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A review on medicinal properties of Psidium guajava

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Abstract Nature has endowed Guava with many nutritional and medicinal properties. The fruits are 4-12 cm long with round or oval shape depending on the species (red, strawberry, and off-white). The tree, which belongs to the family, Myrtaceae is chiefly grown in countries with tropical and subtropical climate. The pink variety of guava (when dissected) has the maximum medicinal values. Fruits as well as leaves has many health benefits viz, antidiarrhoeal, antihypertensive, antilipedemic, anticancer etc. Keywords: Medicinal properties of Psidium guajava
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Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies 2018; 6(4): 44-47
ISSN (E): 2320-3862
ISSN (P): 2394-0530
NAAS Rating: 3.53
JMPS 2018; 6(4): 44-47
© 2018 JMPS
Received: 10-05-2018
Accepted: 11-06-2018
Arjun Kafle
Veterinray Officer, Sri Anantha
Padmanabha Swamy Pharma
Pvt Ltd, Hyderabad, Telangana,
India
Sushree Sangita Mohapatra
Teaching Assistant, Department
of Veterinary Pharmacology and
Toxicology, College of Veterinary
Science, Proddatur, Andra
Pradesh, India
Indrapal Reddy
Phd, Jawaharlal Nehru
Technological University,
Hyderabad, Telangana, India
Manju Chapagain
Lecturer, Asian Institute of
Nursing Education, Guwahati,
Assam, India
Correspondence
Arjun Kafle
Veterinray Officer, Sri Anantha
Padmanabha Swamy Pharma
Pvt Ltd, Hyderabad, Telangana,
India
A review on medicinal properties of Psidium
guajava
Arjun Kafle, Sushree Sangita Mohapatra, Indrapal Reddy and Manju
Chapagain
Abstract
Nature has endowed Guava with many nutritional and medicinal properties. The fruits are 4-12 cm long
with round or oval shape depending on the species (red, strawberry, and off-white). The tree, which
belongs to the family, Myrtaceae is chiefly grown in countries with tropical and subtropical climate. The
pink variety of guava (when dissected) has the maximum medicinal values. Fruits as well as leaves has
many health benefits viz, antidiarrhoeal, antihypertensive, antilipedemic, anticancer etc.
Keywords: Medicinal properties of Psidium guajava
1. Introduction
Nature has blessed Guava or Psidium guajava with many essential nutrients. Historically,
Guava is said to be cultivated in South Africa for commercial purpose and has been brought to
country India by the Portuguese. As a fruit, Guava is very common in Asian countries but
occupies a greater space in western countries mainly because of its medicinal properties. It is a
small tree belonging to family Myrtaceae [2]. The tree can be cultivated in any soil provided
the climate is tropical or subtropical. India is the largest producer of Guava as on date followed
by neighbouring country China [1]. Guava fruits are usually 4 to 12 centimetres (1.6 to 4.7 in)
long, round or oval depending on the species. The fruit is basically green in colour which turns
to yellow once it is ripened. The most commonly available guava in the market is apple guava
[3]. Table no.1 shows the botanical classification of Psidium guajava.
Table 1
Botanical classification
Kingdom
Plantae - Plants
Subkingdom
Tracheobionta Vascular plants
Superdivision
Spermatophyta Seed plants
Division
Magnoliophyta Flower plants
Class
Magnoliopsida Dicotyledonous
Subclass
Rosidae
Order
Myrtales
Family
Myrtaceae
Subfamily
Myrtoideae
Tribe
Myrteae
Gender
Psidium
Species
Psidium guajava
Source: https://www.botanical-online.com/english/guava_characteristics.htm
Apart from the fruit, guava leaves posses potential health benefits as well, some of which are;
it help in preventing cancer, regulating blood pressure, treating diarrhoea, solving bowel
problems to mention a few. It also helps in loosing weight, improves tonicity of skins, treats
cough and cold, constipation, dysentery, and scurvy [4]. The common types of guava around
the world includes apple guava, cherry guava, and strawberry guava. Mostly eaten raw in the
ripened or semi-ripened form or consumes in the form of juices. This popular fruit is a factory
of nutrients which can be very well depicted from table number 1. This review describes
potential health benefits of Guava and its leaves
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Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies
Table 2
Nutritional Value Per 100 G Of Guava Fruit
Energy
285 kJ (68 kcal)
Carbohydrates
14.32 g
Sugars
8.92 g
Dietary fiber
5.4 g
Fat
0.95 g
Protein
2.55 g
Vitamin A equiv.
31 μg
beta-Carotene
374 μg
Thiamine (B1)
0.067 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
0.04 mg
Niacin (B3)
1.084 mg
Pantothenic acid
0.451 mg
Vitamin B6
0.11 mg
Folate (B9)
49 μg
Vitamin C
228.3 mg
Vitamin K
2.2 μg
Iron
0.26 mg
Magnesium
22 mg
Manganese
0.15 mg
Phosphorus
40 mg
Potassium
417 mg
Sodium
2 mg
Zinc
0.23 mg
Lycopene
5204 µg
Source: www.wikipedia.com
Laxatives
Guava, both fruits and leaves contain sufficient amount of
dietary fiber that forms the base for the treatment of
constipation. Newer tender leaves are particularly rich in fiber
and roughage which is crucial for the prevention and
treatment of constipation and hemorrhoids. It has been said
that, 100 gram of guava fruit contains as much as 36 g of
dietary fibres [5]. Apart, Guava seeds are powerful laxatives
also and help in chronic constipation and cleansing the bowel.
The fruit is one of the richest sources of dietary fiber and
Vitamin C which in comparison to other fruits is quite high
and just 1 guava fulfills about 12% of daily recommended
intake of fiber, which makes it extremely beneficial for
keeping digestive health at ease [6].
Problems Associated With Oral Cavity
Dental plaques is the main cause of periodonitis as plaques
when left unattained without any care ultimately leads to
gingivitis and periodonitis6. Some of the common pathogen
responsible for periodonitis are Aggregatibacter actinomyce
temcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium
nucleatum and Prevotella intermedia [7]. Guava contains good
concentration of quercetin which has been shown to exhibit
incredible antibacterial activity against such pathogens. The
possible mechanism of Quercetin in periodonitis could be due
to cell membrane disruption and inactivation of crucial
protein by forming irreversible complexes with the protein in
susceptible microbes [8]. Guava extract without disturbing the
oral cavity homeostatis acts against oral plagues. It also
prevents adherence of bacteria to the oral cavity thus
discouraging further development of plague as well [9]. The
second most common problem associated with buccal cavity
is bleeding from gums (scurvy). Vitamin C content in guava
is very high, it has been said that guava contains as high as 4
times more vitamin C than orange which makes it good
candidate for treating scurvy. It can also be used in toothache
and ulcers due to its astringent property. Leaves can be
chewed directly to get instant relief from toothache [10]. Bad
breath can also be controlled with guava leaves owing to
folate content in the latter. Guava thus forms an excellent
remedy for treating problems associated with oral cavity.
Antidiabetic
In China, guava leaves are peeled and taken in empty
stomach against diabetes. A study was conducted by
Medicinal Research Laboratory, Allahabad on mice which
proved that guava fruits and leaves have the power to lower
blood sugar levels; when the fruit was taken without skin11.
Several authors have studied the inhibition of intestinal
glycosidases by the effects of Psidium guajava leaves related
to postprandial hyperglycemia, suggesting a breakthrough in
the treatment of Diabetes (type II). Furthermore, the high
fiber in guava slows down the absorption of glucose from the
gut which thereby prevents the brisk rise in blood sugar level
right after a meal. In one experiment, people drank guava tea
after eating white rices; had far less blood glucose rise than
people who drank plain water as a control [12]. In addition,
Guava (both fruit and leaves) seems to lower fasting sugars as
well. Based on a study, people with Type 2 diabetes, those
who drank guava leaf decoction with every meal for 3 months
had lower fasting blood glucose levels than before experiment
[13].
Guava for Cold and Cough
Guava leaves have been found to be effective in curing cold
and cough. Guava is rich source ascorbic acid and iron by
virtue of which it reduces lungs congestion & mucous
formation and at the same time keeps the respiratory tract free
of any unfriendly pathogen. Reports claimed that these
components in Guava act like a miracle in curing influenza14.
Fruit particularly the raw ones or decoction made from tender
immature leaves is quite helpful in relieving cold and cough.
It works by the disintegration of mucus polymers thereby
loosening cough and reducing further mucus production, keep
the respiratory tract, throat, and lungs free of microbes and
inhibits existing microbial activity due to its astringent
properties. Vitamin C is present in good concentration in
Guava which has been found to be very effective in treating
cold and cough associated with bacteria or virus. Roasted ripe
guava is used as a home remedy against extreme cases of
cough and cold and congestion in many villages of India.
Another report suggested that Hydro extract of Psidium
guajava leaves significantly lowered the coughing frequency
which was induced by capsaicin aerosol compared to the
control, within 15 min after administration of the extract [15].
Antibacterial
Guava extracts exhibit antibacterial activity against both
Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In vitro
evaluation of the effects of aqueous mixture and water-soluble
methanol extract from guava leaves and bark against
multidrug-resistant Vibrio cholera and found to possess
strong antibacterial activity [16]. They concluded that this plant
offers the potential for controlling epidemics of cholera. For
treatment of infections in children’s, villagers generally avoid
market medicines and prefer natural remedies like guava
leaves (young and tender ones) to be chewed and swallowed.
Guava extract has been shown to be quite effective against E.
coli which otherwise is resistant to most of the modern day
antibiotics in the market. Guava leaves extract possess very
good activity against the intestinal microbes, Vibrio cholera,
causative organism for cholera [17], hence the latter can be
used in places where drug of choice are difficult to find.
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Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies
Antimicrobial effect of essential oils and methanol, hexane,
ethyl acetate extracts from guava leaves were conducted in
which the extracts were tested against certain bacteria viz,
Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli.
Of all the bacteria tested the extract showed the maximum
effect against Staphylococcus aureus and methanolic extract
showed the greatest inhibition of bacterial growth.
Anticancer Activity
The antioxidant, Lycopene which is present abundantly in
Guava plays a crucial role in preventing and fighting cancer.
Amongst all, breast cancer and prostate cancer responds the
best. Red flesh (when dissected) guava contains more
lycopene as compared to the other varieties. Lycopene acts by
scavenging the free radicals and also prevents further
formation of free radicals. Many research stated that aqueous
extract of guava budding leaves possess anti-prostate cancer
activity in a cell line model and concluded they are promising
anti-androgen-sensitive prostate cancer agent [18]. In addition,
Guava contains a good concentration of carotene as well
which is known to prevent lung and oral cancers too.
Antihypertensive and Hypolipidemic
Guava is highly useful for the treatment of hypertension,
hyperlipidemia and heart disease. It also contains some
amount of potassium which helps to relax blood vessels and
thus helps in controlling blood pressure. It has been found that
consuming guava fruit on daily basis results in significant
reduction in Blood pressure and blood lipids owing to higher
potassium and fibers in the fruit. Moreover, Guava contains a
high concentration of pectin which causes a significant
reduction in the blood lipids by delaying absorption of the
foods and thereby reduces the risk of cardiovascular
illnesses19. Many authors had postulated that the gallic acid,
catechins, epicatechins, rutin, naringenin and kaempferol in
the leaves are responsible for the inhibition of the enzyme,
pancreatic cholesterol esterase resulting in lower cholesterol
in the blood. Catechins are important as a preventive therapy
for hypercholesterolemia [20]. Quercetin has been associated
with decreased mortality from heart disease and decreased
incidence of stroke associated with hypertension and
hyperlipedimiea [21].Guava improves heart health, prevents
stroke by controlling high blood pressure and lowering
cholesterol which is credited to the presence of a moderate
quantity of potassium.
Gastrointestinal Problems
Quercetin and flavonoid content in guava leaves has been
found to counteract many diseases originating in the
gastrointestinal tract. Psidium guajava leaves are an example
of the plant commonly used as popular medicine for a number
of gastrointestinal upset [22]. The alkalinity of fruits and leaves
discourages the growth of pathogenic microbes responsible
for gastroenteritis. Guava is beneficial in the treatment of
diarrhea as the fruit inhibits microbial growth, releases
excessive mucous from the intestine thereby helps to bind
loose stools. Guava does contain many essential vitamins and
minerals viz, carotenoids, vitamin C, and potassium which
discourages GIT problems. The production of excess mucus
in the large intestine can be successfully removed by chewing
guava leaves in empty stomach. Drinking guava leaf tea in
moderate quantity results in maintaining consistency of the
stool. Guava leaf extract is used to get rid of gastrointestinal
disorders because of its quercetin and flavonoids content [23].
Antidiarrheal
Boiling 6-10 new tender guava leaves in a pot containing
warm water and drinking the same in the empty stomach
while being still warm has been found to be very effective in
controlling diarrhea. Researchers stated that P. guajava leaves
have a broad spectrum antimicrobial action (as antigiardial
and antirotaviral activity) that could be effectively used in
controlling diarrhea or pathogenic origin. The antidiarrhoeal
activity can be attributed to the presence of high flavonoids
content in guava leaves [24]. Among Children, Guava barks are
also used to treat diarrhea owing to their astringent property.
Tea made from guava leaves or its extract in a cup of warm
water can help to empty the bowel easily. Journal of Smooth
Muscle Research in 2008 published an article in which some
researcher tested the effect of guava leaves on the peristalsis
of bowel of rats and found the guava leaves extract was able
to delay the onset of castor oil-induced diarrhea, decrease the
frequency of defecation, and reduce the severity of diarrhea in
the rats [25].
Antacid and Ulcer Protectant Activity
The alkaline nature of Guava leave gives very good response
against hyperacidity of the stomach. Still today, it has also
been found that in most of the villages, Guava tea is prepared
by adding 10-15 numbers of young Guava leaves, boiled in 3-
4 cups of water and the warm concoction is made to drink to
get rid of acidity. Of all the extract solvent, the methanolic
extract showed the maximum antacid and ulcer healing
property in vitro [26]. The flavonoids and saponins in the
Guava fruit, as well as leaves, has been found to be an
effective remedy in counteracting acidity and subsequent
ulceration of the stomach. Methanolic extract of Psidium
guajava leaves in doses: 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight
lead to significant decrease in ulcer index of ethanol-induced
ulcer in the stomach of Wister rats [27].
Wound Healing
From time immemorial, Guava leaves have been used
extensively on wound in the history of mankind. Guava leaves
were made into a paste by grinding with little water or oil and
the same was applied to the wound surface by ancient people
of India and China. Tannins and flavonoids exhibit faster
healing of experimental wound when a methanolic extract of
guava leaves was applied locally twice daily. Many
researchers have proved that ointment made from guava
leaves can cure wound far faster than the market supplies. The
leaves are washed, ground and extracted with oil to facilitate
absorption a vehicle (mostly melted candle wax) is added to
the extract. The final compound is then applied directly to the
wound twice daily for 4 days [28].
Anti-Allergy
Studies were carried out on methanol and aqueous extracts of
Psidium guajava leaves and the result showed potent
inhibition of histamine release from mast cells and blocked
IL- 10-mediated, in vitro induction of T regulatory (Tr) cells
from CD4+ splenocytes of C57BL/6 in mice. The extracts
also shifted the Th1/Th2 balance to a Th1 dominant status by
directly attenuating Tr cell activity. Guava leaf extracts
decreased the allergic reaction mediated via T cell in mice [29]
Conclusion
The extensive use of allopathic drugs in the treatment and
prevention of diseases has led to the rapid development of
drug resistance. Drug resistance is one of the leading cause of
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Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies
failure in drug therapy. Amongst all, drug resistance is
frequently encountered during antimicrobial therapy.
However, the development of resistance in case of natural
therapy or Ayurvedic therapy is very rare which encouraged
people to switch from allopathic to Ayurvedic therapy.
However, the active ingredient is very difficult to extract from
the crude natural compound which becomes a huge challenge
for the researchers for which simplified method has to be
developed. The use of natural therapy in the treatment and
prevention of disease is not only safe, easily available but is
economical as well. Presently, even physicians or practioners
are looking for alternative treatment of medicine for curing
various diseases, so importance must be given to development
of traditional herbal medicine from natural resources.
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... The fruit is green in colour which turns yellow when it gets ripened. Apple guava is the most common variety of guava available in the market (Kafle et al., 2018) [13] . Botanical classification is shown below in table no. 1. [13] 3. Production of guava fruit Guava fruit has been considered an important tropical fruit and is mostly consumed fruit. ...
... The fruit is green in colour which turns yellow when it gets ripened. Apple guava is the most common variety of guava available in the market (Kafle et al., 2018) [13] . Botanical classification is shown below in table no. 1. [13] 3. Production of guava fruit Guava fruit has been considered an important tropical fruit and is mostly consumed fruit. ...
... Apple guava is the most common variety of guava available in the market (Kafle et al., 2018) [13] . Botanical classification is shown below in table no. 1. [13] 3. Production of guava fruit Guava fruit has been considered an important tropical fruit and is mostly consumed fruit. It has considered a berry that consists of fleshy pulp and numerous small seeds. ...
Article
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Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a tropical and subtropical fruit crop widely used in diet and traditional medicine. Guava is scientifically known as Psidium guajava L. which belongs to the Myrtaceae family. There are around 150 species of guava available globally, the most prominent of which are common guava, cattley guava, peer guava, and apple guava. Guava output in the world was expected to be at 500,000 metric tonnes, with South American countries such as Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico producing considerable amounts of the fruit. It is rich in certain nutrients like protein, carbs, vitamins, and minerals, which work as health boosters for the human body, according to its nutritional composition. Some of the commercial products manufactured by using guava such as guava pulp, blended ready-to-serve beverages, guava leathers, guava juice and nectars, guava wine, guava dehydrated slices, etc. Guava has found pharmacological potentials such as antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antiparasitic, antibacterial, wound healer and anticancer activity.
... The type of solvent used in the extraction process determines the effectiveness of extracting biologically active compounds from the plant material (Shaikh et al., 2022). The choice of solvent used is very important as it will allow the isolation of bioactive compound of interest (Kafle et al., 2018). ...
... Similarly, tannins, saponins, phenols, flavonoids and glycosides were found in the leaf extracts of P. guajava (Yagoub et al., 2007;Biswas et al., 2013;Azizan et al., 2020). In contrast, previous studies reported the absence of tannins in P. guajava extracts (Sanche et al., 2005;Nair et al., 2007;Kafle et al., 2018). This difference in metabolites could be attributed to geographic, ecological, and genetic differences like plant's origin, age, part used, genetic material, etc. ...
... With methanol, Umuhoza et al. (2021) extracted Kalanchoe integra phytochemicals that were effective in inhibiting all the 4 studied bacteria. Thus, the extracts from P. guajava contained pharmacology active compounds due to the presence of saponins, phenols, tannins, glycosides and flavonoids which could be responsible for antimicrobial activity (Sanche et al., 2005;Nair et al., 2007;Eghare et al., 2010;Biswas et al., 2013;Kafle et al., 2018;Azizan et al., 2020;Saleh et al., 2020). These groups of compounds have been shown to be curative against a variety of pathogens, which may explain their widespread use in conventional medicine for a variety of ailments. ...
Article
Full-text available
With the rise of antimicrobial resistance, the urge of having new lead compounds that could inhibit microbial growth is turning into a truth. The aim of the present investigation was to determine the antimicrobial activity of Mystroxylon aethiopicum and Psidium guajava on selected pathogenic bacteria. Extraction with petroleum ether and methanol was performed on both leaf powders. Agar well diffusion technique was followed. All the experiments were carried out in duplicate, and the results were analyzed by SPSS. Glycosides, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, and phenols were seen in both plants. However, alkaloids were only observed in P. guajava. Extracts showed various activities against tested bacteria. P. guajava methanol leaf extracts exhibited the greatest inhibitory activity against all the tested bacteria. The methanol and petroleum ether leaf extracts of M. aethiopicum had no effect on S. pneumonia and E. coli. P. guajava methanol extract had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration of 50 mg/ml against S. aureus and K. oxytoca. 75 mg/ml was recorded for M. aethiopicum methanol leaf extract against K. oxytoca and S. aureus. The combination of the two extracts also showed a reduced of antimicrobial effect.
... Large amounts of essential oils, triterpenes, phenols, flavonoids, saponins, lectins, fiber and pectin as well as fatty acids are also found in guava. It has significant mineral levels, including calcium, phosphorus, iron and vitamins such as niacin, pantothenic acid, thiamin, riboflavin and vitamin A. Guava contains both polyphenolic compounds and carotenoids that give antioxidant property to the fruit making it one of the fruit with highest antioxidant values (Omayio et al., 2019, Kafle et al., 2018 [7,4] . Guava fruit shows a climacteric pattern of respiration and ethylene production so is highly perishable in nature and grieves excessive amount of post-harvest loss [11] . ...
... Large amounts of essential oils, triterpenes, phenols, flavonoids, saponins, lectins, fiber and pectin as well as fatty acids are also found in guava. It has significant mineral levels, including calcium, phosphorus, iron and vitamins such as niacin, pantothenic acid, thiamin, riboflavin and vitamin A. Guava contains both polyphenolic compounds and carotenoids that give antioxidant property to the fruit making it one of the fruit with highest antioxidant values (Omayio et al., 2019, Kafle et al., 2018 [7,4] . Guava fruit shows a climacteric pattern of respiration and ethylene production so is highly perishable in nature and grieves excessive amount of post-harvest loss [11] . ...
Article
The present research was aimed to study the combined effect of different chemical treatments and polyethylene wrapping on dry matter content of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruit. The guava cv. L-49 fruits were treated with chemicals such as calcium chloride, calcium nitrate, gibberellic acid, benzyl adenine and spermine and packed in LDPE100 and LDPE200 bags. The dry matter content of guava fruits was studied at three days of interval during storage at low temperature. SPM was most effective for MG fruits with dry matter content of23.24 (MG-100) and 23.34 (MG-200) on 12 th day of storage. For CT fruits, SPM and BA were found to most efficient with dry matter content of 23.33 and 23.96 for CT-100, and 23.14 and 23.37 for CT-200, respectively on 12 th day of storage. The combined application of chemicals and polyethylene significantly controlled the increase in dry matter content of guava fruit during storage at low temperature.
... Eating guavas may aid healthy bowel movements and prevent constipation [4]. One guava per day can provide 12% of the recommended daily intake of fiber [5]. Additionally, P.guajava L. has many applications which make this plant very important from scientific point of view. ...
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Psidium guajava L. (guava) is a small tree known for its fruit flavor that is cultivated almost around the globe in tropical areas. Its fruit is amazingly rich in antioxidants, vitamin C, potassium, and dietary fiber. In different parts of the world, this plant holds a special place with respect to fruit and nutritional items. Pharmacological research has shown that this plant has more potential than just a fruit source; it also has beneficial effects against a variety of chronic diseases due to its rich nutritional and phytochemical profile. The primary goal of this document is to provide an updated overview of Psidium guajava L. and its bioactive secondary metabolites, as well as their availability for further study, with a focus on the health benefits and potential industrial applications. There have been several studies conducted on Psidium guajava L. in relation to its use in the pharmaceutical industry. However, its clinical efficacy and applications are still debatable. Therefore, in this review a detailed study with respect to phytochemistry of the plant through modern instruments such as GC and LC-MS has been discussed. The biological activities of secondary metabolites isolated from this plant have been extensively discussed. In order to perform long-term clinical trials to learn more about their effectiveness as drugs and applications for various health benefits, a structure activity relationship has been established. Based on the literature, it is concluded that this plant has a wide variety of biopharmaceutical applications. As a whole, this article calls for long-term clinical trials to obtain a greater understanding of how it can be used to treat different diseases.
... In many Indian villages, roasted ripe guava is used as a home remedy for severe cases of cough, cold, and congestion. Another study found that a hydro extract of Psidium guajava leaves significantly reduced coughing frequency caused by capsaicin aerosol within 15 minutes of administration when compared to a control (Kafle et al, 2018) [70] . ...
... The guava leaves extracts are supplemented with photochemical biological composite such as vitamins, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds, catechia, gallic acid [25], which act as reducing & stabilizing agents during the preparation of nanoparticles [26]. Guava leaves minimize breast, prostate, & oral cancers risk, because of high amounts of antioxidant, Lycopene [27,28]. Numerous studies shown that lycopene acts a substantial role in reducing cancer risk. ...
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Green synthesis of ZnO NPs with biological systems is becoming a growing field, especially in plant extracts nanotechnology. Biological reducing agents have been interpreted worldwide to lessen the impact of toxic chemicals applied in development of nanoparticles. In present research, work deals with green synthesis & characterization of ZnO NPs via Psidium guajava leaf extract, also to evaluate their antibacterial action against some selected bacteria. The preparation of ZnO NPs was attained via sol–gel assisted microwave irradiation process. The XRD pattern confirms the hexagonal phase of ZnO and crystalline size to be ~ 15.8 nm. FTIR analysis depicts the bio functional groups present in the surface of the ZnO nanoparticles, SEM predicts the size and morphology of the sample, and it shows rod-shaped surface. Then, the EDAX results showed the purity & elemental stoichiometry of the ZnO nanoparticles. Also, the UV was performed to investigate the optical nature of the prepared ZnO nanoparticles. Also, the antibacterial activity results revealed significantly inhibited both types of bacteria in higher concentrations. This study also suggests that green synthesized ZnO nanoparticles can an excellent antibacterial agent.
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People of all ages and genders utilize herbal medicine to treat varieties of problems all around the world. The accumulation of Cd and Cr in therapeutic herbs ( Adansonia digitata , Psidium guajava , and Carica papaya ) can lead to a variety of health complications. These leaf extracts are used to treat varieties of ailments, including cancer, in the northern Nigerian states of Borno, Jigawa, and Kano. The researchers employed high-resolution continuous source atomic absorption spectrometry. The statistical parameters such as mean, range, minimum and maximum were computed along with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to assess activity concentrations of Major Chemical Carcinogens (MCCs) in the herb extracts from the three states. The result demonstrated substantial statistical variation in the concentration of Chromium between groups with C . papaya (F = 190.683, p = 0.000), P . guajava (F = 5.698, p = 0.006), A . digitata (F = 243.154, p = 0.000). The post hoc test revealed that the C. papaya and A. digitata observed concentrations were statistically significant across the three states (p = 0.000). It was observed that there is no statistically significant difference between concentrations of the extracts between Kano and Borno states for P . guajava (p = 0.686). For Cd, the one-way ANOVA showed significant statistically variation in the concentration between groups with C . papaya (F = 77.393, p = 0.000), P . guajava (F = 4.496, p = 0.017), A . digitata (F = 69.042, p = 0.000). The post hoc test with multiple comparisons revealed that the activity concentration of all extracts was statistically significant across the three states (p<0.05). The target risk quotient (THQ) for Cd was more than unity in A . digitata and C . papaya , except for P . guajava from Borno State. The probable cancer risk was observed for consumption of plant extracts as a result of Cr and Cd.
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Respiratory diseases have in the recent past become a health concern globally. More than 523 million cases of coronavirus disease (COVID19), a recent respiratory diseases have been reported, leaving more than 6 million deaths worldwide since the start of the pandemic. In Zimbabwe, respiratory infections have largely been managed using traditional (herbal) medicines, due to their low cost and ease of accessibility. This review highlights the plants’ toxicological and pharmacological evaluation studies explored. It seeks to document plants that have been traditionally used in Zimbabwe to treat respiratory ailments within and beyond the past four decades. Extensive literature review based on published papers and abstracts retrieved from the online bibliographic databases, books, book chapters, scientific reports and theses available at Universities in Zimbabwe, were used in this study. From the study, there were at least 58 plant families comprising 160 medicinal plants widely distributed throughout the country. The Fabaceae family had the highest number of medicinal plant species, with a total of 21 species. A total of 12 respiratory ailments were reportedly treatable using the identified plants. From a total of 160 plants, colds were reportedly treatable with 56, pneumonia 53, coughs 34, chest pain and related conditions 29, asthma 25, tuberculosis and spots in lungs 22, unspecified respiratory conditions 20, influenza 13, bronchial problems 12, dyspnoea 7, sore throat and infections 5 and sinus clearing 1 plant. The study identified potential medicinal plants that can be utilised in future to manage respiratory infections.
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Guava is native to the American tropical. The anme guava most is drived from the Haitian name Guajaba. Plant for hundreds of years has been used to decorate health and for medicinal purposes. Psidium guajava (Family Myrtaceae ) has an extensive wealth of medicinal value. Guava due to its anti‑inflammatory action can inhibit iNOS, COX‑2, NF‑kβ it could be a valuable agent in treating periodontal disease. Quercetin is the main constituent present in guava and has shown excellent against some periodontal pathogens. This review paper explains the pharmacological use of guava leaves in the treatment of Periodontitis. Keywords: Psidium guajava, Periodontitis, Quercetin, Antibacterial, Pharmacological use.
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The present study investigates the anti-ulcer activity of methanol extract of P. guajava on ethanol induced gastric ulceration in adult Wistar rats. Twenty nine adult non pregnant female Wistar rats weighing between 160-225 gm were used for the study. Five rats were used for the acute oral toxicity test in accordance with the OECD guidelines 425. The remaining 24 rats were randomly divided in 4 groups of 6 rats each. Groups I and II which served as negative and positive controls orally received 2 mL/Kg body weight of distilled water and 50 mg/kg ranitidine respectively for a period of 10 days while groups III and IV were administered 500 and 1000 mg/kg of methanol extract of P. guajava leaves respectively also for 10 days. The next day, ulcer was induced by oral administration of 1 mL of 90% ethanol in all the groups after overnight fasting. The animals were sacrificed 1 h after induction of gastric ulceration and the stomachs were removed, processed and examined using a 6X hand held magnifying lens and mean ulcerative indices were scored accordingly. The result for the acute oral toxicity test showed no mortality nor was there any physical sign of toxicity. Significant dose dependent decrease in ulcer indices was observed among the P. guajava leaves extract treated groups as compared to the control groups. The study concludes that methanol extract of P. guajava is non toxic in acute doses and confers ulceroprotective activity on ethanol induced gastric ulcer in adult Wistar rats.
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Problem statement: Phyllanthus niruri is widely used in many parts of the world to manage a wide range of diseases. As part of efforts to elucidate its pharmacological activities and hence medicinal potential, we studied the wound hea ling and antiulcer properties of extract of the aerial parts using experimentally-created wounds an d ulcers in rodents. Approach: Wound healing effect was assessed using excision and dead space w ound models while antiulcer activity was evaluated using indomethacin-, ethanol acid- and co ld-restraint stress-induced ulcer models. Results: The extract (5,10%) significantly (p
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Traditional medicine and diet has served mankind through the ages for prevention and treatment of most chronic diseases. Mounting evidence suggests that chronic inflammation mediates most chronic diseases, including cancer. More than other transcription factors, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and STAT3 have emerged as major regulators of inflammation, cellular transformation, and tumor cell survival, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Thus, agents that can inhibit NF-κB and STAT3 activation pathways have the potential to both prevent and treat cancer. In this review, we examine the potential of one group of compounds called triterpenes, derived from traditional medicine and diet for their ability to suppress inflammatory pathways linked to tumorigenesis. These triterpenes include avicins, betulinic acid, boswellic acid, celastrol, diosgenin, madecassic acid, maslinic acid, momordin, saikosaponins, platycodon, pristimerin, ursolic acid, and withanolide. This review thus supports the famous adage of Hippocrates, “Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food”.
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Psidium guajava L., Myrtaceae, is used widely in traditional medicine for the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery, gastroenteritis, stomachaches, and indigestion. However, the effect of the leaf extract of P. guajava on the pathogenesis of infectious diarrhoea has not been studied. The present study evaluates the effect of a hot aqueous extract (decoction) of dried leaves of P. guajava on parameters associated with pathogenicity of infectious diarrhoea. The aim was to understand its possible mechanism(s) of action in controlling infectious diarrhoea and compare it with quercetin, one of the most reported active constituents of P. guajava with antidiarrhoeal activity. The crude decoction and quercetin were studied for their antibacterial activity and effect on virulence features of common diarrhoeal pathogens viz. colonization of epithelial cells and production and action of enterotoxins. Colonization as measured by adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and invasion of enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and Shigella flexneri was assessed using HEp-2 cell line. The production of E. coli heat labile toxin (LT) and cholera toxin (CT) and their binding to ganglioside monosialic acid (GM1) were studied by GM1-ELISA whereas the production and action of E. coli heat stable toxin (ST) was assessed by suckling mouse assay. The decoction of P. guajava showed antibacterial activity towards S. flexneri and Vibrio cholerae. It decreased production of both LT and CT and their binding to GM1. However, it had no effect on production and action of ST. The decoction also inhibited the adherence of EPEC and invasion by both EIEC and S. flexneri to HEp-2 cells. Quercetin, on the other hand, had no antibacterial activity at the concentrations used nor did it affect any of the enterotoxins. Although it did not affect adherence of EPEC, it inhibited the invasion of both EIEC and S. flexneri to HEp-2 cells. Collectively, the results indicate that the decoction of P. guajava leaves is an effective antidiarrhoeal agent and that the entire spectrum of its antidiarrhoeal activity is not due to quercetin alone.
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Psidium guajava Linn. (guava) is used not only as food but also as folk medicine in subtropical areas around the world because of its pharmacologic activities. In particular, the leaf extract of guava has traditionally been used for the treatment of diabetes in East Asia and other countries. Moreover, the anti-hyperglycemic activity of the extract has been reported in some animal models. However, little is known regarding the therapeutic activity of the extract in human clinical trials as well as its underlying therapeutic mechanisms and safety. In Japan, Guava Leaf Tea (Bansoureicha(R), Yakult Honsha, Tokyo, Japan) containing the aqueous leaf extract from guava has been approved as one of the Foods for Specified Health Uses and is now commercially available. This review describes the active component of the aqueous guava leaf extract and its inhibition of alpha-glucosidase enzymes in vitro, safety of the extract and Guava Leaf Tea, reduction of postprandial blood glucose elevation, and improvement of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypoadiponectinemia, hypertriglycemia and hypercholesterolemia in murine models and several clinical trials. It is suggested that the chronic suppression of postprandial blood glucose elevation is important in preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus, and that Guava Leaf Tea is considered useful as an alimentotherapy for chronic treatment.
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The use of medicinal plants by the general population is an old and still widespread practice, which makes studies of their genotoxicity essential. Psidium guajava L. and Achillea millefolium L. are examples of plants commonly used in popular medicine. P. guajava L. is indicated for diarrhea and also as an antiseptic, while A. millefolium L. is indicated as an analgesic, antispasmodic, digestive, diuretic, antiseptic, astringent, emollient, wound healer and hemorrhoid medication. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the infusions of these two plant species on chromosomes and the cell cycle. Leaves from the plants were used to prepare infusions, in the same manner as teas, but at two different concentrations. Allium cepa L. root-tip cells (P. guajava L. - 2.62 and 26.2 mg/mL, and A. millefolium L. - 3.5 and 35.0 mg/mL) and Wistar rat bone marrow cells (P. guajava L. - 2.62 and 26.2 mg/100g body weight, and A. millefolium L. - 3.5 and 35.0 mg/100g body weight) were used as in vivo plant and animal test systems, respectively. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes (P. guajava L. - 0.262 and 2.62 mg/mL culture medium, and A. millefolium L. - 0.35 and 3.5 mg/mL culture medium) were used as in vitro test system. The P. guajava L. infusion at the higher concentration caused a statistically significant inhibition of cellular division in the onion root-tip cells, not observed in onion root-tip cells treated with A. millefolium L. No statistically significant alterations were found, as compared to untreated controls, in either the cell cycle or the number of chromosome alterations, after treatments with either plant, in rat cells or in cultured human lymphocytes. These results regarding the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of these plants provide valuable information about the safety of using them as therapeutic agents.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of quercetin against pathogens of the main oral infectious diseases which include caries, periodontitis and oral mucosa infectious diseases associated microorganisms. Agar diffusion assay was adopted to observe the effects of quercetin on the growth of 11 main oral pathogenic microorganisms, including Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus sobrinus, Actinomyces viscosus, Actinomyces naeslundii, Lactobacillus acidophilu, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Actinobacillus actinomycetemocomitans, Prevotella intermedia and Candia albicans. The antibacterial activity of quercetin was determined in form of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) using agar dilution assay. In all experiments, results obtained indicated that quercetin had inhibitory effects on S. mutans with MIC of 2 mg/ml and MBC of 8 mg/ml, S. sobrinus with MIC of 1 mg/ml and MBC of 8 mg/ml, L. acidophilu with MIC of 2 mg/ml and MBC of 16 mg/ml, S. sanguis with MIC of 2 mg/ml and MBC of 16 mg/ml, A. actinomycetemocomitans with MIC of 1 mg/ml and MBC of 8 mg/ml, P. intermedia with MIC of 4 mg/ml and MBC of 16 mg/ml, respectively. Thus, it could be concluded that quercetin had different antibacterial activities against oral bacteria, in which the quecetin showed better antibacterial effect on caries-related bacteria, and could be encouraged for further development in caries prevention and treatment.
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The anticough activity of Psidium guajava Linn. (guava) leaf extract was evaluated in rats and guinea pigs. The results showed that water extract of the plant at doses of 2 and 5 g/kg, p.o. decreased the frequency of cough induced by capsaicin aerosol by 35 and 54%, respectively, as compared to the control, within 10 min after injection of the extract, (P < 0.01). However, the anticough activity is less potent than that of 3 mg/kg dextromethorphan which decreased frequency of cough by 78% (P < 0.01). An experiment on isolated rat tracheal muscle showed that the extract directly stimulated muscle contraction and also synergized with the stimulatory effect of pilocarpine. This effect was antagonized by an atropine. Moreover, growth of Staphylococcus aureus and beta-streptococcus group A, as determined by the disc diffusion method, was inhibited by water, methanol and chloroform extract of dry guava leaves (P < 0.001). The LD50 of guava leaf extract was more than 5 g/kg, p.o. These results suggest that guava leaf extract is recommended as a cough remedy.
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The best alternatives to synthetic medicines, available, for the treatment of gastric ulcer disorders, are the natural products found in plants. They are known to exhibit a variety of activities. The present study is aimed at the screening of Psidium (P.) guajava Linn for its gastro protective effect. The methanol extracts of the leaves of P. guajava were tested in three different ulcer models viz. aspirin (ASP), pyloric ligation (PL) and ethanol (EtoH) induced ulcer models in rats. The treatment of P. guajava at varying doses (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.001) inhibited the gastric lesions induced by ASP (70.5%), PL (65.07%) and EtoH (70.4%) respectively and the potency was found to be equivalent as compared to the standard drug, omeprazole. Reduction in the gastric secretory volume, acid secretion and increased gastric pH were the factors observed in treated rats. The presence of volatile oil, flavonoids and saponins present in the extracts of P. guajava may be responsible for the anti-ulcer property exhibited. The results further suggest that P. guajava possess gastro protective as well as ulcer healing properties which might also be due to its anti-secretory properties.
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This study investigated the effect of aqueous and ethanol soluble solid extracts of guava (Psidium guajava Linn.) leaves on hypoglycemia and glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. Low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) and nicotinamide were injected into Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to induce type 2 diabetes. Acute and long-term feeding tests were carried out, and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to follow the changes in plasma glucose and insulin levels was performed to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of guava leaf extracts in diabetic rats. The results of acute and long-term feeding tests showed a significant reduction in the blood sugar level in diabetic rats fed with either the aqueous or ethanol extract of guava leaves (p < 0.05). Long-term administration of guava leaf extracts increased the plasma insulin level and glucose utilization in diabetic rats. The results also indicated that the activities of hepatic hexokinase, phosphofructokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in diabetic rats fed with aqueous extracts were higher than in the normal diabetic group (p < 0.05). On the other hand, diabetic rats treated with the ethanol extract raised the activities of hepatic hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (p < 0.05) only. The experiments provided evidence to support the antihyperglycemic effect of guava leaf extract and the health function of guava leaves against type 2 diabetes. Copyright