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Nature of NGO Volunteers’ and Employees’ Motivation. Implications and Recommendations for Managerial Staff

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Abstract

The analysis presented below indicates different types of motivation of non-governmental organisations’ staff and involves the relationship between the type of motivation and other staff features. This allows not only for looking at the causes and characteristics of involvement in the activities of non-governmental organisations but also for describing the specific motivation of the various groups involved in the activities of the organisation and presenting profiles of these groups. Moreover, the analysis of motivations and characteristics correlated with them allows for drawing conclusions related to motivating rules of these groups, stimulating their commitment and selecting the management style appropriate for analysed organisations.
The creation of the English-language version of these publications is Þ nanced in
the framework of contract No. 768/P-DUN/2016 by the Ministry of Science and
Higher Education committed to activities aimed at the promotion of education.
* Joanna Schmidt – dr, Department of Education and Personnel Development, Poznañ University
ofbEconomics.
Correspondence address: Poznañ University of Economics, Department of Education and Personnel
Development, al. NiepodlegïoĂci 10, 61-875 Poznañ; e-mail: joanna.schmidt@ue.poznan.pl.
Problemy ZarzÈdzania, vol. 14, nr 3 (61), t. 1: 45– 69
ISSN 1644-9584, © Wydziaï ZarzÈdzania UW
DOI 10.7172/1644-9584.61.3
Nature of NGO Volunteers’ and Employees’ Motivation.
Implications and Recommendations for Managerial Staff
Submitted: 17.02.16 | Accepted: 10.10.16
Joanna Schmidt
The analysis presented below indicates different types of motivation of non-governmental organisations’
staff and involves the relationship between the type of motivation and other staff features. This allows
not only for looking at the causes and characteristics of involvement in the activities of non-governmental
organisations but also for describing the specific motivation of the various groups involved in the activi-
ties of the organisation and presenting profiles of these groups. Moreover, the analysis of motivations
and characteristics correlated with them allows for drawing conclusions related to motivating rules of
these groups, stimulating their commitment and selecting the management style appropriate for analysed
organisations.
Keywords: motivation, NGOs, boards, employees, volunteers, motivating.
Charakter motywacji wolontariuszy
i pracowników organizacji pozarzÈdowych.
Implikacje i rekomendacje dla kadry kierowniczej
Nadesïany: 17.02.16 | Zaakceptowany do druku: 10.10.16
Zaprezentowane poniĝej analizy wskazujÈ na róĝne rodzaje motywacji przejawianych przez kadry organizacji
pozarzÈdowych oraz dotyczÈ zwiÈzków pomiÚdzy rodzajem motywacji a innymi cechami. UmoĝliwiajÈ one
nie tylko przyjrzenie siÚ i scharakteryzowanie przyczyn zaangaĝowania siÚ w dziaïalnoĂÊ w organizac-
jach pozarzÈdowych, lecz takĝe opisanie motywacji specyficznych dla róĝnych grup zaangaĝowanych
w dziaïalnoĂÊ organizacji i przedstawienie profili tych grup. Co wiÚcej, analiza motywacji i cech z niÈ
skorelowanych pozwoliïa na wyciÈgniÚcie wniosków zwiÈzanych z motywowaniem tychĝe grup, stymu-
lowaniem ich zaangaĝowania i dopasowaniem odpowiedniego stylu zarzÈdzania, wïaĂciwego badanym
organizacjom.
Sïowa kluczowe: motywacja, organizacje pozarzÈdowe, zarzÈd, pracownicy, wolontariusze, motywowanie.
JEL: L31, M12, M50
Joanna Schmidt
46
DOI 10.7172/1644-9584.61.3
1. Introduction
NGO human resources are capital that is not only valuable but also
specific. NGO operating mode generally allows them to maintain consid-
erable independence and freedom of action and is also associated with
specific working conditions both because of great work flexibility (Anheier,
Hollerweger, Badelt & Kendall, 2003) and due to often informal, friendly
relations between employees or other people involved in NGO activities
(Giermanowska, 2005/2006; Bogacz-Wojtanowska, 2005). A specific char-
acteristic of NGO staff is also the fact that unpaid workers usually form
staff majority, which affects considerably the process of human resource
management.
Efficient operation and achievement of organisational objectives thus
requires not only competences and skills of employees and volunteers but
also their specific attitudes and behaviours that are significant for the organi-
sational objectives. Among the main aspects distinguishing NGO human
resources are their motivations (Parry, Kelliher, Mills & Tyson, 2005), hence
a more thorough analysis of this issue seems important.
This article aims to examine the types of motivation of NGO staff and
the characteristics of human resources that are specific to different types
of motivation. This analysis will allow for outlining motivational profiles
typical for different groups of individuals working for NGOs and providing
recommendations on development of the motivational process for people
in such organisations.
2. NGO Staff and the Nature of Their Involvement
NGO human resources are the core value of NGOs. This is first and
foremost because such organisations often have no other resources or
the resources available to them are very limited (e.g. financial resources),
thus they are somehow “forced” to use the resources at their disposal.
Secondly, as these are entities operating in the social field, their activi-
ties are often targeted at people expecting broadly understood support
(e.g.bmaterial support, care, but also assistance in the development of
interests, education), and the achievement of organisational objectives is
closely connected with the quality of work performed by NGO human
resources (technology, equipment, etc., are usually of secondary impor-
tance). It is highlighted that managers spend most of their time just man-
aging people, and human resources and their work in NGOs are the basic
production input that is more important than land or capital (Rhodes &
Keogan, 2005).
NGO human resources are not homogeneous and at least a few dif-
ferent categories can be identified among them. The basic criterion dis-
tinguishing the various groups of NGO human resources is the remunera-
Problemy ZarzÈdzania vol. 14, nr 3 (61), t. 1, 2016
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Nature of NGO Volunteers’ and Employees’ Motivation…
tion for the work done. In short, those who get paid for their work are
employees, while those who work without pay are volunteers. Internally,
the structure of NGO human resources is, however, more complex, as the
financial criterion is topped with the form of engagement in and the scope
of cooperation with the organisation. What is meaningful is also the legal
form of the organisation, which determines the range of possible forms of
engagement.
The management board is a specific group within organisations. It is
appointed by the founder, and in the consecutive terms – in accordance
with the statute (in a foundation) or at the general meeting of members
(in an association). The management board performs the major managerial
function in the organisation1 and the board members usually fulfil their
duties without pay. In addition to the management board, other bodies
are often established that are responsible for opinions or control, although
their operation is not usually required by law.
Another important group comprises members of organisations (in the
case of associations). These are people working for organisations as vol-
unteers who have voting rights through participation in general meetings,
where essential decisions are taken on the directions of development, policy
and operations of associations. Given their different objectives and organi-
sational setup, foundations do not imply membership, yet if people willing
to act appear around, they are usually brought together in other bodies
(e.g. foundation council). As regards a wider group of those involved in
non-profit organisations’ activities without pay (not only members of asso-
ciations but also other bodies, boards, etc., of other entities), they are often
referred to simply as activists.
Although all the above-mentioned categories of human resources work
on a voluntary basis, i.e. without pay, a separate category of volunteers who
are not formally namely through other functions or membership – affili-
ated with the organisation is also distinguished. Their status is comparable
with employment in that they carry out certain actions without participating
in decision-making on organisations (as opposed to the aforementioned
people).
Those who are remunerated for their work are employees. They are
primarily employees who have established the employment relationship
with organisations (in the meaning of the Labour Code). However, because
flexible forms of work are very popular, the literature usually extends this
term to include also individuals who take up employment on the basis of,
for example, a mandate contract or a contract to perform a specific task,
despite their different statuses.
Each of these groups has specific characteristics, leading to the particu-
lar categories of NGO human resources differing from one another and
standing out from other sectors (cf., e.g., Benz, 2005; Bacchiega & Borzaga,
2002; Liao-Troth, 2005; Borzaga & Tortia, 2006; Hoefer, 2003).
Joanna Schmidt
48
DOI 10.7172/1644-9584.61.3
3. Work Motivations of NGO Staff in the Light of Related Literature
This section outlines motivations of the various NGO human resource
categories, grouped into two fundamental sets: volunteers (including mem-
bers of associations and other bodies and other unpaid workers who are,
however, unrelated to organisations formally), namely persons who volun-
tarily and without remuneration carry out activities for organisations2, and
employees, i.e. all those who receive wages for their work for organisations
(regardless of the working time and work nature). Because management
boards play a unique role in organisations, this group is distinguished and
characterised separately.
This division seems to be the most versatile since it is general and
applied in most European and American countries where studies on non-
profit organisations’ human resources are conducted. Therefore, it allows
for drawing on the research achievements presented in the related litera-
ture, while preventing the introduction of excessively detailed divisions that
hinder analysis.
Research carried out in the non-profit sector emphasises the existence
of significant differences between certain aspects of people’s performance
in an NGO and their performance in other institutions and companies.
This applies to such aspects as motivation (Parry, Kelliher, Mills & Tyson,
2005), commitment (Liao-Troth, 2005), attitude to work (Almond & Ken-
dall, 2000), or job satisfaction (Benz, 2005; Bacchiega & Borzaga, 2002).
On the other hand, there is a much narrower range of Polish studies (cf.
e.g. Gumkowska, Herbst & Radecki, 2008; Bogacz-Wojtanowska, 2009) that
more broadly discuss the issues of staff performance in the specific envi-
ronment of NGOs. Thus it is all the more important to look at existing
studies analysing specific characteristics (mainly motivations) of different
staff groups in non-profit organisations.
Regarding management boards as the first of these groups, it should be
noted that their elementary tasks in NGOs are related to controlling the
compliance of NGOs’ activities with their missions, the law and responsible
financial management (Bright Preston & Brown, 2004). Board members take
major decisions on the future of their organisations, represent them in external
relations, and raise funds for their activities. Their role in organisations is thus
crucial. Numerous authors list the tasks to be performed by the management
board, focusing precisely on these areas, thereby highlighting the board’s stra-
tegic role and importance for building the image of an organisation (cf., e.g.,
Pakroo 2007, as cited in: Villinger, 2008; M. Middleton, 1987; M. Hudson,
1997). The coverage of board members’ motivation is, however, relatively
limited and focused rather on how these people should motivate others.
This seems understandable, on the one hand, yet also points to a research
gap, especially because the management’s motivation to work (notably on an
unpaid basis) is certainly vital for the organisation’s operation.
Problemy ZarzÈdzania vol. 14, nr 3 (61), t. 1, 2016
49
Nature of NGO Volunteers’ and Employees’ Motivation…
Existing research indicates that board members perform and interpret their
role in various ways, and different motives for undertaking activities result in
boards being frequently composed of representatives of various interest groups
who have at the same time different levels of competence qualifying them to
sit on boards. In this context, it seems important to pay attention to the proper
preparation of the board for its role, both in terms of competences (Jackson
& Holland, 1998, as cited in: Brooks, 2002) and personality (Pakroo, 2007,
as cited in: Villinger, op. cit.). It should also be borne in mind that board
members are people working without pay, after working hours. The key issue,
therefore, is how willing they are to devote their time and engage in action,
how well they represent the environment in which their organisation operates
and how they are connected with this environment.
One of the most important characteristics of non-profit organisations’
board members is also affective commitment to the organisation since the
existence of this attribute significantly affects the quality and efficiency of
the board performance. Board members who show greater affective com-
mitment to the organisation get involved in their work more, work harder
and are seen as more valuable to the organisation (Bright Preston & Brown,
op.bcit., and Meyer & Allen, 1997; Johnson & Snizek, 1991, as cited in:
Bright Preston & Brown, op. cit.). In contrast, such correlations are not
observed in the case of normative commitment (i.e. resulting from absense
of duty) or fear of various costs of leaving the organisation (ibidem).
On the other hand, employees form the group that has been far more
researched. The profile of employees who decide to work in the non-profit
sector involves to a large extent the characteristics of work in this type of
organisations, and such work has certain specificities. These include, among
others, considerable independence and responsibility for task implementa-
tion, freedom of action, creative approach to tasks that enables development,
a sense of usefulness ensuing from pursuit of social objectives, possibility of
self-fulfilment, flexible working hours, and friendly professional relationships
involving a good working atmosphere, partnership, close-knit teams and non-
discriminatory practices (Giermanowska 2005/2006; Bogacz-Wojtanowska,
2005, p. 6, Wsparcie dla organizacji pozarzÈdowych…, 2009). An important
attribute of employment in the non-governmental sector (perceived as an
advantage or a disadvantage depending on the perspective) is the popularity
of flexible forms of employment and part-time work (Anheier, Hollerweger,
Badelt & Kendall, 2003; Almond & Kendall, 2000). These characteristics of
NGOs as employers seem to indicate that a person who starts working in
this sector should have the following traits: a great need for independence,
creative approach to tasks, confidence in the organisation’s mission, toler-
ance of employment insecurity and wage instability, ability to self-organise
work and steer self-development in the context of career planning. What
seems interesting in this context is taking a look at the motivation of NGO
workers that prompted them to work in this sector. The vast majority of
Joanna Schmidt
50
DOI 10.7172/1644-9584.61.3
authors agree that this motivation is not linked with financial reward3 (cf.,
e.g., Parry, Kelliher, Mills & Tyson, 2005; Benz, 2005; Borzaga & Tortia,
2006) but is connected with “something more”. This additional motivator
is most frequently the need to engage in activities defined in the ethical
or social utility terms (Rose-Ackerman, 1997). Furthermore, specific char-
acteristics of work in the NGO sector (e.g. independence, atmosphere,
flexibility) are extremely important. Specific motivation and certain working
conditions, in turn, result in high job satisfaction4 (Benz, op. cit.; Bacchiega
& Borzaga, 2002) despite lower average wages in the non-profit sector
(Preston, 1985, as cited in: Lammers, 1990). These factors are also related
with greater commitment of employees (Liao-Troth, 2001; Borzaga & Tortia,
op. cit.), which offsets the economic weakness of NGOs as compared with
other sectors (ibidem) and weakens the tendency to leave the job and seek
another occupation (Bacchiega & Borzaga, op. cit.).
Motivation that extends beyond economic considerations and high job
satisfaction are also characteristics of a specific employee group, namely an
organisation’s managerial staff, i.e. directors, managers, project coordina-
tors, etc.5 R. Gatewood and J. Lahiff (1977) indicate that NGO managers
are more strongly (than in for-profit companies) involved in local activity
(which may be linked with the search of funding sources), and prestige at
work is less important to them as they prefer less formalised labour rela-
tions to it. This seems to ensue from a strong need for independence and
autonomy among NGO managers (Young, 1983, as cited in: Gassler, 1986).
The third group, mostly representing the core of an organisation, includes
people working for free, i.e. volunteers (as mentioned above, in this article,
this group comprises all those involved in unpaid work in organisations, also
members of associations). Unpaid, voluntary, social activity beyond family
ties or friendship-based relationships6 is the dominant form of coopera-
tion with NGOs in Poland and in the world. This activity is interpreted
in different terms – as work (Drucker, 1995, pp. 171–178), as a form of
leisure (Wolozin, 1975; Stebbins, 1996; Hackl, Hall & Pruckner, 2007), or
as investment (Brown & Zahrly, 1989; Smith, 1981). The different concepts
of volunteering attempt to capture the trends that are visible in the needs
and expectations of volunteers and their role in organisations. Intensive
changes that are currently being observed in the nature of volunteer work
may be interpreted as the result of a broader social transformation ( Hustinx
& Lammertyn, 2003). The literature indicates that volunteer work is shifting
from its traditional form based on membership and collective community
towards a more individualistic, independent and fractional one (ibidem;
Anheier, Hollerweger, Badelt & Kendall, 2003). Compared to the classical
model of long-term voluntary activities requiring involvement, the current
model seems to represent a more occasional and temporary activity aris-
ing from personal needs. These changes also bring about a change in the
profile of the volunteer.
Problemy ZarzÈdzania vol. 14, nr 3 (61), t. 1, 2016
51
Nature of NGO Volunteers’ and Employees’ Motivation…
Volunteer activities are undertaken by individuals with specific character-
istics, including personality traits. Research suggests, for example, that vol-
unteers feel a greater need to decide for themselves and express a stronger
wish for others to be responsible for themselves as well (Olkowska, 2008).
Volunteers and non-volunteers also differ in the level of optimism – people
engaging in social activities tend to believe in themselves, in the success of
the actions they undertake and in the sympathy of others more (ibidem). In
addition, they are more willing to share control in social situations they
are less imperious and domineering, focused more than others on common
search of solutions and application of democratic decision-making principles.
Motivations of volunteers to undertake social work tend to vary, hence their
numerous typologies. Among these classifications, one of the most compre-
hensive divisions seems to be that based on three main motivational factors,
as used by Barker (1993, as cited in: Anheier, Hollerweger, Badelt & Kendall,
op. cit., pp. 26–27). The three factors were termed by that author as: altruistic,
instrumental, and obligatory. The altruistic factor is based on volunteers’ values
and also stems from the emotional attitude to their activities. Altruistic motives
include (ibidem): solidarity for the poor, wronged and other supported per-
sons; compassion for those in need; identification with suffering people; desire
to restore hope and dignity to the disadvantaged. Instrumental motives are
connected with personal benefits that can be gained through volunteer work.
Among them are: gathering new experience and skills; doing something worth-
while and beneficial in spare time; meeting new people; personal satisfaction.
The last group comprises obligatory motives, i.e. related to a sense of duty.
These are: a sense of moral, religious duty; contribution to the development
and functioning of the local community; willingness to repay debt to society;
a sense of political duty to bring about change. These motives may certainly
be mixed and exist in a range of configurations.
The knowledge about motivations of volunteers embarking on voluntary
work can facilitate their appropriate management. Some of the benefits that
volunteers derive from the activities undertaken and that can induce them
to commence them are beyond control of managers. The literature high-
lights, however, a number of motivators that managers can affect, thereby
modifying a volunteer’s behaviour. The factors that can be controlled by
managers are (as cited in: Brooks, op. cit., p. 262):
the perceived social meaningfulness of volunteer activity;
the opportunity to enhance the volunteer’s career with respect to both
skills and resume building,
the volunteer’s role as a substitute for market work;
a positive organisational culture.
The above motives behind volunteer work are also present among Pol-
ish volunteers, although their configuration seems to have changed over the
years. In 19977 (Jordan & Ochman, op. cit.), the majority of volunteers (61%)
considered the desire to help others to be the most important motivator. The
Joanna Schmidt
52
DOI 10.7172/1644-9584.61.3
opportunity to gain new skills was also highly significant (46%), as was volun-
teering as a form of spending time (41%). In total, 68% of volunteers were
guided by altruistic motives (understood according to Barker’s classification –
cf. the list above), 11% by obligatory motives and, furthermore, all volunteers
indicated instrumental motives (often more than one). In contrast, volunteers’
motivations appear to be largely different ten years later8. As many as 60.7%
of volunteers said that they had commenced their activity because of moral,
religious or political beliefs (Baczko & Ogrocka, 2008), hence somehow because
of a sense of duty. The second-ranked (35.2%) statement was “if I help oth-
ers, others will help me”, which should be regarded as an instrumental motive,
though again referring directly to a sense of duty this time that of other
people. Various kinds of other instrumental motives were mentioned by a total
of almost 70% of respondents, while altruistic motives did not appear at all.
The change in volunteers’ motivations appears to be substantial. Instrumental
motives still play a vital role, although they were mentioned twice less often in
2007. Moreover, the structure of these motives has changed. In the 1990s, the
main instrumental motive was the desire to learn new skills, which motivated
only 11.5% of volunteers in 2007. At the same time, the pleasure derived from
work and interest in it was the primary instrumental motive (34.4%). Some
volunteers might thus be said to reveal a more “hedonistic” attitude to social
activities, whereas another large group is motivated mainly by absense of duty.
It is also surprising that 1/5 of volunteers stated that they worked because
they “can’t refuse” and over 17% because their “friends and loved ones do it as
well”, which indicates their conformism, namely adaptation to social norms. On
the one hand, this can prove that volunteering has already become absocial
norm in some groups but, on the other hand, suggests that volunteers cannot
make decisions independently and again refer to a sense of duty.
In the light of the research results obtained by L. Hustinx and F.bLam-
mertyn (op. cit.), what we are witnessing in Poland is the collective style
of volunteering, i.e. strongly linked to social, community orientation and
abdeep sense of duty to the local community (family, friends, acquaintances,
parishes) or a more abstract group (e.g. associated with a particular ideol-
ogy). Those authors also point out that the collective style of volunteering
is connected with a focus on supporting public goods9.
4. The Nature and Types of NGO Staff Motivation
andbthebProcess of Motivating Staff Results
ofbthebAuthor’s Own Research
4.1. Methodology of Research on Motivation Among NGO Teams
The research outlined below forms part of a larger research project
covering various aspects of NGO development and human resources. This
article concentrates on the research element related to the analysis of staff
Problemy ZarzÈdzania vol. 14, nr 3 (61), t. 1, 2016
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Nature of NGO Volunteers’ and Employees’ Motivation…
motivation in the surveyed organisations and other characteristics of human
resources that are specific to the different types of motivation.
NGO staff motivation will be examined as outlined by the following
research questions:
What are the motives behind starting work for/cooperation with NGOs
by the surveyed staff groups (taking into account the form of engage-
ment and position held)?
Is there is a link between the type of motivation and other analysed
staff characteristics and if so, what link is it?
A motive is not understood here as a reason for undertaking the activity
but as: all motives currently present in an individual (Okoñ, 2001, p. 290).
These analyses will be supplemented with conclusions and recommenda-
tions on development of the motivational process for people in non-profit
organisations (with account being taken of the differences between the
various groups).
The variables taken into consideration based on the literature that indi-
cate the specificity of human resources allow for examining an individual
in the organisation. Under this element, the following variables are set
out: motives behind starting work for/cooperation with the organisation,
job satisfaction10, competences of staff, volunteers and activists (including
the level and type of education, skills, experience). Personal-data variables
are also provided, including gender, age, position and form of employment/
cooperation. The set of motives was developed following the definition of
motivations by D. Katz and R.L. Kahn11 (Organ, 1988), formulated in line
with the assumptions of the human relations theory. D. Katz and R.L. Kahn
distinguished the following types of work motivation (ibidem):
need for security;
pursuit of instrumental economic benefits arising from sheer member-
ship of the company (working to obtain certain social goods such as
high salary, housing and pension);
wish to achieve through work social values unrelated to the work
itself, e.g. esteem among people;
pursuit of intrinsic satisfaction resulting from a specific role (self-fulfil-
ment at work, self-acceptance);
pursuit of social satisfaction resulting from membership of various infor-
mal groups in the workplace;
desire to pursue social goals.
The research used the method of diagnostic survey (Górniak, 2009).
Questionnaire was the applied research technique. The surveys were con-
ducted in whole Poland in 2010. The tool developed (survey questionnaire)
consisted of three parts: personal data (gender, age, form of employment/
cooperation), a part covering the individual aspect of human resources
(work motivators, job satisfaction, individual competences), and a section
concerning Organisational Citizenship Behaviour (Organ, 2006)12. Each sur-
Joanna Schmidt
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DOI 10.7172/1644-9584.61.3
vey question could be responded to by indicating one answer only (this rule
followed from the pilot study – as a result of both the questionnaire design
and, above all, the number of answers ticked by respondents). Respondents
were instructed that in case of doubt they should decide which answer is
the most consistent with their role in the organisation under investigation.
The only exception to this rule was the question about motivation. Due
to the multiplicity and diversity of the motives behind undertaking work/
activity in NGOs, a choice of two answers to this question was permitted
(this number was determined following the pilot results).
As the research on human resources was the next stage of the research
project13, the selection of organisations to be studied depended on the
outcomes of the first part of the research. That part concerning organisa-
tion development resulted in distinguishing three groups of organisations
classified by the level and dynamics of their development. In order to
ensure complementarity of the various research parts, it was decided to use
the development criterion in the subsequent part, which involved human
resources in organisations, as well. Making that division limited the sampling
options for further investigation and it was ultimately chosen to use quota
sampling. As part of the research on human resources, 80 organisations
were sent postal questionnaires, and some of them were visited personally,
which provided an opportunity both to collect survey questionnaires and to
obtain some further insight about organisations through interviews with their
leaders and observation of their daily work. In each organisation examined,
the entire team (all persons working or active in the organisation) was asked
to fill in questionnaires so that obtained information reflected as closely
as possible the actual situation in the organisation as regards the variables
studied. This made data collection at a disaggregated level necessary.
The return rate was over 26% (from 29 organisations), considered a good
result given the difficulty in conducting research in organisations (question-
naires had to be filled in by many people). Organisations returned from 4 to
12 survey sheets. In total, the questionnaires were completed by 189 people.
4.2. Characteristics of NGO Staff in the Presented Research:
Form of Cooperation and Positions Held by Respondents
In the analysed group, the largest section (40%) is formed by organisa-
tion activists/members. This is understandable given that activists must be
present in any organisation by definition (legal requirements provide that
associations must have an appropriate number of founding members and
foundations are obliged to have the founder and the management board).
This figure probably indicates the proportion of “truly active” activists which
may differ from the number of people performing these functions formally.
Indeed, the involvement of these individuals in the operation and manage-
ment of organisations is a separate issue. As indicated by the research
on, among others, activity of association members (Gumkowska, Herbst &
Problemy ZarzÈdzania vol. 14, nr 3 (61), t. 1, 2016
55
Nature of NGO Volunteers’ and Employees’ Motivation…
Radecki, op. cit.), only 16% of an organisation’s members regularly devote
their time to it and participate in its work. In the research presented herein,
each organisation is, however, represented by at least one activist.
Another group of people involved in organisations’ activities are volun-
teers. On average, they account for 24% of the team, with most organisations
having no more than 10 volunteers. The research shows that up to 72% of
organisations cooperated with volunteers, but it was not clarified whether
these volunteers worked there on a regular or campaign-related basis. Thus,
this percentage is much higher than in other surveys among volunteers in
non-profit organisations (usually focusing on “permanent” volunteers).
The third group comprises workers employed in different forms. Of
these, most people are employed under a contract of employment (20%
full-time and 4% part-time), followed by a mandate contract (8%) and
abcontract to perform a specific task (1%). Hence, this level of employment
in organisations does not indicate only the number of organisations that
have a permanent employee, e.g. in charge of administrative issues, but also
those that hired an employee at some point when pursuing their activities
(for example, a coach at a training session, a carer of children, an accoun-
tant). According to the research results, a total of 51% of organisations
employed workers, while two years before this proportion was only 40%.
In turn, the outcomes of the already mentioned research by Gumkowska,
Herbst and Radecki (op. cit.) point that the general employment (in all
the forms) stands at 43%. These findings seem to be consistent with the
results of the author’s own research and suggest a continued upward trend
in employment in non-profit organisations in recent years.
0
Volunteer
Organisation
activist/member
Mandate contract
Employment contract
(full-time)
Specific-task contract
Other
Employment contract
(part-time)
Employees – 33% of team
%
10
20
30
40
Fig. 1. Form of employment/cooperation of individuals in the organisations studied (n = 180).
Source: Elaborated by the author.
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According to the research results, young people between 19 and 35 years
of age constitute almost a half (49%) of the entire team in an average
organisation. People aged between 36 and 45 are less numerous, although
still relatively many (17%). In contrast, those over 46 years of age are by
far less numerous. In addition, the number of people at this age and older
is stable. The youth, i.e. people below 18 years of age, form the smallest
group, which seems to be understandable as they generally perform only
voluntary functions within organisations (usually on the campaign-related
basis).
4.3. Staff Motivation and Form of Cooperation with NGOs in the Light
of the Results of the Author’s Own Research
As mentioned above, the motives behind undertaking work and activi-
ties in NGOs are based on the classification developed by D. Katz and
R.L.bKahn. Each respondent could choose two items from among the
distinguished motives the occurrence of which was examined by means
of the previously presented indicators. Of all respondents, 30% indicated
abpro-social, altruistic motivation (the desire to do something good, some-
thing important for others). Therefore, the pursuit of social goals may be
considered to be the primary motive for NGO teams to engage in activity.
This finding points to the compliance of individuals’ motivation with one
of the basic social characteristics of NGOs, namely the achievement of
objectives for the common good.
0
Social goals
Social satisfaction
Intrinsic satisfaction
Social values
Gaining qualifications
Coincidence
Economic needs
Other motivation
%
10
20
5
15
25
30
Fig. 2. Respondents’ work motivations. Source: Elaborated by the author.
Problemy ZarzÈdzania vol. 14, nr 3 (61), t. 1, 2016
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Nature of NGO Volunteers’ and Employees’ Motivation…
For a large group of respondents (19%), a very important role is played
by social satisfaction, to wit favourable working environment and friendly
human relations, nice atmosphere, close-knit team. The nature of social
environment is highly significant both to those who engage in organisa-
tions’ activities without pay and to those for whom these activities are
a source of income. Moreover, respondents associate this activity with
the opportunity to gain intrinsic satisfaction resulting from self-fulfilment
and self-development (17%). As indicated by the research conducted by
E. Bogacz-Wojtanowska (2005), NGOs are characterised by the so-called
“multiplier effects”, meaning that NGOs stand out for the atmosphere,
close-knit teams, a lack of discriminatory practices, considerable freedom
of action, independence and delegation of tasks. The research findings
presented in this study would suggest that such a working environment
is important to many different members of organisations’ teams, regard-
less of the form of cooperation, since these elements were indicated as
work motives by a total of 33% of those surveyed. Further, respondents
mentioned the wish to achieve social values, and hence the desire to be
appreciated, respected and esteemed for their activity (16%), which in turn
implies that activities were undertaken because this was regarded as an area
of high value from the point of view of building their social position and
identity.
It is surprising, however, that only 9% of respondents stated that they
were motivated by the wish to improve their qualifications and gain pro-
fessional experience. The results of the research carried out by A. Baczko
and A. Ogrocka (2008) showed that such is the motivation of 11.5% of
volunteers. Yet with the inclusion of activists, notably employees, in the
presented research, such a low percentage of people motivated to work by
the desire to learn and develop seems unexpected. Perhaps this is due to
the hierarchy of respondents’ motives, among which development of quali-
fications is not as vital as the pursuit of social goals and hence ignored. In
addition, this motive may not be seen as typical when entering cooperation
with an NGO.
What is also characteristic is the fact that economic needs and financial
security motivate only 2% of respondents to work. This situation, on the
one hand, results from the fact that most respondents (i.e. volunteers and
activists) do not derive any financial benefits from their activities. On the
other hand, however, employees do not stand out in this respect. The low
rate for this kind of motivation does not mean, nonetheless, that earning
money and the possibility to make their living on incomes from work in the
organisation is insignificant to its employees. However, such motivations
are easier to satisfy in organisations from other sectors. What attracted
employees to non-profit organisations were issues other than simply high
wages or job security.
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Furthermore, it turned out that the form of cooperation with the organi-
sation is not a factor affecting motivations to undertake activity or work
there (chi-squared tests carried out for each motivation separately – in
no case did a statistically significant difference occur between the forms
of cooperation). This implies that the outlined results apply equally to
workers, activists and volunteers. On the one hand, this seems surprising
as, in spite of shared working environment and the same organisational
goals, these groups have different relationships with organisations. In par-
ticular, a different relationship is highlighted by the difference between
paid and unpaid work. On the other hand, however, it should be borne
in mind that employees of non-profit organisations are recruited largely
from among volunteers. Therefore, these may be people who consider
abparticular type of motivation to be so important that they decided to
continue cooperation with the non-governmental sector and get involved
in the chosen organisation permanently. The form of their work changed,
while the basic motivation to engage in it did not. Certainly, it should be
kept in mind that in most cases it is probably not the only type of employee
motivation.
Some differences emerged, nonetheless, once not so much the form of
engagement but rather occupied positions and performed functions had
been analysed. The discrepancies arose in respect of three types of motiva-
tion: economic needs (chi-squared = 22.175, df = 9, p = 0.008), social objec-
tives (chi-squared = 35.082, df = 18, p = 0.009) and the situation where it
was a coincidence rather than specific motivation that led to involvement
(chi-squared = 30.332, df = 9, p = 0.000). Economic needs were more mean-
ingful for only some employees performing specific functions, i.e. board
chairpersons and members, office directors and project team members.
In the case of management boards, these are probably people who simul-
taneously fulfil other – paid tasks. Board members and office directors
are also individuals who normally engage most in the management of the
organisation; this is their primary occupation, so they treat it as the main
workplace and source of income. Economic needs are also more important
than other motives for project team members, who are usually much worse
paid than project coordinators (for the latter, economic issues are not of
particular significance; this also holds true for various kinds of specialists,
e.g. accountants or IT specialists, for whom cooperation with the organi-
sation is much more often only one of many sources of income and who
do not feel such close financial links with it). The observed association is
moderate14 (Cramér’s V = 0.388).
As for the pursuit of social objectives, namely the belief that I act in order
to do something important for others, a moderate association (Cramér’s
V = 0.345) can be noticed between this motive and the functions of board
chairperson/member, activist or organisation member. In this case, people
who are usually not rewarded for their work and are also formally associ-
Problemy ZarzÈdzania vol. 14, nr 3 (61), t. 1, 2016
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Nature of NGO Volunteers’ and Employees’ Motivation…
ated with the organisation (they are not volunteers from outside) thus stand
out. Hence, the nature of the activity pursued is connected with absense of
social utility, and this issue should be emphasised also in the management
of organisation members and activists, especially in view of their relatively
small involvement in the organisation’s activities (cf. Gumkowska, Herbst
& Radecki, op. cit.). It appears essential to pay more attention to involving
these people in jobs where the social, charitable or supportive nature of
actions can be seen but also to explaining and highlighting the relation-
ship between even seemingly trivial tasks (e.g. filling in various documents,
making phone calls or cleaning) and organisational objectives.
It also turns out that volunteers, accountants and people outside the
main categories identified more frequently got involved due to coincidence
(Cramér’s V = 0.454). This option was chosen by respondents less associated
with the organisation whose activity or work for it was just one of many
activities pursued. It seems, however, that the coincidence category should
not be underestimated as it comprises reasons such as encouragement by
a friend or acquaintance, spotting an advertisement, or taking part in the
organisation’s project. All these situations point to forms of recruitment
that often prove effective.
Summing up the issues of NGO staff motivations and their types, what
should be noted first and foremost is that these motivations are less diver-
sified (taking into account the various categories of people working in
NGOs) than expected. In building a motivational system or simply introduc-
ing further motivational tools, consideration should, therefore, be given to
whether they refer to the most common motives for NGO staff to undertake
activities. Special attention should be paid here to highlighting social goals
and social utility of tasks, with linking the tasks with the accomplishment of
the organisation’s statutory objectives and indicating the effects of actions
taken by each individual. What proves crucial is also a favourable working
environment, including friendly human relations and nice atmosphere in
the organisation, which seems reasonable especially considering that most
team members do not get paid for their work. So unless an organisation
is a place where people want to spend time, they will be reluctant to
get involved and more likely to give up work. NGOs thus seem to need
a variety of instruments to integrate teams, reduce the distance between
their members, and introduce transparent rules for cooperation between
different staff groups (working in accordance with different rules). When
starting work for an NGO, people also have a strong need to be appre-
ciated, hence such seemingly obvious issues as thanking and rewarding
should not be ignored. Obviously, this has nothing to do with bonuses
or valuable non-cash rewards, but rather other, more symbolic forms of
emphasising the value of an employee or volunteer through, for instance,
public recognition, distinction, small prizes or a flexible approach to the
workplace or working time.
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As for the differences between the various groups of people, they proved
to be significant only in the case of some positions; however, no clear dis-
tinction between motivations of the identified team groups, i.e. members/
activists, volunteers and employees, can be found. People who chiefly need
special motivational tools in this context are, for example, board members
who combine managerial functions with other paid tasks. These are individu-
als who regard financial compensation and the pursuit of social objectives
as equally important. Such “mixed” motivation can positively affect the
functioning of the entire organisation, because the management board will,
in this case, particularly care about ensuring the organisation’s financial
liquidity, on the one hand, while striving not to lose sight of important
social goals, on the other hand. Undoubtedly, this is not, however, an easy
task and it may require many compromises. Therefore, support for the
team proves all the more helpful in this situation. Attention should also
be paid to the organisation’s permanent staff. While people only cooperat-
ing with the organisation are not particularly different from other groups,
employees, for whom work there is the sole or primary source of income,
state that financial incentives are far more meaningful. This result is not
entirely consistent with the observations from other studies, yet it should be
noted that it does not mean that other types of motivation are insignificant
to employees, but only that economic needs become more critical to them.
4.4. The Nature of Motivation and Other Characteristics
of Organisations’ Staff
The types of motivation of NGO teams were also analysed for their cor-
relations with the other staff characteristics examined. These characteristics
may include personal-data variables that have not been analysed previ-
ously such as respondents’ age and gender as well as individual variables
such as job satisfaction and competences (including the level and type of
education, skill level, work experience gained in the organisation and in
the NGO sector).
As regards the relationship between the types of motivation and the
age of respondents, is should be noted that most types of motivation are
independent of age. This correlation could be observed only in two cases
(see Table 1).
It may be noted that, depending on age, respondents reveal different
approaches to the motivation associated with intrinsic satisfaction, with the
experience of stimulating, challenging and developing work. Such expecta-
tions are characteristic primarily of people aged 26–35, followed by those
aged 36–45. These two groups include individuals who already have (more
or less) work experience and specific qualifications but are still ready and
willing to learn. Given that they represent a major part of NGO teams
(what is more, these are people who could potentially be affiliated with
the organisation for a long time to come), their needs should be taken into
Problemy ZarzÈdzania vol. 14, nr 3 (61), t. 1, 2016
61
Nature of NGO Volunteers’ and Employees’ Motivation…
consideration and a stimulating working environment should be ensured.
This involves, for instance, planning development paths, which is not easy
in the face of typically few potential levels of promotion. Development,
however, may also be connected with increased responsibilities, indepen-
dence, autonomy or training system.
Age
Chi-squared
value
df p-value Cramér’s V
Economic needs 4.808 6 0.569
Achievement of social values 12.140 6 0.059
Intrinsic satisfaction 15.450 6 0.017 0.307
Social satisfaction 3.823 6 0.701
Pursuit of social goals 10.626 12 0.561
Gaining qualifications 14.536 6 0.024 0.298
Coincidence 6.475 6 0.372
Other motivation 6.888 6 0.331
Tab. 1. Type of motivation and the age of staff of NGOs studied. Source: Elaborated
bybthe author.
Another important motive in view of age was gaining qualifications
and experience. It is clearly linked with the approach to work discussed
above, yet it is characteristic especially of young people (mostly 19–26 year
olds). In this case, we are dealing with the motivation of people who are
just starting their careers and are willing to gain new competences and
experience. Therefore, it is about facilitating the start in their working lives
and improving their position in the labour market rather than focusing on
the specifics and nature of work or opportunities so provided. Work for
an NGO is often indicated as providing such opportunities because it is
diverse, involves variable responsibilities and allows for transiting quickly the
subsequent stages of the career path (from volunteer to project coordina-
tion) (cf., e.g., Makowska, 2009, pp. 231–233; Bogacz-Wojtanowska, 2005).
Gender, another personal-data variable, appeared to differentiate
motives also in two cases only. Social satisfaction (i.e. friendly working atmo-
sphere and human relations) is more frequently appreciated by women (chi-
squared = 8.657; df = 2; p = 0.013). Nevertheless, Cramèr’s V indicates that
this association is rather weak, amounting to 0.24. The second differentiating
motivation is the most popular motive – the pursuit of social objectives. In
this case, it turns out to be a more frequent reason for cooperation among
males (chi-squared = 10.88; df = 4; p = 0.02). Cramèr’s V shows that this
association is even weaker than for social satisfaction, amounting tob0.19.
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These results would point to the compatibility of motives with psychologi-
cal knowledge about the differences between the sexes, suggesting that (to
abslight but significant extent) men feel that action is more important, while
women consider the nature of human relations more meaningful.
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Women
Men
Other motiwation
Coincidence
Gaining qualifications
Social goals
Social satisfaction
intrinsic satisfaction
Social values
Economic needs
%
2 2
15
17
20
18
13
20
27
36
6
11
7
5
1 1
Fig. 3. Respondents’ work motivations and gender. Source: Elaborated by the author.
Job satisfaction was another variable tested. The research results show
that the level of satisfaction of those involved in NGO activities is high
(58%) or very high (41%). In fact, in the surveyed organisations there
were no people who were dissatisfied with their job or other activities in
the organisation. These findings can be explained by voluntary and free
commitment of the majority of respondents (i.e. activists and volunteers)
for whom this kind of activity is an effect of their choice, wish to meet
their needs and indulge their passions. On the other hand, it should be
stressed that there were no statistically significant differences in the level of
satisfaction between those cooperating with organisations without pay and
their employees (chi-squared = 21.49; df = 21; p = 0.42). This finding seems
to confirm the outcomes of many previous studies that reveal significant
levels of satisfaction among people involved in NGO activities and work
and higher levels of job satisfaction among NGO employees than among
workers in other sectors (cf. Benz, op. cit.; Bacchiega & Borzaga, 2002). As
for the correlation between motivation and the level of satisfaction, what
could be observed in the research was only that individuals who considered
gaining qualifications and experience to be their key motivation derived
lower satisfaction from work (chi-squared = 16.031, df = 3, p = 0.001; Cra-
mér’s V = 0.313). This is probably because these people are more critical
towards their work and pay more attention to all kinds of imperfections
Problemy ZarzÈdzania vol. 14, nr 3 (61), t. 1, 2016
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Nature of NGO Volunteers’ and Employees’ Motivation…
and areas for development. They might also treat their work or activity in
NGOs solely as a stage in their career and might not be committed to the
values specific to the organisations.
Job satisfaction n (f) n (%)
No satisfaction 0 0
Low 2 1
High 106 58
Very high 75 41
Tab. 2. The level of respondents’ job satisfaction. Source: Elaborated by the author.
The last area of analysis is the relationship between competences (the
level and type of education, skill level, experience) and the type of motiva-
tion. As for the level of education, its correlation could be seen only with
the motivation to gain qualifications and experience (chi-squared = 13.871,
df = 5, p = 0.016; Cramér’s V = 0.291). In this instance, it appears that
people with this motivation tend to have lower education. So their motiva-
tion is to learn and develop. This is meaningful given especially that it is
characteristic of young people (19-26 years of age), mainly students (cf. the
analyses above). As regards the type of education, it turned out that again
in only one case its relationship with motivation could be observed. Edu-
cation is associated with motivation to gain intrinsic satisfaction (resulting
from the nature of work), which is more frequent for people educated in
socio-economic and artistic fields (chi-squared = 17.411, df = 9, p = 0.043;
Cramér’s V=0.326). It thus seems that the aforementioned factors deter-
mining the specifics of work in NGOs (e.g. freedom, informal atmosphere,
no competition) appeal more to people with such backgrounds.
As for the level of skills of staff, two different relationships with moti-
vation could be noticed in the research. Firstly, people with low skills are
much more motivated by social recognition and achievement of social values
through work (chi-squared = 17.123, df = 4, p = 0.002; Cramér’s V = 0.323).
For people who are still learning or beginning their work for NGOs but
also for those who do jobs that do not require high specialist qualifica-
tions, appreciation, respect shown by other people and their recognition
are, therefore, particularly important. These probably constitute a kind of
compensation for the efforts made and sustain the desire to continue work
(that can be essential in particular for social activities, i.e. carried out without
remuneration). The positive feedback provided by the environment is here
an incentive to continue engagement and develop. As regards high-skilled
people, it turns out that they are often motivated by intrinsic satisfaction
linked with the work characteristics (chi-squared = 14.844, df = 4, p = 0.005;
Cramér’s V = 0.301). These are thus individuals who fit in an environment
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that requires independence and responsibility. On the one hand, they have
then the opportunity to develop their competences and, on the other, such
a work environment sustains their motivation. Wishing to attract and retain
such persons, special attention should be, therefore, paid to offering them
development opportunities and considerable autonomy both in terms of
scope and content of work. Challenges and non-typical tasks would rather
be an incentive for them to get involved, so they would have to be able to
prove themselves, meaning, for example, reduction of routine duties or as
flexible approach to different procedures as possible.
Another competence-related element is experience of working or being
active in organisations and in the NGO sector. Such experience proves to
be crucial for motivation in some cases. For experienced people (having
worked for an organisation for at least 2–5 years), what is particularly
important is work in a close-knit team and overall social satisfaction ensuing
from group membership (chi-squared = 15.218, df = 4, p = 0.004; Cramér’s
V = 0.305). This is a factor that clearly encourages the involvement and
sustains their interest in being active in the organisation. As far as people
with little experience (less than a year or up to 1–2 years of activity) are
concerned, they are much more frequently motivated by the opportunity to
gain qualifications and experience (chi-squared = 16.211, df = 4, p = 0.003;
Cramér’s V = 0.314). This may indicate that they are concentrated on per-
sonal benefits rather than the pursuit of social goals, also showing their
focus on short-term involvement in the organisation’s activities which ends
with the attainment of a personal goal (gaining specific experience, new
competences). In this context, it is worth considering how to manage such
people. On the one hand, investing in them, training, and the like, may be
unprofitable from the point of view of the organisation. On the other hand,
it is worth asking whether something can be done to retain these individu-
als in the organisation; besides, it should be remembered that they are
employees who are relatively “cheap” (only entering the labour market and
gaining work experience) or completely “unpaid” (for example, volunteers).
5. Conclusion Motivational Profiles of Selected Groups
of NGO Staff
NGO staff composition is heterogeneous, with specific motivations
(Parry, Kelliher, Mills & Tyson, 2005; Benz, 2005; Borzaga & Tortia, 2006;
Rose-Ackerman, 1997; Bacchiega & Borzaga, 2002). The research results
presented, on the one hand, indicate the main motivations for undertak-
ing work or activities in NGOs and, in this regard, are consistent with
the findings by other authors. On the other hand, the analysis of the dif-
ferences between various types of motivation and their relationships with
other characteristics provides a deeper understanding of this topic and
more profound insight into the specific functioning of Polish NGOs. The
Problemy ZarzÈdzania vol. 14, nr 3 (61), t. 1, 2016
65
Nature of NGO Volunteers’ and Employees’ Motivation…
article also contains conclusions on people management, taking into account
their motivation.
Examining NGO staff motivation, the main and general motives behind
commencing activities may be identified for most teams. It seems that spe-
cial attention should be paid to the attainment of socially useful objectives,
favourable and friendly working environment, and the achievement of social
values associated with recognition and appreciation at work. The motiva-
tional system based on satisfaction of needs contained in these motives is
very likely to appeal to the majority of the team.
The distinctive characteristics (that often recur in subsequent analyses)
of certain groups of people are also noteworthy. This is because the results
of analyses also appear to allow the presentation of several profiles of staff
groups of people with quite specific and distinct expectations. One such
group comprises board members working within organisations. These are
individuals strongly involved in the activity who consider the organisation
important for both ideological (pursuit of meaningful social goals) and
personal reasons (source of income). Their role seems to be crucial to the
development and functioning of organisations, although they usually are
not subjects of motivational influences.
Another group consists of experienced team members – members, volun-
teers and employees. These are generally people aged 26–45 with consider-
able experience (minimum 2–5 or more years in the organisation) and a high
level of competence. They are also frequently educated in socio-economic
fields (in general, most people among NGO staff are those with education
in humanities). Their characteristic motivation is focus on development,
with an interesting, stimulating work environment that is full of new chal-
lenges being particularly mobilising. They expect independence, delegation
of responsibility for tasks, diversity and autonomy. This group seems to
be notably valuable from the point of view of organisations, so it is worth
ensuring that they are motivated appropriately to reported expectations.
Given that this is a group of skilled and experienced individuals, offering
them broad opportunities for development (apart from promotion) with
abhigh degree of autonomy may be a key factor boosting their commitment
and willingness to remain active.
The last and distinctly separate group consists of young people (usually
19–25 year olds) who are inexperienced (less than 1 year or 1–2 years in
the organisation and in the sector) and relatively low-skilled. They are less
satisfied with their job than other individuals and less motivated by the
acquisition of new qualifications and experience. Thus, they are focused
on work or activity as a means to achieve a goal rather than the goal as
such. Without a doubt, this is a group worth resorting to as they may
be entrusted with many tasks and will gladly engage in these activities in
pursuit of their own goals. It appears, however, that it should be kept in
mind that we are dealing here with a new type of volunteer or employee
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(cf. the above-mentioned research results of Hustinx & Lammertyn, 2003)
whose involvement is more occasional, temporary and results from personal
needs. Also the motivational system should be adapted to this changing
cooperator or volunteer profile, considering, for example, the need for
abflexible approach to the work system, campaign-based involvement and
the fact that excessively postponed benefits may not be encouraging for
such cooperators or volunteers.
Contrary to what was initially expected, the identified profiles do not
involve a specific form of engagement, and the correlations between moti-
vation and other characteristics proved to be more complex. A more accu-
rate identification of NGO staff motivations and their relationships with
other characteristics as well as the influence of such motives on motivating
requires further research to be conducted on a larger sample, including
abwider range of variables.
Endnotes
1 Day-to-day management is, in turn, more often a duty of employed managers, albeit
the boards of many (especially small) organisations include the most active people
who work for organisations every day.
2 Cf. Act of 24 April 2003 on Public Benefit Activity and Voluntary Work (Journal
of Laws (Dz.U.) 2016, item 239).
3 This does not mean that pay is not important but only that it is not a determining
factor when choosing where to work.
4 Higher than job satisfaction in other sectors (Mirvis & Hackett, 1983, as cited in:
Lammers, 1990).
5 The reference here is to managerial staff among employed workers, i.e. staff ranked
lower than the board.
6 Definition of voluntary work according to: Centrum Wolontariatu [Volunteer Centre]
(Jordan & Ochman, 1997, p. 9)
7 The cited research was conducted in Masovia and is not representative of Poland
as a whole.
8 It should be emphasised that the studies by Jordan and Ochman (op. cit.) and Baczko
and Ogrocka (op. cit.) are not complementary and were carried out under different
conditions, making the possibility of comparing them and drawing conclusions on
this basis limited.
9 The second style – reflexive – is, according to those authors, an effect of biographi-
cal experience of the volunteer who sees the commencement of social activities as
abchoice rather than a response to social expectations or socialisation.
10 Satisfaction is understood here as “the degree of positive or negative feeling produ-
ced as a result of tasks performed in specific physical and social conditions” (Gros,
2003, p. 115).
11 This theory was chosen in view of the nature of the research covering not only moti-
vations but also many other aspects of NGO human resources and operations. From
a holistic point of view of the research, it was important to adopt a perspective that
allowed looking at the organisation as a social system based on cooperation and will
of individuals and built so as to support and contribute to the organisation’s deve-
Problemy ZarzÈdzania vol. 14, nr 3 (61), t. 1, 2016
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Nature of NGO Volunteers’ and Employees’ Motivation…
lopment. This concept emphasises the significance of “informal organisations”, that
is small, grassroots communities, groups existing in organisations that legitimise and
stabilise the system of formal authority. The purpose of informal groups is to meet
the needs of their members, while formal groups cater for the needs of organisations
(Armstrong, 2005, p. 241). Furthermore, this concept stresses the weight of sponta-
neous activity resulting from the formation of such groups. The structure that takes
into account the existence and value of coexistence of formal and informal groups
within an organisation is often reflected in NGOs, because such a setup corresponds
to organisational objectives and operating assumptions. Non-profit organisations
are usually formed relying on bottom-up initiatives, active citizens, informal human
relations. During later stages of their operations, invoking citizenship, independence
and activity frequently builds a sense of identity of organisations, which by definition
are to pursue socially useful objectives and act on behalf of citizens. In addition,
concentration on aspects such as non-economic motivation, informal structures, non-
formal social sanctions, system of interpersonal relationships, supervisor-subordinate
relationships fits in the so-called “soft” style of human resource management in
NGOs as it highlights the social context of relationships within organisations.
12 The survey section on Organisational Citizenship Behaviour was not included in the
analyses herein and forms no part of this article.
13 The previous parts of the research were excluded from the analyses herein due to
their nature, scope and size.
14 Cramér’s V, which is based on chi-squared statistics, was used to examine the strength
of associations. This coefficient may range from 0 to 1, with the results being inter-
preted as follows: V < 0.3 – means a weak association, V < 0.5 – means a moderate
association, V > 0.5 means a strong association (Szymczak, 2010).
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... , 2015;Breitsohl & Ehrig, 2017;De Gilder et al., 2005;Hu et al., 2016;Krasnopolskaya et al., 2016;Lee, 2012;Schmidt, 2016 ‫جنسیت‬ Breitsohl & Ehrig, 2017;Houghton et al., 2009;Hu et al., 2016;Krasnopolskaya et al., 2016;Lee, 2012;Marshall & Taniguchi, 2012 ‫وضعیت‬ ‫تاهل‬ Ariza-Montes et al., 2015;De Gilder et al., 2005 ‫مذهب‬ ‫محور‬ ‫خویش‬ ‫های‬ ‫انگیزه‬ Breitsohl & Ehrig, 2017;Do Paco & Cláudia Nave 2013;Grant, 2012;Mojza et al., 2010;Pajo & Lee, 2011;Peloza & Hassy, 2006 ‫ها‬ ‫ارزش‬ ‫کمک‬ ‫اعتقاد‬ ‫همنوع‬ ‫به‬ Breitsohl & Ehrig, 2017;Piatak, 2016;Do Paco & Cláudia Nave, 2013;Grant, 2012;Pajo & Lee, 2011;Yim & Fock, 2013 ‫بااهمیت‬ ‫دانستن‬ ‫فعالیت‬ ‫داوطلبانه‬ Caligiuri et al., 2013;Grant, 2012;Pajo & Lee, 2011;Rodell, 2013;2010;Yim & Fock, 2013 ‫شخصیتی‬ ‫عوامل‬ Pajo & Lee, 2011;Rodell, 2013 ‫سازمانی‬ ‫عوامل‬ ‫شغل‬ ‫بودن‬ ‫معنادار‬ Geroy et al., 2000;Grant, 2012;Rodell, 2013 ‫کارکنان‬ ‫شغلی‬ ‫های‬ ‫مشخصه‬ Ariza-Montes et al., 2015;Basil et al., 2009;Booth et al., 2009;Gomez & Gunderson, 2003;Lee, 2012;Peloza et al., 2009 ‫سازمان‬ ‫نوع‬ Chen & Lee, 2015;Ertas, 2014;Houghton et al., 2009;Rotolo & Wilson, 2006 ‫سازمان‬ ‫اندازه‬ Basil et al., 2011 ‫سازمانی‬ ‫فرهنگ‬ Kim & Kim, 2016;Lindenmeier et al., 2010;Pajo & Lee, 2011;Sanchez-Hernandez & Gallardo-Vázquez, 2013 ‫فعالیت‬ ‫برگزاری‬ ‫نحوه‬ ‫داوطلبانه‬ ...
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