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Energy and Seismic Recovering of Ancient Hamlets: the Case of Baia e Latina

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This research proposes the development of a diagnostic tool to separately inspect the energetic and seismic behaviour of buildings in the small hamlet of Baia e Latina (district of Caserta) in order to evaluate and implement retrofitting interventions from seismic, energetic, and functional points of view. Methods, approaches, and tools relating to the minimisation of seismic vulnerability and energy consumption have been increasingly used and tested in order to ensure both sustainability and safety, with a connection that may improve the performances of both cultural and environmental heritage. The diagnosis method, stemming from the energy audit and the energy imprint evaluations of the buildings system (and the envelope above all), aims to redesign the whole construction or some of its parts within an energetic framework. With reference to the seismic behaviour of building aggregates, the basic methodology that has been conceived for isolated masonry buildings through a survey form has represented the starting tool for the application of an appropriate quick evaluation form considered for the aggregated structural units of historical centres. Finally, the methodology employed is aimed at obtaining an Energy Performance Certificate for the structural units of examined masonry aggregates without neglecting their seismic behaviour, which has been assessed in terms of vulnerability and damage.
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... To address the need for fast and effective retrofit strategies targeting not only the seismic behaviour, but also the energy performance for the existing European building stock, the topic of combined seismic and energy retrofitting has gained traction in recent years [5][6][7][8][9]. Different materials or solutions have been proposed including the use of exoskeleton [10,11] or double-skin solutions [12], but also the use of composite materials such as textile reinforced mortars (TRM) may offer avenues for combined retrofitting [13]. ...
Conference Paper
Due to the ageing of the European building stock, the seismic vulnerability of existing reinforced concrete (RC) buildings with non-structural masonry infills, is paired with an inadequate energy performance of these structures. Textile reinforced mortars (TRM) combined with advanced thermal insulation materials have been identified as solution to address both issues with a single intervention. While small and medium-scale testing have demonstrated the potential of the above-mentioned solution, the need for full-scale testing on a full building model has yet to be performed. In this paper, the numerical modelling preceding a pseudo-dynamic testing campaign on a full-scale masonry-infilled RC building is presented. The prototype structure was designed to replicate the behaviour of existing seismically deficient pre-1980s buildings in Southern Europe. The structure will be tested at the European Laboratory for Structural Assessment (ELSA) reaction wall facility under a pseudo-dynamic load regime. The effect of a seismic and energy retrofit scheme using TRM and thermal insulation is investigated numerically for what concerns the seismic performance herein, by means of cyclic and dynamic analyses. It was demonstrated that TRM jacketing has high effectiveness in increasing the in-plane capacity of the prototype structure, and was found to improve the dynamic behaviour of the building, leading to reduced damage at higher earthquake intensities. Ultimately, this initial assessment highlights the potential of the TRM retrofit, but the effect of combined seismic and energy retrofitting will be explored further in the full-scale study experiment.
... In the 121 remaining publications about built heritage, the term behaviour was used to refer to the building's performance: either structural behaviour or hygrothermal and energy behaviour. Therefore, building performance in the built heritage context is tackled as: (1) Structural behaviour (representing 44% of the publications about built heritage) which includes seismic vulnerability assessment of existing buildings (e.g., [47][48][49][50]), structural health monitoring (e.g., [51][52][53][54]), or mechanical properties of construction materials (e.g., [55][56][57][58][59]). (2) Hygrothermal and energy performance of buildings (representing a quarter of the publications on built heritage); integrates publications about bioclimatic strategies (e.g., [60,61]), strategies for energy renovation (e.g., [62][63][64][65]), or hygrothermal performance of traditional building systems (e.g., [66][67][68][69]). ...
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This research addresses the performance gap between intentions towards a sustainable conservation of built heritage and its actual implementation. Socio-psychological models of human behaviour, such as the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), have been studying this dissonance between intention and behaviour, and allow to recognise latent critical factors. This paper provides a systematic literature review of research publications on the intersection of the topics of human behaviour, heritage, and sustainability. It aims to analyse how the TPB has been used in the field of sustainable conservation of built heritage. The studies are categorised according to the type of heritage, main actors targeted, aims, and methodology. A total of 140 publications were analysed. The results show a recent field of research. In the domain of built heritage conservation, behaviour is commonly addressed as a synonym of performance, targeting the building itself. Most publications relating socio-psychological constructs of behaviour and heritage sustainability can be found in the tourism and hospitality field, focusing on tourists' and residents' behaviours. The review shows that practitioners are still absent from the literature. However, research addressing other stakeholders shows that the theoretical framework can play an important role in the implementation of sustainable conservation practices in the built heritage.
... In recent years, researchers have raised and analysed the topic of combined seismic and energy retrofitting, assessing the benefits of eliminating seismic and energy performance deficiencies of existing buildings through a single intervention [17][18][19][20][21] . New methodologies are required for combined assessments of existing buildings and evaluating the potential benefits from combined interventions. ...
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... As mentioned above, based on the European RISK-EU project (Milutinovic and Trendafiloski 2003) and on the bibliographical study on seismic vulnerability assessment methods defining the parameters which affect the vulnerability of structures (Belheouane and Bensaibi 2013;Djaalali 2013;De Silva et al. 2018;Wahyuni 2015;Aliche et al. 2019;Kassem et al. 2019;Boukri et al. 2017;Maio et al. 2016;Rapone et al. 2018;Fumo et al. 2018;Belheouane 2006) and using the criteria of safety defined on the RPA99/V2003 (C.G.S. 2003), it was decided to propose and summarize in the Table 1 all the parameters that allow for the estimation of the vulnerability index. ...
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In the context of drawing up strategic seismic prevention plans, the study of seismic vulnerability and the evaluation of fragility curves can help us to better know the state of the structures under study and consequently to decide on the necessary intervention and treatment they require. The present study represents a contribution to the evaluation of seismic vulnerability using the macroseismic approach within the framework of Risk-EU project, and based on the recommendations of the Algerian regulation RPA99/Version 2003. A calculation tool, entitled “Estimation of Fragility Curves”, was developed under MATLAB to estimate the vulnerability index value and to plot the mean damage curve as well as the fragility curves for aim to assess the likelihood of damage that the structure under study might suffer in the event of an earthquake and then to classify that structure.
... Referring to the two methods previously discussed, the post-insulation of the perimeter walls, since they represent the major part of the building enclosure area, is certainly the most effective energy upgrading solution, so ensuring the thermal comfort with adequate insulation levels Roberts and Stephenson, 2012). Internal thermal upgrading intervention is probably the most economical solution and anyway ensures high thermal performance (Ueno and Van Straaten, 2012;Fumo et al., 2018). ...
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