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Abstract

We combined three independent streams of workplace climate research, safety, violence prevention, and civility, to devise a general safety climate scale that explicitly addressed a variety of risks. A confirmatory factor analysis suggested that a higher-order factor may be responsible for the similarity in relationships across these safety-related climate measures with exposure to organizational hazards and resulting employee outcomes. As a result, a concise 10-item measure was developed and validated to assess a possible general safety climate factor. Further analyses suggested that the use of a general safety climate measure did not attenuate the relationships with workplace hazards and employee outcomes. Although different safety-related climate variables may be theoretically distinct, there may not be a measurable benefit in promoting one form of climate over others. Future studies should consider employing the general safety climate measure in place of domain-specific climate measures, unless the domain-specific climate is solely of interest.

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... Across industries, employees are exposed to psychological hassles such as incivility (Hutchinson et al., 2018). Specifically, in nursing, incivility is a widespread problem that has garnered much attention in recent years (Laschinger et al., 2013;Jiang et al., 2018). ...
... Focusing on the overlooked organizational viewpoint of these adverse interrelations, recently, it was noted that experiencing incivility also shapes the organizational climate (Hutchinson et al., 2018), which is defined as the accumulated set of perceptions employees share concerning their work environment (Brawley Newlin and Pury, 2019). Although the concept of climates refers to the organizational level and is defined as the aggregated perception of employees concerning their work environment, to the most part, it is founded on individuals' attribution of meaning to their organizational surroundings (Beus et al., 2018) thus, it is fed by the micro-level and demonstrates an interplay between the micro-and macro-level. ...
... Embedded in the authors' model, power creates the opportunity to misbehave and thus serves as a driver of bullying. As bullying shares its many characteristics of incivility as an interpersonal maltreatment, and as Hutchinson et al. (2010) also posits that these adverse power extractions also impact ethics of care and justice which are central to healthcare dynamics, we hypothesize that these are also the dynamics when it comes to incivility, in line with the authors' model and later view of incivility as an organizational hazard that impacts ethics (Hutchinson et al., 2010;Hutchinson et al., 2018). Thus, we posit that H1. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to assess the relationship between incivility and two organizational and personal attitudes, namely, perceived ethical climate and perceived quality of work-life of nurses, in the framework of organizational climate. Design/methodology/approach Quantitative data of 148 nurses working in a medium-sized hospital in Israel were collected. Furthermore, qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 12 nurses and 14 doctors from the same hospital, constructing a mixed-method approach. Findings Findings revealed that witnessing or experiencing incivility affected the nurses' perception of the ethical climate of their work unit and their perceived quality of their work-life. Additionally, we found that the relationship between incivility and nurses' perceived quality of work-life was partially mediated through their perceived ethical climate. The qualitative data supported some of the findings. Originality/value The article stretches the incivility theory beyond its dyadic boundaries, prominently showing the spillover effect of incivility as an organizational problem. Additionally, it offers some evidence-based support for the multidimensionality of incivility, strengthening the need for a construct cleanup.
... (1) Identifying: Viewing context as a significant driver of adverse organisational climate (Hutchinson et al., 2018), top management should identify contextual indicators such as level of pressure, power distribution in organisational units and other contextual factors that can increase the probability for uncivil behaviours. Once these structured conditions are identified, human resource (HR) practices should be utilised, striving to defuse these contextual drivers. ...
Article
Purpose In the current study framework, the authors test the underlying assumptions of affective events theory concerning the impact of job satisfaction and job insecurity driven by incivility on intrapreneurial behaviour. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected with a sample of 510 employees from five organisations. All hypotheses were tested via SmartPLS3. Additionally, a distinction between formative and reflective measures was performed. Findings Findings revealed that incivility decreases intrapreneurial behaviour, mediated by job satisfaction and job insecurity. Additionally, this study’s results show that the relationship between job satisfaction and job insecurity and intrapreneurial behaviour distinguishes unionised employees from employees who are not unionised. Research limitations/implications The cross-sectional nature of the present data precluded definitive statements about causality. Additionally, further studies should increase the sample size and include an international perspective to ensure the overall generalisability of the results. Practical implications Practically, this study’s findings point to the need for organisational management to understand better underlying employees' perceptions and their antecedents and consequences. Originality/value The study results contribute to the literature by testing the core assumptions of affective events theory and by extending the affective events theory model, incorporating contextual influences on the relationship between attitudes and behaviours. The authors also show for the first time that incivility can be directly (compared to indirectly) linked to emotional-based responses, but not to those responses driven by cognitive appraisals. Thus, the study also contributes to the incivility literature and the understanding of various antecedents and consequences of incivility. Additionally, this study addressed the notion of formative versus reflective measurement models for the first time relating to incivility and intrapreneurial behaviour, allowing for more sensitive and less biased results. Herein lies an additional methodological contribution.
... (1) Identifying: In line with viewing context as a significant driver of adverse organizational climate (Hutchinson et al., 2018), top management should identify contextual indicators such as level of pressure, power distribution in organizational units and other contextual factors that can increase the probability for leadership mistreatment namely ADL. Once these structured conditions are identified, Human Resource (HR) practices should be utilized, striving to defuse these contextual drivers. ...
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Purpose The full-range leadership theory, and the distinction between transformational, transactional and laissez-faire leadership behaviour has strongly influenced leadership theory and research in the last several decades. However, in spite of its impact on theory and practice, it has a few shortcomings, as, in its essence, it disregards several essential aspects of a leader’s behaviour, such as the dark side of leadership behaviour. Therefore, to capture various leader behaviours, we provide a more comprehensive leadership model named the “complete full range of leadership”. Design/methodology/approach Based on reviewing the relevant theoretical and empirical literature, we propose an extended theoretical model, which addresses the existing shortcomings of the full range leadership model. Findings First, we added a new active and more destructive facet of leadership style named active, destructive leadership style. Second, based on existing empirical findings, we restructured the transactional facet of full-range leadership by collapsing its components into two new distinct facets representing active constructive leadership style and passive destructive leadership style. Finally, drawing on Hersey and Blanchard’s model, we add a new passive and constructive facet named passive constructive leadership. Originality/value Our suggested “complete full range of leadership” contributes to leadership theory by addressing the gap between existing theory and empirical findings, making a clear distinction between lack of leadership and delegation and by comprising the dark side of leadership with its bright side into one comprehensive leadership model.
... (1) Identifying: Viewing context as a significant driver of adverse organisational climate (Hutchinson et al., 2018), top management should identify contextual indicators such as level of pressure, power distribution in organisational units and other contextual factors that can increase the probability for uncivil behaviours. Once these structured conditions are identified, human resource (HR) practices should be utilised, striving to defuse these contextual drivers. ...
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A measure of environmental frustration was constructed and administered to 401 young graduate engineers working in industry 12–28 mo post-graduation. Self-reported frustration was associated with anger reactions, latent hostility, job dissatisfaction, and, to a lesser extent, work-related anxiety. Multiple regression analysis indicated that organizational climate, role stress, and social support all contributed to the level of environmental frustration. These variables were also associated with the dependent variables, but frustration was still associated with anger reactions and latent hostility when their effects were statistically controlled. The strongest predictors of dissatisfaction were organizational climate and qualitative underload. Results suggest that environmental frustration is an important source of stress in organizational life. (9 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale (RSE) has been widely used in examinations of sex differences in global self-esteem. However, previous examinations of sex differences have not accounted for method effects associated with item wording, which have consistently been reported by researchers using the RSE. Accordingly, this study examined the multigroup invariance of global self-esteem and method effects associated with negatively worded items on the RSE between males and females. A correlated traits, correlated methods framework for modeling method effects was combined with a standard multigroup invariance routine using covariance structure analysis. Overall, there were few differences between males and females in terms of the measurement of self-esteem and method effects associated with negatively worded items on the RSE. Our findings suggest that, whereas method effects exist on the RSE scale for both males and females, the method effects associated with negatively worded items do not influence the measurement invariance and mean differences in global self-esteem scores between the sexes.
Article
This article examines the adequacy of the “rules of thumb” conventional cutoff criteria and several new alternatives for various fit indexes used to evaluate model fit in practice. Using a 2‐index presentation strategy, which includes using the maximum likelihood (ML)‐based standardized root mean squared residual (SRMR) and supplementing it with either Tucker‐Lewis Index (TLI), Bollen's (1989) Fit Index (BL89), Relative Noncentrality Index (RNI), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Gamma Hat, McDonald's Centrality Index (Mc), or root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA), various combinations of cutoff values from selected ranges of cutoff criteria for the ML‐based SRMR and a given supplemental fit index were used to calculate rejection rates for various types of true‐population and misspecified models; that is, models with misspecified factor covariance(s) and models with misspecified factor loading(s). The results suggest that, for the ML method, a cutoff value close to .95 for TLI, BL89, CFI, RNI, and Gamma Hat; a cutoff value close to .90 for Mc; a cutoff value close to .08 for SRMR; and a cutoff value close to .06 for RMSEA are needed before we can conclude that there is a relatively good fit between the hypothesized model and the observed data. Furthermore, the 2‐index presentation strategy is required to reject reasonable proportions of various types of true‐population and misspecified models. Finally, using the proposed cutoff criteria, the ML‐based TLI, Mc, and RMSEA tend to overreject true‐population models at small sample size and thus are less preferable when sample size is small.
Article
We constructed a model of workplace psychosocial safety climate (PSC) to explain the origins of job demands and resources, worker psychological health, and employee engagement. PSC refers to policies, practices, and procedures for the protection of worker psychological health and safety. Using the job demands–resources framework, we hypothesized that PSC as an upstream organizational resource influenced largely by senior management, would precede the work context (i.e., job demands and resources) and would in turn predict psychological health and work engagement via mediation and moderation pathways. We operationalized PSC at the school level and tested meso-mediational models using two-level (longitudinal) hierarchical linear modelling in a sample of Australian education workers (N = 209–288). Data were repeated measures separated by 12 months, nested within 18 schools. PSC predicted change in individual psychological health problems (psychological distress, emotional exhaustion) through its relationship with individual job demands (work pressure and emotional demands). PSC moderated the relationship between emotional demands and emotional exhaustion. PSC predicted change in employee engagement, through its relationship with skill discretion. The results show that the PSC construct is a key upstream component of work stress theory and a logical intervention site for work stress intervention.
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Workplace violence towards nurses is prevalent and consequential, contributing to nurses' reduced health and safety, worsened job attitudes, and compromised productivity. To examine if organizational violence prevention climate as perceived by nurses predicts nurses' physical violence exposure and if physical violence exposure predicts nurses' somatic symptoms and musculoskeletal disorder symptoms. A two-wave longitudinal design with naturally occurring groups, with a 6-month interval. Analysis of covariance and logistic regression were applied to test the proposed hypotheses among 176 nurses from two hospitals in the U.S. who participated in both surveys required by this study. All nurses from the two hospitals were recruited to participate voluntarily. The response rate was 30% for the first survey and 36% for the follow-up survey. Among the subjects, only 8 were male. On average, the subjects were about 45 years old, had a job tenure of about 17 years, and worked approximately 37h per week. Violence prevention climate, specifically the dimension of perceived pressure against violence prevention, predicted nurses' chance of being exposed to physical violence over six months (odds ratio 1.69), with no evidence found that violence exposure affected change in climate reports. In addition, results supported that nurses' physical violence exposure had effects on somatic symptoms, and upper body, lower extremity, and low back pain over six months. Findings of this study suggest that reducing organizational pressure against violence prevention will help decrease the chance of nurses' physical violence exposure and benefit their health and safety.
Article
A 50-item instrument that assesses employees’ perceptions of work safety, the Work Safety Scale (WSS), was constructed and validated using three independent samples. The results showed that the WSS measures five factorially distinct constructs: (a) job safety, (b) coworker safety, (c) supervisor safety, (d) management safety practices, and (e) satisfaction with the safety program. Each of these scales has a high degree of internal consistency across the three samples. Supervisor safety and management safety practices were the best predictors of job satisfaction. In addition, supporting previous research, supervisor safety and management safety practices were significantly correlated with reported accident rates. Coworker safety and supervisor safety were strongly linked to employee’s compliance with safety behaviors. WSS subscales were logically related to job stress, psychological complaints, physical complaints, and sleep complaints. Implications of the results are discussed.
Article
Workplace accidents and violence are both potential sources of employee injuries that have been dealt with in entirely separate literatures. In this study we adapted the concept of safety climate from the accident/injury literature to violence in developing the concept of perceived violence climate. A scale was developed to assess perceived violence climate, including items about management attention, concern, and policies designed to keep employees safe from violence. Data were collected from a sample of 198 nurses from a US Hospital. Perceived violence climate was found to correlate significantly with both physical violence and verbal aggression experienced by the nurses, injury from violence, and perceptions of workplace danger. Furthermore, regression analyses showed that climate explained additional variance in psychological strain and perceptions of danger over experienced violence. These results have implications for interventions aimed at producing a good perceived violence climate in order to reduce the incidence of violence and aggression within an organization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract)
Article
Violence climate, a concept derived from the safety climate literature, may affect violence and aggression at work. This paper builds upon the unidimensional instrument tested by Spector, Coulter, Stockwell, and Matz (200745. Spector , P.E. , Coulter , M.L. , Stockwell , H.G. and Matz , M.W. 2007. Relationships of workplace physical violence and verbal aggression with perceived safety, perceived violence climate, and strains in a healthcare setting. Work & Stress, 21: 117–130. [Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®]View all references). The present instrument, the Violence Climate Survey is a new three-dimensional construct of violence climate consisting of Policies and Procedures, Practices, and Pressure for Unsafe Practices. Using a heterogeneous sample of 216 employees from a variety of organizations in the USA, it was shown that violence climate is significantly related to exposure to physical violence and verbal aggression, physical strains, and psychological strains including job dissatisfaction and negative emotion at work. Exposure to both violence and aggression was associated with all strains. Multiple regression analyses suggested that it was primarily Policies and Pressure that was associated with verbal aggression, whereas mainly Practices was related to physical violence. It is suggested that the construct of violence climate may be a useful subject for further research. In practice, policies may be useful in reducing verbal aggression, but physical violence requires more direct management action and practice.
Article
This study explored mechanisms underlying employees' behaviors targeted at preventing workplace physical violence and verbal aggression. Poor psychological violence-prevention climate perceptions and previous exposure to violence and aggression represent stressors that were associated with increased strains and reduced motivation. Strains and motivation, in turn, were related to prevention behaviors. We collected data from employee and coworker dyads, and structural equation modeling results supported that clear organizational policies, prompt management responses to assaults, and putting safety as a priority contributed positively to prevention behaviors through reduced strains and increased motivation. On the other hand, prior experiences of being attacked were related to more strains and lower motivation, which were related to lower prevention compliance. Our results inform future interventions for violence prevention. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Construct empirical redundancy may be a major problem in organizational research today. In this paper, we explain and empirically illustrate a method for investigating this potential problem. We applied the method to examine the empirical redundancy of job satisfaction (JS) and organizational commitment (OC), two well-established organizational constructs. Analysis based on responses from a sample of 292 employees collected at two occasions showed that: (a) the construct-level correlation between JS and OC was very high (.91) and (b) both JS and OC are similarly related to positive affectivity and negative affectivity. These results suggest that the constructs may be empirically indistinguishable, despite their well-established conceptual distinction. These findings illustrate the problem of empirical redundancy of organizational constructs and provide a basis for a possible movement towards parsimony in the realm of constructs that could open the way to more rapid advances in knowledge in organizational research.
Article
Looking back over 30 years of my own and other safety-climate scholars' research, my primary reflection is that we have achieved an enormous task of validating safety climate as a robust leading indicator or predictor of safety outcomes across industries and countries. The time has therefore come for moving to the next phase of scientific inquiry in which constructs are being augmented by testing its relationships with antecedents, moderators and mediators, as well as relationships with other established constructs. Whereas there has been some significant progress in this direction over the last 30 years (e.g. leadership as a climate antecedent), much more work is required for augmenting safety climate theory. I hope this article will stimulate further work along these lines.
Article
This case illustrates the rapid systematic desensitization of a fear of injections following two in-office treatment sessions and seven daily in-vivo exposures to the phobic situation over a three week period. The reoccurrence of the phobic response in selected situations, and the generalization effects of counter conditioning upon unrelated classes of fears is discussed.
Article
It is widely accepted that job conditions are a causal factor in stress outcomes for employees. This conclusion, however, is based almost entirely on single data source, self-report studies, which demonstrate correlations between environmental perceptions and stress outcomes. This study collected stressor data from two sources, the job incumbent and her supervisor. Convergent and discriminant validities were found for four stressors (autonomy, workload, number of hours worked, and number of people worked for) but not for three others (role ambiguity, constraints, and interpersonal conflict). Correlations were found between perception of stressors and outcomes, the latter including both affective and symptoms. Smaller correlations were found between supervisor reports of stressors and outcomes, the latter including both affective and symptoms. Alternative causal models relevant to these results are discussed. The need for causal research including experimental designs, longitudinal designs, and multiple data sources are also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Global self-esteem based on M. Rosenberg's (1965) scale is typically treated as a unidimensional scale. However, factor analyses suggest separate factors associated with positively and negatively worded items, and there is an ongoing debate about the substantive meaningfulness of this distinction. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to evaluate alternative 1- and 2-factor models and to test hypotheses about how the factors vary with reading ability and age. Responses based on the National Longitudinal Study of 1988 (S.J. Ingles et al., 1992) reflected a relatively unidimensional factor and method effects associated with negatively worded items. Such effects are common in rating scale responses, and this CFA approach may be useful in evaluating whether factors associated with positively and negatively worded items are substantively meaningful or artifactors.
Article
Despite the widespread use of self-report measures of both job-related stressors and strains, relatively few carefully developed scales for which validity data exist are available. In this article, we discuss 3 job stressor scales (Interpersonal Conflict at Work Scale, Organizational Constraints Scale, and Quantitative Workload Inventory) and 1 job strain scale (Physical Symptoms Inventory). Using meta-analysis, we combined the results of 18 studies to provide estimates of relations between our scales and other variables. Data showed moderate convergent validity for the 3 job stressor scales, suggesting some objectively to these self-reports. Norms for each scale are provided. The scales can be found at http://shell.cas.usf.edu/~pspector/scalepage.html
Article
Standardised questionnaires for the analysis of musculoskeletal symptoms in an ergonomic or occupational health context are presented. The questions are forced choice variants and may be either self-administered or used in interviews. They concentrate on symptoms most often encountered in an occupational setting. The reliability of the questionnaires has been shown to be acceptable. Specific characteristics of work strain are reflected in the frequency of responses to the questionnaires.
The influence of leadership and climate on occupational health and safety. In: Health and safety 670 in organizations. A multilevel perspective
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Theoretical advancements in the study of anti-social behavior at work Symposium conducted at the meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology
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Neuman J, Keashly L, editors. Development of the workplace aggression research questionnaire (WAR-Q): preliminary data from the workplace stress and aggression project. RJ Bennett & CD Crossley (Chairs), Theoretical advancements in the study of anti-social behavior at work Symposium conducted at the meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Chicago, IL; 2004.
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A study of the lagged relation-755
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Neal A, Griffin MA. A study of the lagged relation-755
ships among safety climate, safety motivation, safety behavior, and accidents at the individual and group levels
ships among safety climate, safety motivation, safety behavior, and accidents at the individual and group levels. J Appl Psychol. 2006;91(4): 946-953. PubMed PMID: 2006-08435-016.