The Evolution of Electronic Procurement: Transforming Business as Usual

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Electronic procurement is not new per se, and its origins can be traced back to as early as the 1960s and 1970s. This chapter goes back in time and reviews how early advances in information technology facilitated purchasing tasks already back then. Applications discussed include electronic data interchange, material requirements planning, manufacturing resource planning, and enterprise resource planning systems. Fundamental to these systems is their ability to facilitate internal and external information flows, and thus enhance strategic decision making. A particular emphasis in this chapter is placed on enterprise resource planning systems, since it is these systems that often form the backbone for electronic procurement systems.

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... Although repetitive and low-valueadding processes based on structured data are increasingly being automated through e-procurement systems and the emerging Robotic Process Automation (RPA) technology, manual activities still dominate the purchasers' work routines. Most procurement tasks involve unstructured data, which challenges RPA and e-procurement systems (Nicoletti 2020;Schoenherr 2019). 2 To overcome the shortcomings of RPA and enhance its capabilities and application areas, software providers increasingly integrate RPA with artificial intelligence (AI) (Mohanty and Vyas 2018;Syed et al. 2020). ...
... Even though ERP and e-procurement systems are the backbones for procurement automation, they are often disparate and insufficient for real-time data exploitation, interoperability, and flexible decision-making (Hartley and Sawaya 2019;Schoenherr 2019). Therefore, organizations increasingly apply RPA as a bridge solution to automate manual, tedious, and rule-based processes while updating the essential IT systems within comprehensive projects (Jacobi and Groher 2019;Nicoletti 2020). ...
... Processing and converting the vast amount of unstructured data within procurement departments involves more sophisticated AI-based technologies (Allal-Chérif et al. 2021;Bienhaus and Haddud 2018). Therefore, IPA systems are an integral part of Procurement 4.0 (Nicoletti 2020;Schoenherr 2019). 4 However, many organizations struggle with the required digital readiness (Bienhaus and Haddud 2018;Van Hoek et al. 2020). ...
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The Covid-19 pandemic drives the need for Intelligent Process Automation (IPA). However, the technology’s adoption for purchasing and supply management (PSM) is still in the initial stage and has hardly been explored. Therefore, this empirical multiple case study builds on 19 organizations, including private and public procurement departments, consultancies, and IPA providers, to examine the impact of IPA on the PSM function. The findings provide comprehensive insights and reveal suitable operational and strategic application areas as well as several benefits related to IT systems and data, operational efficiency, process quality, and employee satisfaction. The study also identifies various technological, organizational, and environmental challenges that need to be overcome for further IPA adoption. Therefore, future research directions and managerial implications are outlined. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.
... Bahan-bahan yang diperlukan untuk suatu proses produksi harus didatangkan melalui proses pembelian barang dan/atau jasa. Beberapa istilah (terms) berbeda telah digunakan untuk merujuk pada pembelian (buying) dan aktivitas terkait (Schoenherr, 2019), termasuk: ...
... Kata kunci "electronic" juga disematkan ke procurement menjadi "e-Procurement". e-Procurement (Schoenherr, 2019) memberikan banyak manfaat, seperti: Automation, Standardization, Availability, Process Benefits, Visibility, Communication, dan Efficiency (Gambar 1.7). e-Procurement juga sangat mendukung proses bisnis enterprise pada masa pandemi COVID-19. ...
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... O EDI é um formato eletrônico que substitui documentos físicos (em papel), como ordens de compra ou faturas. Ao automatizar as transações, as organizações podem economizar tempo e eliminar erros causados pelo processamento manual (Schoenherr, 2019). Este sistema também permite desenvolver estratégias mais assertivas para melhor atender o consumidor, alimentando em tempo real as ações de compras e distribuição, otimizando o desempenho da cadeia de suprimentos (Whiteley, 2017). ...
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A concorrência cada vez mais intensa aliada à crescente exigência por parte dos clientes tornou imprescindível para empresas a adoção dos conceitos e ferramentas da logística empresarial. No setor varejista, tal condição é ainda mais imperativa em áreas específicas da gestão logística, como é o caso da gestão da armazenagem e movimentação de materiais, contribuindo de forma decisiva para obtenção de vantagem competitiva em relação aos concorrentes que não aplicam tais conceitos e ferramentas. O presente artigo tem como objetivo realizar uma revisão sistemática de literatura sobre o papel do centro de distribuição (CD) no setor supermercadista. Foram analisados 64 estudos publicados sobre a temática. As funções logísticas que compõem as operações de um CD foram identificadas na literatura e discutidas, proporcionando uma maior compreensão dos processos, permitindo o contínuo aprimoramento dessas atividades. Os resultados demonstram a importância das atividades logísticas ligadas aos CDs, especialmente para o setor supermercadista. Esta pesquisa pode contribuir com profissionais logísticos que estão buscando um melhor entendimento das atividades e fluxos da gestão de CDs.
... In order to understand how m-Commerce evolved, it is imperative to first establish the history of e-commercewhich is where it came from. Electronic commerce started in the early 1970s, when companies 'were using electronic data interchange (EDI) to exchange important documents such as order forms and payment receipts with other businesses (Roos, 2008;Schoenherr, 2019). This method replaced the old fashion of mailing and faxing business documents with a digital transfer from a company's system to another. ...
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Despite the fast pace of development within the mobile commerce industry globally, marketers in developing countries are still lagging in understanding why and how consumers participate in mobile marketing transactions. The literature reporting on mobile marketing transactions’ adoption in a South African context remains largely inconsistent and fragmented as most previous studies are based on the experience of consumers in a non-South African (and non-developing country) context. Therefore, this study identifies a literature gap, in that there lacks a sufficient critical mass of studies into the moderating effect of information security on consumer adoption of mobile marketing transactions in South Africa particularly among the youth who have a strong affinity for constant mobile connectivity. Furthermore, confronted with rapid changes in emerging technology, previous models of technology adoption are slowly becoming outmoded. Consequently, this study considered testing a proposed model on the predictive power of marketing-related mobile activity to help improve understanding and prognosis of the adoption of mobile marketing transactions in South Africa. Specifically, in order to render these tests robust, perceived information security was applied as a moderator variable to increase the explanatory power of the model. The objectives set out for this research were measured utilising a single cross-sectional approach, guided by the positivist paradigm. In keeping with the dictates of ensuring the highest levels of reliability and validity, a measuring instrument developed from past studies was used. Using a self-administered questionnaire, data were collected from a sample of 810 students from selected South African universities. Descriptive and multivariate statistical tests including the moderated hierarchical regression analysis were used to analyse data. The implication of the study is that it provides both marketers and policymakers with a set of controllable variables that may be manipulated to promote the adoption of mobile marketing transactions.
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Procurement has evolved during the last decades and has been transformed recently by electronic procurement systems, with the introduction of latest internet and IT based applications. The main objective of this study is to identify the critical success factors for implementation of e-procurement system and moreover to highlight its perceived benefits and key challenges in the context of United Arab Emirates. This research was conducted using a qualitative approach, analyzing the findings of semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The interviews were conducted with 15 procurement professionals experienced in implementation of e-procurement system in UAE. Thematic analysis was performed to gain insight and better understanding of the topic. This study identifies the critical success factors of e-procurement implementation such as system integration, users' acceptance and management's commitment. The perceived benefits of e-procurement system have been highlighted as effective communication, process visibility, and process mapping while the key challenges of e-procurement implementation are system integration and users' acceptance besides other factors in the context of UAE as highlighted in this study. ii Acknowledgement
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a better understanding about drivers of enterprise systems complexity (ESC), as well as its multi‐faceted conceptualization. Design/methodology/approach – Case studies were conducted among German Mittelstand companies by an international research team. A grounded theory approach was followed, with the first phase of the case studies being exploratory, and the second phase being more focused. Findings – Case study findings suggest that ESC is a multi‐dimensional construct consisting of the following dimensions: seamlessness, adoption date, number of integrated subsystems, system type/composition, number of functional areas linked, and number of users. Drivers of ESC identified via the case studies include the multi‐dimensional constructs of competition, complexity of processes, complexity of products, global operations, and the firm's customer base. Grounded theory development is used to conceptualize the measures of these drivers. Founded in these exploratory observations propositions for future research are developed. Originality/value – The research reports on the experiences of companies with enterprise systems (ES), and explores organizational factors determining system complexity; as a sampling frame Mittelstand companies in Southwest Germany are chosen, making this study one of the few exploring ES within this context. The paper also places ESC within theoretical domains, especially the STS theory. The conceptualization of ESC and its antecedents presented provides a starting point for future academic research into this area.
Material requirements planning (MRP) systems became a prominent approach to managing the flow of raw material and components on the factory floor in the late 20th century. Its adoption was not an over night phenomenon, but was a slow progression over many decades. This article chronicles many developments and events during the formative years of MRP, highlighting changes in computer technology and contributions by key early proponents of this approach for managing the flow of material on the factory floor.
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