Dynamique et diversité des classes moyennes dans la métropole parisienne

To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... The limits of the upper and lower poles of the occupational hierarchy according to the previous paragraph are very difficult to identify within occupational datasets originating from censuses or standard surveys. In very few cases, mainly in France, occupational data can allow more detailed investigations (e.g., Préteceille, 2018). In most cases, however, analyses-including, e.g., Maloutas (2007)-are restricted by the available data sets and the upper (managers and professionals) and lower categories (workingclass occupations) are used as broad proxies, often without acknowledging their limitations. ...
Full-text available
This article investigates social and spatial changes in the Athens metropolitan area between 1991 and 2011. The main question is whether social polarisation—and the contraction of intermediate occupational categories—unevenly developed across the city is related to the changing of segregation patterns during the examined period. We established that the working-class moved towards the middle and the middle-class moved towards the top, but the relative position of both parts did not change in the overall socio-spatial hierarchy. The broad types of socio-spatial change in Athens (driven by professionalisation, proletarianisation or polarisation) were eventually related to different spatial imprints in the city’s social geography. Broad trends identified in other cities, like the centralisation of higher occupations and the peripheralisation of poverty, were not at all present here. In Athens, changes between 1991 and 2011 can be summarised by (1) the relative stability and upward social movement of the traditional working-class and their surrounding areas, accounting for almost half of the city, (2) the expansion of traditional bourgeois strongholds to neighbouring formerly socially mixed areas—25% of the city—and their conversion to more homogeneous middle-class neighbourhoods through professionalisation, (3) the proletarianisation of 10% of the city following a course of perpetual decline in parts of the central municipality and (4) the polarisation and increased social mix of the traditional bourgeois strongholds related to the considerable inflow of poor migrants working for upper-middle-class households.
... We chose this two-step process in order to prevent the classification from being affected by the presence of very small and very particular clusters which the classification algorithm cannot automatically discard and reallocate. 2. The spatial separation of these categories is the highest in Paris, for example (Oberti & Préteceille, 2016;Préteceille, 2017). 3. A previous analysis of segregation in Athens during the 1990s revealed the opposite possibility, that is, that there could be social without spatial polarization (Maloutas, 2007, pp. ...
This paper assesses segregation patterns and trends in Athens during the 2000s. Does the city become more or less segregated and how do global forces and contextual factors affect the observed tendencies? The study focuses on the uneven spatial distribution of occupational categories and the way it developed between 2001 and 2011. The dominant trend is desegregation. However, there are specific types of residential space – new middle-class suburbs and declining central neighbourhoods – where segregation is increasing. Segregation seems to be the combined effect of global forces and contextual factors that do not always push in the same direction.
Social mix is a key dimension of housing policy to reduce segregation in different urban contexts, but it is frequently associated with a strategy of gentrification linked to the neoliberal restructuring of housing systems. Prior studies, however, tend to overlook the political and institutional mechanisms that influence the practices and outcomes of social mix. Building on fieldwork in a former working-class municipality in Paris suburbs, I draw on the theory of gradual institutional change to examine the politics of social mix. I show that evolving power relations among housing policy actors, fostered by political alignment and multiple office-holding processes, pave the way for gradual institutional changes based on conversion. These modifications to the local institutional arrangement shape new directions in housing policy that lead to the restructuring of the built environment and neighbourhood socioeconomic ascent. Overall, I contend that contextualized institutional and political processes are key to explaining the practices of social mix and their link with neoliberalisation and gentrification.
This paper examines the relationship between housing tenure and educational opportunities in the Paris metropolitan area. Using census microdata, we show that the middle classes face uneasy trade-offs between housing tenure and access to attractive educational resources. Living in high-quality school contexts is associated with renting, whereas access to homeownership mostly unfolds in poor-performing school areas. This tension is not observed for other social strata. Based on fieldwork conducted in Paris suburbs, we highlight the interweaving of middle-class housing and school choices. Some families may use the rental sector to live close to attractive schools. In mixed neighbourhoods, homeowners either choose the local school or opt for circumvention strategies. Because of the dramatic increase of housing prices, the interplay between housing tenure and the unequal geography of education is crucial to understand social stratification and social mobility patterns in large cities, particularly among the middle classes, as well as to improve public policies aimed at reducing housing and school inequalities.
This article documents the complex course of commercial upgrading in four neighbourhoods of central Paris, a slow process in which transnational flows and state intervention play an outsized role. The data was collected at 20 independent coffee shops located in the West 11th district and supplemented by long-term observation of the business mix evolution. The article focuses on the impact of geographic mobility – including migration and residential tourism – in the rapid development of upmarket alternatives to French cafes and bistros. It goes on to explain how political intervention/deregulation facilitated capital investment in commercial real estate. It then discusses the culturally informed perceptions that helped define desirable forms of consumption for France. The article demonstrates the extent to which cross-border flows influenced commercial gentrification, and calls for further research into the complex interplay of local, transnational, private and public forces driving urban change.
Full-text available
Has ethnic-racial segregation increased in the Paris metropolis ? Changes in ethnic-racial segregation in the Paris metropolis are analyzed over the last three census periods. Immigrants are studied in terms of groups of national origin, to which is added proportion of second-generation immigrants, identifiable by means of the census data. The main analytic scale used is the Paris administrative unit and the Paris neighborhood. Dissimilarity and segregation indices, together with concentrations by administrative unit, show that segregation most strongly affects North African, sub-Saharan and Turkish immigrants ; that segregation level is rising moderately ; that ethnic-racial segregation is much stronger than socio-economic segregation but also far below racial segregation levels in American cities : the vast majority of immigrants in France live in neighborhoods where they represent a minority, meaning they are living in residentially mixed situations, not ghettos.
Full-text available
Has social segregation increased? The Paris metropolis between polarisation and social mix The idea of an increase of social segregation that is a concern for disadvantaged groups has become conventional wisdom in the media, the political and the academic worlds. A detailed analysis of the spatial distribution of social categories in the Paris metropolis shows that the more intense segregation is that of upper classes, and it is increasing. Among lower class categories, blue collar workers come next, with an increased segregation also but decreasing numbers. Whereas the expanding middle categories and white collar workers have both a low degree of segregation and a decreasing one. These general trends result from spatial trends much more diverse than the predominant idea of dualization. Upper class areas are becoming more exclusive and are expanding. Working class areas experience diverse types of changes, where the increased concentration of unemployed and casual workers is a minority of cases but a worrying trend. For working classes and middle classes, socially mixed residential areas remain the most frequent modality, although the social fabric of these mixed areas is being threatened by the rapid rise of unemployment and casual labour affecting increasingly the middle classes themselves.
L’intérêt du regard comparatif franco-états-unien sur la ségrégation urbaine est multiple et permet de remettre en cause des stéréotypes concernant tant l’évolution des villes américaines que celle des villes françaises.
Cet article s’appuie sur une enquête de terrain réalisée dans trois nouveaux quartiers de Courbevoie et Levallois-Perret (Hauts de-Seine), situés à proximité du centre d’affaires de La Défense, et au sein desquels les résidents cadres et ingénieurs d’entreprise sont fortement surreprésentés. Il s’agit d’espaces issus du processus de refondation (new-build gentrification) qui contribue régulièrement à l’élargissement de l’axe historique des beaux quartiers. On analyse successivement les ressorts et motivations des choix résidentiels de leurs habitants, la faible sociabilité locale liée à un entre-soi particulier, et enfin le rôle central joué par le marquage de frontières symboliques socioéconomiques (internes aux classes supérieures) dans les dynamiques d’agrégation. Cette dernière apparaît par ailleurs comme suivant une logique largement distincte de celle dont relève l’évitement des classes populaires (altérisées et stigmatisées).
Les auteurs, sociologues à l'OSC travaillent depuis de nombreuses années sur la question des inégalités urbaines et scolaires, notamment en Ile-de-France et au Brésil, dans l'État de Rio-de-Janeiro.Ils proposent un manuel concis qui permet d'appréhender le phénomène dans sa complexité : comment caractériser et mesurer la ségrégation ? Quels outils employer, quelles sont les méthodes disponibles ? Comment analyser les processus à l'oeuvre, et à quelle échelle ? Quelles en sont les causes ? Qui sont les acteurs impliqués ? Quelles réponses ont-elles été apportées par les acteurs publics ?Une bibliographie de référence clôt l'ouvrage.Principaux chapitres Caractériser la ségrégationLes limites des études de cas, la nécessité d’approches statistiques - L’espace de la ville et l’échelle du découpage spatial - Les méthodes d’analyse statistique - Les figures spatiales de la ségrégation Les causes de la ségrégationLogiques économiques - Logiques institutionnelles (politiques publiques) - Logiques d’acteurs individuels - De la critique de la ségrégation à la critique du communautarisme Les effets de la ségrégationInégalités sociales et inégalités urbaines - Ségrégation, identités des groupes sociaux et rapports entre groupes
Cultural activities are being heralded as key factors in the dynamism of cities. In order to analyze the urban dynamics of cultural producers, a precise characterization of the relevant categories has to be used. The article studies the case of cultural producers in Paris using the category that identifies them more specifically in the French system of occupation categories. It shows the strong concentration of the category in Paris, with some downward trend however in the 1990s. It discusses the paradoxical character of a high level of central urban residence for a category who are the professionals with the lowest income levels and the most precarious types of jobs. As a conclusion, the consequences for a possible gentrification of the areas of their relocation in neighborhoods outside the central city of Paris are discussed, and the possible effects on the social profile and demography of cultural producers of the changes in the economic structures of cultural industries and in the related public policies in France.
Les Aventuriers du quotidien : essai sur les nouvelles classes moyennes
  • Catherine Bidou
BIDOU Catherine (1984), Les Aventuriers du quotidien : essai sur les nouvelles classes moyennes, Paris, Presses universitaires de France.
« La ville à trois vitesses : relégation, périurbanisation, gentrification », Esprit, nº 303
  • Jacques Donzelot
DONZELOT Jacques (2004), « La ville à trois vitesses : relégation, périurbanisation, gentrification », Esprit, nº 303, p. 14-39.
« The Slow Changes of Socioeconomic Segregation in Paris
  • Edmond Préteceille
PRÉTECEILLE Edmond (2017 b), « The Slow Changes of Socioeconomic Segregation in Paris », American Sociological Association 2017 Meeting, Montréal, 12-15 août.
« La division sociale de l'espace francilien : typologie socioprofessionnelle 1999 et transformations de l'espace résidentiel 1990-99
  • Edmond Preteceille
PRETECEILLE Edmond (2003), « La division sociale de l'espace francilien : typologie socioprofessionnelle 1999 et transformations de l'espace résidentiel 1990-99 », Paris, Observatoire sociologique du changement.