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Rural Landscape Planning and Forest Management in Tuscany (Italy)

Authors:

Abstract

The article analyzes the relationships between landscape planning and forests in Italy with a specific focus on Tuscany. For the Tuscan region landscape represents a fundamental value from the cultural, economic, environmental and social point of view. This is why it was the first region of Italy to develop a landscape plan in 2014, according to the National Code for Cultural Heritage, setting up a Landscape Observatory to monitor the application of the plan in 2016. The plan is the main instrument providing a vision for the development model of the region and guidelines for the planning of rural areas also affecting forest management. The construction of the plan has caused an intense debate, due to the strict limitations imposed to soil consumption, to agricultural and forest activities. Forests cover more than the half of the regional surface, but 30% of them is the result of the abandonment of farmed land occurred in the last decades, while 50% of the forests are currently managed. The article examines how the values connected to the forests have been identified an assessed in the plan, the strict limitations for their protection but also the decision to allow the restoration of farmed land to maintain a balance between farmed and forest land in the landscape. Landscape and forest is the topic of the chapter about Italy in the FAO SOFO 2018.
Article
Rural Landscape Planning and Forest Management in
Tuscany (Italy)
Mauro Agnoletti and Antonio Santoro *
Department of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Systems, University of Florence, Via San Bonaventura 13,
50145 Florence, Italy; mauro.agnoletti@unifi.it
*Correspondence: antonio.santoro@unifi.it; Tel.: +39-055-275-5665
Received: 1 June 2018; Accepted: 30 July 2018; Published: 3 August 2018
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Abstract:
The article analyzes the relationships between landscape planning and forests in Italy with
a specific focus on Tuscany. For the Tuscan region landscape represents a fundamental value from
the cultural, economic, environmental and social point of view. This is why it was the first region
of Italy to develop a landscape plan in 2014, according to the National Code for Cultural Heritage,
setting up a Landscape Observatory to monitor the application of the plan in 2016. The plan is the
main instrument providing a vision for the development model of the region and guidelines for the
planning of rural areas also affecting forest management. The construction of the plan has caused
an intense debate, due to the strict limitations imposed to soil consumption, to agricultural and
forest activities. Forests cover more than the half of the regional surface, but 30% of them is the
result of the abandonment of farmed land occurred in the last decades, while 50% of the forests are
currently managed. The article examines how the values connected to the forests have been identified
an assessed in the plan, the strict limitations for their protection but also the decision to allow the
restoration of farmed land to maintain a balance between farmed and forest land in the landscape.
Landscape and forest is the topic of the chapter about Italy in the FAO SOFO 2018.
Keywords: landscape planning; sustainable forest management; historical rural landscapes
1. Introduction
Despite its small size, the 72nd smallest country in the world, Italy has a large cultural heritage.
More than 3400 historic towns, fine arts, architectural and archeological sites, museums, protected
areas, more than 50 UNESCO sites and a variety of diverse landscapes distributed all over the country
represent a fundamental asset influencing development strategies favoring several economic activities
such as tourism. In 2015, 110 million domestic and international tourists (48%) visited the country,
putting Italy in 4th place among tourist destinations. Tourism makes up 13% of gross domestic
product (GDP) and accounts for 12.8% of employment. The agricultural landscape, including forests,
farmed land, pasture and rural settlements, account for more than 70% of the territory, and its beauty
has attracted foreign travelers since the 16th century [
1
,
2
]. Today the search for typical food alone
represents 25% of the motivations of tourists traveling to the country and Italian food is known all over
the world. The Mediterranean diet has also been included in the United Nations Educational, Scientific
and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) list of immaterial heritage [
3
]). Italy can also be considered one
of the best examples of the multi-functionality of the agricultural sector, incorporating a wide range of
goods and services in the rural development model.
The importance of landscape as a fundamental element of modern Italy is demonstrated by the
inclusion of landscape protection in the constitution of the Italian Republic written in 1947, soon after
the Second World War and long before the European Landscape Convention was signed in Florence in
2000 [
4
]. Considering rural landscape, Italy introduced landscape among the strategic objectives of
Forests 2018,9, 473; doi:10.3390/f9080473 www.mdpi.com/journal/forests
Forests 2018,9, 473 2 of 17
National Strategic Plan for Rural Development 2007–2013, addressing its role as an added value for the
rural economy, for the quality of the environment and for the quality of life of the population. Italy set
up a national observatory for rural landscape and a national register of historical rural landscapes and
traditional agricultural practices at the Ministry of Agriculture, as well as a national observatory for the
quality of landscape based at the Ministry of Culture. Landscape quality has been officially included
among indicators of the well-being of the population by the National Statistical Agency in 2014 [5].
In the national context, Tuscany has been chosen as the most important case study for landscape
planning and forest management. The Tuscan landscape has become a symbol of the region all over
the world, an expression of the values associated with the Italian lifestyle. The choice of Tuscany is
also justified by the fact that the concept of a wise management of the territory, harmonizing economic,
social and environmental processes, expressed by a fine-grained rural landscape cultivated as a garden,
had developed already by the middles ages.
The Tuscan regional government considers landscape and territorial planning as strategic assets,
so that Tuscany has been the first Italian region to develop a landscape plan (www.regione.toscana.it/
-/piano-di-indirizzo-territoriale-con-valenza-di-piano-paesaggistico) according to the National Code
for Cultural Heritage [
6
]. Landscape has been recognized as a fundamental resource for the economy
of the region, but territorial planning has to deal with national laws, rural development, environmental
protections, preservation of historical features and values. In this paper all of these instruments will be
analyzed, showing how landscape and forests are considered in the official territorial planning of the
region and in the national framework.
The objective of this paper is provide a review of how rural landscape and sustainable forest
management are taken into consideration in official territorial planning in Tuscany (Italy) within the
Italian context. Italy represent a case of a country where the quality of the landscape has played
a fundamental role not only in the definition of cultural identity [
7
], but also for socio-economic
development, especially in rural areas. This is also why the State of the Forest of the World 2018,
produced by FAO, has included a chapter about forest and landscape planning in Italy.
2. The National Framework
2.1. National Planning Framework
At national level, forest planning can be mainly divided into two types of organization: a vertical
logic (hierarchical mode from the national to the local level) and a horizontal logic (or intersectorial) ([
8
].
Often, not all the forest planning tools are consistent with each other, and there is a lack of
true integration.
The document reporting the national strategies for the Italian forests is the National Framework
Program for the Forests Sector (NFPFS) 2014–2020, a document implemented through the National
Partnership Agreement, a document outlining the intended use of the funds in the pursuit of the
EU 2020 targets (https://ec.europa.eu/info/business-economy-euro/economic-and-fiscal-policy-
coordination/eu-economic-governance-monitoring-prevention-correction/european-semester/
framework/europe-2020-strategy_en). These economic resources are spent through Operation
Programs and Regional Rural Development Programs. The legislation concerning forests, according to
the division of the roles between the state and the 20 Italian regions defined by the Italian constitution,
is a multilevel and multisector discipline. Two distinct concepts of environmental multifunctionality
and economic function of the forest have been included in the national and regional legislation [
9
].
The main legislative act is the forest law containing indications to prioritize silvicultural activities as
the main tool for the socioeconomic development and environmental protection of Italian territory,
as well as for the improvement and correct management of forest resources. The law allows the
regional governments to develop stronger form of forest protection. The NFPFS proposed by the
Italian Ministry for Agricultural, Food and Forestry Policies (MIPAAF) and by the Ministry of the
Environment, with the final approval of the permanent conference between the state and regions,
Forests 2018,9, 473 3 of 17
defines strategic objectives for the national forest sector. These objectives are mainly oriented
in favoring harmonization among regional forest policies for the execution of the international
agreements signed by the Italian government. These strategies are achieved through different,
national and regional, sectorial programs financed by the EU and the government, while at regional
level the Regional Forest Programs are the main operational tool. As a general strategic objective,
the NFPFS attempts to stimulate active sustainable forest management, with the aim of ensuring the
multifunctionality of forest resources.
Forests are also included in the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) objectives, defining
three long-term strategic objectives for European Union (EU) rural development policy in the
2014–2020 period:
Improving the competitiveness of agriculture;
The sustainable management of natural resources and climate action;
A balanced territorial development of rural areas.
For the purposes of managing rural development policy through Rural Development Programs
(RDPs) these broad objectives are given more detailed expression through 6 priorities:
1. Fostering knowledge transfer in agriculture, forestry and rural areas;
2. Enhancing the competitiveness of all types of agriculture and enhancing farm viability;
3. Promoting food chain organization and risk-management in agriculture;
4. Restoring, preserving and enhancing ecosystems dependent on agriculture and forestry;
5.
Promoting resource efficiency and supporting the shift toward a low-carbon and climate-resilient
economy in agriculture, food and forestry sectors;
6. Promoting social inclusion, poverty reduction and economic development in rural areas.
Forest are particularly important in the area of intervention n. 1 of priority n. 4, “Restoring and
preserving biodiversity (including in NATURA 2000 areas and areas of High Nature Value farming) and
the state of European landscapes”. Each regional RDP priority identifies specific areas of intervention
(focus areas). RDP priorities and focus areas provide the basis for programming and rolling out the
European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD) support to EU rural areas. Several EU
funds provide additional support for rural areas alongside the EAFRD, namely: the European Regional
Development Fund (ERDF), the European Social Fund (ESF), the Cohesion Fund (CF) and the European
Maritime and Fisheries Fund (EMFF). In order to deliver greater European added value and maximize
synergies, in 2014–2020 all European Structural and Investments funds (ESI funds) concentrate their
support on achieving the EU2020 headline targets and are coordinated under a Common Strategic
Framework (CSF). The forest strategy is also enhanced through the EU Forest Strategy [
10
] and the
Forest Action Plan (FAP), while the MCPFE (Pan-European Ministerial Conference on the Protection
of Forests in Europe, now Forest Europe) has defined the criteria for Sustainable Forest Management
for the European continent since the early 1990s [11].
Concerning nature protection, 7.6% of Italian forests are included in National Parks, 6.7% in
regional parks, 1% in natural reserves, and 22.2% in the Nature 2000 network. Although many
Italian forests are, therefore, included in the Natura 2000 network, local forest planning is not always
coherent with Natura 2000 planning. Natura 2000 management plans have in fact limited effects on
the management of specific forest activities, mainly because management measures are not clear, or are
abstract concepts which are not translated into forestry practices [
12
], or because the final purpose of
the two planning levels is different.
Forests 2018,9, 473 4 of 17
2.2. Ecosystem and Landscape Services
The Italian economy is the 8th largest by nominal GDP in the world and Italy is the second
manufacturer of Europe. Services are the most important value-added sector, followed by industry
and tourism, while agriculture and forestry represents 2.2%. Timber production plays a limited role
in the forest economy. In fact, the combined effects of the geomorphological features, the quality of
the forest species, and the structure of ownership, did not favor the development of a timber industry.
The most valuable conifer forests are mostly situated in the north-eastern part of the country, but only
1/3 of the Italian forests are managed for production and the average size of the cutting plots is less
than 1 hectare. Regarding ownership, 33% of the forest land is owned by the state, including common
properties, while 66% is privately owned, but average size of private ownership is quite small, about
7 hectares. Also for this reason, although Italy has one of the most important furniture industries in
the world, most of the timber is imported. In 2015, 10.7 million of m
3
were imported, which makes up
80% of the needs of the country. Italy is also first in the world as a global importer of wood for energy
use. Despite these limitations, the timber industry engages 420,400 workers, with 89,000 companies.
The European Landscape Convention has also been implemented by the MIPAAF, and landscape
has been included in the agricultural policies since 2007, when it was indicated as one of the objectives
of National Strategic Plan for Rural Development (NSPRD). This was the first time that landscape has
been considered a strategic resource for rural development [13].
In 2009, a national scientific research program promoted by MIPAAF involving universities and
institutions identified 123 areas characterized by significant historical rural landscapes associated
to forests, pastures and farmed land and traditional production practices. These areas serve as
important examples for rural development strategies, combining high-quality food, uniqueness of
the landscape and attracting tourists. Following the results of this scientific research and of the
introduction of landscapes in the NSPRD, MIPAAF itself established the Landscape Observatory
of Rural Landscapes [
14
]. The observatory has the task to monitor landscape changes, develop
a collaboration between landscape planning and rural development, define landscape quality
objectives, develop international collaboration and manage the National Register of Historical Rural
Landscapes and Traditional Agricultural Practices, which includes also forests having historical
value [
15
]. The establishment of the observatory occurred after a decree of the president allowing the
Ministry of Agriculture to develop landscape policies in the framework of rural development [
16
],
recognizing the economic nature of the rural landscape and its contribution to rural development.
Thanks to the collaboration established with the observatory, in 2014 the National Statistical
Agency [
5
] incorporated the quality of rural landscapes and the conservation of historical landscapes
in the national indicators of the well-being of the population, a major step in recognizing the role that
rural landscape plays for the quality of life in Italy. According to the need to maintain the diversity
of the landscape mosaics and reduce the effects of abandonment, a modification of the landscape
protection system was also introduced in 2012, allowing the restoration of previously cultivated areas,
even if reforested after abandonment, and the restoration of forests having specific cultural features.
What has caused a lack of development of the national timber industry (geomorphological
features, the quality of the forests species, and the structure of the ownership), has also contributed to
the high level of biodiversity related to forests and to rural landscapes. According to the joint program
between UNESCO and CBD (Convention on Biological Diversity) on the linkages between cultural
and biological diversity [
17
] and to the Florence Declaration of 2014 [
18
], Italian and European rural
landscapes are considered rich in biocultural diversity. This definition is also in line with the features
of most of the Italian forests, according to third pillar of sustainable forest management in Europe,
social and cultural values, introduced by MCPFE in 2002 and enhanced through specific guidelines in
2007 by the International Union of Forest Research Organizations [19].
Although some reports speak of natural forests when referring to woods resulting from
regeneration that occurred in forests without visible signs of human intervention, from a scientific point
of view there are only a few thousand hectares of natural forests in Italy. On the other hand, definitions
Forests 2018,9, 473 5 of 17
such as “natural” applied to forests having a cultural origin but evolving towards seminatural models
is a widespread approach in Europe [
20
,
21
]. A similar situation concerns definitions such as “old
growth”, recently appearing in some forest surveys; since Italian forests were extensively managed
until the Second World War and, with few exceptions, they are usually not very old.
Extension, density, structure and species composition of forest have all been affected by human
factors according to the processes originating cultural landscapes [
22
]. Coppicing is the most
widespread management form, under the form of mixed coppice, simple coppice, simple coppice
with mother trees, selective coppice; less common management forms are pollard trees, although
widespread in the past. In the past few years there has been a tendency to reduce coppicing,
both for the low cost of fuel wood compared to the cost of forest utilization and also for nature
conservation strategies.
In terms of species the most widespread species are the broadleaved, mostly Quercus spp. (24.3%),
followed by Fagus sylvatica (12%) and Castanea sativa (9.2%); among the conifers Picea abies makes up
6.8%, Larix decidua and Pinus cembra 4.4%, other Pinus spp. 5.3%. The woodlands classified as “other
wooded land” in the national inventory of 2005 represent 16.3% of the total, mostly made of scrubland
58% largely distributed along the coasts and the islands. Most of the high forests are pure stands (68%);
13.5% are pure conifer stands, while 9.7% are mixed stands of conifers and broadleaved.
The limited extension of Italian forests (0.23% of the world’s forests) does not allow them to play
an important role as carbon sinks, but for some qualitative features, such as biodiversity, landscape,
history and cultural values they represent important values.
Regarding biodiversity, Italy is host to around 67,500 species of animals and plants, representing
43% of the total species described for Europe and around 4% of the species in the world. Approximately
35% of the species assessed by the European Red List of Species are present in Italy [23].
3. The Case of Tuscany
Tuscany is probably the best example of a region of Italy known all over the world for the
quality of its landscape, and it is the first Italian region that has developed a landscape plan
according to the National Code for Cultural Heritage, integrating urban and territorial planning
with landscape planning.
Moreover, forests represent an important feature of the Tuscan landscape, since it is the second
region of Italy for the extension of forests, covering about 53.4% of the regional territory [
24
]. Tuscany is
the fifth Italian region in terms of extension; 67% of the territory is classified as hills, 25% as mountains,
mostly in the Apennine range, and only 8% as plains. The regional territory is mostly classified as rural
(93%), while the population (3,753,000 people—162 inh./km2) mainly lives in the cities and is mostly
distributed along the Arno valley (70%). Despite the rural features, agriculture production has a minor
role in GDP (1.8%), while services represent the most important part of the economy and tourism is
about 7%; Tuscany is also the first region of Italy for agritourism (Figure 1). This an important resource
for the rural economy witnessing an impressive increase during the last decade compared to the other
economic sectors (+367% between 1997–2012); farmhouses are the most preferred choice of the tourists
traveling to Tuscany after five star hotels [25].
The attractiveness of the rural landscape is associated to the high quality of rural settlements
and of local foods, and the market price of cultivated land is some areas is higher than the price
of the land used for urban development. The variety of geographical conditions, the diversity of
agriculture and forest activities, and the level of integrity of historical villages contribute to preserve
a high-quality landscape.
Forests 2018,9, 473 6 of 17
Forests 2018, 9, x FOR PEER REVIEW 6 of 17
Figure 1. The distribution of agritourism in Italy shows a higher number in the central part of the
country and on the mountains. These confirm that hilly areas and mountains, less developed than
the plains but where we find most of the forests, have attractive landscapes. The small number of
businesses in the south and the islands are mostly due to organizational problems of this sector, and
these areas have usually a higher number of unique landscapes compared to the rest of the country.
The attractiveness of the rural landscape is associated to the high quality of rural settlements
and of local foods, and the market price of cultivated land is some areas is higher than the price of
the land used for urban development. The variety of geographical conditions, the diversity of
agriculture and forest activities, and the level of integrity of historical villages contribute to preserve
a high-quality landscape.
3.1. The Landscape Plan of Tuscany
The landscape plan of Tuscany is an act required by the National Code for Cultural Heritage,
that allows each region to develop a landscape plan independently from the ordinary territorial
plans defined by urban planning, or to integrate them in one single plan. In the case of Tuscany, the
regional council decided to integrate the two planning levels in one single act, the law n. 65 of 2015
“Norms for the Government of the Territory” [26]. The law aims at achieving sustainable
development controlling the transformations induced by economic activities, fostering the
maintenance, reuse, restoration and the creation of new landscapes. In the law, landscape capital has
been considered a common good, recognizing equal rights to the citizens in terms of use and
fruition, respecting their needs for a better quality of life for the present and future generations.
Landscape capital is defined as the “whole set of structures resulting from the long-term coevolution
between nature and human society and an important value for the future generations” [27]. An
active conservation of landscape resources, together with the protection of the cultural and natural
heritage of the region represent the general view of the plan.
From the legal point of view, the landscape plan prevails over all the other regional planning
levels as they must take into account the rules indicated by the plan. This is an important difference
in comparison with other parts of the world. It means that from minor things such as the
architectural details of buildings (e.g., doors, windows etc.), to forest management (e.g., coppicing,
clear cuts etc.), or major infrastructures (e.g., roads, railways etc.), everything is regulated and
Figure 1.
The distribution of agritourism in Italy shows a higher number in the central part of the
country and on the mountains. These confirm that hilly areas and mountains, less developed than
the plains but where we find most of the forests, have attractive landscapes. The small number of
businesses in the south and the islands are mostly due to organizational problems of this sector,
and these areas have usually a higher number of unique landscapes compared to the rest of the country.
3.1. The Landscape Plan of Tuscany
The landscape plan of Tuscany is an act required by the National Code for Cultural Heritage,
that allows each region to develop a landscape plan independently from the ordinary territorial plans
defined by urban planning, or to integrate them in one single plan. In the case of Tuscany, the regional
council decided to integrate the two planning levels in one single act, the law n. 65 of 2015 “Norms for
the Government of the Territory” [
26
]. The law aims at achieving sustainable development controlling
the transformations induced by economic activities, fostering the maintenance, reuse, restoration and
the creation of new landscapes. In the law, landscape capital has been considered a common good,
recognizing equal rights to the citizens in terms of use and fruition, respecting their needs for a better
quality of life for the present and future generations. Landscape capital is defined as the “whole
set of structures resulting from the long-term coevolution between nature and human society and
an important value for the future generations” [
27
]. An active conservation of landscape resources,
together with the protection of the cultural and natural heritage of the region represent the general
view of the plan.
From the legal point of view, the landscape plan prevails over all the other regional planning
levels as they must take into account the rules indicated by the plan. This is an important difference in
comparison with other parts of the world. It means that from minor things such as the architectural
details of buildings (e.g., doors, windows etc.), to forest management (e.g., coppicing, clear cuts
etc.), or major infrastructures (e.g., roads, railways etc.), everything is regulated and submitted to
authorization procedures. The plan divides the regional territory in 20 landscape units (Figure 2),
homogenous areas with common characteristics and objectives regarding landscape and environment.
Forests 2018,9, 473 7 of 17
Forests 2018, 9, x FOR PEER REVIEW 7 of 17
submitted to authorization procedures. The plan divides the regional territory in 20 landscape units
(Figure 2), homogenous areas with common characteristics and objectives regarding landscape and
environment.
Figure 2. The 20 landscape units in which the territory of Tuscany has been divided according to the
landscape plan. In the aerial photo forest areas are in dark green color. As it can be observed they are
distributed all over the territory, especially on the Apennine mountains in the north, creating a
complex landscape mosaic made of forest and agricultural patches.
Among the landscape quality objectives of the Tuscan landscape plan it is possible to find:
The maintenance of the characteristics, constituting elements and morphologies, also taking
into account architectonic typologies, as well as construction materials and techniques;
The restoration and upgrading of the buildings and areas subject to protection which have been
compromised or degraded, with the aim of recovering pre-existing values or of creating new
landscape values that are consistent with and integral to the previous ones.
The plan includes a detailed survey of the entire land area through the analysis of its historical,
natural and aesthetic characteristics and their inter-relationship, the definition of the landscape
Figure 2.
The 20 landscape units in which the territory of Tuscany has been divided according to the
landscape plan. In the aerial photo forest areas are in dark green color. As it can be observed they are
distributed all over the territory, especially on the Apennine mountains in the north, creating a complex
landscape mosaic made of forest and agricultural patches.
Among the landscape quality objectives of the Tuscan landscape plan it is possible to find:
The maintenance of the characteristics, constituting elements and morphologies, also taking into
account architectonic typologies, as well as construction materials and techniques;
The restoration and upgrading of the buildings and areas subject to protection which have been
compromised or degraded, with the aim of recovering pre-existing values or of creating new
landscape values that are consistent with and integral to the previous ones.
Forests 2018,9, 473 8 of 17
The plan includes a detailed survey of the entire land area through the analysis of its historical,
natural and aesthetic characteristics and their inter-relationship, the definition of the landscape values
to be protected, and an analysis of the dynamics of land transformation through the identification of
risk factors and landscape vulnerability. Moreover, it provides the definition of general and operative
prescriptions for protection and use of the land and the definition of measures for the conservation of
the distinctive features. The specific objectives of the landscape plan are summarized in Table 1.
Table 1. The specific objectives of the landscape plan of Tuscany.
Represent and valorize the richness of the landscape
resources, taking into account its long-term evolution
and avoiding the risks of trivialization.
Address the features of settlements, valorizing the
polycentric nature of settlements and the reuse of
existing urban areas.
Ensure the integrated management of the structural
elements of the landscape.
Ensure the positive coevolution between rural
landscapes and agro-silvo-pastoral activities.
Ensure the coherence among geomorphology,
localization, form and extension of settlements.
Ensure the role of landscape as a common good and
the public fruition of all types of landscapes.
Promote the awareness of the importance of
alluvial plains for the quality of the landscape and
the environment where most of the urban areas
are concentrated.
Improve the knowledge of the landscape, starting
from the places described by the travelers of the
Grand Tour since the 16th century, up to the
landscapes along the road network crossing the
region and around residential areas.
Recognize the contribution of natural and rural
landscapes to biodiversity and improve the
ecosystemic values of the territory.
Ensure that the transformation of the territory occurs
according to appropriate knowledge and rules.
According to the national indications and to the aesthetic, ecological and structural approaches,
the plan assumed as a central reference of its structure four “structural invariants”, fundamental values
associated to Tuscany, that cannot be degraded (Figure 3). While the landscape units represent the
local level of the plan, the four invariants represent the regional level:
1.
The hydrogeomorphological features of morphogenetic systems and river basins: this is the
fundamental physical structure on which the different identities of the Tuscan landscape developed.
2.
The ecosystemic features of the landscape: this the invariant where the biotic structure supporting
the animal and vegetal species, made of complex mosaics in the agricultural and forest matrix
and the associated biodiversity. This is also the invariant where forests are described.
3.
The polycentric and reticular features of urban, infrastructural and settlement systems: this
invariant represent the prevailing structure of settlements inherited from Etruscan times
(7th century B.C.) and maintained through the centuries.
4.
The characters of the rural landscapes: this invariant identify the detailed features of the land-use
mosaic and agricultural cultivation affecting the quality and biodiversity of rural territory.
The description includes the relationships with the settlements and the architectural features of
rural buildings.
The four invariants are reflected in all the 20 landscape units, and each unit is described in a specific
chapter of the plan, taking into account the values and the criticalities for each invariant, as well as the
landscape quality objectives and the rules for the management of the territory. Each chapter contains
also a set of diachronic land-use maps starting from the cadaster of 1823, as well as geological maps.
Maps are an integral and important part of the landscape plan, including the map of the “Historical
Rural Landscapes of Tuscany”, which takes into consideration the national register of historic rural
landscape developed by the Italian Ministry of Agriculture [
28
]. This map intends to highlight the
origins of the Tuscan landscape, in order to increase knowledge of the territory, favoring the restoration
and the protection of important historical features.
Forests 2018,9, 473 9 of 17
Forests 2018, 9, x FOR PEER REVIEW 9 of 17
Figure 3. The structure and components of the landscape plan of Tuscany.
The four invariants are reflected in all the 20 landscape units, and each unit is described in a
specific chapter of the plan, taking into account the values and the criticalities for each invariant, as
well as the landscape quality objectives and the rules for the management of the territory. Each
chapter contains also a set of diachronic land-use maps starting from the cadaster of 1823, as well as
geological maps. Maps are an integral and important part of the landscape plan, including the map
of the “Historical Rural Landscapes of Tuscany”, which takes into consideration the national register
of historic rural landscape developed by the Italian Ministry of Agriculture [28]. This map intends to
highlight the origins of the Tuscan landscape, in order to increase knowledge of the territory,
favoring the restoration and the protection of important historical features.
Finally, the plan contains the discipline of use, a fundamental document for what concerns the
application of the protection system put in place. This document contains for each landscape unit,
the categories of elements directly protected by the national code for cultural heritage, as well as the
prescriptions deriving from the hydrogeological law of 1923, the Forest Law of 2001, and the
restrictions due to the presence of protected areas. The plan has also incorporated modifications to
the national forest law 227/2001 [29], allowing the restoration of previously cultivated land as well as
forests having historical features and the identification of historical rural landscapes.
3.2. The Forests in Tuscany and in the Landscape Plan
As for most of Italy, the current forest cover in Tuscany is the result of secondary successions
that have occurred on former cultivated areas [30], about 400,000 ha of the 1,196,992 (33.4%) of
forests results from this process, with an estimated increase of 6000 ha/year. Also direct
re-forestation with conifers carried out during the 20th century has contributed to the increase of
forests in Tuscany, as in the rest of Southern and Central Europe [31].
Historically the most forested areas were not the mountains but the hills, as mountain areas
where quite populated with large areas of pastures and cultivated areas up to 1000 m a.s.l. Tuscany
has the highest percentage of broadleaved forests in Italy, representing 78% of the total forest.
Concerning ownership, 80% is private property, while public property is about 14%; this includes
Figure 3. The structure and components of the landscape plan of Tuscany.
Finally, the plan contains the discipline of use, a fundamental document for what concerns the
application of the protection system put in place. This document contains for each landscape unit,
the categories of elements directly protected by the national code for cultural heritage, as well as
the prescriptions deriving from the hydrogeological law of 1923, the Forest Law of 2001, and the
restrictions due to the presence of protected areas. The plan has also incorporated modifications to
the national forest law 227/2001 [
29
], allowing the restoration of previously cultivated land as well as
forests having historical features and the identification of historical rural landscapes.
3.2. The Forests in Tuscany and in the Landscape Plan
As for most of Italy, the current forest cover in Tuscany is the result of secondary successions
that have occurred on former cultivated areas [
30
], about 400,000 ha of the 1,196,992 (33.4%) of forests
results from this process, with an estimated increase of 6000 ha/year. Also direct re-forestation with
conifers carried out during the 20th century has contributed to the increase of forests in Tuscany, as in
the rest of Southern and Central Europe [31].
Historically the most forested areas were not the mountains but the hills, as mountain areas where
quite populated with large areas of pastures and cultivated areas up to 1000 m a.s.l. Tuscany has the
highest percentage of broadleaved forests in Italy, representing 78% of the total forest. Concerning
ownership, 80% is private property, while public property is about 14%; this includes regional property
and woods owned by municipalities (Table 2). The Tuscan regional government is the largest forest
owner of Italy [32].
Forests 2018,9, 473 10 of 17
Table 2.
The features of Italian forests show the prevalence of coppice woods as a management form.
This is due to the better integration of these woods with the needs of agriculture and the high request
of fuelwood and charcoal. Today coppice woods are reducing due to decreasing economic interests and
to nature conservation strategies limiting this kind of management form. The data of Tuscany includes
shrublands and the cultivation of trees for wood production on agricultural areas [24].
Total Forests
Forests in Italy Forests in Tuscany
11.778.249 ha (39% of Territory) 1.208.820 ha (53.4% of Territory)
Private property 63.5% 80%
Public property 32.4% 14%
Management—Coppice 42% 63%
Management—High stand 36% 18%
Broadleaved 80% 84%
Conifers and mixed stands 20% 8%
Wood production represents a small portion of the GDP of the region (0.25%), fuel wood represents
80% of the production, while the internal production of timber covers 38% of the needs of the timber
industry. Although this may seem a low percentage, it is a much higher percentage compared to the
rest of the country. However, the economic values of all the services associated with forests raises to 6%
their role in the GDP and forest services associated to the landscape make up about 76% of their total
economic value. This explain the importance given by the landscape plan to forests. In this respect,
forest management is considered a fundamental activity for the conservation of the values associated
to forests, not only for biodiversity, but also for reducing hydrogeological risk, in particular decreasing
erosion and increasing slope stability. This choice is in line with the indications of the national forest
framework program and the idea of promoting an active forest management strategy in opposition to
previous views suggesting limited or no silvicultural interventions.
In Tuscany there has always been a strong integration between agriculture and forestry (Figure 4),
and it is demonstrated by the fact that coppice is largely the most common management form. In fact,
assortments coming from coppice were, and still are, of utmost importance for fuel wood production,
farming activities and for everyday life in farmhouses. Small beams were used for building roofs
or to tie the vines to their support, or to build baskets for food transportation; poles were used in
the vineyards, while pollard coppice, an aerial coppice resulting from the cutting of trees a couple of
meters off the ground, provided leaves for fodder.
Concerning high-stand forests, one of the best examples of forest type explaining the relationships
with agriculture and the life of the population are the chestnut orchards. These forests, for many years
were inventoried as agricultural cultivations because the main purpose was the production of nuts to
feed the population. They were particularly important in the mountains, as competing territory to
wheat since the calories per hectare produced was often higher. Moreover, chestnut trees produced
leaves for feeding livestock, bark for tannin, wood for charcoal, poles and fuel [
33
]. Furthemore,
grazing was associated with these forests given the need to keep the ground under the trees clean for
harvesting the chestnuts. At the same time the chestnut orchards, 13% of the total of Tuscan forests,
although reduced to one third of the extension existed one century ago, still play a fundamental role in
the cultural heritage of mountain communities. Many of them present monumental trees, with plants
200 to 300 years old. Another important type of forest strongly related to agriculture were oak forests,
which represent today about 60% of the forest of Tuscany. In the past they were commonly used for
grazing, especially for pigs, so that the economic reports of the large farms existing all over the region
used to value oak forests according to the number of pigs that could be raised.
Forests 2018,9, 473 11 of 17
Forests 2018, 9, x FOR PEER REVIEW 11 of 17
Figure 4. The Tuscan landscape is made of a mosaic of different land uses including forests, farmed
and grazed land as well as rural settlements. The main task of the landscape plan is to maintain the
quality of the landscape harmonizing economic, social and environmental processes.
Concerning high-stand forests, one of the best examples of forest type explaining the
relationships with agriculture and the life of the population are the chestnut orchards. These forests,
for many years were inventoried as agricultural cultivations because the main purpose was the
production of nuts to feed the population. They were particularly important in the mountains, as
competing territory to wheat since the calories per hectare produced was often higher. Moreover,
chestnut trees produced leaves for feeding livestock, bark for tannin, wood for charcoal, poles and
fuel [33]. Furthemore, grazing was associated with these forests given the need to keep the ground
under the trees clean for harvesting the chestnuts. At the same time the chestnut orchards, 13% of the
total of Tuscan forests, although reduced to one third of the extension existed one century ago, still
play a fundamental role in the cultural heritage of mountain communities. Many of them present
monumental trees, with plants 200 to 300 years old. Another important type of forest strongly
related to agriculture were oak forests, which represent today about 60% of the forest of Tuscany. In
the past they were commonly used for grazing, especially for pigs, so that the economic reports of
the large farms existing all over the region used to value oak forests according to the number of pigs
that could be raised.
The extension of the different forest types does not fully explain the values associate to them, as
some forests may have a very high value in terms of landscape quality or for their historic
significance compared to their limited extension. This is the case of the Pinus pinea forests along the
coast, planted between the 18th and 19th century, after the land reclamation, that represent only the
1% of the total forest areas. However, the peculiar architecture of the crowns, as well as the age and
the location of the stands, assign them a fundamental role in the quality of the coastal landscape also
for recreational purposes. Similar observations can be made for the fir forests around the abbeys of
the Appenine range, where the monks promoted even-age stands applying clear cuts and artificial
regeneration already by the 17th century. Monasteries played a fundamental role in the conservation
of the knowledge about agriculture and forestry during the dark ages after the fall of the Roman
Empire and until the renaissance of Italy. Also, for these reasons the Abbey of Vallombrosa became
the headquarter of the first Italian school of forestry in 1869, and today it is still the main center for
the field work of the forestry courses held at the university of Florence.
Figure 4.
The Tuscan landscape is made of a mosaic of different land uses including forests, farmed
and grazed land as well as rural settlements. The main task of the landscape plan is to maintain the
quality of the landscape harmonizing economic, social and environmental processes.
The extension of the different forest types does not fully explain the values associate to them,
as some forests may have a very high value in terms of landscape quality or for their historic significance
compared to their limited extension. This is the case of the Pinus pinea forests along the coast, planted
between the 18th and 19th century, after the land reclamation, that represent only the 1% of the total
forest areas. However, the peculiar architecture of the crowns, as well as the age and the location of
the stands, assign them a fundamental role in the quality of the coastal landscape also for recreational
purposes. Similar observations can be made for the fir forests around the abbeys of the Appenine range,
where the monks promoted even-age stands applying clear cuts and artificial regeneration already
by the 17th century. Monasteries played a fundamental role in the conservation of the knowledge
about agriculture and forestry during the dark ages after the fall of the Roman Empire and until the
renaissance of Italy. Also, for these reasons the Abbey of Vallombrosa became the headquarter of the
first Italian school of forestry in 1869, and today it is still the main center for the field work of the
forestry courses held at the university of Florence.
3.3. Critical Analysis of the Interaction between Forest Plans and Landscape Plans
In the landscape plan, the forests of Tuscany are described in the invariant “ecosystemic feature
of the landscape”. The methodology adopted by the plan follows the approaches of landscape ecology
taking into account matrix and patches, interpreting the Tuscan landscape as a complex mosaic,
characterized by the forest and agricultural matrix and their connecting structures, contributing to the
regional ecological network. The ecological network organizes forests into primary and secondary
nodes connected by corridors, the first having a surface of at least 1000 ha and the second having
a surface between 100 and 1000 ha. Forest matrix have been divided into a matrix having a high
connectivity and lower connectivity, considering the potential ecological value associated to focal
animal and plant species, and to the age and structure of the forest stands. Generally, high stands have
been considered as playing the role of a matrix, while low forests, basically coppice woods, have not
Forests 2018,9, 473 12 of 17
been considered as a matrix. Other matrices not classified as forests (pastures and cultivated areas)
have been assessed according to their suitability to host focal species, but agroecosystems have also
been considered as the repository of biodiversity especially when associated to traditional practices.
In the chapter describing the ecosystem features of the plan, together with the description of the
different types of ecosystems, vulnerabilities and criticalities have been assessed, as well as dynamics
and quality objectives for each matrix type and for the knots of the ecological network. The indications
concerning vulnerability and criticalities have been transferred into the discipline determining use,
becoming a list of rules to be considered in development plans proposed in these areas. Nevertheless,
according to the national laws, the landscape plan has allowed the restoration of previously farmed
and grazed areas and of specific forests, in order to find a balance among the functions played by the
different land uses contributing to the uniqueness of the Tuscan landscape.
The importance given to the forest landscape is confirmed by the establishment of the landscape
park of the Apennine mountains, near the Benedictine abbey of Moscheta, today listed in the national
register of historical rural landscapes. However, the development of this initiative is a good example of
the tensions existing between the different planning levels, especially forest planning in protected areas.
This park is included in a Site of Community Interest, created according to the EU HABITAT Directive,
requiring member states to identify natural habitats to be protected in their territory. The original
management plan of this site, was made according to a phytosociological approach, indicating potential
vegetation types as the goal to be achieved through management. As a matter of fact, the area has been
cultivated since the year 1037 and most of the vegetation is now characterized by secondary successions
on abandoned pastures and chestnut forest and conversions of beech coppice to high stands undertaken
in view of favoring renaturalization. The conflict between the historical evidence on the ground and
the planning approach of the protected area has been solved adopting a different management strategy
in a portion of the area, dedicated to the conservation and restoration of the historical landscape.
From a technical point of view the regional landscape plan considers the management plans of the
protected areas as a higher level of protection, usually approving these lower planning level. Only the
intervention of the local communities, as in this case, can sometimes change the general approach
adopted in protected areas.
Concerning the regulatory framework, forest management is under the rule of the landscape
plan. Therefore, forest management plans, as management forms, such as coppice woods or high
stands, are regulated by the landscape plan. For each one of the 20 landscape units, a specific
regulatory framework has been set up, indicating the forest features to be preserved and the indications
for the forest management plans. According to the legal value of the landscape plan, the lack of
a landscape authorization for forest cutting, depending on the case, can be considered a criminal or
an administrative offense. The higher value of the landscape plan compared to forest planning has in
fact created conflicts between the forest sector and the planning sector.
Due to this approach, the landscape plan does not always match the historical and cultural
features of the forest, since all of them have cultural features that have been maintained through
forest management forms such as coppicing. As a results, although coppicing is the most extended
management form, in seven landscape units, out of the 20 in which the region has been divided,
coppicing has been considered as a danger to forest conservation. This has created a tension between
forest management plans and the landscape plan.
3.4. The Regional Landscape Observatory
The landscape observatories are institutions required by the European Landscape Convention
and promoted by the National Code for Cultural Heritage, that each Italian Region, together with
the landscape plan, should establish. The observatory of Tuscany was established by the law n. 65 of
2015 and started the activities in November 2016. A president, a secretariat and a board composed of
21 members, forms the structure of the observatory.
Forests 2018,9, 473 13 of 17
The board is composed by people coming from different institutions: 6 from the regional
planning observatory, 2 representatives of the municipalities, the director of the regional planning
department, the director of the Geographic Information System, the representatives of the four main
Italian environmental non-governmental organizations, 2 experts designated by the network of the
Universities of Tuscany, 1 representative of the association of Italian architects, 1 representative of
other technical associations of professionals in the field of landscape, the director of the landscape
office, the director of the culture office, and the representative of the agricultural department.
The president of the observatory is directly nominated by the presidency of the regional
government. The term of the board expires after 5 years, usually when regional political elections
occurs. The main activities of the observatory are the following:
Collect all the information related to the Tuscan landscape.
Promote participation among the population, particularly establishing a network of local observatories.
Elaborate proposals for the implementation of the landscape plan.
Promote the Tuscan landscape.
Since 2016 further activities have been assigned to the observatory, such as the monitoring of the
efficacy of the plan, the implementation of the state of knowledge, the evaluation of the coherence of
the activities of the regional departments and of the quality of the landscape projects developed in
Tuscany. The observatory has also established a landscape prize and elaborates a report on the state of
the landscape in Tuscany every two years. The observatory acts like an independent institution inside
the regional government, although it has stronger links with the planning department.
The observatory carried out some important initiatives in 2017:
A monitoring system of the rural landscape has been set up, based on 20 fixed study areas, one
for each landscape unit, to monitor changes of land use and of landscape structure through
a methodology capable of analyzing in detail the fine structure of the Tuscan landscape.
The creation of rural landscape parks, trying to counterbalance the degradation affecting the
agricultural landscape due to industrialization and abandonment, not by imposing limitations or
environmental protections but by promoting actions to support farmers and farming practices
maintaining the quality of the rural landscape. This initiative integrates with the National
Register of Historical Rural Landscapes and with international programs such as the FAO Globally
Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) and the UNESCO World Heritage List.
Organization of a workshop to develop policies for drystone terraces. Tuscany has about 9800 km
of drystone terraces, severely affected by abandonment. Dry stone terraces, as well as earth
terraces, were also used in forestry for reforestation projects and for chestnut orchards. Terraces
have been the only way to cultivate land in many places due to the regional morphology, and they
represent a fundamental feature besides the reduction of hydrogeological risk. The workshop
presented a state of the art report and promoted a collaboration between different regional offices
on this topic. Dry stone terraces represent multifunctional agricultural systems all over the world,
so that they have also been the subject of several presentations during a session on agricultural
heritage systems and their contribution to climate change mitigation and adaptation at the last
COP23 (United Nations Climate Change Conference of the Parties) in Bonn.
4. Conclusions
The development of a national landscape law and the incorporation of landscape into rural
development policies, in both of which Italy and Tuscany have been pioneers in Europe and the
world, marked an important achievement in the recognition and protection of a fundament resource of
the country.
Considering the above it is possible to summarize some positive key aspects, that can be proposed
as examples and reproduced in other parts of the world:
Forests 2018,9, 473 14 of 17
Policies on landscape carried out by three Italian ministries (culture, agriculture, environment)
during the last decades have not always been entirely successful or consistent with each other.
The National Code for Cultural Heritage requiring regional landscape plans, must be considered
an important achievement in the attempt to protect and valorise landscape resources through
a set of legally binding norms coordinating and harmonizing economic development, landscape
quality and society.
According to the European Landscape Convention, landscape has been put among the objectives
of the agricultural policies in the NSPRD 2007–2013. Although the CAP indicates the conservation
of landscapes and biodiversity as one of the objectives, landscape is currently only mentioned
among the elements that can be preserved inside the “ecological focus areas”. In the case of
Italy, rural areas are no longer considered simply as a place for food production, but as complex
systems where different activities contribute to development and where the concept of quality
applies to the entire landscape.
The features of the Italian territory have not allowed promotion of the diffusion of a competitive
agricultural and productive model based on high yields. The alternative to industrialization
in agriculture has been found in the uniqueness of the rural landscape. An economic model
based on quality food and tourism and agriculture with low energy input is more effective for
marginal areas on mountains and hills, compared to intensive agriculture. Between 2009–2013,
the worst year of the recent economic crisis, Tuscany lost 22,000 workplaces in industry and 12,600
in services, but had an increase of 10,000 workplaces in tourism, while arrivals in rural houses and
farms increased by 14%. From 1997 to 2014 there was an increase of about 380% in the number of
accommodations in rural houses and farms.
Since landscape is nowadays perceived by stakeholders and farms as a fundamental resource
for the development of rural areas, landscape restoration must be supported to preserve the
characteristic features. In 2017, the department of agriculture of the regional government allocated
10 million for projects to be developed by groups of farmers. The total amount of requests was
equal to 39 million, many of them for the restoration of dry stone terraces.
The Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry Policies established in 2012 a National Observatory
of Rural Landscape, Agricultural Practices and Traditional Knowledge that has the task of setting
general guidelines and strategies for the adoption of specific measures aimed at safeguarding,
enhancing, planning, restoring and managing the rural landscape. Moreover, it is in charge of
monitoring the effects of agricultural policies and environmental and socioeconomic dynamics on
rural landscapes.
Together with the observatory, MIPAAF established a National Register of Historical Landscapes.
The scope of the register is to identify and catalogue traditional rural landscapes or landscapes of
historical interest connected to traditional practices and knowledge, defining their significance,
integrity and vulnerability. In these areas, farmers play the central role of landscape managers.
Considering the common goals of the National Register and the FAO GIAHS program, Italy has
developed a memorandum of understanding with the FAO promoting cooperation on this topic.
For the first time the quality of the landscape, particularly the rural landscape, has been introduced
among the indicators of the wellbeing of the population by the National Statistical Agency (ISTAT),
in collaboration with the National Observatory of Rural Landscape. These indicators of wellbeing
are part of an effort to go beyond the usual GDP and other economic indicators in an attempt to
develop a better view of the progress of society. The introduction of the quality of rural landscape
among these indicators means that landscape has been recognized as a fundamental aspect of the
quality of life.
The peculiar geographical situation of Italian territory, where mountains and hills are very fragile
and 500,000 landslides occur every year, requires forests not to be abandoned but actively managed
in order to reduce hydrogeological risk. Management is also needed to support biodiversity,
Forests 2018,9, 473 15 of 17
which is another fundamental asset of the country, and the production of timber and wood for
energy, where this is economically viable.
The production of quality food with Protected Designation of Origin, as well as organic products,
has been steadily increasing in the last few years. Italy is the country of Europe with the highest
number of labels ensuring customers that food is coming from the place of origin, as well as
the first country for organic products. In this context, together with agricultural landscapes,
the conservation of a variety of forest landscapes, ranging from dense forests to wood pastures
and grazed areas inside the forest, supports high quality food production and landscape diversity.
Global challenges on various topics (climate change adaptation and mitigation, biocultural
diversity, environmental and landscape degradation, territorial governance, and sustainable
development goals) suggest a change from a purely ecosystem approach to a landscape approach,
where man is not a disturbing factor but a central element for the quality of the environment.
In these terms, the concept of biocultural diversity adapts to the Italian landscape, and it is slowly
taking place in all Europe.
Together with important success in the development of landscape policies, there are also areas
where it is important to increase efforts and improve effectiveness:
There is the need to better integrate the multi-sectorial policies of territory planning, which can
have a direct or indirect impact on rural landscapes. At national level one of the main difficulty
is to transfer general planning indications at the operational level. Each ministry has its own
structure and operational programs; the Ministry of Culture through landscape protection and of
the Ministry of Environment through nature conservation, basically operate applying restrictions
on landscape and natural values. These restrictions are almost ineffective or can create conflicts
when applied to rural landscapes. Protection has been effective in reducing soil consumption
and urban sprawl, and protecting wildlife, rather than rural landscapes, that require local and
specific strategies.
More interdisciplinary cooperation is needed in scientific research. Landscape planning and
management require an integrated, multi-disciplinary approach. This process of integration
is hindered not only by the separation of the administrative skills attributed to the different
institutional bodies, but also by the rigidity and the divisions between the different disciplinary
domains, partly deriving from academic traditions.
Fostering conservation and innovation. Some of the landscape strategies proposed by the
landscape plan of Tuscany encountered a certain resistance, especially when challenging big
landowners, or the agro-industry. While there was a broad consensus on the need to have
a plan protecting a fundamental resource, some productive sectors (especially the owners of the
marble quarries in the Apuan Alps and the big wine producers in Chianti) raised some concerns
about some of the orientations and restrictions of the plan. There is a need to encourage both
conservation and innovation in rural territory, since the opposition between the two is a false
problem. Innovation always occurs through the re-elaboration of values accumulated in the past,
while conservation also creates new values.
Landscape perception and education. The urban population, although in favor of quality food
and landscape conservation, often have limited knowledge and a different perception of the
difficulties of cultivating the land, of the rural economy, and of the origin of rural landscape„ often
interpreting as “natural” areas that have a cultural origin. On the other hand, farmers should take
care of landscape quality, as the reasons why they sell products and the fundamental importance
of tourism in the rural economy are based on the quality of the landscape.
The case of Tuscany shows that the efficiency and effectiveness of rural development policies
depend crucially on the possibility of connecting them with landscape policies, or more precisely
with the territorial policies of the different sectors that may be found in a landscape, widely speaking,
as a strategic framework of reference. This is the main point of contention between collective interests
Forests 2018,9, 473 16 of 17
and rights, on one hand, and individual privileges and interests on the other. It is especially—but
not only—here, that the rural development policies and areas deserving special protection are to be
integrated in urban, territorial and landscape planning in order to face the challenges arising on the
new frontiers of sustainable development.
Author Contributions: Leading author Mauro Agnoletti.
Funding: FAO–SOFO 2018.
Acknowledgments: This paper is a part of the report on Italy developed for the FAO SOFO 2018.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access
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  • Istat-Istituto Nazionale Di Statistica
  • Bes Rapporto
ISTAT-Istituto Nazionale di Statistica. Rapporto BES 2014: il Benessere Equo e Sostenibile in Italia; ISTAT: Roma, Italy, 2014.
Pursuant to Article 10 of Law no
D.L. n. 42/2002-Code of the Cultural and Landscape Heritage, Pursuant to Article 10 of Law no. 137 of 6 July 2002; GU Serie Generale n.45-Suppl. Ordinario n. 28: Roma, Italy. 2002. Available online: https://www.unodc.org/cld/en/legislation/ita/legislative_decree_no._42_of_22_january_2004-_code_ of_the_cultural_and_landscape_heritage/title_i/articles_1_2_3/code_of_the_cultural_and_landscape_ heritage.html? (accessed on 20 July 2018).