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Abstract and Figures

Pisum sativum L., (Fabaceae), commonly known as dry, green or field pea, is one of the most popular and economically important legumes. It enjoys a worldwide culinary, folk, and medicinal reputation owing to its ubiquitous health-promoting nutrients, e.g. proteins, complex carbohydrates, and dietary fibres, along with a myriad of valuable phytochemicals, mostly phenolics, terpenoids, and nitrogenous compounds. Long ago, the phytochemical composition of pea plants has received considerable interest, and a vast array of phenolic principles, including flavonoids, isoflavonoids, phenolic acids, as well as other minor phenolics and phytoalexins have been characterized. The contribution of these valued metabolites to the biological potential and health outcomes of pea has also been recently approached. Therefore, this review provides a critical overview of the current phytopharmacological knowledge regarding the phenolic profile of pea, highlighting the current gaps and future research perspectives, in order to best appreciate its beneficial consumption and possible contribution to the pharmaceutical field.
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The phenolic prole of pea (Pisum sativum): a phytochemical
and pharmacological overview
John Refaat Fahim .Eman Zekry Attia .Mohamed Salah Kamel
Received: 29 January 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published online: 7 August 2018
©Springer Nature B.V. 2018
Abstract Pisum sativum L., (Fabaceae), commonly
known as dry, green or field pea, is one of the most
popular and economically important legumes. It
enjoys a worldwide culinary, folk, and medicinal
reputation owing to its ubiquitous health-promoting
nutrients, e.g. proteins, complex carbohydrates, and
dietary fibres, along with a myriad of valuable
phytochemicals, mostly phenolics, terpenoids, and
nitrogenous compounds. Long ago, the phytochem-
ical composition of pea plants has received
considerable interest, and a vast array of phenolic
principles, including flavonoids, isoflavonoids, phe-
nolic acids, as well as other minor phenolics and
phytoalexins have been characterized. The contribu-
tion of these valued metabolites to the biological
potential and health outcomes of pea has also been
recently approached. Therefore, this review provides
a critical overview of the current phytopharmacolog-
ical knowledge regarding the phenolic profile of pea,
highlighting the current gaps and future research
perspectives, in order to best appreciate its beneficial
consumption and possible contribution to the phar-
maceutical field.
Keywords Antioxidant · Biological effects ·
Leguminosae · Pea · Phenolic constituents
Abbreviations
ABTS 2,2-azino-bis(3-
ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic
acid)
ALT Alanine transaminase
AST Aspartate transaminase
DPPH 1,1-diphenyl 2-picryl hydrazyl
FRAP Ferric reducing antioxidant power
Gal β-D-galactopyranose
Glc β-D-glucopyranose
GPX Guaiacol peroxidase activity
HPLC High performance liquid chromato-
graphy
HPLC–DAD-
ESI-MS
High performance liquid chro-
matography-diode array detector-
electrospray ionization-mass spec-
trometry
IC
50
Inhibitory concentration 50%
LC-ESI-MS Liquid chromatography-electro-
spray ionization-mass spectrometry
LC-MS Liquid chromatography-mass spec-
trometry
LD
50
Lethal dose 50%
MIC Minimum inhibitory concentration
ORAC Oxygen radical absorbance capacity
Rha α-L-rhamnopyranose
TAA Total antioxidant activity
J. R. Fahim · E. Z. Attia (&) · M. S. Kamel
Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Minia
University, Minia 61519, Egypt
e-mail: eshihata@yahoo.com
M. S. Kamel
Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy,
Deraya University, New Minia 61111, Egypt
123
Phytochem Rev (2019) 18:173–198
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11101-018-9586-9(0123456789().,-volV)(0123456789().,-volV)
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
... flavones, flavanols, flavanones, anthocyanins and isoflavonoids). A great number of sophorotriosides quercetin and 3-O-glycosides of kaempferol were identified (Fahim et al., 2019). In pea seed, according to Padhi and al, the polyphenols are concentrated in the cotyledon. ...
... For example, catechin and gallic acid have been reported in red wine (Robichaud & Noble, 1990); flavan-3-ols and flavonol glycosides in cocoa (Stark et al., 2006). In addition, in yellow pea, a total of 115 different structural phenolic compounds have been described in different studies (Fahim et al., 2019;Neugart et al., 2015;Stanisavljevic et al., 2015). These phenolics were mainly glycosylated flavonols and their related compounds such as flavanols, anthocyanins, isoflavonoids (Fahim et al., 2019). ...
... In addition, in yellow pea, a total of 115 different structural phenolic compounds have been described in different studies (Fahim et al., 2019;Neugart et al., 2015;Stanisavljevic et al., 2015). These phenolics were mainly glycosylated flavonols and their related compounds such as flavanols, anthocyanins, isoflavonoids (Fahim et al., 2019). A large number of 3-O-glycosides of kaempferol and quercetin were also identified and quantified in pea (Neugart et al., 2015;Stanisavljevic et al., 2015). ...
Thesis
With population growth and the coming climate crisis, how can we offer a diet with higher levels of plant proteins? The use of pulses such as peas in foods would contribute to the evolution of this offer. However, their bitterness, their "beany" aromatic notes and their persistence are obstacles to their use. The objective of this PhD was to understand the role of their composition (volatile and non-volatile compounds) on perceptions. The role of food formulation was also studied on their physicochemical properties and perceptions during the oral process. For this, an original and multidisciplinary strategy combining sensory analysis, physico-chemistry and statistics was set up. A mixing plan was built to create a range of 23 solutions formulated from 6 fractions derived from commercial pea protein isolates. A profile was used to characterize the perceptions of these solutions In parallel, their compositions in volatile compounds, peptides, phytochemical compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids and terpenoids), carbohydrates and minerals were characterized. The links between sensory and chemical profiles were analysed using Pearson correlations, linear (Partial-Least-Square) and non-linear (Artificial Neural Network) models. From these pea solutions, 79 volatile compounds were identified, including 34 correlated to beany notes; 3500 peptides including 14 correlated to bitterness; and 54 phytochemical compounds, including 29 correlated to bitterness and astringency. Then, multi-block PLS models were carried out to identify the relative role of these blocks of chemical compounds on beany, bitter and astringent perceptions. The second part of the work focused on understanding how the formulation of a pea-based beverages can modulate perceptions. A wide range of plant beverages was then developed by varying the type of proteins and the fat, texturizing and salt contents. The temporal sensory properties were evaluated when consuming a spoon, but also a whole portion of food; rheological properties and volatile compound profiles were determined. The results showed that the beany and bitterness notes depend mainly on the type of protein and gellan content. Astringency, which is highly persistent, can be limited by the formulation. In addition, rheological properties allow a reliable prediction of astringency perceptions. Finally, volatile molecule profiles, strongly affected by the presence of saliva, have shown the key role of the oral process on these perceptions. Beyond the original methodological approaches and new knowledge on products, this work opens up avenues to revisit pea fractionation processes and help the formulation of plant protein in foods, in order to reduce their off-notes.
... Such research is similarly scarce for phenolic compounds. A range of studies have found that the yellow pea contains at least 115 different phenolics (Fahim et al., 2019;Neugart et al., 2015;Stanisavljevic et al., 2015), mainly glycosylated flavonols, although other flavonoids are also present, including flavanols, anthocyanins, and isoflavonoids (Fahim et al., 2019). Many kaempferol and quercetin 3-O-glycosides have also been characterized in the pea (Neugart et al., 2015;Stanisavljevic et al., 2015). ...
... Such research is similarly scarce for phenolic compounds. A range of studies have found that the yellow pea contains at least 115 different phenolics (Fahim et al., 2019;Neugart et al., 2015;Stanisavljevic et al., 2015), mainly glycosylated flavonols, although other flavonoids are also present, including flavanols, anthocyanins, and isoflavonoids (Fahim et al., 2019). Many kaempferol and quercetin 3-O-glycosides have also been characterized in the pea (Neugart et al., 2015;Stanisavljevic et al., 2015). ...
Article
Pea protein isolates contain high-quality plant protein. However, they have sensory drawbacks, notably bitterness and astringency, that have limited their use in commercial foods. This study’s aim was thus to identify the main phytochemicals in pea-based samples and to examine associations with sensory attributes. The phytochemical profiles of pea flour, pea protein isolates, and pea protein isolate fractions were characterized via UHPLC-DAD-MS. A total of 48 phytochemicals have been revealed: 6 phenolic acids, 5 flavonoids, and 1 saponin were identified and quantified, while another 9 phenolic acids, 10 flavonoids, and 6 saponins were tentatively identified. The impacts of protein extraction and fractionation were studied. These processes appear to have caused some compound degradation. It was found that 29 compounds were correlated with perceived bitterness and/or astringency. Therefore, these results show that certain phytochemicals can lead to negative sensory attributes in pea-protein-based products
... Another explanation of the observed dynamics of the reactive carbonyls would employ suppression of RCC production via antioxidant (more precisely-ROS scavenging) activity of phenolic metabolites, which are (i) known to be abundant in pea root nodules (especially phenolic acids which serve as signaling molecules in legume-rhizobial symbiosis) [66] and (ii) are known as efficient RCC scavengers (carbonyl traps). Indeed, the RCC-trapping properties of flavan-3-ols [67], as well as condensed [68] and hydrolysable [69] tannins, which are able to protect proteins from carbonyl-related modifications are well-known. ...
Article
Full-text available
Drought dramatically affects crop productivity worldwide. For legumes this effect is especially pronounced, as their symbiotic association with rhizobia is highly-sensitive to dehydration. This might be attributed to the oxidative stress, which ultimately accompanies plants’ response to water deficit. Indeed, enhanced formation of reactive oxygen species in root nodules might result in up-regulation of lipid peroxidation and overproduction of reactive carbonyl compounds (RCCs), which readily modify biomolecules and disrupt cell functions. Thus, the knowledge of the nodule carbonyl metabolome dynamics is critically important for understanding the drought-related losses of nitrogen fixation efficiency and plant productivity. Therefore, here we provide, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time a comprehensive overview of the pea root nodule carbonyl metabolome and address its alterations in response to polyethylene glycol-induced osmotic stress as the first step to examine the changes of RCC patterns in drought treated plants. RCCs were extracted from the nodules and derivatized with 7-(diethylamino)coumarin-3-carbohydrazide (CHH). The relative quantification of CHH-derivatives by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry with a post-run correction for derivative stability revealed in total 194 features with intensities above 1 × 105 counts, 19 of which were down- and three were upregulated. The upregulation of glyceraldehyde could accompany non-enzymatic conversion of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to methylglyoxal. The accumulation of 4,5-dioxovaleric acid could be the reason for down-regulation of porphyrin metabolism, suppression of leghemoglobin synthesis, inhibition of nitrogenase and degradation of legume-rhizobial symbiosis in response to polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced osmotic stress effect. This effect needs to be confirmed with soil-based drought models.
... Dueñas et al. (2004) found that protocatechuic and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid are among the most abundant in pea dark seed coats, while ferulic, vanillic and syringic acid are also present in smaller amounts. In addition to phenolic acids, the addition of pea flour to cereal-based bread contributes to the content of other phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids flavonols, flavones, flavanols, flavanones, isoflavones, pterocarpans and anthocyanins (Fahim et al., 2019). Yellow pea flour inclusion decreased the TPC (32%, Fig. 2) and antioxidant capacity (DPPH 20%, FRAP 27%; Figs. 3 and 4) of unfermented dough (YPF), indicating that their levels are higher in wholemeal rice compared to yellow pea flour. ...
Article
Gluten-free bread is often characterised by poor nutritional value and bioactive profile. Legume flours have potential for its enrichment, but the effect of sourdough fermentation of legume matrices on the phenolics and antioxidant capacity of bread is scarcely investigated. Thus, this study aimed was to determine the effect of partial replacement (25%) of wholemeal rice flour with yellow pea flour on phenolics and antioxidant capacity of gluten-free sourdough and bread. Sourdough was fermented with Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 20016, Lactobacillus fermentum DSM 20052 or Lactobacillus brevis DSM 20054. Free phenolic acids (protocatechuic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic and ferulic), lactic and acetic acid content was determined by HPLC, and free total phenolic content (TPC), DPPH and FRAP antioxidant capacity by spectrophotometric methods. After 16 h of fermentation, total titrable acidity of the sourdough ranged from 11.85 to 18.97 mL of 0.1 M sodium hydroxide, with lactic/acetic acid content of 2.65–9.41. Yellow pea flour addition substantially increased protocatechuic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid content, but decreased the antioxidant capacity of unfermented dough and bread. Depending on the starter, the sourdough fermentation of pea-rice flour blend and its addition to bread increased the phenolic acid content, TPC and antioxidant capacity. Bread with yellow pea flour and L. brevis sourdough showed the highest improvement in phenolic acid content (40%), TPC (44%) and antioxidant capacity (30% DPPH, 50% FRAP) compared to bread without added sourdough. The study demonstrates the importance of using sourdough fermentation with a carefully selected starter when adding pea flour to gluten-free bread to ensure high antioxidant potential.
... In P. sativum species, the glycosylated flavonol has been described as the principal phenolic compound. Furthermore, other compounds well characterized in P. sativum are kaempferol, quercetin, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, and cinnamic acids [46]. The hydroxycinnamic acid of p-coumaroyl tyrosine was found in the PF. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, proximal composition, mineral analysis, polyphenolic compounds identification, and antioxidant and functional activities were determined in green bean (GBF), mesquite (MF), and pea (PF) flours. Different mixtures of legume flour and wheat flour for bread elaboration were determined by a simplex-centroid design. After that, the proximal composition, color, specific volume, polyphenol content, antioxidant activities, and functional properties of the different breads were evaluated. While GBF and PF have a higher protein content (41–47%), MF has a significant fiber content (19.9%) as well as a higher polyphenol content (474.77 mg GAE/g) and antioxidant capacities. It was possible to identify Ca, K, and Mg and caffeic and enolic acids in the flours. The legume–wheat mixtures affected the fiber, protein content, and the physical properties of bread. Bread with MF contained more fiber; meanwhile, PF and GBF benefit the protein content. With MF, the specific bread volume only decreased by 7%. These legume flours have the potential to increase the nutritional value of bakery goods.
... Apart from soybean, another legume that contained isoflavones daidzein and genistein in large levels was peanut that was reported to contain these compounds in the range of 0.49 mg kg À1 and 0.83 mg kg À1 , respectively [32]. Green pea varieties had the contents of 0.17 to 0.27 for daidzein and 0.041 to 0.07 for genistein, while in yellow pea varieties, these were 0.04 to 0.078, 0.011 to 0.015, respectively [39]. The major isoflavone in lupin was genistein along with its derivatives, while the other elucidated flavonoids were luteolin, diosmetin, and apigenin along with their derived forms [40]. ...
... Legumes are part of the basic foods with great nutritional relevance due to their content of diverse phenolic compounds that promote health [5,9]. These compounds are distributed in the whole seed and are mainly responsible for the seed coat color that depends on the composition and concentration [10][11][12][13][14]. The potential health benefits of phenolic compounds in the diet depend on their absorption and metabolism, which in turn are determined by their structure, including their conjugation with other phenols, degree of glycosylation/acylation, molecular size, and solubility [9,[15][16][17]. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Gut health is fundamental for human well-being and prevents chronic degenerative diseases and is influenced by the interaction between gut microbiota and food components. In recent years, interest in phenolic compounds has increased due to their health benefits such as antioxidant, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, cardio- and neuro-protective properties. Legumes are an essential source of phytochemicals, particularly flavonoids and phenolic acids, distributed mainly in the seed coat, and have been reported to exhibit multiple biological effects. Flavonoids present in legumes have been shown to regulate metabolic stability and membrane transport in the intestine, thus improving bioavailability. Seed processing such as cooking allows the release of phenolic compounds, improving polyphenols digestion and absorption at the intestinal level, maintaining their protective capacity in the oxidative process at the cellular level, and modulating the gut microbiota. All these actions improve gut health, avoiding diseases like irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, diabetes, colitis, and colorectal cancer. The effect of the consumption of legumes such as chickpea, pea, and bean, as well as the contribution of phenolic compounds to gut health, will be reviewed in this study.
Article
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Many studies have recommended using plants and their extracts for abating heavy metals from cells and tissues. Most of these recommendations are, however, based on the rich antioxidant properties in them. Thus, this study investigated Pisum sativum extract (PS) and Cocos nucifera water's (CN) ameliorative potentials on the alterations in body weight and serum lipid profile of rats induced by lead nitrate (Pb(NO3)2). Lipid profile analyses were done on the serum collected from blood samples of forty-eight healthy albino rats (distributed into eight groups of 6 rats each) of average weight 154 g. This experiment lasted for 18 weeks and at the end of 3 weeks, one rat from each group was sacrificed. Results showed that the average values of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-ch, coronary risk index, and LDL/HDL-ch significantly increased in rats administered with only (Pb(NO3)2) compared with rats in the control groups. Also, a significant reduction in the mean value of HDL-ch and body weight was observed in the group of rats administered with only (Pb(NO3)2) compared to the group of rats in the control groups. Furthermore, a decrease in the total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-ch, coronary risk index, and LDL/HDL-ch was observed from this study. In contrast, the mean value of HDL-ch and body weight of the rats increased when co-treated with PS and CN, especially in the combined form. Thus, this study showed that PS and CN have the potentials to ameliorate the alterations in body weight and lipid profile of the rat model induced by (Pb(NO3)2).
Article
Yellow pea (Pisumsativum L.) is an economically rich source of nutrients with health-promoting effects. However, the consumption of pea ingredients is minimal due to their off-flavor characteristics. The present study investigated the effect of Revtech heat treatment on the chemical profile and volatile compounds in split yellow pea flour. Revtech treatment (RT) was applied at 140°C with a residence time of 4 min in dry condition (RT 0%) and in the presence of 10% steam (RT 10%). Both thermal treatments resulted in a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in lipoxygenase activity and the concentration of key beany-related odors such as heptanal, (E)-2-heptenal, 1-octen-3-ol, octanal, and (E)-2-octenal. In addition, RT 10% resulted in a significant reduction in pentanal, 1-penten-3-ol, hexanal, and 1-hexanol compared to untreated flour. The content of known precursors of lipoxygenase such as linoleic and linolenic acids was found in higher concentrations in heat-treated flours, indicating the efficacy of Revtech technology in minimizing the degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. No significant changes in the amino acid composition or the 29 selected phenolic compounds in pea flours were observed with Revtech processing except for two compounds, caffeic acid and gallocatechin, which were found at higher concentrations in RT 0%. Practical Application Thermal processing of split yellow pea flours at 140°C using Revtech technology successfully decreased the concentrations of volatile compounds responsible for beany off-flavor while improving the nutritional quality of studied yellow pea flours. These results provide valuable information to the food industry for developing novel pulse-based products with enhanced sensory characteristics.
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Chromatography and histochemical analysis of soluble phenolic compounds demonstrated their higher content in the roots of cycloheximide-treated pea plants. These substances accumulated together with lignin in the endodermis and xylem cells of conducting bundles. This finding confirms the antipathogenic cycloheximide effect based on the previous results of proteome analysis.
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Background Consumption of vegetables has been proven to be effective in the prevention of different diseases. Traditionally edible aerial part of Pisum sativum L. subsp. sativum (Fabaceae) is used to treat diabetes, heart diseases and as blood purifier. Present study was aimed to explore the traditional use of aerial parts of P. sativum as a source of antidiabetic agent. In addition, antioxidant activity and chemical composition was carried out. Methods Total polyphenol content was spectrophotometrically determined using Folin Chiocalteu?s reagent while the flavonoids by aluminum chloride colorimetric assay. Identification of compounds of the extract was made through HPLC and LCMS. Antihyperglycemic activity was assessed by oral glucose tolerance test in mice. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH free radical scavenging and reducing power assay. ResultsTotal polyphenol and total flavonoids content were found to be 51.23 mg gallic acid equivalent and 30.88 mg quercetin equivalent per gram of dried plant extract respectively. Ellagic acid and p-coumeric acid were detected through HPLC. A total of eight compounds including naringenin, ?-sitosterol were indentified through LCMS. In OGTT, extract (200 mg/kg bw) showed a 30.24% decrease (P< 0.05) in blood glucose levels at 30 min compared to the normal control. The extract showed IC50 value of 158.52 ?g/mL in DPPH scavenging assay and also showed comparable reducing power. Conclusion Along with other compounds ellagic acid and ?-sitosterol present in the extract may be responsible for its antioxidant as well as antihyperglycemic activities. Altogether these results rationalize the use of this vegetable in traditional medicine.
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The effects of various light-emitting diodes (LEDs), such as red, blue, and yellow LED lamps, as well as white fluorescent lamps and darkness, on the levels of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in pea sprouts were evaluated. The total phenolic (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) of the pea sprouts under the blue and red LED light, as well as the white fluorescent lamps, were 1.46, 1.25, 1.45 times and 24.55, 21.01, 24.29 times, respectively, when compared to the dark environment control. The ABTS cation radical-scavenging activity, ferric reducing activity power (FRAP), and reducing power of the pea sprouts under blue LED light were 1.75, 3.52, and 1.97 times, respectively, compared to the control. The blue LED light significantly increased all of the individual phenolic contents when compared to the control. These results indicate that blue LED light should be recommended as a light source for enhancing the content of phenolic compounds.
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Phenolic compounds are ubiquitous in plant-based foods. High dietary intake of fruits, vegetables and cereals are related to a decreased rate in chronic diseases. Phenolic compounds are thought to be responsible, at least in part, for those health effects. Nonetheless , the bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds is not often considered in these studies; thus, a precise mechanism of action of phenolic compounds is not known. In this review, we aim to present a comprehensive knowledge of the potential health promotion effects of polyphenols and the importance of considering the factors that affect their bioavailability on research projects.
Article
Abstract Legumes are a good source of bioactive phenolic compounds which play significant roles in many physiological as well as metabolic processes. Phenolic acids, flavonoids and condensed tannins are the primary phenolic compounds that are present in legume seeds. Majority of the phenolic compounds are present in the legume seed coats. The seed coat of legume seeds primarily contains phenolic acids and flavonoids (mainly catechins and procyanidins). Gallic and protocatechuic acids are common in kidney bean and mung bean. Catechins and procyanidins represent almost 70% of total phenolic compounds in lentils and cranberry beans (seed coat). The antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds is in direct relation with their chemical structures such as number as well as position of the hydroxyl groups. Processing mostly leads to the reduction of phenolic compounds in legumes owing to chemical rearrangements. Phenolic content also decreases due to leaching of water-soluble phenolic compounds into the cooking water. The health benefits of phenolic compounds include acting as anticarcinogenic, anti-thrombotic, anti-ulcer, anti-artherogenic, anti-allergenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunemodulating, anti-microbial, cardioprotective and analgesic agents. This review provides comprehensive information of phenolic compounds identified in grain legume seeds along with discussing their antioxidant and health promoting activities.
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Fruits and vegetables waste products offer a cheap and practical source of potent antioxidants that could be used as functional ingredients. The hydroalcoholic extract (PE) of pea (Pisum sativum L.) waste (husks) was evaluated for hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities, using CCl4-induced oxidative stress and hepatic damage in rats. PE significantly inhibited CCl4-induced elevation of serum ALT and AST by 45.3, 17.8%, respectively and normalized the levels of serum total protein and albumin in hepatotoxic rats. It afforded 31.2% protection against hepatic lipid peroxidation, recovered hepatic glutathione and protein thiols levels (by 161.3, 55.9%, respectively), restored the glutathione-peroxidase activity (by 42.7%) and significantly increased the glutathione-S-transferase activity (by 10%). PE also inhibited CCl4-induced elevation of hepatic NO levels by 34.2%. The active PE extract was fractionated using different solvents of increasing polarity and its fractions were tested for their hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities, using the same model. Chromatographic fractionation of the active n-butanol fraction led to the isolation of four flavonoid glycosides viz., quercetin-3-sophorotrioside (F1), quercetin-3-O-(6-O-feruloyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→2)- β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→2)- β-D-glucopyranoside (F2), quercetin-3-O-(6-O-sinapoyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→2)- β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→2)- β-D-glucopyranoside (F3) and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (F4). The isolated compounds were quantified in PE, using a validated HPLC method. F2 (0.1312%) was the major compound, followed by F1 (0.0753%, calculated as rutin) and F3 (0.0273%, calculated as F2). Besides, low amounts of F4 (0.0049%) were also detected. According to our findings, pea by-product contained biologically active constituents which can be utilized for upgrading of this by-product to obtain high value added products for nutraceutical use. References: 1. Reitman S, Frankel S (1957) Amer J Clin Path 28: 56–63. 2. Mihara M, Uchiyama M (1978) Anal Biochem 86(1): 271–8. 3. Miranda KM, Espey MG, Wink DA (2001) Nitric Oxide 5(1): 62–71. 4. Harborne JB, Mabry TJ, Mabry H (1975) The Flavonoids. Champan and Hall. London. 5. Ferreres F, Esteban, Carpena-Ruiz R, Jiménez MA, Tomás-Barberán FA (1995) Phytochemistry 39(6):1443–1446 6. Jiang Z-H et al. (2005) Phytochem Anal 16: 415–421.
Book
This book covers such plants with edible modified storage subterranean stems (corms, rhizomes, stem tubers) and unmodified subterranean stem stolons, above ground swollen stems and hypocotyls, storage roots (tap root, lateral roots, root tubers), and bulbs, that are eaten as conventional or functional food as vegetables and spices, as herbal teas, and may provide a source of food additive or neutraceuticals. This volume covers selected plant species with edible modified stems, roots and bulbs in the families Iridaceae, Lamiaceae, Marantaceae, Nelumbonaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Nymphaeaceae, Orchidaceae, Oxalidaceae, Piperaceae, Poaceae, Rubiaceae and Simaroubaceae. The edible species dealt with in this work include wild and underutilized crops and also common and widely grown ornamentals.To help in identification of the plant and edible parts coloured illustrations are included. As in the preceding ten volumes, topics covered include: taxonomy (botanical name and synonyms); common English and vernacular names; origin and distribution; agro-ecological requirements; edible plant parts and uses; plant botany; nutritive, medicinal and pharmacological properties with up-to-date research findings; traditional medicinal uses; other non-edible uses; and selected/cited references for further reading. This volume has separate indices for scientific and common names; and separate scientific and medical glossaries.
Article
To date little has been done on identification of major phenolic compounds responsible for anticancer and antioxidant properties of pea (Pisum sativum L.) seed coat extracts. In the present study, phenolic profile of the seed coat extracts from 10 differently colored European varieties has been determined using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography–linear trap quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometer technique. Extracts of dark colored varieties with high total phenolic content (up to 46.56 mg GAE/g) exhibited strong antioxidant activities (measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl or DPPH assay, and ferric ion reducing and ferrous ion chelating capacity assays) which could be attributed to presence of gallic acid, epigallocatechin, naringenin, and apigenin. The aqueous extracts of dark colored varieties exert concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects on all tested malignant cell lines (human colon adenocarcinoma LS174, human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-453, human lung carcinoma A594, and myelogenous leukemia K562). Correlation analysis revealed that intensities of cytotoxic activity of the extracts strongly correlated with contents of epigallocatechin and luteolin. Cell cycle analysis on LS174 cells in the presence of caspase-3 inhibitor points out that extracts may activate other cell death modalities besides caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. The study provides evidence that seed coat extracts of dark colored pea varieties might be used as potential cancer-chemopreventive and complementary agents in cancer therapy.