This paper discusses the history of Latin maxims and expressions in English, Estonian and Polish legal languages and the influence of Latin on contemporary legal language and its translation. A number of maxims and expressions were examined by comparing their present meanings in those three legal systems. A selection of fifteen of them is presented in the article, namely: ab intestato, corpus ... [Show full abstract] iuris civilis, error iuris, fraus est celerem fraudem, ignorantia iuris neminem excusat, impossibilium nulla est obligatio, inter arma silent leges, ipso iure, lex non scripta, pacta sunt servanda, qui tacet – consentire videtur, restitutio in integrum,m sub iudice, and summum ius summa iniuria. The term Actio Pauliana which is used in the bankruptcy law is used here to show how translators may use Latin terms in order to find proper translation equivalents. Finally, the authors point out the differences in pronunciation and spelling of Latin maxims and expressions in English, Estonian and Polish.