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Effect of feeding frequency and feeding time on growth performance, feed utilization efficiency and body chemical composition on Rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus fry and juvenile under laboratory condition

Authors:
  • Faculty of Aquaculture and Marine Fisheries Arish University
Egypt. J. Aquat. Biol. & Fish., Vol. 20, No. 3: 35 – 52 (2016) ISSN 1110 – 6131
www.ejabf.eg.net
Effect of feeding frequency and feeding time on growth performance, feed
utilization efficiency and body chemical composition on Rabbitfish Siganus
rivulatus fry and juvenile under laboratory condition
Mohamed F. A. Abdel-Aziz1; Ragab A. Mohammed1; Ramadan M. Abou-Zied2
and Sobhy M. Allam2
1- National Institute of Oceanography and fisheries (NIOF), EGYPT.
2- Animal Production Department, Faculty of agriculture, Fayoum University, Egypt.
Corresponding author: E-mail: m_fathy8789@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
The present study consisted of two trials that conducted to evaluate the feeding
frequency and the feeding time on growth performance, feed efficiency and body
composition of rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus, the fish fed on one diet (35% crude
protein). The first trial was conducted on rabbitfish fry (initial weight 0.18 g ± 0.012)
and consisted of different three treatments of feeding frequency, the first treatment the
daily meal divided into two times, the second treatment the daily meal divided into
three times and the third treatment, the meal was divided into four times.
The second trial was conducted on rabbitfish juvenile (initial weight 0.948 g ±
0.124) and consisted of different four treatments of feeding time. fish fed in two times
the first treatment fed at 9am and 11am, the second treatment fish fed at 11am and
1pm, the third treatment fish fed 1pm and 4pm and the fourth treatment fish fed at
9am and 4pm. The statistical analysis of results indicated that, feeding frequency
feeding time appeared significantly differences between the treatments in growth
performance and feed utilization parameters. The total gain in weight and feed
conversion ratio were affected by feeding frequency and feeding time. The results
affirmed that, the third treatment (four time feeding /day) in the first trial and both the
first and second treatments in the second trial were the best of the growth performance
and feed utilization parameters.
Keywords: Rabbitfish, feeding frequency, feeding time, growth performance and feed utilization
INTRODUCTION
Marbled spinefoot rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus is a potential candidate for warm
water marine aquaculture diversification (Lam, 1974).Rabbitfishes belong to the
genus Siganus of the family siganidae (Woodland, 1990). Siganids are herbivorous
marine and brackishwater fishes that are found throughout the indo-west pacific
(Woodland, 1983), and the more common species are the objects of traditional
subsistence and commercial fisheries throughout this region. There has been interest
in the culture of these fishes in ponds or cages in several areas (Duray, 1990).
Rabbitfish are considered to be excellent food fish in many parts of the world
especially in the eastern Mediterranean and indo-pacific regions (Lam, 1974) and are
economically important and relatively easy to rear and thus considered suitable for
aquaculture (Hara et al., 1986). Additionally, rabbitfish have a high market value in
Eastern Mediterranean countries (Stephanou and Georgiou, 2000), invaded the eastern
Mediterranean via the Suez canal.
Marbled spine foot rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus is one of the most important
commercial marine fish in Egypt. Whereas Egypt production of rabbitfish was about
Mohamed F. A. Abdel-Aziz et al.
36
1363 ton in 2014, Mediterranean Sea took part in 822ton production, Red Sea (466
ton) and lakes (75 ton) according to (GAFRD, 2014) and also, In previous years, Lake
Qaroun was developed by rabbitfish fry and appeared the first production in 2010 and
reached this production about (1 ton), a maximum rabbitfish production of Lake
Qaroun about 5ton obtained in 2012, (GAFRD, 2014).
The feeding regime has become diverse but the thumb rule of feeding stock at
optimum level should be very economical so as to have savings in feed cost and the
overall economic justification. (Webster et al., 1992).
The success of culturing fish depends on maximizing cost effective manner in
the production process. It is known that inappropriate feeding practices in aquaculture
may lead to over feeding which results in feed wastes in pond water and consequently
higher production costs and contamination of aquatic environment. Meanwhile
insufficient feeding lead to poor growth and high fish mortalities which make losses
in the aquaculture business (Eroldogan et al., 2006). As well as the amount of the
daily feed intake, frequency and timing of the feedings and presentation of the
predetermined ration are the key factors of feed management strategies, influencing
the growth and feed conversion (Goddard, 1995 and Jobling, 1995). On the contrary,
some studies (Robinson et al., 1995 and Jarboe and Grant, 1996) reported that feeding
time and feeding frequency did not significantly influence the weight gain, feed
consumption, feed conversion ratio (FCR), and survival in a single-size catfish
production unit.
Feeding frequency affectson fish growth (Wang et al., 1998, Lee et al., 2000,
Zhou et al., 2002, Riche et al., 2004, Schnaittacher et al., 2005, Tucker et al., 2006
and Silva et al., 2007). as does feeding time (Sundararaj et al., 1982, Noeske and
Spieler, 1984, Noeskeet al., 1985, Reddy et al., 1994, Boujard et al., 1995). Together,
feeding frequency, time and ration size play a determinant role in regulating feed
intake, growth and waste outputs of fish (Silva et al., 2007).
The feeding frequency is one of the most important variables influencing
growth and the feed conversion ratio in aquaculture husbandry practices (Biswas et
al., 2010, Lee and Pham, 2010 and Aydin et al., 2012) and by controlling the
optimum feeding frequency, farmers can successfully reduce the feed cost and
maximize growth and also able to manage other factors such as individual size
variation and water qualities which are deemed important in rearing of fish in culture
conditions (Shearer, 1994).
The feeding behaviour of fish has been much studied, and there are many
indications that the time of feeding affects growth, feed efficiency and body
composition (see review by Bolliet et al., 2001). A number of studies have
demonstrated that feeding time affects growth performance in fish (Baras et al.,
1998). It has been suggested that the optimal feeding time to promote growth might
correspond to the natural daily peak of feeding activity in any particular species.
The study aimed to determine the best feeding frequency and the optimum
feeding time, giving the best growth performance and feed utilization of rabbitfish
(Siganus rivulatus) fry and juvenile.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The present study was conducted using the research facilities of Shakshouk Fish
Research Station, Fayoum Governorate, National Institute of Oceanography and
Fisheries (NIOF), Egypt. Rabbitfish (Siganus rivulatus) fry and juveniles were
obtained in two groups, the first group (Fry) or the first trial fish from (Mediterranean
Effect of feeding frequency on growth performance S. rivulatus fry under laboratory condition 37
Sea) National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries (NIOF), Alexandria
Governorate-Egypt. The initial average weight (W1) for this group 0.18 g ± 0.012 (SE
standard error) and initial average length (L1) 2.76 cm ±0.057 (in date 19/7/2015).
The second group (juvenile) or the second trial fish was obtained from (Mediterranean
Sea) Maadiaregion-Behaira Governorate- Egypt, initial average weight (W1) for this
group 0.948 g ± 0.124 (SE standard error) and initial average length (L1) 3.97 cm ±
0.200 (in date, 7-8-2015).Two groups fish were acclimatized to be adapted to water
salinity of Lake Qaroun 33 for one week before size sorting and removal of large
and small fish.
Diet preparation
One artificial diet was formulated by hand and used in this study with the first
trial and the second trial (Table 1), the diet formulated to be almost containing 35%
crude protein.
Table 1: Ingredients and chemical analysis proximate of the experimental diet
Ingredients (g/100 g)
Fish meal (72%CP) 22
Extruded full fat Soybean meal (37% CP) 43
Wheat bran minutes 28
Fish oil 4
Super yeast 1
Starch 1.7
Vit. & Min. & premix 0.3
Total 100
chemical analysis % on Dry matter basis As fed
Moisture (M) 6.94
Dry matter (DM) 93.06
Crude protein (CP) 36.44
Ether extract (EE) 13.78
Crude fiber (CF) 3.10
Nitrogen free extract (NFE) 39.02
Ash 7.66
Gross energy (GE, Kcal/g)* 5.09
Protein / Gross energy (P/GE) 7.16
Notice: -Chemical analysiswas determined according to (A.O.A.C, 1984) and NFE was
calculated by difference.
*Calculated according to NRC (1993).
The first trial: Effect of feeding frequency
This trial was one way began 25/7/2015 and ended 3/11/2015, (100 days).
Average initial weight (W1) of fry was 0.18±0.012g, initial average length (L1)
2.76cm ± 0.05 and initial condition index (CIi) was 0.85gcm-3. It was conducted to
investigate the effect of dividing meal on growth and feed efficiency.
Experimental tanks
The indoor rectangular tanks laboratory were made of fiberglass, this trial
consisted of six tanks. The dimensions of each tank were 4m length, m width and
0.50m height and the water volume of each tank was 1.50m3.
Trial design and distribution of fish in tanks
This trial consisted of three treatments, in the first treatment the daily meal
divided into two times at 9 am and 4 pm, in the second treatment the daily meal
divided into three times at 9 am,1pm and 4pm and the third treatment, the meal was
divided into four times at 9 am, 11am, 1pm and 4pm. Fish fed on diet (35% CP)
Mohamed F. A. Abdel-Aziz et al.
38
Table (1) feeding rate was 7% of fish body weight and fish were stocked at 30 fish of
each tank.
The second trial: Effect of feeding time
This trial was one way began 15/8/2015 and ended 17/11/2015, (95 days).
Average initial weight (W1) of juvenile was 0.948±0.124 g, initial average length (L1)
3.97 cm ± 0.200 and initial condition index (CIi) 1.51gcm-3. It was conducted to know
the optimum feeding time of rabbitfish juvenile during day.
Experimental tanks
The indoor circle tanks laboratory were made of fiberglass, this trial consisted
of eight tanks. The dimensions of each circle tank was 1.75 m diameter and 0.70 m
height, the water volume of each tank was 1.60m3.
Trial design and distribution of fish in tanks
This trial consisted of four treatments to evaluate four different feeding times
during day, where the first treatment fish fed in two times at 9am and 11am, the
second treatment fish fed in two times at 11am and 1pm, the third treatment fish fed in
two times 1pm and 4pm and the fourth treatment fish fed in two times at 9am and
4pm. Fish feeding on diet (35% CP) Table (1) at 5% of fish body weight and stocking
density was 40 fish per tank.
Water exchange.
The water exchange was every two days and about 35% of water volume / tank
as water exchange rate in the first and the second trails.
The system of running water in experimental units (tanks)
The system contained on water pump, sand filter unit and two large tanks
(1000 liter/tank) used to storage the water at a point between the water source (Lake
Qaroun water) and experimental tanks. The water pump was drowning the water from
water source to the sand filter unit, hence to the large tanks and hence to experimental
units.
The system of aeration in experimental units (tanks).
The system contained on air pump or blower connected to a network of plastic
pipes this pipes transport the air to each tank, the air was controlled by tap of each
pond or tank, and the air diffusers was used to distribute of air in all experimental unit
trends.
Water quality of the indoor tanks laboratory (in the experimental units)
The water quality of the indoor tanks laboratory (in the experimental units) were
measured of each trial. Temperature, pH, salinity and EC were measured daily at
1pm; dissolved oxygen (DO) was measured every week and Nitrite (NO2), Nitrate
(NO3), Ammonia (NH4) were measured every two weeks. By centigrade thermometer;
Orion digital pH meter model 201; Refractometer (VITAL Sine SR-6, China);
Conductivity meter model (YSI.SCT-33) and oxygen meter (Cole Parmer model
5946) respectively. While NO2, NO3and NH4were measured by the chemical methods
according to (Mullin and Riley, 1955 and APHA, 1992).
Measurements of growth performance and some of the internal organs
Final condition index (CIf), Total weight gain (TG), average daily gain
(ADG), Relative growth rate (RGR), specific growth rate (SGR), survival rate (SR),
hepatosomatic index (HSI), viscerosomatic index (VSI), feed intake g/ fish (FI), feed
conversation ratio (FCR), feed conversation efficiency (FCE), protein efficiency ratio
(PER), protein productive value (PPV), energy efficiency ratio (EER), energy
productive value (EPV) and lipid retention (LR).
Effect of feeding frequency on growth performance S. rivulatus fry under laboratory condition 39
The parameters were calculated according the following equations:
(CIf) = (W2/ L³2) × X Whereas, W2:is final weight, L2: is the final length of fish
in cm and X: is a constant equal to 100 (Anderson and Gutreuter, 1983), TG, g =
final weight (W2)-initial weight (W1), ADG, g/day = average weight gain, g /
experimental period, day, RGR, % = [(W2- W1) / W1] × 100, SGR, % /day = [(ln W2-
ln W1)/t] × 100 whereas ln: is the natural log. and t: is the time in days, SR% =
(Number of fish at end/ Number of fish at start) × 100, (HSI) = (liver weight/body
weight) ×100 and (VSI) = (weight of viscera and associated fat tissue/body weight)
×100.
Measurements of feed utilization efficiency
FI, g/fish feed intake during the trial period/ the final number of fish for this
trial, FCR = feed intake, g / weight gain, g., FCE, % = (weight gain, g./ feed intake, g)
× 100, PER= Weight gain, g/ Protein intake, g., PPV, % = (Retained protein, g/
Protein intake, g) × 100, EER = Weight gain, g/ Energy intake, Kcal, EPV, % =
(Retained Energy, Kcal/ Energy intake, Kcal) × 100, LR, % = (Retained lipid, g/ lipid
intake, g) × 100.
Chemical analysis of feeds and whole fish body
The conversional chemical analysis of diet and whole body fish samples were
carried out as described by (A.O.A.C, 1984) and Gross energy (GE) estimated For
formulated diets the factors 5.64, 9.44 and 4.11 Kcal/g for CP, EE and carbohydrates
respectively were used (NRC, 1993), for fish 5.5 and 9.5 Kcal/g for protein and fat
respectively (Viola et al., 1981).
Statistical analysis
The analysis of variance and LSD of Duncan Waller were used to compare
treatment means. Data were analyzed using stat graphic package software (SPSS,
2007) SPSS Inc. Released 2007. SPSS for Windows, Version 16.0. Level of
significant was 0.05.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The first trial: Effect of feeding frequency
Water quality of the first trail
Water quality parameters recorded in this experiment are shown in Table (2).
The averages of water temperature, water pH, water salinity, electrical conductivity
(EC), dissolved Oxygen, and nitrite (NO2), nitrate (NO3), ammonia (NH4) values in
all treatments were within the acceptable limits for rabbitfish (Siganus rivulatus) fry
as reported by (Westernhagen and Rosenthal, 1975, Huguenin and Colt, 1989,Meade,
1989, Davis, 1993,Lawson, 1995 ,ANZECC, 2000, EPA, 2003, Saoud et al., 2007a
and Saoud et al., 2008).
Table 2: Means (±SE) of water quality parameters
*,mS/cm, millisiemens/centimeter
Items Treatments(feeding frequency)
(T1)Two times (T2)Three times (T3)Four times
Temperature (ºC) 26.310±0.262 26.560±0.825 26.600±0.456
pH 7.935±0.485 8.240±0.210 8.235±0.205
Salinity ‰ 32.610±0.810 32.590±0.910 32.680±0.980
ECmS/cm* 47.050±0.050 47.000±0.500 47.450±0.100
DO mg/l 6.290±1.110 6.795±0.605 6.235±1.16
NO
2
mg/l 0.198±0.001 0.196±0.003 0.192±.002
NO
3
mg/l 0.282±0.008 0.277±0.002 0.279±0.006
NH
4
mg/l 0.091±0.003 0.092±0.005 0.090±0.020
Mohamed F. A. Abdel-Aziz et al.
40
Effect of feeding frequency on growth performance of rabbitfish (Siganus
rivulatus) fry:
The averages of final length (L2, cm), final condition index (CIf, gcm-3), final
weight (W2, g), total gain in weight (TG, g), daily gain (ADG, g), relative growth rate
(RGR, %) specific growth rate (SGR/day %) , survival rate (SR%), hepatosomatic
index (HSI, %) and viscerosomatic index (VSI, %)are shown in Table (3) The
statistical analysis of results indicated that, feeding frequency appeared significantly
differences at level (0.05) between the third treatment and both the first and second
treatments in growth performance parameters (W2, g), (TG, g), (ADG, g/ day), (RGR,
%)and (SGR/day, %). Whereas, the third treatment was better than the second and
first treatment. No significant differences between the treatments of (L2, cm), (SR, %),
(HSI, %) and (VSI, %); but (L2, cm) in the third treatment was the best comparable to
other treatments and (SR, %) was lowest with the firs treatment comparable to other
treatments.
Table 3: Effect of feeding frequency on growth performance of rabbitfish (Siganus rivulatus) fry.
Items
Treatments(feeding frequency)
SED*
(T1)Two
times/day
(T2) Three
times/day
(T3) Four
times/day
Initial weight (W
1
), g 0.18 0.18 0.18 -
(L
2
), cm 7.41 7.55 7.72 0.20
(CI
f
, gcm
-
3
)1.20 1.17 1.32 0.08
(W
2
), g 4.92
b
5.07
b
6.08
a
0.104
(TG), g 4.74
b
4.88
b
5.90
a
0.109
(ADG), g/day 0.047
b
0.048
b
0.058
a
0.001
(RGR),% 2633.30
b
2713.80
b
3280.50
a
57.82
(SGR/day, %) 3.30
b
3.33
b
3.51
a
0.022
(SR, %) 83.33 100 93.33 5.44
some of the internal organs parameters
(HSI, %) 2.18 2.00 2.40 0.64
(VSI, %) 18.52 20.51 21.36 3.26
(a, b) Average in the same row having different superscripts significantly different at (P≤0.05).
*, SED is the standard error of difference
However, the statistical analysis don't appear significantly differences between
the second treatment and the first treatment, but the second treatment parameters (W2,
g, TG, g, ADG, g, RGR, % and SGR/day, %) were higher than the first treatment
parameters. These results cleared the positive effect of feeding frequency and
increased feeding frequency resulted in greater growth for several fish species such as
rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri (Grayton and Beamish, 1977); Arctic charr, Salvelinus
alpines (Jobling 1983), common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Charles et al., 1984); juvenile
halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus L., (Schnaittacher et al., 2005) and goldfish,
Carassius auratus (Priestly et al., 2006).These results in agreement with Daudpota et
al. (2016) reported that, the optimum feeding frequency of juvenile Nile tilapia (from
initial body weight of 1.0 g to 5.8 g) is four times daily, Haruna et al. (2014) reported
that, four times per day feeding frequency had the best growth performance for the
culture of Clarias gariepinus. Significantly (p<0.05) best growth was obtained in the
6 times a day treatment of Nile tilapia fingerlings (Pouomogne and Ombredane,
2001).As well as Barakat et al. (2011) found that, feeding rabbitfish three times daily
is better than feeding them once or twice daily and also improves muscle
ultrastructure and quality.
Effect of feeding frequency on growth performance S. rivulatus fry under laboratory condition 41
In the same trend, many of studies confirmed the positive effect of feeding
fequancy such as (Sultana et al., 2001, Turker, 2006, Choobkar, 2008 and Habib et
al., 2014). The positive effect of feeding frequency on growth performance of some
fish may be due to fish juveniles uptake a high daily diet ratio to meet their nutritional
requirement, thus they ingest adequate amount of diet. High feeding frequency results
in high daily diet intake ratio and small amounts of diet per feeding (Sanches and
Hayashi, 2001).
Furthermore, under optimal temperatures such as those used in the present
experiment (Saoud et al., 2008), gastric evacuation rates are rapid and fish require
more than one feeding per day. As well as feeding once a day did not show any
worsening of the growth performance of South American catfish due to higer feed
storage capacity in the stomach for a prolonged period (Carneiro and Mikos, 2005). In
generally feeding frequencies plays an important role in the keeping on water quality
and reduce the uneaten feed, which affects water quality negatively. Feed losses and
poor water quality decrease the feed efficiency. (Kurtkaya and Bilguven, 2015).
In contrast, the results were at variance with Gokcek et al. (2008) who reported
that weight gain and growth performance of Himri Barbel, Barbusluteus, fry were
decreased with increased feeding frequency. Mizanur and Bai1 (2014) suggest that, a
feeding frequency of 1 meal/day was optimal to improve weight gain in growing
Korean rockfish grown from 93 to 133 g at a water temperature of 15°C, and from
100 to 132 g at 19°C.
Effect of feeding frequency on Feed utilization efficiency of rabbitfish (Siganus
rivulatus) fry:
Feed intake (FI, g/fish), feed conversion ratio (FCR), feed conversion
efficiency (FCE, %) protein efficiency ratio (PER), protein productive value (PPV,
%), energy efficiency ratio (EER), energy productive value (EPV, %) and lipid
retention (LR, %) were shown in Table (4). The results indicated that, no significant
differences of feed intake (FI) between the treatments but the first treatment (T1) had
the highest (12.58 g/fish) in FI.
Significant differences in all treatments of other parameters, (FCR, FCE, PER,
PPV, EER, EPV, and LR) were found, the third treatment (T3) was the best of all
treatments in this parameters and achieved better FCR than T2 and T1 while T2 was
the better than T1 in parameters of feed utilization efficiency.
Table 4: Effect of feeding frequency on feed utilization efficiency of rabbitfish (Siganus rivulatus) fry.
Items Treatments (feeding frequency) SED*
(T1)Two times (T2)Three times (T3)Four times
(FI, g/Fish) 12.58 10.52 12.02 0.950
(FCR) 2.56
a
2.13
b
2.02
b
0.126
(FCE, %) 37.67
b
46.86
ab
50.25
a
3.730
Protein utilization
(PER) 1.03
1.28
b
1.35
a
0.014
(PPV, %) 51.19
b
73.10
a
75.41
a
0.816
Energy utilization
(EER, g/Kcal) 0.074
0.091
b
0.096
a
0.001
(EPV, %) 43.69
52.61
b
56.75
a
0.013
Lipid utilization
(LR, %) 91.40
92.72
b
105.02
a
0.327
(a, b and c) Average in the same row having different superscripts significantly different at level
(P≤0.05).
*SED is the standard error of difference
Mohamed F. A. Abdel-Aziz et al.
42
The results cleared that the third treatment (T3) was the best of the feed
utilization parameters, this results agree with Haruna et al. (2014). They reported that,
four feeding times gave the best result in terms of feed conversion ratio (FCR) and
other growth indices. This referred that, both growth and feed utilization were most
efficient at high feeding frequency; Daudpota et al. (2016) reported that, fish fed the
four and five times daily showed significantly higher (P<0.05) in feed conversion
ratio (FCR) and PER. than the other groups. This result was also confirmed by
Sultana et al. (2001) where they found that, the least FCR value was observed in the
treatment where the fish fed with a feeding frequency of four times in a day.
The protein efficiency ratio (PER) of the present study followed the opposite
trend to FCR values, significantly (p<0.05) the highest PER was produced with
treatment (four times feeding per day). Thus a feeding schedule of four times a day
seemed to be optimum resulting a good growth and may be suggested as a
recommended frequency for culture of Cyprinus carpio. In addition, Choudhury et al.
(2002) cleared that, the protein utilization capacity of Labeorohita fish at four and six
times feeding frequency was higher than two times. Tung and Shiau (1990) stated
that, the best FCR was achieved with 6 meals per day feeding. In the same trend,
many of studies confirmed the positive effect of feeding frequency on FCR (Josekutty
and Jouse, 1996, Jarboe and Grant, 1997, Golden et al., 1997 and Poumogne and
Ombredane, 2001).
On the contrary Jarboe and Grant (1996) and Dada et al. (2002) found no
significant influence of feeding frequency on FCR in different fish species. Obe and
Omodara (2014) reported that, there was no significant difference between food
conversion however, the best feed conversion ratio was achieved by the fish fed at one
time a day while poorest feed conversion ratio was recorded with the fish fed at three
times daily. Moreover, Kurtkaya and Bilgüven (2015) reported a non-linear
relationship between FCR and feeding frequency, and highest FCR was obtained in
group of fish fed at sixtimes daily.
Hence, the first treatment (T1) was the worst in feed utilization efficiency
parameters, this lead to overfeeding of fish, which can overload the stomach and
intestine, leading to decreases in digestive efficiency and reductions in feed utilization
(Hung and Lutes, 1987, Storebaken and Austreng, 1987).
Effect of feeding frequency on body chemical composition and energy content of
whole body rabbitfish (Siganus rivulatus) fry:
Body chemical composition and energy content of whole body rabbitfish
(Siganus rivulatus) fryat the beginning and the end of the experimental period are
shown in Table (5) Moisture (M), dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and ether
extract (EE) contents of fish whole body were significantly (P≤0.05) affected by
feeding frequency. The highest protein content in fish body at the end of the
experimental period was obtained with the second treatment (T2) (56.57) followed by
(T3) (55.81) and (T1) (49.59) respectively. While, (T1) had the highest lipid value
(32.56) followed by (T3) and (T2) (28.90, 26.63) respectively. Ash content and gross
energy (GE, Kcal/g) of fish whole body at the end of the experimental period were
insignificantly (P≤0.05) affected by feeding frequency.
From Table (5), it can be observed that, CP value increased with increasing
feeding frequency unlike EE value which decreased with increasing feeding
frequency, this may be agree with (Obe and Omodara, 2014) and disagree with
(Daudpota et al., 2016).
Effect of feeding frequency on growth performance S. rivulatus fry under laboratory condition 43
Table 5: Effect of feeding frequency on body chemical composition and energy content (on DM basis)
of whole body rabbitfish (Siganus rivulatus) fry.
(a, b and c) Average in the same row having different superscripts significantly different at level
(P≤0.05).
*, SED is the standard error of difference
The second trial: Effect of feeding time
Water quality of the second trail
Water quality parameters recorded in this experiment are shown in Table (6).
The averages of water temperature, water pH, water salinity, electrical conductivity
(EC), dissolved Oxygen, and nitrite (NO2), nitrate (NO3), ammonia (NH4) values of
all treatments were within the acceptable limits for rabbitfish (Siganus rivulatus)
juvenile as reported by (Westernhagen and Rosenthal, 1975, Huguenin and Colt,
1989, Meade, 1989, Davis, 1993, Lawson, 1995, ANZECC, 2000, EPA, 2003, Saoud
et al., 2007a and Saoud et al., 2008).
Table 6: Means (±SE) of water quality parameters
*mS/cm, millisiemens/centimeter
Effect of feeding time on growth performance of rabbitfish (Siganus rivulatus)
juvenile:
The comparison of growth performance of rabbitfish juvenile (Siganus
rivulatus) is shown in Table (7). The averages of (L2, cm), (CIf, g/cm3), final weight
(W2, g), (TG, g), (ADG, g), (RGR, %) (SGR/day %) and (SR, %) were significantly
affected by feeding time, the first treatment (T1: feeding at 9am, 11am) and the
second treatment (T2: feeding at 11am, 1pm) were superior than the fourth treatment
(T4: feeding at 9am, 4pm) and the third (T3: feeding at 1pm, 4pm) in all growth
parameters (W2, g), (TG, g), (ADG, g/day), (RGR, %) (SGR/day %) whereas, T1 was
the highest in these parameters compared to other treatments it recorded 6.28, 5.33,
0.056, 562.23 and 1.99 respectively. Also, the T4 was the better than T3 in this
parameters.
There was significant difference in (L2, cm) the T1 had highest (L2, cm: 7.90)
followed by the T2, T4 and T3. The T2 had highest (SR, %:87.5) followed by the T1,
T4 and T3.
Items Start Treatments (feeding frequency) SDE*
(T1)Two times (T2)Three times (T3)Four times
(M, %) 80.70 69.79
71.10
a
70.33
b
0.014
(DM, %) 19.30 30.21
a
28.90
29.59
b
0.044
(CP, %) 50.17 49.59
56.57
a
55.81
b
0.014
(EE, %) 9.75 32.56
a
26.63
b
28.90
ab
1.280
Ash, % 34.57 15.07 17.23 16.59 3.300
(GE, Kcal/g) 3.68 5.82 5.64 5.82 0.122
Items Treatments (Feeding at)
(T1) 9am-11am (T2) 11am-1pm (T3) 1pm-4pm (T4) 9am-4pm
Temperature (ºC) 26.315±0.350 26.287±0.343 26.303±0.352 26.390±0.360
pH 8.095±0.292 8.112±0.312 8.030±0.263 8.010±0.271
Salinity, ppt (‰) 33.800±0.256 33.888±0.233 33.750±0.210 33.803±0.293
EC, ms/cm* 47.900±0.050 47.950±0.010 47.400±0.080 47.602±0.028
DO, mg/l 6.546±0.441 6.550±0.445 6.480±0.460 5.083±1.184
NO
2
, mg/l 0.192±0.006 0.193±0.002 0.195±0.003 0.194±0.001
NO
3
, mg/l 0.277±0.001 0.276±0.001 0.274±0.004 0.275±0.002
NH
4
mg/l 0.885±0.003 0.881±0.001 0.884±0.004 0.883±0.003
Mohamed F. A. Abdel-Aziz et al.
44
Table 7: Effect of feeding time on growth performance of rabbitfish (Siganus rivulatus) juvenile
(a, b and c) Average in the same row having different superscripts significantly different at level
(P≤0.05).
*, SED is the standard error of difference
The results in Table (7) cleared that, no significant difference between the (T1)
and the (T2) in all growth parameters except (RGR, % and SR, %). On the other hand,
(T3) was the lowest of all treatments in all growth parameters and the worst of all
treatments. These results affirm that the morning feeding or feeding in the before
noon influenced positively on growth performance compared with the feeding in the
afternoon at (1 pm, 4pm); and also it can be observed decrease in feed intake
gradually from the morning though mid-day. Hence, appeared a detrimental effect on
growth performance of the (T3) which took their meals in the afternoon and (T4)
which took the second meal in the afternoon also. This reason may be related to
relatively low temperature degree at the before noon and was supported by Ani et al.
(2013)who reported that, the growth performance of the fish, feed intake of fish is
controlled by three factors which are the environmental factor, the fish physiological
factor and the feed factors, Kasumya (1995), Wynne et al. (2005) and NRC (2009)
reported that, the environmental factors in relation to feeding time and water physico-
chemical quality have a marked impact on the feed intake of the fish as they can affect
the fish physiological endowment capable of creating all sort of stress and neuro-
endocrinological imbalance. These results are in agreement with the findings of
Noeske and Spieler (1984). Timing the dailymeal may be a valuable tool for
aquaculture. Noseke et al. (1985) reported that feeding time affected weight gain and
fat deposition in channel catfish and are in partial agreement with Bolliet et al. (2000)
who found that, rainbow trout fish fed the low energy (6% lipid) diet at 09:00 hours
tended to have a better growth performance and had a better nutrient retention
efficiency than those fed at19:00 hours and trout fish fed at dawn have a higher post-
prandial increase in metabolic rate than those fed at night, which may lead to a higher
amount of protein available for growth. In addition, it has been previously suggested
that the effect of feeding time on growth performance might fluctuate depending on
season, fish size and ration (Baras et al., 1998 and Azzaydi et al., 1999).
Likewise, the best growth was observed in rainbow trout fed at dawn, poorest
growth in those fed at midnight, and growth rates of fish fed at mid-day or dusk were
intermediate (Boujard et al., 1995). However, the results differ with Harpaz et al.
(2005) who found that, the feeding time factor had almost no effect on fish growth
rate. Asian sea bass appear to consume food whenever it is fed, even during the night.
Robinson et al. (1995) reported that, no differences in weight gain and feed
consumption by fish fed at different times of the day. Also Verbeeten et al. (1999)
referred to greenback flounder fish consumed significantly more feed in the evening
than in the morning.
Items
Treatments (Feeding at)
SED*
(T1) 9am-11am (T2) 11am-1pm (T3) 1pm-4pm (T4) 9am-4pm
(W
1
), g 0.948 0.948 0.948 0.948 -
(L
2
), cm 7.90
a
7.86
a
6.92
7.67
b
0.0440
(CI
f
)1.27
a
1.28
a
1.11
b
1.15
b
0.0126
(W
2
), g 6.28
a
6.22
a
3.71
5.20
b
0.0707
(TG), g 5.33
a
5.27
a
2.76
4.25
b
0.0316
(ADG), g/day 0.056
a
0.055
a
0.029
0.044
b
0.0030
(RGR),% 562.23
a
555.90
b
291.13
d
448.31
0.0316
(SGR/day, %) 1.99
a
1.98
a
1.43
1.79
b
0.0140
(SR, %) 85
ab
87.5
a
62.5
82.5
b
0.9350
Effect of feeding frequency on growth performance S. rivulatus fry under laboratory condition 45
Effect of feeding time on Feed utilization efficiency of rabbitfish (Siganus
rivulatus) juvenile:
The results of feed utilization parameters are shown in Table (8). The results
were significantly affected by the feeding time; there were significant differences at
level (P0.05) between the averages in feed intake, FCR, FCE %, PER, PPV%, EER,
EPV% and LR%. The results of feed utilization parameters were the best with (T1)
and (T2) compared with (T4) and (T3). Results showed that, FI (g/fish), FCR, FCE%,
PER, PPV%, EER , EPV% and LR% for the (T1) 12.96, 2.43, 41.12, 1.12, 61.93,
0.080, 49.96 and 98.34, (T2) 13.02, 2.47, 40.47,1.10, 59.23, 0.080, 49.14 and
100.35.The statistical analysis don't appear significantly differences at level (P<0.05)
between the (T1) and (T2) except FI of (T1) which was lower than FI of (T2), LR,%
of (T1) which was lower than LR,% of (T2) and FCE, % of (T1) which was higher
than FCR,% of (T2).
Table (8) Effect of feeding time on Feed utilization efficiency of rabbitfish (Siganus rivulatus) juvenile
Items
Treatments (Feeding at)
SED*
(T1) 9am-11am (T2)11am-1pm (T3) 1pm-4pm (T4) 9am-4pm
(FI, g/Fish) 12.96
13.02
b
14.98
a
12.84
d
0.0186
(FCR) 2.43
2.47
5.42
a
3.02
b
0.0316
(FCE, %) 41.12
a
40.47
b
18.42
d
33.09
0.0187
Protein utilization
(PER) 1.12
a
1.10
a
0.50
0.90
b
0.0707
(PPV, %) 61.93
a
59.23
a
26.88
b
60.00
a
3.5355
Energy utilization
(EER, g/Kcal) 0.080
a
0.080
a
0.036
0.065
b
0.0014
(EPV, %) 49.96
a
49.14
b
22.33
d
40.92
0.0186
Lipid utilization
(LR, %) 98.34
b
100.35
a
45.76
d
84.57
0.0187
(a, b , c and d) Average in the same row having different superscripts significantly different at level
(P≤0.05).
*, SED is the standard error of difference
Table (8) cleared that, the best FCR was obtained with (T1) and (T2) followed
by (T4) while (T3) obtained the worst FCR in all treatments. In general (T1, T2) were
better than (T4) in the feed utilization efficiency parameters while (T3) was the
poorest in the feed utilization efficiency parameters. The morning or the before noon
feeding affected positively on the feed utilization efficiency parameters, this is due to
fish were fed in time or time relevant after a long hungry period resulting in increase
of the feed utilization efficiency parameters. This results in partial agreement with
Modde and Ross (1983) who showed that the stomach volume of wild juvenile
pompano rose throughout the morning and peaked in the early afternoon, Heilman and
Spieler (1999) reported that, feeding activity occurred throughout the light period with
an extreme peak in the early morning, and addition to the feeding activity peaked at
dawn and progressively lessened during the rest of the light period.
Bolliet et al. (2000) said that, the post-prandial protein synthesis was also higher
in fish fed in the morning than in those fed at the beginning of the night. In the same
trend Ge´lineau et al. (1996) showed that trout fed at dawn had higher protein
retention efficiency and better growth than trout fed at midnight, even when both
groups ingested the same amount of feed.
These results were at variance with Jarboe and Grant (1996) reported that
feeding time or frequency was found not to influence, FCR, of the larger catfish and
Robinson et al. (1995) supported that, time of feeding had no significant impact on
feed consumption, feed conversion. Moreover, Verbeeten et al. (1999) indicated that,
Mohamed F. A. Abdel-Aziz et al.
46
the feeding time had no effect on feed consumption and over the range of feed
consumption rates measured, feed efficiency became significantly lower at higher
rations when the flounder fish were fed in the morning.
Hence, it can be say, the effect of feeding time on growth and the feed
efficiency rely on fish behavior, fish species, fish size, season, ration and the water
quality (Reddy et al, 1994, Baras et al., 1998 and Azzaydi et al., 1999).
Effect of feeding time on body chemical composition and energy content of whole
body rabbitfish (Siganus rivulatus) juvenile:
Body chemical composition and energy content of whole body rabbitfish
(Siganus rivulatus) juvenile at the beginning and the end of the experimental period
are shown in Table (9). Moisture (M), dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and ash
contents of fish body whole body were significantly (P≤0.05) affected by feeding
time; whereas , the (T1) had the highest CP(55.91) followed by (T3: 55.35), (T4:
55.20) and (T2: 54.69) respectively. The (T3) had the highest ash (15.99) followed by
(T2: 14.55, T1: 14.34 and T4:12.67).
Table 9: Effect of feeding time on body chemical composition and energy content (on DM basis) of
whole body rabbitfish (Siganus rivulatus) juvenile.
Items Start
Treatments (Feeding at)
SED*
(T1)9am-1am (T2)11am-pm (T3)1pm-4pm (T4)9am-4pm
(M, %) 81.48 71.94
a
71.10
b
70.95
69.36
d
0.013
(DM, %) 18.52 28.06
d
28.90
29.05
b
30.64
a
0.031
(CP, %) 62.02 55.91
a
54.69
d
55.35
b
55.20
0.018
(EE, %) 11.78 29.75 30.75 28.48 30.93 1.562
Ash, % 24.03 14.34
ab
14.55
ab
15.99
a
12.67
b
1.021
(GE, Kcal/g) 4.53 5.90 5.93 5.75 5.97 0.151
(a, b , c and d) Average in the same row having different superscripts significantly different at level
(P≤0.05).
* SED is the standard error of difference
However, ether extract (EE) contents and gross energy (GE, Kcal/g) of fish
whole body at the end of the experimental period were not significantly at level (0.05)
affected by feeding time.
CONCLUSION
The results concluded that, growth performance and feed utilization efficiency
of rabbitfish fry and juvenile were affected by feeding frequency and feeding time
whereas, increased feeding frequency has been shown to positive effect and improve
the growth of rabbit fish fry. The results of first trial cleared that, the best growth and
feed utilization were obtained with four times feeding a day. In the second trial the
feeding time affected also on the growth and feed utilization whereas the feeding
efficiency in the morning was better than the before noon feeding and the before noon
feeding was better than the afternoon feeding. Results of this trial confirmed that, the
worst feeding time at 4 pm and the best feeding time at 9 am, the first treatment
(feeding time at 9am and 11 am) and the second treatment (feeding time at 11am and
1 pm) were better than the fourth treatment (feeding time at 9 pm and 4 am) and the
third treatment (feeding time at 1pm and 4pm) in growth performance and feed
utilization of rabbitfish juvenile.
Effect of feeding frequency on growth performance S. rivulatus fry under laboratory condition 47
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52
ARABIC SUMMARY
ﺮﺘﻟاو ءاﺬﻐﻟا ﻦﻣ ةدﺎﻔﺘﺳﻷا ةءﺎﻔﻛ ، ﻮﻤﻨﻟا ﺮھﺎﻈﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﯾﺬﻐﺘﻟا ﺖﻗوو ﺔﯾﺬﻐﺘﻟا تاﺮﻣ دﺪﻋ ﺮﯿﺛﺄﺗ ﻰﺋﺎﯿﻤﯿﻜﻟا ﺐﯿﻛ
نﺎﺠﯿﺴﻟا كﺎﻤﺳأ رﺎﻐﺻو ﺔﻌﯾرﺰﻟ ﻢﺴﺠﻠﻟ)ﺎطﺎﻄﺒﻟا (ﻞﻤﻌﻤﻟا فوﺮظ ﺖﺤﺗ
ﺰﯾﺰﻌﻟا ﺪﺒﻋ ﺪﯿﻋ ﻰﺤﺘﻓ ﺪﻤﺤﻣ
١
ﺪﻤﺤﻣ لﺎﺟﺮﻟا ﺪﺒﻋ ﺐﺟر ،
١
ﺪﯾز ﻮﺑا ﺪﻤﺤﻣ نﺎﻀﻣر ،
٢
مﻼﻋ دﻮﻤﺤﻣ ﻰﺤﺒﺻ ،
٢
١-ﺪﯾﺎﺼﻤﻟاو رﺎﺤﺒﻟا مﻮﻠﻌﻟ ﻰﻣﻮﻘﻟا ﺪﮭﻌﻤﻟا-ﺮﺼﻣ
٢-مﻮﯿﻔﻟا ﺔﻌﻣﺎﺟ ، ﺔﻋارﺰﻟا ﺔﯿﻠﻛ ، ﻰﻧاﻮﯿﺤﻟا جﺎﺘﻧﻻا ﻢﺴﻗ -ﺼﻣ
ﺮھﺎﻈﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ رﺎﮭﻨﻟا لﻼﺧ ﺔﯾﺬﻐﺘﻟا ﺖﻗوو ﺔﯾﺬﻐﺘﻟا تاﺮﻣ دﺪﻋ ﺮﯿﺛﺄﺗ ﻢﯿﯿﻘﺘﻟ ﻦﯿﺘﺑﺮﺠﺗ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﺳارﺪﻟا هﺬھ ﺖﻠﻤﺘﺷا
نﺎﺠﯿﺴﻟا كﺎﻤﺳﻷ ءاﺬﻐﻟا ﻦﻣ ةدﺎﻔﺘﺳﻻا ةءﺎﻔﻛو ﻮﻤﻨﻟا)ﺎطﺎﻄﺒﻟا( هﺪﺣاو ﺔﻘﯿﻠﻌﺑ ﻦﯿﺘﺑﺮﺠﺘﻟا كﺎﻤﺳأ ﺖﯾﺬﻏو)٣٥ %
مﺎﺧ ﻦﯿﺗوﺮﺑ .(ﯾا نزﻮﺑ نﺎﺠﯿﺴﻟا ﺔﻌﯾرز ﻰﻠﻋ ﻰﻟوﻷا ﺔﺑﺮﺠﺘﻟا ﺖﯾﺮﺟأ ﻰﺋاﺪﺘ٠,١٨±٠,٠١٢ كﺎﻤﺳﻻا ﺖﯾﺬﻏو ماﺮﺟ
ﻰﻟوﻻا ﺔﻠﻣﺎﻌﻤﻟا ،ﺔﻔﻠﺘﺨﻣ تﻼﻣﺎﻌﻣ ﺔﺛﻼﺛ ﻰﻓ ﺎﺣﺎﺒﺻ ﺔﻌﺳﺎﺘﻟا ﻰﻓ كﺎﻤﺳﻻا ﺖﯾﺬﻏ ﺚﯿﺣ ﻦﯿﺗﺮﺘﻓ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﺒﺟﻮﻟا ﺖﻤﺴﻗ
ﺔﻌﺑاﺮﻟاو اﺮﮭظ هﺪﺣاﻮﻟاو ﺎﺣﺎﺒﺻ ﺔﻌﺳﺎﺘﻟا ﻰﻓ ﺎﯿﻣﻮﯾ تاﺮﻣ ﺔﺛﻼﺛ كﺎﻤﺳﻻا ﺖﯾﺬﻏ ﺔﯿﻧﺎﺜﻟا ﺔﻠﻣﺎﻌﻤﻟا ،اﺮﺼﻋ ﺔﻌﺑاﺮﻟاو
ﺎﺜﻟا ﺔﻠﻣﺎﻌﻤﻟاو اﺮﺼﻋ هﺪﺣاﻮﻟاو ﺎﺣﺎﺒﺻ ﺮﺸﻋ ﺔﯾدﺎﺤﻟاو ﺎﺣﺎﺒﺻ ﺔﻌﺳﺎﺘﻟا ﻰﻓ ﺎﯿﻣﻮﯾ تاﺮﻣ ﻊﺑرأ كﺎﻤﺳﻷا ﺖﯾﺬﻏ ﺔﺜﻟ
ﻮﻤﻧ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻰﺑﺎﺠﯾا تﺮﺛأ ﺔﯾﺬﻐﺘﻟا تاﺮﻣ دﺪﻋ ةدﺎﯾزو تﻼﻣﺎﻌﻤﻟا ﻦﯿﺑ ﺔﯾﻮﻨﻌﻣ تﺎﻓﻼﺘﺧإ تﺪﺟو اﺮﺼﻋ ﺔﻌﺑاﺮﻟاو اﺮﮭظ
ﺎﯿﻣﻮﯾ تاﺮﻣ ﻊﺑرأ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﯾﺬﻐﺘﻟا ﺖﻧﺎﻜﻓ ﺔﯿﺋاﺬﻐﻟا ةءﺎﻔﻜﻟاو كﺎﻤﺳﻷاتﻼﻣﺎﻌﻤﻟا ﻞﻀﻓأ.
نزﻮﺑ نﺎﺠﯿﺴﻟا كﺎﻤﺳأرﺎﻐﺻ ﻰﻠﻋ رﺎﮭﻨﻟا لﻼﺧ ﺐﺳﺎﻨﻤﻟا ﺔﯾﺬﻐﺘﻟا ﺖﻗو رﺎﺒﺘﺧﻷ ﺔﯿﻧﺎﺜﻟا ﺔﺑﺮﺠﺘﻟا ﺖﯾﺮﺟأ
ﻰﺋاﺪﺘﺑا٠,٩٤٨
±٠,١٢٤،ﺔﻔﻠﺘﺨﻣ تﻼﻣﺎﻌﻣ ﻊﺑرأ ﻰﻓ ﻦﯿﺗﺮﻣ كﺎﻤﺳﻷا ﺖﯾﺬﻏو ماﺮﺟكﺎﻤﺳأ ﺖﯾﺬﻏ ﻰﻟوﻷا ﺔﻠﻣﺎﻌﻤﻟا
ﺎﺣﺎﺒﺻ ﺮﺸﻋ ﺔﯾدﺎﺤﻟاو ﺎﺣﺎﺒﺻ ﺔﻌﺳﺎﺘﻟا ﺔﻋﺎﺴﻟا ،ﻟا ﺔﻋﺎﺴﻟا ﺖﯾﺬﻏ ﺔﯿﻧﺎﺜﻟا ﺔﻠﻣﺎﻌﻤﻟا اﺮﮭظ ةﺪﺣاﻮﻟاو ﺮﺸﻋ ﺔﯾدﺎﺤ ،
اﺮﺼﻋ ﺔﻌﺑاﺮﻟاو ﺎﺣﺎﺒﺻ ﺔﻌﺳﺎﺘﻟا ﺖﯾﺬﻏ ﺔﻌﺑاﺮﻟا ﺔﻠﻣﺎﻌﻤﻟاو اﺮﺼﻋ ﺔﻌﺑاﺮﻟاو اﺮﮭظ ةﺪﺣاﻮﻟا ﺖﯾﺬﻏ ﺔﺜﻟﺎﺜﻟا ﺔﻠﻣﺎﻌﻤﻟا
ﻞﺒﻗ وا حﺎﺒﺼﻟا ﻰﻓ هاﺬﻐﻤﻟا كﺎﻤﺳﻷا ةدﺎﻔﺘﺳا ةدﺎﯾز تﺪﻛأو تﻼﻣﺎﻌﻤﻟا ﻦﯿﺑ ﺔﯾﻮﻨﻌﻣ قوﺮﻓ ﺔﺑﺮﺠﺘﻟا هﺬھ ﺞﺋﺎﺘﻧ تﺮﮭظأ
ﺮﮭﻈﻟاﺜﻟﺎﺜﻟا ﺔﻠﻣﺎﻌﻤﻟا ﺖﻧﺎﻛوﺔﯿﺋاﺬﻐﻟا هءﺎﻔﻜﻟاو ﻮﻤﻨﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ اﺮﯿﺛﺎﺗ تﻼﻣﺎﻌﻤﻟا أﻮﺳأ ﺔ.
حﺎﺒﺼﻟا ﻰﻓ ﺔﯾﺬﻐﺘﻟا نأو تﺎﻌﻓد ﻊﺑرا ﻰﻠﻋ نﺎﺠﯿﺴﻟا كﺎﻤﺳﻷ ﺔﯿﺋاﺬﻐﻟا ﺔﺒﺟﻮﻟا ﻢﯿﺴﻘﺘﺑ ﺔﯿﺻﻮﺘﻟا ﻦﻜﻤﯾ ﻚﻟذ ﻦﻣو
ﺮﮭﻈﻟا ﺪﻌﺑ ﺔﯾﺬﻐﺘﻟا ﻦﻣ ﻞﻀﻓأ.
... Accurate FF reduces aggressive social behavior and less size variation between the individuals (Holm et al., 1990). Also, it reduces fish competition for feed and boosts the digestion system efficiency of fish (Abdel-Aziz et al., 2016). Some studies confirmed that, the convenient FF leads to an increase in fish growth rate and improvement of feed utilization, for example, in Oreochromis nilotucs (Ferdous et al., 2014;Daudpota et al., 2016), Catfish Clarias gariepinus, (Jamabo et al., 2015), Goldfish Carassius auratus (Priestley et al., 2006), L. calcarifer (Ganzon-Naret, 2013) and Siganus rivulatus (Abdel-Aziz et al., 2016). ...
... Also, it reduces fish competition for feed and boosts the digestion system efficiency of fish (Abdel-Aziz et al., 2016). Some studies confirmed that, the convenient FF leads to an increase in fish growth rate and improvement of feed utilization, for example, in Oreochromis nilotucs (Ferdous et al., 2014;Daudpota et al., 2016), Catfish Clarias gariepinus, (Jamabo et al., 2015), Goldfish Carassius auratus (Priestley et al., 2006), L. calcarifer (Ganzon-Naret, 2013) and Siganus rivulatus (Abdel-Aziz et al., 2016). ...
... On the other side, some opinions suggested that, FF had no effect on growth carving and feed conversion of fish (Zhou et al., 2003;Aydın et al., 2011). The effect of FF on the performance of growth or feed efficiency parameters relied on a variety of factors, including the environmental condition, fish age or size, amount of dietary carbohydrate and protein, stocking density, feed quality, feeding time, the intervals between the meals, feeding behaviors, gut length, gastric evacuation time and stomach capacity (Asuwaju et al., 2014;Suharyanto et al., 2015;Abdel-Aziz et al., 2016;Aderolu et al., 2017;Guo et al., 2018;Okomoda et al., 2019). ...
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A 70-day rearing trial was done to determine the optimal frequency of feeding on growth performance (GP), feed conversion rate (FCR), cannibalism, survival rate (SR) and the body chemical composition of the Asian sea bass fry. This study tested four different treatments of feeding frequencies (FF), once (T1), twice (T2), three times (T3), and four times (T4) per day . An average initial weight of Sea bass fry was 0.2 g (SD=±0.12) were stocked 10 individuals per m³ (9.14 m×1.82 m×1.22 m, L x W x H; water depth 0.61 m) with two replicates per treatment (4×2=8). Fry were fed a mixture of larval commercial feed and shrimp with a pellet diet containing (46 % CP) .Initially, feeding rate of 8% biomass per day further adjusted according to fish biomass on a weekly basis. Results showed that, the FF significantly affected (p<0.05) on growth indictors and survival rate (SR). Specifically fry fed three times a day (T3) had the best FBW, FL, SGR , ADWG and FCR followed by T4 and T2 while fry fed one time a day were the lowest in these parameters. Also, VSI, HSI and CF (k) significantly differed among the treatments. Fish whole body content of protein, moisture and ash did not significantly (p<0.05) be affected by feeding frequency, but lipid content differed and both T3, T4 were the highest. It could be concluded that, increasing of FF up to three times a day had a positive effect on weight gain, survival rate and feed utilization of Lates calcarifer. The second degree polynomial regression indicates that fed three times a day is optimum for best growth performance and survival for Asian sea bass.
... Microorganism, as a fermenter, is able to produce protease enzymes that break down proteins into simple peptides and are later reorganized into amino acids. These amino acids are absorbed into the body of the test fish so that the body's protein content increases [10]. While the processed seaweed products in treatment C are extracted through the cooking process during the carrageenan making process so that there is an overhaul of proteins into amino acids. ...
... Efforts to optimize the utilization of seaweed nutrition The 3rd International Symposium Marine and Fisheries (ISMF) 2020 IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 564 (2020) 012050 IOP Publishing doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/564/1/012050 2 by various processing techniques to increase the utilization of the nutrients it contains are very urgent. Processed seaweed products that have the potential to increase the utilization of nutrients are fermented seaweed flour, carrageenan flour, and seaweed moss. ...
... Drying is an important processing step because it is related to the moisture content of the material as a factor that influences the appearance, texture, taste, nutritional value of food, and especially the activity of microorganisms. The purpose of drying is to reduce the moisture content of the material to the extent that the development of microorganisms that can cause 10 decay stops, as well as changes due to enzyme activity, making the material not perishable so that it has longer durability and facilitates further processing so that young people are digested by cultivation and increase body weight [19]. In the type of processed, fermented seaweed flour, namely treatment B, the hepatosomatic index is 1.41%. ...
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Seaweed, K. alvarezii as a gel diet thickener. The quality of the thickener is determined by the processing method. The purpose of this study was to determine the type of processed seaweed, K. alvarezii product, which is the best thickener in the gel diet based on fish body nutrient contents, protein efficiency ratio (PER), and protein retention (PR). Experimental fishes used were rabbitfish with an average weight of 55.23±4.46 g/individual, which was cultivated in a small cage (hapa) measuring 100 x 70 x 100 cm and placed in floating net cages (FNC). An experimental diet is a gel diet. The frequency of feeding is done twice a day, 7:00 in the morning, and 16:00 in the afternoon by satiation. The experimental design used was a completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 treatments and 5 replications. The treatment in this study was a gel diet containing some processed seaweed products such as dried seaweed flour (treatment A), fermented seaweed flour (treatment B), carrageenan flour (treatment C), and seaweed soft (treatment D). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out, and the W Tukey test was continued for the treatment that had a significant effect on determining the effect of various processed seaweed products on the measured parameters. The results showed that processed seaweed products in the gel diet significantly affected changes in fish protein, lipid and carbohydrate contents, protein efficiency ratio, and protein retention in rabbitfish. The best nutritional content of fish, PER, and PR is found in treatment B (fermented seaweed flour). Based on the results of this study, it was concluded that the nutritional body content of fish, REP, and RP was best obtained in rabbitfish, which consumed a gel diet containing fermented seaweed.
... Many studies have evaluated the importance of FF to improve specific growth rate SGR and FCR under varied rearing systems or under a high density, Kaushik and Gomes [50] suggested that, SGR and FCR are expected to improve because fish can regulate their feed intake according to their requirements. FF achieves a maximum utilization of feed then the relationship between SGR and FCR is a strongly negative ( [59] and [1] ) However, Abid and Ahmed [3] , Asiwaju and Ousjech [10] , Daudpota, et al. [20] , Öz et al., [67] and Alal [7] concluded that, SGR improves with increased FF, while FCR did not improve, whereas these studies conducted on tilapia, catfish and carp fish, respectively. In regard to, the relationship between stocking rate, SGR, and FCR under different feeding systems. ...
... FF has been shown to improve FCR in multiple studies including Cyprinus carpio [15] Oncorhynchus mykiss [83] Lates calcarifer [33] and Siganus rivulatus fry [1] However a linear relationship between FF or SGR with FCR value due to the increment of increased feed above the optimum limit per meal, or possibly the interval between meals are unfit then results in difficulties with digestion or absorption, whereas feed intake commensurate with the capacity of the fish stomach and rate of digestion and evacuation as reported by [14] . In the same trend, it has been observed that FCR value of small fish increased with FF, this may be due to the offered feed to small tilapia are improper with the optimum feeding rate of this size. ...
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This review illustrates the relationships among stocking rate, initial weight (W 1), dietary protein ratio (CP), specific growth rate (SGR), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of three freshwater fish species: tilapia, catfish and carp under different f eeding frequencies (FF) using the descriptive and statistical analyses. More than 70 previous studies related to the effect of FF on growth performance of fish were reviewed. Means of SGR and FCR in the previous researches were collected and analyzed to derive regression liner, correlation coefficient (R) and determination coefficient (R2). Statistical relations affirmed that FF had statistically significant positive effect on SGR and FCR of tilapia and carp compared to cat-fish. Moreover, FF can reduce the stress of high density in tilapia ponds, but it can't improve the performance and feed utilization on both catfish and carp. This study concluded that, the optimum feeding frequencies were considered as from four to six, six and two to three feeding times /day on tilapia, carp and catfish, respectively.
... Several studies have confirmed that fish fed in the morning had a higher growth rate than those fed in the afternoon or evening. For example, rabbit fish fed in the morning or before noon had higher growth parameters than those fed in the afternoon at 1.00 p.m. and 4.00 p.m., also it was found that the water temperature degree is lower in the morning than in the afternoon encouraging increased feed intake (Abdel-Aziz et al., 2016). In similar context, rainbow trout fed a low energy diet at 9.00 am had higher growth rate and feed efficiency than those fed at 19.00 pm (Bolliet et al., 2000). ...
... Furthermore, some studies found that feeding in the afternoon led to a decrease in feed intake (Wu et al., 2004). Additionally, in another study, FI decreased gradually from the morning until mid-day, and the lowest value of FCR was obtained for fish fed in the morning (Abdel-Aziz et al., 2016). Similarly, another study found that, digestion efficiency improved for fish fed in the morning compared with those fed at other times (Gélineau et al., 2002). ...
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A factorial trial was conducted to detect the effect of different feeding strategies of supplementation of effective microorganisms (EM) liquid on the growth performance, feed utilization, body chemical composition and economic efficiency of monosex Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) juveniles. Three experimental treatments were formulated a basal diet without any addition of EM (control; A), a diet supplemented with 2% EM (B), and a diet supplemented with 4% EM (C). All treatments were offered to fish through two different strategies of feeding the meal: 2/3 in the morning and 1/3 in the afternoon or 1/3 in the morning and 2/3 in the afternoon. Each treatment was replicated three times. Juveniles Nile tilapia with an average initial body weight of 3.85 ± 0.22 g (± SE) were randomly stocked at a rate of 90 juveniles per 1.5 m ³ tank. Fish growth performance and feed utilization significantly ( P ≤ 0.05) increased with increasing EM supplementation and were positively affected by different feeding strategies. Moreover, the economic evaluation showed that there were more benefits by when using the 4% EM diet and feeding 2/3 of daily meal in the morning.
... Many studies have evaluated the importance of FF to improve specific growth rate SGR and FCR under varied rearing systems or under a high density, Kaushik and Gomes [50] suggested that, SGR and FCR are expected to improve because fish can regulate their feed intake according to their requirements. FF achieves a maximum utilization of feed then the relationship between SGR and FCR is a strongly negative ( [59] and [1] ) However, Abid and Ahmed [3] , Asiwaju and Ousjech [10] , Daudpota, et al. [20] , Öz et al., [67] and Alal [7] concluded that, SGR improves with increased FF, while FCR did not improve, whereas these studies conducted on tilapia, catfish and carp fish, respectively. In regard to, the relationship between stocking rate, SGR, and FCR under different feeding systems. ...
... FF has been shown to improve FCR in multiple studies including Cyprinus carpio [15] Oncorhynchus mykiss [83] Lates calcarifer [33] and Siganus rivulatus fry [1] However a linear relationship between FF or SGR with FCR value due to the increment of increased feed above the optimum limit per meal, or possibly the interval between meals are unfit then results in difficulties with digestion or absorption, whereas feed intake commensurate with the capacity of the fish stomach and rate of digestion and evacuation as reported by [14] . In the same trend, it has been observed that FCR value of small fish increased with FF, this may be due to the offered feed to small tilapia are improper with the optimum feeding rate of this size. ...
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Preface. Acknowledgements. Feed in intensive aquaculture Feeding and diet Dietary requirements Feeding, temperature, and water quality Feed types and uses Feed handling and storage Feeding methods Feed rations and schedules Performance measures Cost factors Index.
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