Journal of Education and Human Development
June 2018, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 91-99
ISSN: 2334-296X (Print), 2334-2978 (Online)
Copyright © The Author(s). All Rights Reserved.
Published by American Research Institute for Policy Development
Dyslexic Children: The Need for Parents Awareness
Athira Amira Abd Rauf1, Maizatul Akmar Ismail1, Vimala Balakrishnan1 & Khalid Haruna1,2
Dyslexia is a life-term disability which can affect both children and adults. Studies show that dyslexic children
face many difficulties in their educational interactions and social surroundings. Also, they suffer from
frustrations and low self-esteem because of the lack of achievements, particularly in academics, which may
affect their long-term life opportunities. Parents‟ awareness about dyslexia and its impact on their children is
imperative in ensuring sustainable development of the children. Thus, parents need to be made aware of their
children conditions as early as possible so that appropriate intervention could be taken, for the wellbeing of
both parties. In this paper, we examined the awareness level of parents with dyslexic children, in Malaysian
context. The results indicate the need to promote parents awareness and to provide a support system in
dealing with children with dyslexia.
Keywords: Dyslexia, Parents Awareness, Dyslexic Children, Supportive Model
Dyslexia referred to as a hidden disability, which does not have physically visible signs that can be detected
(Soriano-Ferrer & Echegaray-Bengoa, 2014). It‟s symptoms can be found in both children and adults, but it is more
likely to be detected in the childhood (Leekam, Nieto, Libby, Wing, & Gould, 2007) because they are less likely to
hide their difficulties and differences. The most common symptoms for a dyslexic child are the difficulties in learning,
speaking, as well as difficulties with phonological processing like the manipulation of sounds and spellings. In
addition, a dyslexic child may experience poor performance in phonological memory and vocabulary which will result
in poor social skills and short concentration span (Campbell & Butterworth, 1985). Therefore, most dyslexic children
are facing with many difficulties in their educational interactions and social surroundings (Dyson, 1997). These
children may have demonstrated an exceptional intuition, high visualisation potential, originality, creativity and a
strong global comprehension ability and initiative could the disability be identified and treated from the early stages.
Most of the Malaysian young adults that had dyslexia during their childhood managed to overcome their
difficulties(Hazawawi & Hisham, 2014a). However, their childhood was filled with shame and discriminations. Also,
they were usually misunderstood as lazy and disobedience due to their difficulties in word recognition and poor
spelling ability (Hazawawi & Hisham, 2014b).
While there exist awareness campaign for the dyslexic children in Malaysia (Hazawawi & Hisham, 2014a), the
awareness regarding its impacts on young adults is insufficient. Additionally, most parents do not have sufficient
knowledge of dyslexia and its symptoms.
This leads to the difficulties of the dyslexic children of not receiving specialised treatments such as attending
extra classes provided by special educators, thus hindering them from having an equal opportunity for a good quality
of education. Therefore, the sooner the dyslexic children are identified and diagnosed, the higher the chances of
getting a proper treatment, such as a proper learning education(J. Hamid, 2012).
1 Department of Information Systems, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya, Kuala
Lumpur, Malaysia. *Corresponding Author Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, Phone number: +60379676375
2 Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, Bayero University, Kano,
92 Journal of Education and Human Development, Vol. 7, No. 2, June 2018
Another critical concern is that most clinics and private centres do not provide rehabilitation services to
dyslexic children (Tan, 2016), apart from the limited number of the government health centres to support large
number of Malaysia growing population. In this paper, we examined the awareness level of Malaysian parents with
dyslexic children. The remaining sections of this paper are organised as follows. A detailed description of dyslexia and
the impact of parent awareness is presented in section 2. Section 3 provides descriptions and comparisons between
some existing systems for identifying and diagnosing dyslexic children. A brief conclusion and suggested future work
are then presented in section 4.
2. Dyslexia and Parent Awareness
2.1 Definition of Dyslexia
The term „Dyslexia‟ was first coined by Berlin, a German doctor in 1887 (Hazawawi & Hisham, 2014a), to
describe word blindness that came from two Greek words „Dys‟ defined as difficulty and „Lexia‟ defined as words
Dyslexia is a reading and learning disability caused as a result of a defect in the brain processing of graphic
symbols, which alters the way brain processes written materials. It is associated with the aberrant structure and
function of the left hemisphere brain that is involved in the reading and language networks (Peterson & Pennington,
2015). Children with this disability usually have difficulties in word recognition, spelling, decoding and reading
comprehension (Vellutino, Fletcher, Snowling, & Scanlon, 2004).
Furthermore, according to (Nergård‐Nilssen & Hulme, 2014), dyslexia is a neurological and often genetic
condition that is passed from parents to their children and can also be caused by non-linguistic factors such as
deficiency of cognitive resources that can block the cognitive process from reaching a maximum level and causing
comprehension difficulties (Kornev & Balčiūnienė, 2014).
Differently, Alias & Dahlan (2015) considered dyslexia to be a subtype of Specific Learning Disability (SLD)
that is characterised by difficulties in recognising words accurately, spelling, reading, writings and decoding abilities,
which affects both children and adults (Skiada, Soroniati, Gardeli, & Zissis, 2014).
Meanwhile, the Malaysia National Dyslexia programme panel defined „Dyslexia‟ or „Disleksia‟ in Bahasa
Malaysia as children who have a general level of performance like other children but with significant difficulties in
word reading and spelling. According to the Malaysia Ministry of Education, about 290,000 students had Specific
Learning Disabilities (SLD) in the year 2001,and the number is still increasing (Yazid & Yin, 2015).
2.2 Characteristics of Dyslexic Children
According to Subramaniam (2008), some of the common traits found in most of the dyslexic children are the
difficulties in spelling, reading, writing, doing a simple calculation, and in differentiating words in reverse such as was-
saw or on-no. Children with dyslexia tend to read quietly and have poor handwriting (Tops, Callens, Van
Cauwenberghe, Adriaens, & Brysbaert, 2013). Other symptoms include; difficulties in learning, speaking disabilities
(Peterson & Pennington, 2015), difficulties with phonological processing like the manipulation of sounds and
spellings (Skiada et al., 2014), reduced performance in phonological memory and vocabulary (Moll et al., 2016).
Furthermore, children with dyslexia are characterised by difficulties in visual object recognition and vision
problem with light and concentration (Salih, Abdul-Kahar, Zahari, Khalid, & Rahim, 2015). In addition, dyslexic
children may experience mathematical difficulties such as sequencing and directional confusion, and the inability to
perform mental calculations (Chinn & Ashcroft, 2006). These difficulties usually made dyslexic children to have poor
social skills and short concentration span (Parhiala et al., 2015), which resulted in difficulties in their educational
interactions and social surroundings. Moreover, dyslexic children can suffer from frustrations and low self-esteem
because of the lack of achievements, particularly in academics (S. S. A. Hamid, Admodisastro, & Ghani, 2015), and
which may affect their long-term life opportunities (Hazawawi & Hisham, 2014a).
The reason why dyslexic children have difficulties in word recognition, poor spelling and decoding abilities is
as a result of deficits in the phonological component of language that is connected to the cognitive abilities (Soriano-
Ferrer & Echegaray-Bengoa, 2014). The writing difficulties are a result of high neural activities that are found on the
right brain hemisphere compared to the left-brain hemisphere, which suggests the neurobiological compensation
pathway in the right brain hemisphere during reading and writing (Mohamad et al., 2015).
Khalid Haruna et al. 93
2.3 Types of Dyslexia
According to Alsobhi, Khan, & Rahanu (2015), there are three different types of dyslexia, namely; visio-
spatial, speech sound, and central or surface dyslexia. Each individual may experience unique difficulties regarding
literacy, numeracy, and memory (Baker, 2006).
a. Visio-spatial: Dyslexic children that are visio-spatial are more likely to understand the ideas through their feelings
and mental images compared to sounds or words(Yeo, 2008).This is due to the fact that children with this type of
dyslexia find it hard to develop an adequate understanding of words and symbols, making the standard
educational settings a disadvantage to them. This set of children prefer sensory over auditory learning experiences.
Hence the majority of the assistive technologies aim to aid this type of dyslexic children with an emphasis on
translating visual messages into sensory experiences such as text-to-speech readers.
b. Speech-sound: Children with speech-sound dyslexia tend to stutter in a stressful situation and may
mispronounce multi-syllable words when speaking (Moreland, 2015). Therefore, they usually avoid any task that
involves explaining or discussing a topic. These children tend to work more efficiently in isolation or one-to-one
setting (Alsobhi et al., 2015). Speech-sound dyslexia is also called peripheral or letter position dyslexia (Whitney &
Cornelissen, 2005). According to Friedmann & Coltheart (2016), children with peripheral or letter position
dyslexia can identify letters correctly but unable to encode the order of the letters within the word. Its primary
symptom is the migrations of letters within words(Kohnen, Nickels, Castles, Friedmann, & McArthur, 2012), for
examples, words like „cloud‟ may be mispronounced as „could‟ and „dairy‟ may be mispronounced as „diary‟.
Another difficulty faced by children with this kind of dyslexia is the omission of double letters(Selikowitz, 2012).
For examples, they may pronounce „drivers‟ as „divers‟ and „baby‟ as „bay‟.
c. Central or surface: Central dyslexia is a reading difficulty that occurs in stages of the lexical and sublexical routes.
Surface dyslexia is a part of central dyslexia, and children with surface dyslexia usually read aloud through
grapheme-to-phoneme conversations (Fawcett & Nicolson, 2017). These difficulties can cause several problems
in reading such as regularisation errors in reading aloud like reading irregular words such as „stomach‟ or „comb‟
that have silent letters.
2.4 Parents Challenges and Treatments
Dyslexia is a life-long disability, and its symptoms vary from person to person, and can also vary at a different
stage in a person‟s life, but with appropriate intervention, it can produce a significant result (Skiada et al., 2014). The
most important treatment for dyslexic children is the parents‟ awareness about dyslexia and its impact on their
children (Elbro & Petersen, 2004). Previous studies show that parents who are unaware of dyslexia often show
negative feelings such as frustration, denial, and stress when their children do not meet their expectations (Ozonoff,
Dawson, & McPartland, 2002). Furthermore, these parents tend to experience anxiety and low self-esteem regarding
their children future life and academic performance. These behaviours do not only affect the children, but it also gives
a negative impact on the parents‟ life; for instance, excessive fatigue, lack of sleep and stress. Thus, parents need to be
made aware of their children conditions as early as possible so that appropriate intervention could be taken, for the
wellbeing of both parties. According to Alias & Dahlan (2015), parents that are aware of dyslexia experience two
significant challenges in raising a dyslexic child, namely; „Difficult yet enduring‟ and „Self-perseverance‟. Each of the
challenges consists of sub-challenges that parents usually faced in dealing with dyslexic children. Table 1 shows the
category of the different challenges faced by the parents in raising dyslexic children.
Table 1: Category of the different challenges faced by the parents in raising dyslexic children
“Difficult yet enduring.”
Lack of knowledge
Increased financial demand
Negative feeling towards child‟s condition
High demand in the role as a mother
Changes in life pattern
94 Journal of Education and Human Development, Vol. 7, No. 2, June 2018
The most important thing to parents with dyslexic children is to give their child sufficient time while
exercising patience in teaching them because they require more time and assistance. There is also need to send them
for extra classes provided by special educators to learn more efficiently. Furthermore, the parents need to keep
supporting and encouraging their children rather than scolding or pushing them, considering their nature in giving up,
getting frustrated and becoming bored more easily. On the other hand, the process of teaching this type of children
should include visual and storytelling aids to help in improving their studying abilities, as well as improving their
attention spans (Yazid & Yin, 2015).
2.5 Effect of Social Media on Parents’ Awareness
According to Merriam-Webster online dictionary3, social media is a form of electronic communication via an
online community to share information, ideas, personal messages and other contents ("Merriam-Webster," 2004).
Thus, social media is a great platform that can be used to increase parents‟ awareness regarding dyslexia. This can be
achieved by getting a deeper understanding of the disabilities based on the shared information by those who have
dyslexic children (Paquette, 2013).
Additionally, social media can improve reach and promote organisational campaigns and activities (Schein,
Wilson, & Keelan, 2011). For instance, Nebraska Governor has proclaimed the month of October to be a dyslexia
awareness month (Sanford, 2006). This proclamation aimed to encourage people to learn more about dyslexia, offer
support to those affected by the disorder and recognise the efforts of the community(O‟Neal, 2007).
Moreover, social media has become a tool for connecting health organisations with the public(Hawn, 2009).
It helps the public to identify the health professionals and seek advice from other people on how to treat the disorder.
In addition, social media connects health community with younger people, ethnic minorities, and lower
socioeconomic groups by providing valuable social and emotional supports (Anand, Gupta, & Kwatra, 2013).
Social media such as Facebook, Twitter, and blog sites increase the awareness of the public or parents
regarding the disorder by widening the access to tailored resources that may not be readily accessible via the
traditional methods(Moorhead et al., 2013). Parents can also widen their access to information from various
population groups regardless of age, education, race or ethnicity for a peer-to-peer discussion regarding methods and
appropriate treatments (Anand et al., 2013).
3. Existing Support Systems
3.1 Web-based Screening System (e-ISD)
According to Malaysian Ministry of Education, Malaysian dyslexic children are diagnosed using two methods;
a screening test and a checklist to identify the potential disabilities based on the children‟s weaknesses in academic
achievements. Other methods include intelligence test (IQ), reading test and screening test. In 2004, the Special
Education Department (SED) introduced Dyslexia Instrument Checklist which is a tool for screening dyslexic
children. Unfortunately, the method is time-consuming and prone to errors (J. Hamid, 2012). This is because the
results of the screening test are calculated manually which has a high risk of human errors. Therefore, a web-based
screening system (e-ISD) for dyslexia has been proposed to replace the manual-based process with the primary aim of
screening and identifying children with the potential dyslexia problem. According to Hamid (2012), the system is
designed with the principles of decision support system (DSS), Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) model and
Human-Computer Interface model based on Abowd and Beale Interaction model, which helps in managing the
decision-making process. Figure 1 shows the e-ISD system conceptual framework.
Khalid Haruna et al. 95
Figure 1: e-ISD System Conceptual Framework.
The AHP model helps the system in ranking and prioritising the decisions suitable for the children based on
their distinct criteria. The system uses both DSS and AHP approaches to screen the dyslexic children based on three
main criteria for computing the probability of having dyslexia. Also, the system incorporates Human-Computer
Interaction (HCI) based on Abowd and Beale interaction model that consists of four essential components which are
a user, input, system, and output as shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2: Abowd and Beale's Interaction model for e-ISD System
The main advantage of the e-ISD system is it is realistic. The e-ISD system automatically generates the
probability of the children with dyslexia, and accurately document the results into a computerised system, and secure
the data in a digital format (Hamid, 2012). Unfortunately, the e-ISD system is still under research, and the system is
still in its prototype version. Moreover, the system can only diagnoses the children by using only a single factor which
is the academic weakness (Hamid, 2012) and does not include some important factors such as the child‟s
concentration, environmental factors or background factors into its calculation which could affect the test
3.2 Perceptron Based Learning Disability Detector (PLEDDOR)
Learning disabilities (LD) are divided into three types which are reading disabilities called dyslexia (Vellutino et
al., 2004), writing disabilities called dysgraphia(Richards et al., 2015), and disabilities to do basic mathematics called
dyscalculia (Shalev, 2004). Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is considered to be a suitable model for diagnosing
learning disabilities (Amato et al., 2013), and which has been used by (Jain, Manghirmalani, Dongardive, & Abraham,
2009) to introduce a system called Perceptron based Learning Disability Detector (PLEDDOR). The system consists
of two layers; input and output, in which the output is in binary, and outputs „1‟ if the child is normal and „0‟
otherwise. Figure 3 shows the general model of PLEDDOR.
96 Journal of Education and Human Development, Vol. 7, No. 2, June 2018
Figure 3:PLEDDOR General Model
According to(Jain et al., 2009), the most important part of the PLEDDOR is the factor that identified the
LD. The system is categorised into three sections; essay, comprehension and spelling test for dysgraphia; reading and
perception test for dyslexia; and basic computations, time and word problems tests for dyscalculia as shown in Figure
Figure 4: PLEDDOR Tests
ThePLEDDOR method is simple, straightforward and easy to duplicate, but provide a general result such as
“Normal” or “Learning Disability” rather than showing a more detailed type of LDs.
3.3 Lucid Adult Dyslexia Screening (LADS)
Lucid Adult Dyslexia Screening (LADS) is a computerised test designed based on the core cognitive deficits
that are more sensitive to dyslexia (Singleton & Horne, 2002). It comprises three assessment modules; word recognition
that involves recognition of real words from non-word, word construction that encodes non-words from syllables, and
working memory and reasoning as shown in Figure 5.
Figure 5: LADS three basic cognitive tests
Both the word recognition and word construction use the Computerized Adaptive Sequential Testing (CAST)
technique. This technique uses a fractionation algorithm that assigns a person to a specific category based on his/her
performance, as shown in Figure 6 (Singleton & Horne, 2002).
Khalid Haruna et al. 97
Figure 6: Fractionation algorithm indicator
The higher the score of the CAST, the higher the probability of dyslexia. However, before assigning the score
into a specific category, the fractionation algorithm follows specific decision rules which determine whether the
person falls into the specific categories or there is need to increase the level of difficulty before reapplying the decision
rules(Singleton & Horne, 2002). Thus, the individual dyslexia-sensitive tests in LADS have high accuracy to
differentiate between a dyslexic and non-dyslexic person, and is free of gender bias.
3.4 Comparisons and Limitations of the Existing Systems
In this section, we compared the three systems discussed in the previous section. The comparison is based on
the aim, method or technique used in the implementation, factors considered in the calculation and analysis, and the
results produced by each system. Table 2 presents this comparison.
Table 2: The comparison between Web-based Screening System (e-ISD), Perceptron based Learning Disability
Detector (PLEDDOR), and Lucid Adult Dyslexia Screening (LADS)
Web-based Screening System (e-
Perceptron based Learning
Lucid Adult Dyslexia
To screen and identifies children with
potential dyslexic problem
To diagnose Learning Disabilities
via simple and straightforward
A computerised test designed to
screen dyslexic children
Decision support system (DSS),
Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP)
Human-Computer Interface model of
Abowd and Beale Interaction are used
Artificial neural network (ANN) is
Sequential Testing (CAST)
Fractionation algorithm indicator
The child academic achievement
Reading and perception level
Word recognition, word
construction, working memory
1 = Normal child
0 = Has learning disabilities
Composite score that classifies
into two categories:
4. Conclusion and Future Work
Dyslexia is a life-term disability that is genetic and hereditary, and which can affect both children and adults.
The first important intervention for dyslexic children can be done by raising parents‟ awareness about dyslexia and its
impact on their children. Parents need to be made aware of their children conditions as early as possible so that
appropriate intervention could be taken, for the wellbeing of both parties. In this paper, we examined the awareness
level of Malaysian parents with dyslexic children, and the results show the need to promote parents awareness and to
provide a supportive model help them deal with difficult matters concerning the children learning disabilities. Our
next line of research is to propose a supportive model for parents with dyslexic children, in order to improve quality
We warmly thank our colleagues for their valuable support and assistance. This research is supported by UM
Research Grant No. RP059B-17SBS.
98 Journal of Education and Human Development, Vol. 7, No. 2, June 2018
Alexander-Passe, N. (2015). The dyslexia experience: Difference, disclosure, labelling, discrimination and stigma. Asia
Pacific Journal of Developmental Differences, 2(2), 202-233.
Alias, N. A., & Dahlan, A. (2015). Enduring difficulties: the challenges of mothers in raising children with dyslexia.
Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 202, 107-114.
Alsobhi, A. Y., Khan, N., & Rahanu, H. (2015). Personalised learning materials based on dyslexia types: ontological
approach. Procedia Computer Science, 60, 113-121.
Amato, F., López, A., Peña-Méndez, E. M., Vaňhara, P., Hampl, A., & Havel, J. (2013). Artificial neural networks in
medical diagnosis: Elsevier.
Anand, S., Gupta, M., & Kwatra, S. (2013). Social media and effective health communication. International Journal of
Social Science & Interdisciplinary Research, 2(8), 39-46.
Baker, D. W. (2006). The meaning and the measure of health literacy. Journal of general internal medicine, 21(8), 878-
Campbell, R., & Butterworth, B. (1985). Phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia in a highly literate subject: A
developmental case with associated deficits of phonemic processing and awareness. The Quarterly Journal of
Experimental Psychology Section A, 37(3), 435-475.
Chinn, S., & Ashcroft, R. E. (2006). Mathematics for dyslexics: Including dyscalculia: John Wiley & Sons.
Definition of social media. (2004). Merriam-Webster. Retrieved from
Dyson, A. (1997). Social and educational disadvantage: reconnecting special needs education. British Journal of Special
Education, 24(4), 152-157.
Elbro, C., & Petersen, D. K. (2004). Long-term effects of phoneme awareness and letter sound training: An
intervention study with children at risk for dyslexia. Journal of educational psychology, 96(4), 660.
Fawcett, A., & Nicolson, R. (2017). Dyslexia in children: Routledge.
Friedmann, N., & Coltheart, M. (2016). Types of developmental dyslexia. Handbook of communication disorders:
Theoretical, empirical, and applied linguistics perspectives.
Hamid, J. (2012). A Web-Based Screening System For Dyslexic Pupils: Do Teachers Need It? i-Manager's Journal on
Educational Psychology, 5(4), 15.
Hamid, S. S. A., Admodisastro, N., & Ghani, A. A. A. (2015). Computer-based learning model to improve learning of
the malay language amongst dyslexic primary school students. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the Asia
Pacific HCI and UX Design Symposium.
Hawn, C. (2009). Take two aspirin and tweet me in the morning: how Twitter, Facebook, and other social media are
reshaping health care. Health affairs, 28(2), 361-368.
Hazawawi, N. A. M., & Hisham, S. (2014a). Online dyslexia screening test for Malaysian young adults in Bahasa
Melayu. Paper presented at the Information and Communication Technology for The Muslim World
(ICT4M), 2014 The 5th International Conference on.
Hazawawi, N. A. M., & Hisham, S. (2014b). Online dyslexia screening test for Malaysian young adults in Bahasa
Melayu. Paper presented at the Information and Communication Technology for The Muslim World
(ICT4M), 2014 The 5th International Conference on, Kuching, Malaysia.
Jain, K., Manghirmalani, P., Dongardive, J., & Abraham, S. (2009). Computational diagnosis of learning disability.
International Journal of Recent Trends in Engineering, 2(3), 64-66.
Kohnen, S., Nickels, L., Castles, A., Friedmann, N., & McArthur, G. (2012). When „slime‟becomes „smile‟:
developmental letter position dyslexia in English. Neuropsychologia, 50(14), 3681-3692.
Kornev, A. N., & Balčiūnienė, I. (2014). Story (re-) telling and reading in children with dyslexia: Language or cognitive
resource deficit. Book of Abstracts: LSCD-2014. London: UCL, 23-26.
Leekam, S. R., Nieto, C., Libby, S. J., Wing, L., & Gould, J. (2007). Describing the sensory abnormalities of children
and adults with autism. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 37(5), 894-910.
Mohamad, N., Lee, K. Y., Mansor, W., Mahmoodin, Z., Fadzal, C., & Amirin, S. (2015). EEG-based time and spatial
interpretation of activation areas for relaxation and words writing between poor and capable dyslexic
children. Paper presented at the Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2015 37th Annual
International Conference of the IEEE.
Khalid Haruna et al. 99
Moll, K., Thompson, P. A., Mikulajova, M., Jagercikova, Z., Kucharska, A., Franke, H., . . . Snowling, M. J. (2016).
Precursors of Reading Difficulties in Czech and Slovak Children At‐Risk of Dyslexia. Dyslexia, 22(2), 120-
Moorhead, S. A., Hazlett, D. E., Harrison, L., Carroll, J. K., Irwin, A., & Hoving, C. (2013). A new dimension of
health care: systematic review of the uses, benefits, and limitations of social media for health communication.
Journal of medical Internet research, 15(4).
Moreland, M. L. (2015). Stammering, Dyslexia and Reading Aloud: A Phonological Investigation of Disfluencies and
Nergård‐Nilssen, T., & Hulme, C. (2014). Developmental dyslexia in adults: Behavioural manifestations and cognitive
correlates. Dyslexia, 20(3), 191-207.
O‟Neal, S. (2007). Governor Proclaims October as Dyslexia Awareness Month Nebraska The International Dyslexia
Ozonoff, S., Dawson, G., & McPartland, J. C. (2002). A parent's guide to Asperger syndrome and high-functioning
Autism: How to meet the challenges and help your child thrive: Guilford Press.
Paquette, H. (2013). Social Media as a Marketing Tool: A Literature Review: University of Rhode Island.
Parhiala, P., Torppa, M., Eklund, K., Aro, T., Poikkeus, A. M., Heikkilä, R., & Ahonen, T. (2015). Psychosocial
Functioning of Children with and without Dyslexia: A Follow‐up Study from Ages Four to Nine. Dyslexia,
Peterson, R. L., & Pennington, B. F. (2015). Developmental dyslexia. Annual review of clinical psychology, 11, 283-
Richards, T., Grabowski, T., Boord, P., Yagle, K., Askren, M., Mestre, Z., . . . Nagy, W. (2015). Contrasting brain
patterns of writing-related DTI parameters, fMRI connectivity, and DTI–fMRI connectivity correlations in
children with and without dysgraphia or dyslexia. NeuroImage: Clinical, 8, 408-421.
Salih, M. A. M., Abdul-Kahar, R., Zahari, W. A. M. W., Khalid, H. M., & Rahim, K. A. (2015). Strengthening Jawi
Writing for Dyslexia Students through Online Games-Analysis of E-Jawi Games Online in Malaysia. Journal
of Education and Human Development, 4(2), 147-151.
Sanford, M. (2006). Dyslexia Awareness Month. South Carolina State Documents Depository.
Schein, R., Wilson, K., & Keelan, J. E. (2011). Literature review on effectiveness of the use of social media: a report
for Peel Public Health: [Region of Peel], Peel Public Health.
Selikowitz, M. (2012). Dyslexia and other learning difficulties: Oxford University Press.
Shalev, R. S. (2004). Developmental dyscalculia. Journal of child neurology, 19(10), 765-771.
Singleton, C., & Horne, J. (2002). The development and validity of Lucid Adult Dyslexia Screening (LADS):
University of Hull.
Skiada, R., Soroniati, E., Gardeli, A., & Zissis, D. (2014). EasyLexia: A mobile application for children with learning
difficulties. Procedia Computer Science, 27, 218-228.
Soriano-Ferrer, M., & Echegaray-Bengoa, J. (2014). A scale of knowledge and beliefs about developmental dyslexia:
Scale development and validation. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 132, 203-208.
Subramaniam, V. (2008). Disleksia dalam konteks pembelajaran bahasa di Malaysia. Pertanika J. Soc. Sci. & Hum,
Tan, S. H. (2016). Unmet health care service needs and caregiver needs of children with disabilities in Penang,
Malaysia/Tan Seok Hong. University Malaya.
Tops, W., Callens, C., Van Cauwenberghe, E., Adriaens, J., & Brysbaert, M. (2013). Beyond spelling: the writing skills
of students with dyslexia in higher education. Reading and Writing, 26(5), 705-720.
Vellutino, F. R., Fletcher, J. M., Snowling, M. J., & Scanlon, D. M. (2004). Specific reading disability (dyslexia): What
have we learned in the past four decades? Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, 45(1), 2-40.
Whitney, C., & Cornelissen, P. (2005). Letter‐position encoding and dyslexia. Journal of Research in Reading, 28(3),
Yazid, T. I. B. T., & Yin, S. S. (2015). Pemahaman ibu bapa terhadap masalah disleksia: Jeli, Kelantan. Paper presented
at the Seminar Antarabangsa Pendidikan Dan Keusahawanan Sosial Islam (ICIESE 2015).
Yeo, D. (2008). Dyslexia, dyspraxia and mathematics: John Wiley & Sons.