientation lies in motivational, cognitive, or personality theory; and, lastly, the approaches of association theory which are divided into approaches based on learning or activation.
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