Conference PaperPDF Available

SOLID STATE FUEL-AIR EXPLOSIVES

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Phone (Stefan Kolev): +359 878 633801 https://www.linkedin.com/in/stefan-kolev-34070848/ ABSTRACT Solid state fuel-air EBX and TBX (enhanced blast and thermobaric explosives) have very promising features. They can combine superior air blast impulse with metal fragmentation and acceleration effects, thus enabling to create ordnance with improved effectiveness and combined modes of action on targets. Despite the efforts for practical application, however, most of the current compositions (APPENDIX I) are still based on obsolete types of polymers, oxidizers and production technologies, which limit their performance and keep their production cost high. SURT Technologies presents the results of practical solutions to these problems in two types of solid state thermobaric explosives A-TBX and H-TBX. They have demonstrated air blast TNT equivalent of 2.5 times and metal fragmentation capabilities comparable to TNT. Both A-TBX and H-TBX (A/H-TBX) are thermally stable, economically competitive and technologically producible for mass production.
Content may be subject to copyright.
SOLID STATE FUEL-AIR EXPLOSIVES
Stefan Kolev, Tsvetomir Tsonev
SURT Technologies LTD, Sofia, Bulgaria
e-mail: info@surt-technologies.com
Phone (Stefan Kolev): +359 878 633801
https://www.linkedin.com/in/stefan-kolev-34070848/
Robert Weinheimer*
ORAC INTL LLC, Maricopa, Arizona
e-mail: weinheimer@orbitelcom.com
https://www.linkedin.com/in/robert-weinheimer-baa78410/
ABSTRACT
Solid state fuel-air EBX and TBX (enhanced blast and thermobaric explosives) have very
promising features. They can combine superior air blast impulse with metal fragmentation and
acceleration effects, thus enabling to create ordnance with improved effectiveness and
combined modes of action on targets. Despite the efforts for practical application, however,
most of the current compositions (APPENDIX I) are still based on obsolete types of polymers,
oxidizers and production technologies, which limit their performance and keep their production
cost high. SURT Technologies presents the results of practical solutions to these problems in
two types of solid state thermobaric explosives A-TBX and H-TBX. They have demonstrated air
blast TNT equivalent of 2.5 times and metal fragmentation capabilities comparable to TNT. Both
A-TBX and H-TBX (A/H-TBX) are thermally stable, economically competitive and
technologically producible for mass production.
A 'Crushing' Victory: Fuel-Air Explosives and Grozny 2000:
https://www.slideshare.net/RobertWeinheimer/a-crushing-victory-fuelair-explosives-and-grozny-
2000
1994: Russia quelled the Chechenya insurgents in the Capital City of Grozny;
1996: The city of Grozny was re-occupied by the Chechens.
1999: Following a deliberate advance across the northern Chechen plains in October through
December 1999, the Russian Army closed on the Chechen capital city of Grozny and the foothills
of the imposing Caucasus mountains. There, the advance stopped.
2000: The Russians began the new century with a renewed assault on Grozny. The Russians
continued their deliberate urban advance and, after forty days of fighting, the smoking ruins of
Grozny were theirs. Unlike the first battle for Grozny (in late 1994-early 1995) or the recapture of
the city by the Chechens (in 1996), the Russians now use large quantities of fuel-air weapons
(Thermobarics). https://www.revolvy.com/topic/Thermobaric%20weapon&item_type=topic
2000: The US Department of Defense took notice and began a R&D program to review fuel-air
thermobaric explosive technology.
2001: After the 9/11 terrorist attack on the United States, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency
(DTRA) organized a 60-day joint project with DOD & DOE to identify, test and integrate a solution
to deliver new capabilities for tunnel defeat. Research scientist Ms. Ahn Duong (Nguyet Anh
Duong) at NSWC Indian Head, MD was responsible for leading over one hundred scientist,
engineers and technicians in the design, development and production of the payload PBXIH-135
and booster of the BLU-118/B thermobaric bomb. She did it in 67 days, a feat that normally would
take subcontractors 60 months.
INTRODUCTION:
SURT Technologies. LTD is strictly an energetic material Research, and Development (R&D)
facility and not a production company; located in Sofia, Bulgaria. Bulgaria is a EU member and
NATO ally. SURT is owned and operated by two researchers, Dr. Stefan Kolev and Tzvetomir
Tzonev. SURT’s energetic material product technologies are available for licensing or sale.
ORAC INTL LLC (ORACINT) is an Ordnance Research Analyst Consultant company owned and
operated by Robert Weinheimer; located in Maricopa, Arizona USA, representing SURT’s
interests to transfer energetic material technology in the US.
4th GENERATION SOLID STATE FUEL-AIR EXPLOSIVES
EXPERIMENTAL SECTION:
30.04.2013; On the testing ground of one of the largest weapon producer in Bulgaria, VMZ-
Sopot, SURT Technologies (SURT) made the final tests of SURT thermobaric compositions
(A/H-TBX) with the best hardware available to extract the maximum data needed for proof of
conception. The results from comparative tests with different munitions (pure A-IX-1 and
standard mash type TBX (RDX/IPN/Al) far exceeded expectations and that’s the main reason
to move it abroad to NATO.
A-IX-1 is a Russian explosive used in modern Russian military shells. It consists of
95% RDX, phlegmatized with 5% wax. It has a relative TNT effectiveness factor around 1.60
and has been in use since WWII by the Russian Army.
SURT has access to the latest research papers and scientific publications, and has closely
monitored, studied and tested every promising thermobaric composition or design from 2000
to 2017. SURT A/H-TBX composition is a 4th generation thermobaric, which is capable to
detonate and burn the metal fuel completely even in 50-gram quantities.
4
th
Generation Comparison with Known Thermobaric Mixtures
4 GEN COMPOSITION
Full
burning
fuel
E(anaerob)/ Е(aerob)
MJ/k
g
Water
proof T>100°C Brisance
Price
USD/k
g
1
RDX/IPN/Al [5]
(Russian
Thermobaric
)
X 3/6-8
a
X X ~10 GPa ~20
2
HMX/HTPB/Al
[6]
(
PBXIH-135
)
X 4/6-8
a
V X ~20 GPa 60-80
3
RDX/HTPB/AP/
Al [7]
(
AFX-757
)
X 2/10
a
X X ~10 GPa 40-60
4
Homogenous
Mixture
SURT Tech.
V 5/14 V V ~20 GPa
a
~20
4
Annular
Design
SURT Tech.
V 5/16 V V ~25 GPa
b
~20
a.
Onlyinenclosedspace
b.
Attheendsofthecylindricalcharge
c.
Densityoftheouterlayer,thewholechargedensityis~2.0g/ccwithRDXorHMXcore.
What are the main advantages of SURT’s A/H TBX composition?
Cutting edge solid state concept, analogous to the one used in the “Hellfire II AGM-114N”,
but more economically produced, safer and with readily available materials that release even
higher explosive power (16 MJ/kg or 4 times TNT equivalent for the energy of aerobic
detonation pressure (Pcj 25-30 GPa for the anaerobic detonation).
http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/munitions/agm-114n.htm
No volatile liquid monopropellants (like IPN in the Russian “Shmel” for example), which
eases the production, handling and most important - improves safety and storage stability.
Does not need airtight or reinforced containers.
https://www.revolvy.com/topic/RPO-A%20Shmel&item_type=topic
Energetic polymer binder with its reducing action achieves an effect similar to that of introduced
metal fuel into the composition. The polymer acts as catalyst to ensure the complete burning of
the metal fuel into the atmosphere. Tests were conducted at a temperature of -10 degrees
Celsius, confirming the versatility and performance of A/H-TBX compositions. SURT’s A-TBX
detonates completely even in 50 to100-gram quantities, which is unique compared to other
polymer bonded TBX explosives. The widely used PBX compositions like PBXIH-135 and AFX-
757 give satisfactory results only in large quantities, but in quantities less than 10kg they suffer
from incomplete combustion of the metal fuel, which make them useless in small ordnance
applications.
Inhibition: The polymer coated metal particles and oxygen rich salts are protected from
external influence during handling and storage, which significantly extends the shelf life, safety
and stability of the produced ordnance.
Low sensitivity to mechanical and thermal impact elements, which puts SURT’s A-TBX and
H-TBX products in the category of "insensitive munitions’. Exceptionally high thermal stability,
makes them excellent filler for various supersonic munitions. The composition is stable for
short time heating up to 250°C and its flash point is above 300°C. The polymer maintains its
mechanical properties from -50 to more than 200°C.
Inert: High resistance to oxidation even at high temperatures without the use of any anti-
oxidants or other preserving agents. Zero hygroscopicity and high humidity resistance of the
final product. Samples of the described compositions have been stored for more than a year
(from -15 to +45°C) without any chemical or mechanical changes to the structure and the
properties of the material.
Low production cost at 10-20 USD per kilogram! All ingredients are high-tonnage products
of the chemical industry. SURT products binding system eliminates problems associated with
the classical "slurry" method such as high cost, low yield, the use of specialized equipment
and most importantly - the oxidation of the used metal fuels. A-TBX and H-TBX process can
be done even "manually" or with the help of ordinary mechanical mixers. The resulting
plastic/semi plastic mass can be charged into munitions using the same methods as used for
the composite rocket propellants. This makes the production cycle much simpler and
eliminates the need of specialized equipment or the construction of separate production lines.
Factors, which shrink the production costs to minimum.
High charge density (more than 2g/cc) in comparison with compositions based on polymers
such as hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB). Very good mechanical properties. Easy
molding and pressing of the resulting thermobaric composition. Consistency of a solid rubber
in polymerized state and a paste in unpolymerized state, which can be extruded even through
1.5 mm opening.
Classification and environmental issues. Considering the legal issues around thermobaric
weapons in recent years, SURT thermobaric explosives can be classified either as
“thermobaric” or “enhanced blast”, because they have all the positive characteristics of the
classic aluminized explosives (solid state, low sensitivity like Tritonal, AFX-757, etc.), but with
2-4 times higher blast/pressure capabilities. These new explosives do not contain any toxic
products or evolved products (after detonation) with higher toxicity than Tritonal, AFX-757 or
PBXIH-135.
SOLID STATE FUEL-AIR EXPLOSIVES WITH ENHANCED POWER AND STABILITY
Current State-of-the-Art (APPENDIX 1): Solid state explosives utilizing atmospheric oxygen
to create enhanced blast can be grouped into two major categories [1]. First group H-TBX
explosives are homogenous mixtures of binder, brisant explosive, optionally an oxidizer, and
reducing agent, usually a metal powder. In some cases the brisant explosive may play the role
of binder. The second group A-TBX explosives are created using the so called “annular
design”. In this case the reducing agent, with optionally added oxidizer, is placed around a
core consisting of a brisant explosive. A binder is used to cast or press the outer layer around
the high explosive core. Regardless of their high potential, both groups suffer drawbacks that
hinder their practical use. First group, the homogenous mixtures suffer from incomplete
burning of the metal particles in the atmosphere and for this reason, the potential energy stored
in the explosive cannot be converted to blast impulse with high enough yield [2,3]. For this
reason, additional oxidizer, usually ammonium perchlorate, is added to the mixture to support
the combustion of the reducing agent. Ammonium perchlorate decomposes slowly; it cannot
react in the detonation front. Therefore, such explosives are only effective in very high
quantities as they depend on post detonation mixing and reaction of oxidizer with the products
of detonation. The annular design also suffers from poor combustion of the reducing agent if
prepared using non-active binder like HTPB. The high price, low stability, and low mechanical
properties of the active polymers (containing fluorine, NO2) hinder their practical use. For
example, active oxidizing polymers like Teflon and Viton, although participating in the reaction
and improving the yield of the blast, suffer from low mechanical properties and high sensitivity.
Moreover, it is very difficult to incorporate such polymers in actual devices as the prepared
explosives become brittle and difficult to press around the explosive core. Thus, production of
such ordnance, especially in large calibers, becomes highly impractical [4].
Advancing the State-of-the-Art (APPENDIX II and APPENDIX III): To solve the problems
associated with the practical use of solid state fuel air explosives SURT used the same
approaches for both homogenous mixture (denoted as H-TBX) and annular design (denoted
as A-TBX), Fig. 1. First an oxidizer with much faster kinetics than ammonium perchlorate was
chosen, it reacts very closely to the detonation front and thus, mixtures do not depend on the
post detonation mixing of products. In the performed tests, the annular design was effective
even in small diameter charges, 30mm. SURT chose an active polymer binder that has no
negative influence on the oxygen balance of the systems.
The binder is thermally stable and because of this the mixtures are stable and operational from
-60 to 120°C for H-TBX and -60 to 250°C for A-TBX. Casting techniques were used and
hardness of the final products were 40 Shore A. Mathematical model of the dynamics of metal
particles burning in the atmosphere was developed to ensure that most of the fuel will have
time to heat, ignite and burn during the positive phase of the pressure wave. Metal fuel
particles type was chosen according to calculations.
.
Fig. 1. Design of both types of solid state fuel-air explosives.
Series of tests were performed to evaluate the newly developed solid-state fuel air explosives.
First, the air blast TNT equivalent was measured. For this test, 2.5kg H-TBX charges were cast
in aluminum warheads and set off with 150 grams A-IX-1 booster (95% RDX). Piezo sensors
were used to record pressure changes, Fig. 2. Sensors were placed in distances from 2 to 10
meters. Tests were performed in an open field, but the test site, with about 20 meters radius,
was dug 1 meter below the ground level, to guard from flying metal pieces.
TNT equivalent in impulse (Pa s) was measured ~2.5 times (the averaged value was 2.75 for
H-TBX), Fig 3. Very similar results (averaged 2.5 times TNT equivalent) were obtained for A-
TBX, tested analogously with 2.5kg charges. Further testing of 2.5kg charges of A-TBX,
however, revealed its better air blast performance in the open field, related to the faster aerobic
energy release. Light emission, shot with the high-speed camera, was also higher for A-TBX
than H-TBX.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fwLoVxgvtlM
Fig 2. Piezo sensors and the 2.5kg H-TBX warhead. High speed footage (3ms
after initiation) of the actual detonation is also shown. Diameter of the fireball is 6
meters.
Fig 3. TNT equivalent in impulse for H-TBX, measured at distances 2-10 meters and
the impulse durations.
To study the fireball evolution after initiation, 5kg charges of A-TBX were prepared. First,
maximum diameter, volume and area of the fireball (simulated as a spheroid) were studied
and compared to the fireball produced from 5kg “classical” thermobaric mixture (RDX/IPN/Al
[5]), Fig 4 and Table 1.
Fig 4. Comparison between the fireballs produced by A-TBX and RDX/IPN/Al.
Fig. 5. High speed comparison of SURT Tech. annular design with isopropyl nitrate
thermobaric composition and 95% RDX 5% wax (marked as RDX). All charges are 5kg.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jF4UzYWq_1Y
Table 1. Comparison between the fireballs produced by A-TBX and RDX/IPN/Al. All
charges are 5kg.
Composition Diameter Volume Area
RDX/IPN/Al 6 m 47 m3 50 m2
A-TBX 10 m 131 m3 109 m2
The diameter of the RDX/IPN/Al fireball reaches its maximum value (6m) about 2.3ms after
charge initiation. At this point the volume is 47m3 and its area is 50m2. The diameter of A-TBX
fireball is much higher (10m), reached 12ms after charge initiation Volume of A-TBX fireball is
2.8 times higher than that of RDX/IPN/Al fireball and its area is 2.2 times higher. The evolution
of RDX, RDX/IPN/Al and A-TBX fireballs for 5kg charges is shown in Fig. 5.
A-TBX generates the highest light output, which is another evidence for the very effective aerobic
burning.
Charges of H-TBX were additionally tested on wooden boxes piles with dimensions 1.7 x 2.5 x
3.5m, Fig. 6. The charges were inserted in the center of the pile. A charge of 700 grams 95%
RDX was also tested for comparison. As it can be seen, the thermobaric charge, which is more
energetic, induces much more damage on the empty boxes. Boxes are fragmented, and pieces
of them can be seen flying in the air, as with the RDX, the boxes remain mostly in one piece. The
longer time of aerobic burning that comes with the partially enclosed space and lack of oxygen,
created by the empty boxes, should also be noted. See the snapshot taken at 200ms, where the
H-TBX still burns. In an open space, the aerobic reaction is completely over in about 50-100ms.
About 90% of the mixture burns in the first 10-15ms (5kg charges). Aerobic reaction is completed
for much shorter times for smaller charges.
Scattering of the boxes was also studied, Fig. 7 and table 2. 700g RDX caused the boxes to
scatter 200m2 while for 700g H-TBX this area was 330m2. The scattering for 1000g H-TBX was
1470m2. The last charge was too powerful and disintegrated the boxes, smaller pieces of them
flew father distances.
Fig. 6. High speed comparison of SURT Tech. H-TBX with 95% RDX 5% wax. Test is
done on empty wooden boxes. Both charges are 0.7kg. Snapshot is taken at 200ms from
initiation.
RDX: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xoc3aZaaeq8&t=37s
H-TBX: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GMTvkJQKDm8&t=53s
Fig. 7. Area Profile (x/y meters) and picture of the wooden boxes scattering.
Table 2. Area of scattering for the wooden boxes by the tested charges.
Charge Area of scattering, m2
1 kg H-TBX 1470
0.7 kg H-TBX 330
0.7 kg RDX 200
Metal fragmentation effect of H-TBX was tested; 130mm shells for M-46 howitzer were filled
with H-TBX, tested and the obtained fragments studied. (The weight of the shells were 33.4kg
and they were fully loaded with 3.4kg TNT and 4.0kg H-TBX. Only fragments in the most
productive, medium size range (1-5 grams), are shown and analyzed, Fig. 8 and 9, Table 3.
Fig 8. Fragmentation of 130mm shell for M-46 howitzer. Photos of 1-5g fragments produced
by TNT and H-TBX.
Fig 9. Fragmentation of 130mm shell for M-46 howitzer. Comparison of TNT and H-TBX in
the 1-5g range. Numbers of the recovered fragments in the 1-5g range are shown.
Table 3. Fragmentation of 130mm shell for M-46 howitzer. Numbers of the recovered
fragments in the 1-5g range are shown.
Num. 1-2 g 2-3 g 3-5 g All
TNT 561 244 144 3382
H-TBX 510 310 295 2633
Very similar results for the fragmentation of the shells were obtained. In the range 1-5g, the total
number of recovered fragments was 949 for TNT and 1115 for H-TBX. The total number of
recovered fragments for all ranges was 3382 for TNT and 2633 for H-TBX. Due to the nature of
the experiments, detonation in sand, SURT managed to recover only 84% of the shell mass for
TNT and 82% for H-TBX, so no farther statistical data was obtained. Nevertheless, the H-TBX
proved its multipurpose capabilities, both air blast and fragmentation. This enables us to
construct increasingly effective warheads with it, especially penetration rounds for the missiles,
artillery and tank guns, which will deliver solid state fuel- air volume detonating explosive inside
structures before initiation. Such rounds will also be effective in the open field with their
fragmentation capabilities.
https://youtu.be/4sXr2yeb09s
Low and high temperature stability of H-TBX and A-TBX (outer layer material) was also tested
using 20-gram explosive test samples, Fig. 9 and Table 4. For H-TBX, tests were conducted
from -60°C to 100°C. No physical changes were observed and no measurable mass change
(<0.1g/kg) was detected. Another experiment for one hour at 12°C was conducted with H-TBX
again without changes. A-TBX was tested from -60°C to 220°C. Again, no physical change
was observed and no measurable mass change (<0.1g/kg) was detected. A-TBX proved to be
extremely insensitive to high temperature. In further testing A-TBX was heated to 250°C for
30 minutes without measurable decomposition.
Both H-TBX and A-TBX have consistency of modeling clay (like HTPB propellants and
explosives) in unpolymerized state and Shore A hardness = 40 in hardened state. They were
easy to cast by hand (reaching about 95% TMD) and could also be vacuum cast in any
munitions. Theoretical maximum density (TMD) is 1.88g/cc for H-TBX and 2.18g/cc for A-TBX
(outer layer material). The production prices for both A/H-TBX is also low (about 20USD/kg).
Fig 9. Testing the resistance of A-TBX to high temperature (1 hour at +150°C)
Table 4. Resistance of H-TBX and A-TBX to low and high temperature.
T/t -60°C/48h +75°C/48h +100°C/24h +150°C/1h +220°C/0.5h
H- TBX No change No change No change Not tested Not tested
A- TBX No change No change No change No change No change
Table 5. Comparison of modern single event fuel-air explosives (thermobaric explosives).
COMPOSITION
Full
burning
fuel
E(anaerob)/ Е(aerob)
MJ/k
g
Water
proof T>100°C Brisance
Price
USD/k
g
RDX/IPN/Al [5]
(Russian
Thermobaric
)
X 3/6-8
a
X X ~10 GPa ~20
HMX/HTPB/Al [6]
(PBXIH-135) X 4/6-8
a
V X ~20 GPa 60-80
RDX/HTPB/AP/ Al
[7]
(
AF
X
-757
)
X 2/10
a
X X ~10 GPa 40-60
Homogenous
Mixture
SURT Tech.
V 5/14 V V ~20 GPa
a
~20
Annular Design
SURT Tech.V 5/16 V V ~25 GPa
b
~20
a Only in enclosed space
b At the ends of the cylindrical charge
The properties of some modern single event fuel-air explosives (thermobaric explosives), that
have already found use in military ordnance are compared in Table 5. H-TBX and A-TBX, unlike
others, combine high air-blast impulses, metal fragmentation and metal acceleration effects, high
stability and low prices. Moreover, H-TBX and A-TBX can operate equally well in enclosed spaces
and open field and can be easily loaded in wide variety of ordnance from 40 mm under barrel
grenades to aviation bombs and cruise missiles.
CONCLUSION:
SURT Tech. LTD is strictly an energetic material Research, Design, Development, Test
and Evaluation (RDDTE) facility and not a production company.
From measurements using high velocity camera parameters, SURT polymer bonded explosive
composition excels the RDX/IPN/Al formula as follows:
Volume of the cloud - 2.8 times
- Area of the cloud - 2.2 times
From the calculated parameters:
- Energy of the anaerobic detonation - 1.7 times
- Energy of the fast aerobic burning - 2.5 times
- Brisance - 2.5 times
Ready for Production (High Technology Readiness Level)
- Enhanced Blast Explosive Composition (H-TBX)
- Enhanced Blast Explosive - Annular Design (A-TBX)
- Thermite Composition - Environmentally Friendly
- Polymer Bonded Incendiary Composition
Technology Readiness Level for H-TBX and A-TBX:
TRL: 8 Actual system completed and qualified through test and demonstration;
Manufacturing Readiness Level (MRL): 9 Low rate productions demonstrated
H-TBX munitions certified by AQAP 2110. Low rate production monitored by ISO 9001:2008
Under Development (Still Low Technology Readiness Level)
Underwater Enhanced Blast Explosive - more powerful and less sensitive than PBXN-103 and
PBXN-105.
Theoretical Work
Supercomputer calculations of energetic molecules, heterostructures and systems (real-life
propellants and explosives); access to supercomputer facilities
Bibliography:
1. Chan, M.; Meyers, G.; Advanced Thermobaric Explosive Compositions. Patent US
6955732 B1 18.10.2005.
2. Charles, N.; Schneider, J.; Watry, C.; Calculations in Support of Thermobaric Explosive
Tests in the Indian Head Bomb Proof Chamber. Military Aspects of Blast and Shock MABS18,
Bad Reichenhall, 2004.
3. Johnson, N.; Carpenter, P.; Newman, K.; Jones, S.; Schlegel, E.; Gill, R.; Elstrodt, D.;
Brindle, J.; Mavica, T.; DeBolt, J.; Evaluation of Explosive Candidates for a Thermobaric M72
LAW Shoulder Launched Weapon. NDIA 39th Annual Gun & Ammunition/Missiles & Rockets
Conference, Baltimore, 2004.
4. Charles, N.; Schneider, J.; Watry, C.; Metal Augmented Charge Behavior With Fluorine
Compounds. Military Aspects of Blast and Shock MABS18, Bad Reichenhall, 2004.
5. Gelfand, B.; Medvedev, S.; Khomik, S.; Silnikov, M.; Comparative study of pressure-
temperature effects from TNT and RDX-IPN-Al explosives. Military Aspects of Blast and Shock
MABS20, Oslo, 2008.
6. Vadhe, P.; Pawar, R.; Sinha, R.; Asthana, S.; Subhananda Rao, A.; Cast Aluminized
Explosives (Review). Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves, Vol. 44, No. 4, pp. 461– 477,
2008.
7. Brooks, G.; Roach, E.; Enhanced Performance Insensitive Penetrator Warhead. Patent US
6523477 B1 25.02.2003.
APPENDIX I
CURRENT STATE-OF-THE-ART
THERMOBARIC FORMULATIONS
RISAL, DPX-5, DXC-18, NIX-G, NIX-O, PAX-39, PBXIH-135, PBIXH-136,
PBXH-18, PBXN-113, TALLEY MIX 5672, AFX-757
Stefan Kolev, Tzvetomir Tzonev
SURT Technologies LTD, Sofia, Bulgaria
e-mail: info@surt-technologies.com
Phone (Stefan Kolev): +359 878 633801
https://www.linkedin.com/in/stefan-kolev-34070848/
Robert Weinheimer*
ORAC INTL LLC, Maricopa, Arizona 85138
e-mail: weinheimer@orbitelcom.com
https://www.linkedin.com/in/robert-weinheimer-baa78410/
CURRENT STATE-OF-THE-ART
THERMOBARIC ENERGETIC MATERIAL
RISAL-P http://mabs.tcnet.ch/data/documents/20-78.pdf
(RDX/IPN/Al) (51% IPN + 28% RDX + 14% Al + 4% Mg + 0.7% Zr + 2% NC)
DPX-5 http://rapporter.ffi.no/rapporter/2008/00334.pdf
DXC-18
NIX-G https://ndiastorage.blob.core.usgovcloudapi.net/ndia/2005/garm/thursday/gilliam.
pdf
NIX-O
PAX-39
PBXIH-135
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214914716300927
https://ndiastorage.blob.core.usgovcloudapi.net/ndia/2004/guns/thurs/rockets/joh
nson.pdf
(HMX/HTPB/Al [6])
PBXIH-136
https://ndiastorage.blob.core.usgovcloudapi.net/ndia/2004/guns/thurs/rockets/joh
nson.pdf
(RDX/AP/Al/PCP-TMETN binder)
PBXIH-18
https://imemg.org/wp-
content/uploads/IMEMTS%202006_Alexander_paper5B.pdf
(HMX/Al/HyTemp/DOA binder)
PBXN-113
https://imemg.org/wp-content/uploads/imemts2006_McGregor_1.ppt.pdf
https://ndiastorage.blob.core.usgovcloudapi.net/ndia/2007/global_demil/SessionI
IIB/1645Johnson.pdf
(HMX/Al/BINDER)
TALLEY
MIX 5672
https://ndiastorage.blob.core.usgovcloudapi.net/ndia/2003/gun/lud.pdf
(Al/Zr/IPN/EC)
AFX-757
https://www.slideshare.net/RobertWeinheimer/comparison-of-afx757-and-htbx-
stefan-kolev-tzvetomir-tzonev-surt-technologies-ltd-sofia-bulgaria
(RDX/HTPB/AP/ Al [7])
APPENDIX II
ADVANCING THE STATE-OF-THE-ART
YOUTUBE VIDEOS AND SOURCE REFERENCE
4th GENERATION
SOLID STATE FUEL-AIR EXPLOSIVES
Stefan Kolev, Tzvetomir Tzonev
SURT Technologies LTD, Sofia, Bulgaria
e-mail: info@surt-technologies.com
Phone (Stefan Kolev): +359 878 633801
https://www.linkedin.com/in/stefan-kolev-34070848/
Robert Weinheimer*
ORAC INTL LLC, Maricopa, Arizona 85138
e-mail: weinheimer@orbitelcom.com
https://www.linkedin.com/in/robert-weinheimer-baa78410/
https://www.youtube.com/my_videos?o=U&vmo=unlisted&sq=is%3Aunlisted
ADVANCING THE STATE-OF-THE-ART
Relative Effectiveness factor: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TNT_equivalent
The relative effectiveness factor (RE factor) relates an explosive's demolition power to that of TNT,
in units of the TNT equivalent/kg (TNTe/kg). The RE factor is the relative mass of TNT to which an
explosive is equivalent: The greater the RE, the more powerful the explosive.
This enables engineers to determine the proper masses of different explosives when applying
blasting formulas developed specifically for TNT. For example, if a timber-cutting formula calls for
a charge of 1 kg of TNT, then based on octanitrocubane's RE factor of 2.38, it would take only
1.0/2.38 (or 0.42) kg of it to do the same job. Using PETN, engineers would need 1.0/1.66 (or 0.60)
kg to obtain the same effects as 1 kg of TNT. With ANFO or ammonium nitrate, they would require
1.0/0.74 (or 1.35) kg or 1.0/0.42 (or 2.38) kg, respectively.
RE factor examples
Some RE factor examples Thermobaric Energetic Material
Explosive, grade Density
(g/ml)
Detonation
vel. (m/s)
R.E.
Tritonal (80% TNT + 20% Al)* 1.70 6650 1.05
PBXW-126 (22% NTO + 20% RDX + 20% AP + 26% Al +
12% PU's system)* 1.80 6450 1.10
PBXIH-135 EB (42% HMX + 33% Al + 25% PCP-TMETN's
system)* 1.81 7060 1.17
PBXN-109 (64% RDX + 20% Al + 16% HTPB's system)* 1.68 7450 1.17
Torpex (41% RDX + 40% TNT + 18% Al + 1% wax)*
(aka HBX) 1.80 7440 1.30
Hexal (76% RDX + 20% Al + 4% wax)*
(aka A-1X-2) 1.79 7640 1.35
RISAL P (50% IPN + 28% RDX + 15% Al + 4% Mg + 1% Zr +
2% NC)* 1.39 5980 1.40
A-IX-2 (73% RDX + 23% Al+ 4% wax)*
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A-IX-2) 1.76est 7000est 1.54
AFX-757 (25% RDX + 4.4% HTPB + 30% AP + 33% Al + 7.6%
BINDER)* 1.86 6000 1.841
HOMOGENEOUS-TBX
(SURT TECHNOLOGIES PATENT BG111270)* 1.75 7000 2.50
ANNULAR-TBX
(SURT TECHNOLOGIES PATENT BG111636)* 1.95 8000 2.75
*: TBX (thermobaric explosives) or EBX (enhanced blast explosives), in a small, confined space,
may have over twice the power of destruction. The total power of aluminized mixtures strictly
depends on the condition of explosions.
1:ORACINTLLLCreferencefiles;AFX‐757hasaREof1.38ofCompositionBREof1.33*towhichAFX‐
757RE1.84isderivedbyRE1.38X1.35=RE1.835(1.84).
Solid state fuel-air (enhanced blast or thermobaric) explosives have very promising features.
They can combine superior air blast impulse with metal fragmentation and metal acceleration
effects, thus enabling to create ordnance with improved effectiveness and combined modes of
action on the targets.
SURT Products YouTube Videos: Thermobarics A/H-TBX and Green Incendiary videos:
RPG-7 FLIGHT TEST
RPG-7: 2.5kg H-TBX 15cm wall: RPG-7 Flight Test-2:
High speed video frame captured in flight and when hitting target. H-TBX (loaded by hand) was
tested on acceleration up to 2000G (2.5kg H-TBX warhead fired with RPG-7).
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DbR6KNMej8M&t=1s
RPG-7: 2.5kg H-TBX 50cm wall: RPG-7 Test with H-TBX test-1:
High speed video frame captured in flight and when hitting target. H-TBX (loaded by hand) was
tested on acceleration up to 2000G (2.5kg H-TBX warhead fired with RPG-7).
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uOqm8RPQ1xc&t=11s
COMPARISON OF A-IX-1 AND H-TBX
57mm Warhead with 700g A-IX-1
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tD4Ewv8pAmo
57 mm Warhead with 700g Thermobaric H-TBX
H-TBX has air blast TNT equivalent of about 2.50-2.75 (both in enclosed space and in the
open, even in practically caseless munitions of 30-40 mm or less).
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7F3hziTd3jA
Comparison 700g H-TBX vs. 700g A-IX-1 on Wooden Ammo Boxes
700g H-TBX on Wooden Ammo Boxes.
Charges of H-TBX were tested on wooden boxes piles with dimensions 1.7 x 2.5 x 3.5 m. The
charges were inserted in the center of the pile.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GMTvkJQKDm8&t=53s
700g A-IX-1 on Wooden Ammo Boxes.
Charges of RDX were tested on wooden boxes piles with dimensions 1.7 x 2.5 x 3.5 m. The
charges were inserted in the center of the pile.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xoc3aZaaeq8&t=37s
1000g H-TBX on Wooden Ammo Boxes.
Charges of H-TBX were tested on wooden boxes piles with dimensions 1.7 x 2.5 x 3.5 m. The
charges were inserted in the center of the pile. A charge of 700 grams 95% RDX was also tested
for comparison.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cXiksSN05Y0
Thermobaric Explosive: 5kg RDX IPN Al
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jF4UzYWq_1Y
A-TBX 2,5kg
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fwLoVxgvtlM
Difference in brisance: AFX-757 has brisance of about 10 GPa and thus, very low performance
in fragmentation warheads! H-TBX on the other hand has brisance of about 18-20 GPa and has
performance in fragmentation warheads similar to that of TNT. This means that existing TNT,
Composition B or PBX warheads can be filled with H-TBX without fragmentation properties
deterioration.
700g H-TBX fast
https://www.youtube.com/edit?o=U&video_id=Ef4CaeCKQ-k
700g A-IX-1 fast
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K1Sgz_dLaI0
H-TBX, unlike AFX-757 can be used in every caliber and weapon system over 30 mm! It is
suitable for loading in wide variety of explosive munitions including: hand grenades, shoulder
fired missiles, all kinds of aviation bombs and rockets, artillery shells, etc. So far it was
successfully loaded into 40 mm under barrel grenades, thermobaric hand grenades, RPG
rounds, aviation unguided missiles, artillery shells for smooth bore and rifled artillery. AFX-757
or its varieties are completely unsuitable for artillery or small caliber munitions! An older variety
of the H-TBX is currently mass produced in Bulgaria in every caliber, except the 40 mm under-
barrel grenades.
1000g H-TBX fast
https://youtu.be/KN0jcXCHnh8
1000g H-TBX field
https://youtu.be/9N54ea0a4Lk
Metal fragmentation effect of H-TBX was tested as 130 mm shell for M-46 howitzer was filled
with it and the obtained fragments studied. The weight of the shells was 33.4 kg and they were
fully loaded with 3.4 kg TNT and 4.0 kg H-TBX.
4kg H-TBX 130mm Shell Under 50cm Sand
https://youtu.be/4sXr2yeb09s
EVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY SOLID-STATE INCENDIARY MIXTURES:
SURT Technologies LTD has developed two types of solid state incendiary mixtures. The first
type is cast cured, polymer bonded mixture, designed to be used against general targets.
The second type is pressed, hybrid mixture, capable to melt and penetrate through steel plates.
Both compositions are environmentally friendly and do not contain heavy metals, fluorides or
phosphorous.
Incendiary lacks any hygroscopic, volatile, and highly toxic materials for the preparation of the
mixture. It does not contain phosphorus, magnesium, or heavy metals. The incendiary mixture
does not contain any petroleum products. The products of combustion are 100% environmentally
friendly.
4kg PB in Van Incendiary
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=De5fINwXk5g&t=4s
500g Hybrid 4mmSteel
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yzjnc4v-n3o
Thermobaric Weapon Advances:
https://www.revolvy.com/topic/Thermobaric%20weapon&item_type=topic
APPENDIX III-A
ADVANCING STATE-OF-THE-ART
A-TBX/H-TBX
PROPERTIES AND CHARACTERISTICS
Stefan Kolev, Tzvetomir Tzonev
SURT Technologies LTD, Sofia, Bulgaria
e-mail: info@surt-technologies.com
Phone (Stefan Kolev): +359 878 633801
https://www.linkedin.com/in/stefan-kolev-34070848/
Robert Weinheimer*
ORAC INTL LLC, Maricopa, Arizona 85138
e-mail: weinheimer@orbitelcom.com
https://www.linkedin.com/in/robert-weinheimer-baa78410/
A/H-TBX PROPERTIES
DENSITY, TMD H-TBX 1.88 g/cc
A-TBX 2.18 g/cc
DENSITY, LOADED W/O VACUUM H-TBX 1.75 g/cc
A-TBX 1.95-2.00
CRYSTAL HARDNESS A/H-TBX (40 Shore A)
AUTOIGNITION TEMPERATURE H-TBX >200°C
A-TBX >250°C
VELOCITY OF DETONATION H-TBX 7200 m/s
A-TBX 8000 m/s
HYGROSCOPICITY A/H-TBX NA
THERMAL STABILITY H-TBX >100°C
A-TBX >200°C
HEAT OF REACTION, ANEAROBIC A/H-TBX 5 MJ/kg
HEAT OF REACTION, AEROBIC
H-TBX 14 MJ/kg
A-TBX 16 MJ/kg
TNT EQUIVALENCY
(AIR BLAST RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS FACTOR)
H-TBX 2.50
A-TBX 2.75
BRISANCE, AXIAL H-TBX 1.0
A-TBX 1.5
BRISANCE, FRAGMENT Fragment
H-TBX >1000 m/s
IMPACT SENSITIVITY H-TBX 2.5 kg @ 40-60 cm
A-TBX 2.5 kg @ >100 cm
SURT TECHNOLOGIES PRODUCTS
SENSITIVITY TO DIFFERENT STIMULI
Sensitivity to impact and thermal stimuli.
Comp. Impact,
2.5kg, cm
Ignition
Temp, oC
Fast Cookoff
Partially Open
Fast Cookoff
Completely Enclosed
H-TBX 40-60 >200 Burn Deflagration
A-TBX >100 >300 Burn Deflagration
Incendiary
Polymer
>100 >300 Burn Deflagration
Incendiary
Hybrid
>100 >300 Burn Deflagration
We could not find apparatus to do friction sensitivity testing in Bulgaria. Fast cookoff testing was
done with 100g-1000g samples.
Sensitivity to electric shock
Comp. Static, up to 350 mJ 100J 200J
H-TBX Insensitive Possible ignition Ignition
A-TBX Insensitive Possible ignition Possible Ignition
Incendiary
Polymer
Insensitive Possible ignition Possible Ignition
Incendiary
Hybrid
Insensitive Possible ignition Possible Ignition
Testing was done with 0.2g-10g samples; 20kV and 100kV voltages. Samples were insensitive
to static electricity. No detonation was achieved up to 200J discharge.
H-TBX has similar sensitivity profile to AFX-757. A-TBX and the Incendiary mixtures are less
sensitive than TNT or AFX-757. They have sensitivity between TNT and TATB,
triaminotrinitrobenzene.
It should be noted that A-TBX and the Incendiary mixtures were more difficult to ignite with 20kV
continuous electric discharge than paper, wood or plastic for example!
H-TBX (loaded by hand) was additionally tested on acceleration up to 2000G (2.5kg H-TBX
warhead fired with RPG-7).
A/H‐TBX
SURT
TECHNOLOGIES LTD
Sofia,Bulgaria
US
DepartmentofDefense
USPRIMECONTRACTOR
MUNITIONS MANUFACTURER
Sofia, Bulgaria
USALLIES
80mm
AGM
60‐120mmGrenade
H‐TBX
RPG‐7
H‐TBX
60mmArtillery
H‐TBX
40mmHandGrenade
A‐TBX
60mmMortar
H‐TBX
AFGHAN
SPECIAL
SECURITY
USSOF USSOF
IRAQI
SPECIAL
FORCES
Existing munitions from 30 mm to multi-kg aviation bombs can be
loaded with A-TBX or H-TBX
Air to ground missiles
(H-TBX)
80 mm AGM in
production
Aerial bombs, smart weapons, guided missiles, penetrators, etc.
Not tested with A-TBX or H-TBX yet, very promising!
Caliber, mm 40 60 100 200 300+
40+ mm underbarrel
grenade and hand
grenade (A-TBX)
Tested
60+ mm shell
or mortar (H-TBX)
In production
60-120 mm shoulder
fired grenade (A-TBX or H-TBX)
In production
TB engineer’s charge, 5kg
(A-TBX or H-TBX)
Tested
APPENDIX III-B
ADVANCING STATE-OF-THE-ART
Stefan Kolev, Tzvetomir Tzonev
SURT Technologies LTD, Sofia, Bulgaria
e-mail: info@surt-technologies.com
Phone (Stefan Kolev): +359 878 633801
https://www.linkedin.com/in/stefan-kolev-34070848/
Robert Weinheimer*
ORAC INTL LLC, Maricopa, Arizona 85138
e-mail: weinheimer@orbitelcom.com
https://www.linkedin.com/in/robert-weinheimer-baa78410/
BULARGIA PATENTS
BG111270
THERMOBARIC COMPOSITION BASED ON POLYOXANE POLYMERS
BG111636:
THERMO-BARRIUM COMPOSITION BASED ON POLYSILOACAN POLYMER
MATRIX INCLUDED IN THE COMPOSITION OF EXPLOSIVE SUBSTANCES
BG111985
UNDERWATER EXPLOSIVE BASED ON ARYL/ALKYL POLYSILOXANE POLYMER
MATRIX WITH EXPLOSIVE SUBSTANCES INCLUDED IN THE COMPOSITION
BG111270: THERMOBARIC COMPOSITION BASED ON POLYOXANE POLYMERS
Inventor:
TSONEV TSVETOMIR
[BG]
KOLEV STEFAN [BG]
Applicant:
TSONEV TSVETOMIR
[BG]
KOLEV STEFAN [BG]
CPC: IPC:
C06B33/00
C22B21/00
C22B26/22
(+1)
Publication info:
BG111270 (A)
2013-09-30
Priority date:
2012-07-23
Last updated: 26.04.2017
Worldwide Database
6.2.7; 93p
Bibliographic data: BG111270 (A) ― 2013-09-30
THERMOBARIC COMPOSITION BASED ON POLYOXANE POLYMERS
PagebookmarkBG111270(A)‐THERMOBARICCOMPOSITIONBASEDONPOLYOXANEPOLYMERS
Inventor(s): TSONEVTSVETOMIR [BG];KOLEVSTEFAN [BG]+(TsonevTSvetomirрЦОНЕВЦветоми,;Kolev
StefanКОЛЕВСтефан)
Applicant(s): TSONEVTSVETOMIR [BG];KOLEVSTEFAN [BG]+(ЦОНЕВЦветомирTsonevTSvetomir,;Kolev
StefanКОЛЕВСтефан)
Classification: ‐international: C06B33/00;C22B21/00;C22B26/22;F42B5/30
‐cooperative:
Priority
number(s):
BG2012011127020120723
Abstract of BG111270 (A)
The composition described in this application relates to products with completely military character. A thermobaric polymer bounded composition based on a central, reinforced charge
by the high-speed explosive and an externally located thermobaric casing on the basis of nitrate and perchlorate salt, magnesium and aluminum powder with different particle size and
binding material based on the polyoxane polymer.
BG111636: THERMO-BARRIUM COMPOSITION BASED ON POLYSILOACAN POLYMER MATRIX
INCLUDED IN THE COMPOSITION OF EXPLOSIVE SUBSTANCES
Inventor:
KOLEV STEFAN [EN]
TSONEV TSVETOMIR [EN]
Applicant:
KOLEV STEFAN [EN]
TSONEV TSVETOMIR [EN]
CPC: IPC: Publication info:
BG111636 (A)
2015-05-29
Priority date:
2013-11-28
Bibliographic data: BG111636 (A) ― 2015-05-29
THERMORBARIC COMPOSITION BASED ON POLYSILOACAN POLYMER MATRIX INCLUDED IN THE
COMPOSITION OF EXPLOSIVE SUBSTANCES
PagebookmarkBG111636(A)‐THERMO‐BARRIUMCOMPOSITIONBASEDONPOLYSILOACANPOLYMERMATRIXWITH
BROADBANDSINCLUDEDINTHECOMPOSITION
Inventor(s): KOLEVSTEFAN[BG];TSONEVTSVETOMIR[BG]+(KOLEV,Stefan,TSONEV,TSvetomir)
Applicant(s): KOLEVSTEFAN[BG];TSONEVTSVETOMIR[BG]+(KOLEV,Stefan,TSONEV,TSvetomir)
Classification: ‐international:
‐cooperative:
Application
number:
BG2013011163620131128
Priority
number(s):
BG2013011163620131128
Abstract of BG111636 (A)
Thermobarial composition based on polysiloxane polymer matrix with explosives included in the composition. The composition described in this application refers to products of a
military nature and is defined by the following features. Thermobaric, polymer-based composition based on powdered explosives of the nitramines family, oxygen donor of the nitrate
and perchlorate type, particle size and particle shape aluminum, and polysiloxane polymer based binder material. @@
BG111985: UNDERWATER EXPLOSIVE BASED ON ARYL/ALKYL POLYSILOXANE POLYMER
MATRIX WITH EXPLOSIVE SUBSTANCES INCLUDED IN THE COMPOSITION
Inventor:
TSONEV TSVETOMIR [BG]
KOLEV STEFAN [BG]
Applicant:
TSONEV TSVETOMIR [BG]
KOLEV STEFAN [BG]
CPC: IPC: Publication info:
BG111985 (A)
2016-10-31
Priority date:
2
Bibliographic data: BG111985 (A) ― 2016-10-31
UNDERWATER EXPLOSIVE BASED ON ARYL/ALKYL POLYSILOXANE POLYMER MATRIX WITH
EXPLOSIVE SUBSTANCES INCLUDED IN THE COMPOSITION
PagebookmarkBG111985(A)‐UNDERWATEREXPLOSIVEBASEDONARYL/ALKYLPOLYSILOXANEPOLYMERMATRIX
WITHEXPLOSIVESUBSTANCESINCLUDEDINTHECOMPOSITION
Inventor(s): TSONEVTSVETOMIR [BG];KOLEVSTEFAN [BG]+(TSonev,TSvetomir,;Kolev,Stefan)
Applicant(s): TSONEVTSVETOMIR [BG];KOLEVSTEFAN [BG]+(TSonev,TSvetomir,;Kolev,Stefan)
Classification: ‐international:
‐cooperative:
Application
number:
BG2015011198520150417
Priority
number(s):
BG2015011198520150417
Abstract of BG111985 (A)
Underwater explosive based on aryl/alkyl polysiloxane polymer matrix with explosive substances included in the composition. The explosive described in the current application relates
to products of military nature and is defined by the following characteristics. Underwater explosive based on powdered explosive substances from the family of nitramines, an oxygen
donor of the perchlorate type, aluminum with a specific size and shape of the particles, and binding material based on an aryl/alkyl polysiloxane polymer.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Advanced Thermobaric Explosive Compositions. Patent US 6955732 B1 18
  • M Chan
  • G Meyers
Chan, M.; Meyers, G.; Advanced Thermobaric Explosive Compositions. Patent US 6955732 B1 18.10.2005.
Calculations in Support of Thermobaric Explosive Tests in the Indian Head Bomb Proof Chamber. Military Aspects of Blast and Shock MABS18
  • N Charles
  • J Schneider
  • C Watry
Charles, N.; Schneider, J.; Watry, C.; Calculations in Support of Thermobaric Explosive Tests in the Indian Head Bomb Proof Chamber. Military Aspects of Blast and Shock MABS18, Bad Reichenhall, 2004.
Evaluation of Explosive Candidates for a Thermobaric M72 LAW Shoulder Launched Weapon
  • N Johnson
  • P Carpenter
  • K Newman
  • S Jones
  • E Schlegel
  • R Gill
  • D Elstrodt
  • J Brindle
  • T Mavica
  • J Debolt
Johnson, N.; Carpenter, P.; Newman, K.; Jones, S.; Schlegel, E.; Gill, R.; Elstrodt, D.; Brindle, J.; Mavica, T.; DeBolt, J.; Evaluation of Explosive Candidates for a Thermobaric M72 LAW Shoulder Launched Weapon. NDIA 39th Annual Gun & Ammunition/Missiles & Rockets Conference, Baltimore, 2004.
Metal Augmented Charge Behavior With Fluorine Compounds. Military Aspects of Blast and Shock MABS18
  • N Charles
  • J Schneider
  • C Watry
Charles, N.; Schneider, J.; Watry, C.; Metal Augmented Charge Behavior With Fluorine Compounds. Military Aspects of Blast and Shock MABS18, Bad Reichenhall, 2004.
Comparative study of pressuretemperature effects from TNT and RDX-IPN-Al explosives. Military Aspects of Blast and Shock MABS20
  • B Gelfand
  • S Medvedev
  • S Khomik
  • M Silnikov
Gelfand, B.; Medvedev, S.; Khomik, S.; Silnikov, M.; Comparative study of pressuretemperature effects from TNT and RDX-IPN-Al explosives. Military Aspects of Blast and Shock MABS20, Oslo, 2008.
Enhanced Performance Insensitive Penetrator Warhead
  • G Brooks
  • E Roach
Brooks, G.; Roach, E.; Enhanced Performance Insensitive Penetrator Warhead. Patent US 6523477 B1 25.02.2003.