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Selfies—Living in the Era of Filtered Photographs

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Abstract

We live in an era of edited selfies and ever-evolving standards of beauty. The advent and popularity of image-based social media have put Photoshop and filters in everyone’s arsenal. A few swipes on Snapchat can give your selfie a crown of flowers or puppy ears. A little adjusting on Facetune can smoothen out skin, and make teeth look whiter and eyes and lips bigger. A quick share on Instagram, and the likes and comments start rolling in. These filters and edits have become the norm, altering people’s perception of beauty worldwide.

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... For example, many photo platforms contain built-in tools to modify facial and body features (e.g., resizing, reshaping), as well as the appearance of skin and complexion. Although various tools exist to modify one's images, engaging in certain types of photo modification might draw greater attention to one's perceived physical imperfections and perhaps increase interest in modifying one's physical appearance offline in the form of cosmetic procedures (e.g., Chen et al., 2019;Rajanala, Maymone, & Vashi, 2018;Shome, Vadera, Male, & Kapoor, 2020). ...
... A second possibility is that modifying one's appearance not only provides additional exposure but also forces one to critically evaluate their perceived physical imperfections and flaws. For example, Rajanala et al. (2018) call attention to several concerns related to the production of selfies and how this social phenomenon has led to a rise in cosmetic procedures in recent years to enhance one's appearance in line with edited selfies. Photo editing features available on popular social media platforms, such as Snapchat and Instagram, allow users to present themselves in unrealistic ways, thus "blurring the line of reality and fantasy." ...
... That engaging in photo modifications of any kind might reduce cosmetic surgery attitudes is worth noting. Recent work suggests that people are increasingly seeking cosmetic procedures to look like altered forms of themselves (Rajanala et al., 2018). One possible explanation is that the opportunity to digitally modify one's photo might lessen one's desire to undergo major physical modifications offline in the short term. ...
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The present study explores how the construction and distribution of selfies might interact with features of newer media to affect women who share selfies on social media. In particular, this study focuses on how specific types of photo modification and the nature of favorable audience feedback received on one’s images might exert influence on women’s state self-objectification and body image concerns. A 3 × 2 between-subjects lab experiment was conducted to explore how the type of photo modification (appearance modifications, nonappearance modifications, or no modifications [control]) and nature of positive feedback (appearance comments vs. nonappearance comments) affect state self-objectification, state appearance satisfaction, pro-cosmetic surgery attitudes, and willingness to distribute selfies on social media in the future. Results indicate that modifying selfies leads to less appearance satisfaction and lower pro-cosmetic surgery attitudes. Receiving appearance comments on selfies heightens state self-objectification, regardless of the type of photo modification. In addition, the more women self-objectified, the more inclined they were to share similarly objectifying selfies on social media in the future. The findings of this work provide a more comprehensive understanding of how women are impacted by the images they share online.
... Recent research has indicated that selfie editing may be a new vulnerability factor for body image dissatisfaction (Cohen et al. 2018;Tiggemann et al. 2020). Furthermore, the prevalence of photo editing applications significantly affects the field of cosmetic surgery (Rajanala et al. 2018). Reports have shown that some patients bring their own edited and filtered photos and ask surgeons to turn them into reality. ...
... In addition, the use of photo editing applications can encourage inappropriate aesthetics in women, divorce them from reality, and create an improper expectation that they should always appear perfect (Rajanala et al. 2018). This expectation may also prompt some women to choose cosmetic surgery as the most effective and quickest way to bring their bodies closer to a beauty ideal (Zhang and Wen 2017). ...
... These data suggest that young Chinese women who use photo editing apps to edit their selfies are more likely to modify their appearance to make themselves look better. This photo editing technique could lead women to obsess over their improved images and undergo cosmetic surgery to look like filtered versions of themselves (Rajanala et al. 2018). Therefore, we hypothesized that selfie editing will be positively associated with consideration of cosmetic surgery by Chinese female college students (Hypothesis 1). ...
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Research reveals significant positive associations between selfie editing and consideration of cosmetic surgery, yet little is known about why this relationship exists. To address this question, the present study investigated the association between selfie editing and consideration of cosmetic surgery among young Chinese women and the mediating effects of self-objectification and facial dissatisfaction. A sample of 589 Chinese undergraduate women completed measures of selfie editing, self-objectification, facial dissatisfaction, and consideration of cosmetic surgery. Results showed that selfie editing was significantly positively correlated with consideration of cosmetic surgery. Self-objectification and facial dissatisfaction mediated this association along two mediating paths: the separate mediating effects of self-objectification and the serial mediating effects of self-objectification and facial dissatisfaction. Findings from the current study suggest that the use of photo editing applications is a risk factor for young women’s body image concerns and consideration of cosmetic surgery, which supports encouraging women to reduce the use of photo editing applications and indicates insights into possible prevention and intervention programs intended to reduce consideration of cosmetic surgery among women.
... 3 Some studies have shown that the wide spread use of photo editing can negatively affect body satisfaction and self-esteem. [4][5][6][7] However, a few recent studies showed an increase in dermatological care seeking behavior among social media users who edit their photographs. 3,5,8 However, there are a few challenges in countries like Nepal where the disproportionate dermatologist/patient ratio leads to inadequate dermatological services to the general population. ...
... These findings are in concordance with the observation of different studies. [3][4][5][6][7] Moreover; we noted that the majority edited the skin lesion because they felt that their skin looked perfect after editing. Contrary to the present study where embarrassment due to skin lesion was present in less than one-third of the participants, Martel et al reported it as the major reason for photo editing. ...
... Social media and photo-editing application users had lower self-esteem than non-users in the previous study. 6 Surprisingly, almost 90% of our respondents had high self-esteem. ...
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Background: The use of social media and photo-editing practice has grown enormously over the past decades. Photo editing can alter a person's desire to look better in photographs posted on social media platforms. Objective: To assess the cosmetic dermatology seeking behavior of social media users and those who edit photographs before posting them on social media platforms. Methods: A validated self-administered structured questionnaire via Google form was sent to 550 social media users in Nepal. It included 5 sub-headings: use of social networking sites, photo-editing practices, awareness and motivation about cosmetic dermatology care, cosmetic dermatology care seeking behavior and self-esteem. Results: Facebook and Instagram were the preferred social networking sites for posting photographs. One-fourth of the participants edited >40% of the total photos posted in social media. Hiding skin lesions was the most common reason (36.3%) for photograph editing. Fifty percent of the respondents felt the need to look better; repair skin damage; be able to look good without make up; look younger; feel happier and improve total quality of life as a "lot and top" motivation for using the cosmetic dermatological procedures. A majority preferred to seek cosmetic dermatology care from non-dermatologists because they felt dermatologist visit was not needed, the services were costly and they could not visit due to their busy schedule. On multivariate analysis, respondents who were aware of skin care favored seeking cosmetic dermatology care from dermatologists. Conclusion: Higher investment in social media and photo-editing practices might be associated with increased non-dermatologist seeking behavior.
... According to the 2017 annual survey by the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 55% of its members reported having seen patients who wanted to look better in selfies, a substantial increase from previous years. 3 These figures can be primarily attributed to easily accessible photo editing smartphone applications such as FacetuneÔ and social media platforms with photo sharing abilities such as SnapchatÔ and InstagramÔ with inbuilt ''beauty'' filters. Social media statistics show that 74% images posted on Snapchat are selfies with 1000 selfies posted every 10 s on Instagram; globally, 93 million selfies are posted online per day. 4 The popularity of these applications can account for the increase in the number of patients approaching plastic surgeons wanting to look like their altered version. ...
... Social media statistics show that 74% images posted on Snapchat are selfies with 1000 selfies posted every 10 s on Instagram; globally, 93 million selfies are posted online per day. 4 The popularity of these applications can account for the increase in the number of patients approaching plastic surgeons wanting to look like their altered version. 3,5,6 ''Snapchat dysmorphia'' is the term coined to describe this phenomenon. 5,6 Moreover, an individual's level of involvement in social media is associated with negative self-esteem issues, thereby affecting their psychosocial health and also increasing the odds of seeking cosmetic surgery. ...
... 13 Furthermore, prior studies have successfully utilized a web-based survey format to quantify social perception outcomes in facial plastic surgery. 14, 15 Since it has been demonstrated that the distance at which a selfie is taken directly influences the individual's nasal dimensions 16 and the increased trend in cosmetic patients' to look like their filtered selfie version, 3 we included selfies taken with and without filters at a distance of 12 † and 24 † for this study. ...
Article
Background: In light of the current selfie craze, driven primarily by social media platforms, there is an absolute need among facial plastic surgeons to consider the role of these social platforms in patient counseling regarding their cosmetic requirements. Objectives: Is there a difference in how people are perceived when their image is viewed as a selfie as opposed to a digital single lens reflex (DSLR) camera image? This objective was studied by utilizing a web-based survey to explore differences in third-party perceptions, if any, between portrait photograph using a DSLR camera and a selfie. Design, Setting, Participants:: This research was performed via a survey study. Five types of portrait images of a female participant were taken for the survey: (1) image taken with the DSLR camera [a Nikon® D7200 DSLR camera fitted with a Sigma® DG Macro (70 mm 1:2.8) lens] at a distance of 3 ' from the subject, (2) selfie taken with an iPhoneX® at 12″ from the subject with a Snapchat® filter, (3) selfie at 12″ without a Snapchat filter, (4) selfie at 24″ with a Snapchat filter, and (5) selfie at 24″ without a Snapchat filter. Utilizing the Qualtrics survey platform (Qualtrics LLC), questions were based on the five images, where the respondent choose an image each for the youngest, oldest, and "most" or "least" for approachability, attractiveness, confidence, health, feminine, intelligent, and successful. Results: The survey was distributed to 223 respondents aged at least 18 years. Pearson χ2 test found significant differences (p < 0.05) in the distribution of the proportion of responses in 14 out of 16 questions in the survey. The proportion of responses to questions for "youngest" and "most approachable" was highest for selfie at distance 24″ with filter; questions for "most attractive," "most healthy," and "most feminine" were highest for selfie at distance 12″ with filter; those for "oldest," "most confident," "most intelligent," "most successful" and "least approachable," "least attractive," "least healthy," "least feminine," and "least successful" were highest for images taken with a DSLR camera. The only insignificant differences were seen in responses to questions for "least confident" (p = 0.5) and "least intelligent" (p = 0.55). Conclusions: Selfie images with filters are exclusively associated with aesthetic qualities, whereas DSLR images are associated with inherent characteristics of an individual.
... Indeed, some studies [e.g., 3] have shown that social media is one the main sources from which users get information on cosmetic surgery procedures, which are often described as involving few risks and great benefits; Social Network Sites (SNs) are a kind of window through which individuals can look out on the world of surgery. Images-based SNs (e.g., Instagram) allow to digitally enhance one's physical appearance, so that they can be considered a form of virtual cosmetic surgery without irreversible effects for the user [4][5][6][7][8]. The use of these SNs can also favor the perception of a discrepancy, in terms of aesthetic appearance, between the real self and the virtual self, which increases the user's desire to get closer and closer to the self-image proposed on SNs [9,10]. ...
... A survey conducted in 2018 by the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery found that 55% of candidates for cosmetic surgery were motivated to modify their body to get closer to the way they appeared on SNs and to improve their own appearance in content posted online [11]. This growing trend is confirmed by some recent studies [6,8,10]. ...
... Furthermore, as suggested by the authors, through social media, celebrities are increasingly doing more cosmetic surgery marketing work: Indeed, we agree with the authors that several social media celebrities nowadays are actively advertising surgery as a strategy their followers can use to achieve the aesthetic ideal [2,6]. A recent study has found that many patients show the images of celebrities to the surgeons with the request to be able to achieve the aesthetic standards they represent [8]. It is true, there is a growing tendency to include in media contents, such as music videos, the reference to the use of cosmetic surgery. ...
Article
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This response letter highlights the importance for cosmetic surgeons to take a psychosocial perspective, considering the role of social media influences on the acceptance of cosmetic surgery in young women. Furthermore, through this article we have provided a brief overview of possible interventions useful to prevent the negative influences that social media can have on body image and the acceptance of procedures aimed at modifying one's body for purely aesthetic reasons.
... SNSs make it easy for individuals to present their ''best'' selves albeit digitally enhanced [32,33]. It can be argued that photo-bases SNS, like Instagram, are making us lose touch with reality because we expect to look perfectly primped and filtered in real life as well [34]. The use of editing software can alter an individual's perception of one's appearance [35]. ...
... Indeed, several social media celebrities are actively advertising surgery as a strategy their followers can use to achieve the ideal body [75]. Moreover, many people nowadays choose cosmetic surgery as a life changing gift [76] and many patients carry images of celebrities to their consultations to emulate their [34]. Finally, Instagram friends' imagesrelated activities were not significantly related to acceptance of cosmetic surgery directly (Hypothesis 1). ...
... These findings are in line with a recent study showing that the primary reason for women patients seeking cosmetic surgery is the desire to look better in photographs and videos that portray them [36]. This is an alarming trend because filtered selfies often present an unattainable look and are blurring the line of reality and fantasy for these patients [34]. ...
Article
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Background This study aimed to test a model in which Instagram images-based activities related to self, friends, and celebrities were associated with acceptance of cosmetic surgery via Instagram appearance comparison and body dissatisfaction. We predicted that Instagram use for images-related activities involving celebrities and self (but not friends) was associated with acceptance of cosmetic surgery both directly and indirectly. Methods The study participants were 305 Italian women (mean age, 23 years). They completed a questionnaire containing the Instagram Image Activity Scale, the Instagram Appearance Comparison Scale, the Body Shape Questionnaire-14, the Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale. A path analysis was performed in which the Instagram images-based activities were posited as predictors of the Instagram appearance comparison, body dissatisfaction and acceptance of cosmetic surgery, respectively. Results We found that only image-based activities related to celebrities and self were significantly related to acceptance of cosmetic surgery, whereas friends’ Instagram-related activities were not significantly related to this criterion variable. Moreover, the indirect effect of both Instagram self- and celebrities-images activities on acceptance of cosmetic surgery through Instagram appearance comparison and body dissatisfaction was significant. Friends’ Instagram images-related activities were not associated with acceptance of cosmetic surgery. Conclusions Overall, these findings provide information about the role that activities carried out on Instagram, appearance comparison and body dissatisfaction, play on the acceptance of surgery for aesthetic reasons among women. The study highlighted the importance for surgeons to consider some psychological aspects and the influence of sociocultural factors on the interest for cosmetic surgery.
... Dubbed ''Snapchat dysmorphia,'' the influx of patients hoping to look more like their edited selves has caused widespread concern for its potential to trigger body dysmorphic disorder. 3 In 2019, 72% of American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery members reported seeing patients seeking cosmetic procedures to improve their selfies. 4 In addition, higher levels of engagement on social media have shown to correlate with increased body dissatisfaction. ...
... 4 In addition, higher levels of engagement on social media have shown to correlate with increased body dissatisfaction. 3 Unlike the still and filtered selfies of social media, Zoom displays an unedited version of oneself in motion, a self-depiction very few people are used to seeing on a daily basis. This may have drastic effects on body dissatisfaction and desire to seek cosmetic procedures. ...
... Other authors have observed this with rhinoplasty as well. 2 The psychology and neurocognition literature has many experiments that elucidate just how complex our sense of ''self-perception'' really is. 3 Mirror evaluation of our own faces versus those of known friends demonstrates a strong difference in hemispheric cognition. In short, how we see others differs greatly from how we perceive ourselves. ...
... It is likely that disembodied, asynchronous, and often, anonymous SNS environments allow individuals to present their best and ideal self on SNSs through photobased activities, including editing, leading to some individuals problematically overinvest in their online body image (Boursier & Manna, 2018b;Casale & Fioravanti, 2017;Cohen et al., 2018;Bij de Vaate et al., 2018;Fox & Rooney, 2015;Fox & Vendemia, 2016;Lonergan et al., 2019;McLean et al., 2015;Zhao et al., 2008). As Chen et al. (2019) noted, SNSs provide endless opportunities for individuals to share their own best self (often digitally modified and edited) to others, which may alter their perception of beauty and authenticity (Diefenbach & Christoforakos, 2017;Rajanala et al., 2018). ...
... In this regard, females have been found active in manipulating photos and using photographic filters, more than male peers (Chae, 2017;Dhir et al., 2016;McLean et al., 2015McLean et al., , 2019Mingoia et al., 2019). Differently, according to Mascheroni et al. (2015), both male and female adolescents reported commonly editing their pictures (such as smoothing out skin, making body parts smaller or bigger, adding interactive filters), in order to convey an ideal appearance, gain an ideal form of online self-presentation, and receive positive feedback (such as 'likes' or comments) (Boursier & Manna, 2018b;Chae, 2017;Chua & Chang, 2016;Nelson, 2013;Rajanala et al., 2018). In this regard, according to McLean et al. (2019), digital manipulation of photos and their posting on social media might generate social comparison with an ideal, but unrealistic, own and peers' online self-presentation, especially among adolescents. ...
... McLean et al. (2015) defined photo manipulation as the alteration of photo elements (easily available using editing programs or apps), prior to sharing online. According to Mascheroni et al. (2015) both boys and girls commonly report editing their own photos (for example, smoothing out skin, making body parts smaller or bigger, adding filters such as a crown of flowers or puppy ears), before sharing on social networking sites, to convey an ideal appearance and achieve an ideal form of online self-presentation, and to receive positive feedback (such as 'likes' and supportive comments) (Boursier & Manna, 2018b;Chae, 2017;Chua & Chang, 2016;Nelson, 2013;Rajanala et al., 2018). Translation of the measure and subsequent investigation of its psychometric properties will facilitate further research on the antecedents and consequences of photo manipulation, such as appearance monitoring, body concerns and dissatisfaction, self-esteem, self-promotion, and social comparison (e.g., Ahadzadeh et al., 2017;Chae, 2017;Chen et al., 2019;Diefenbach & Christoforakos, 2017;Lyu, 2016;McLean et al., 2019). ...
Article
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‘Selfie practices’ (e.g., editing, filtering, sharing) have become adolescents’ daily behaviors. The increasing centrality of online visual self-presentation might increase adolescents’ appearance-related concerns, problematic monitoring, and photo manipulation (PM). However, few studies focused on body image control in photos (BICP) and PM, and no studies evaluated the influence of selfie-expectancies on photo-taking and photo-editing. Consequently, two studies were conducted. Study1 psychometrically evaluated the PM scale (N = 1353). Study2 evaluated the mediating role of BICP and the moderating role of gender in the relationship between selfie-expectancies and PM (N = 453). The revised PM scale showed good psychometric properties. BICP mediated the relationship between selfie-expectancies and PM and being male significantly affected the relationship between the variables. Implications for adolescents’ appearance-related issues are discussed.
... The use of, and popularity of apps that highlight changes in facial appearance has risen in the past decade [18], with built in editing features available in most social media platforms such as Instagram and Snapchat [19]. Also, the industry for apps that monitor and promote health is constantly developing [20]. ...
... Developments in age-progression interventions continue to grow internationally in patient centered health settings [9,14] and in schools [12,21,22]. It has been over a decade since Grogan et al.'s [16] qualitative investigation into the experiences of women engaging with an age-progression intervention for smoking, and the popularity of face ageing and face changing apps [18] and use of other health technologies has risen. In light of this, a new exploration of the experience of ageprogression interventions is timely in order to better inform how the intervention can be best communicated in healthcare settings moving forward. ...
... Through qualitative analysis, four themes were identified that inform our understanding of 19-52 year old women's experiences of an ageprogression intervention for smoking cessation; 'Health versus Appearance', 'Shock Reaction', 'Perceived Susceptibility' and 'Intention to Quit'. The current study presents novel findings exploring women smokers' experiences of the intervention in a new era of facial aging technology where appearance-focused (embedded into apps such as Instagram) and health technologies are becoming increasingly common [18,20]. Importantly, 'Health versus Appearance' is a theme that has not been identified in previous research on age-progression interventions for smoking. ...
Article
Objectives Appearance-related interventions to promote healthy behaviour have been found effective to communicate health risks. The current study aimed to explore women smokers' experiences of age-progression software showing the effects of smoking on the face. Methods A qualitative design was implemented, utilizing both individual interviews and focus groups within a critical realist framework. Fifteen, 19–52 year-old women smokers were administered an age-progression intervention. All participants responded to the intervention, engaged in semi-structured interviews, and were invited back to attend one of three focus groups. Data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Results Four main themes were identified: Health versus Appearance, Shock Reaction, Perceived Susceptibility, and Intention to Quit. Participants found the intervention useful, voicing need for a comprehensive approach that includes both appearance and health. Despite increases in appearance-based apps which could diminish impact, women's accounts of shock induced by the aged smoking-morphed images were similar to previous work conducted more than ten years previously. Conclusions The study provides novel insights in how women smokers currently perceive, and react to, an age-progression intervention for smoking cessation. Innovation Findings emphasise the implementation of this intervention type accompanied by health information in a range of patient settings.
... It has also led to the emergence of an intriguing new type of body image distortion, coined "Snapchat dysmorphia" (SD) by British cosmetic doctor Tijion Esho. An increasing number of professionals report cases of SD where patients are seeking cosmetic procedures to improve the way they look on selfies (Rajanala et al. 2018). Data collected by the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (AAFPRS) through its 2017 annual survey show that the number of surgeons who reported being consulted for such requests has increased by 13% in only two years, rising from 42% in 2015 to 55% in 2017 (American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 2018). ...
... Given the following explanatory model, it was perhaps to be expected that this democratization of filters would have an effect on the body image and self-esteem of heavy users of photosharing social networks, especially among the younger generations. As Rajanala et al. (2018) note, the 2017 AAFPRS survey shows that pictures of surgical procedures and their results are shared more and more on social media and that the increased scrutiny of selfies has changed the concerns of patients: for instance, whereas rhinoplasty was previously sought to correct bumps on the dorsum of the nose, " [t] oday, nasal and facial asymmetry is the more common presenting concern" (Rajanala et al. 2018, p. E1). One reason for such requests is simple, albeit unknown to most: photos taken from a short distance give rise to a perceived nasal distortion, called "the selfie effect". ...
Article
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Advances in artificial intelligence, as well as its increased presence in everyday life, have brought the emergence of many new phenomena, including an intriguing appearance of what seems to be a variant of body dysmorphic disorder, coined “Snapchat dysmorphia”. Body dysmorphic disorder is a DSM-5 psychiatric disorder defined as a preoccupation with one or more perceived defects or flaws in physical appearance that are not observable or appear slight to others. Snapchat dysmorphia is fueled by automated selfie filters that reflect unrealistic sociocultural standard. In this paper, we discuss how body dysmorphic disorder and related body image distortions could arise, using the conceptual resources provided by the active inference framework. We suggest that these disorders involve dysfunctional self-modelling which entails maladaptive internalization of sociocultural preferences during adolescent identity formation. Identity formation is hereby described as cycles of interpersonal active inference that arbitrate between identity exploration and commitment. We propose that impaired self-modelling is unable to reduce interpersonal uncertainty during identity exploration, which, over time, degenerates into uncontrollable epistemic habits that isolate the body image from corrective sensory evidence. In light of these insights, we subsequently explore some of the consequences of image-centered social media platforms on the identity formation process. We conclude that heightened interpersonal uncertainty in this novel context could precipitate the onset of body dysmorphic disorder and related body image distortions, particularly when selfie filters are involved.
... Links between analytic thinking style and a desire to undergo cosmetic procedures may be strengthened by social media, as filters and editing software often involve a focus on or changes to a specific body part. For example, scientists have even dubbed the negative effects of selfie filters on self-concept "Snapchat dysmorphia" (Rajanala et al., 2018). Other work has looked at the relation between the use of editing tools and preferences for cosmetic procedures; people who utilize filters on applications like Snapchat and Tinder tend to have higher acceptance ratings of cosmetic procedures in general (Chen et al., 2019). ...
Article
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The world of cosmetic surgery offers a variety of procedures designed to “enhance” specific body parts. While some consumers are adamantly against such procedures, others seem inherently drawn to them. What type of consumer is most likely to undergo cosmetic procedures? The current research examines whether individual differences in holistic and analytic thinking affect preferences for cosmetic procedures. Across 5 behavioral and eye-tracking studies, we find that analytic thinking increases openness to cosmetic procedures. Analytic thinking leads to a hyper-focusing effect that drives dissatisfaction with certain body parts, which increases the likelihood of endorsing and undergoing procedures to alter that particular body part. Marketing and consumer-related implications for these effects are provided.
... For example, when taking selfies, individuals consistently adopt their favorite pose to look better (Lindell 2017) and take many versions of the same selfie (Suler 2015). Filtered selfies are popular worldwide and changing the social perceptions of beauty because celebrity-level perfection, such as bigger eyes and whiter skin, is allowed for everyone (Rajanala et al. 2018). Even when individuals have no intention to post selfies, their selfie taking and editing still influence personal importance of appearance. ...
Article
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Selfies are related to dissatisfaction with appearance, but interestingly, selfies also predict positive evaluation about appearance (e.g., narcissism). In addition, selfie effects on appearance were examined only at the personal level. This paper investigated appearance-related effects of selfies among Asian women both at the personal and societal level while controlling for individuals’ perception of own appearance to see selfie effects regardless of (dis)satisfaction with appearance. At the personal level, acceptance of cosmetic surgery (ACS) was chosen as the outcome because cosmetic surgery is the most drastic means of personal transformation. At the societal level, acceptance of lookism (AL), discrimination based on appearance, was adopted because it shows social orientation toward beauty. Study 1 (N = 501), conducted among Singaporean women, found that selfie taking directly predicts ACS and also indirectly influences ACS through appearance comparison. However, indirect effects were not significant in the high self-esteem group (top 27.65%). Study 2, with longitudinal data (N = 941 at Wave 1 and 653 at Wave 2) collected from South Korean women, found that selfie taking and editing are first associated with appearance orientation, meaning the personal importance of appearance, at Wave 1, and such increased attention positively predicts AL, the societal importance of appearance, at Wave 2. No direct effects were found. The results suggest that selfies are associated with appearance-related beliefs both at the personal and societal level regardless of one’s perception of own appearance, but there are individual differences and underlying mechanisms.
... This trend has been termed "snapchat dysmorphia." Filtered images "blurring the line of reality and fantasy, could be triggering body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), a mental health condition where people become fixated on imagined defects in their appearance" [19]. ...
... Similar to "Snapchat dysmorphia" recently, which suggests that people sought cosmetic surgery to look more attractive in selfies, the demands of dynamic aesthetic will definitely increase in the future. 5 It is universally acknowledged that facial expressions are a delicate and compound movement driven by a series of muscles. Among these, the dilator naris anterior, levator labii superioris alaeque nasi (LLSAN), dilator naris vestibularis (DNV), and dilator naris (DN) play an important part in alar movement. ...
Article
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Background With wide spread of instant social media, people desire a minimal invasive treatment to improve alar dynamic aesthetic but seldom practical procedures on reducing alar mobility have been conducted. Objectives This study aimed to verify effects of botulinum toxin on reducing nasal alar mobility and provide a supplemental treatment of rhinoplasty. Methods This single-blind and prospective study included a cohort of 20 participants with the desires of improving alar dynamic aesthetic. Experimental group was injected 3U botulinum toxin type A (Lanzhou Institute of Biological Products Ltd, Lanzhou, Gansu, China) at dilator naris anterior, dilator naris vestibularis, levator labii superioris alaeque nasi and dilator naris, while control group were received equivalent saline. Standardized facial movement (from rest to maximum smile without revealing teeth) was recorded by three-dimensional imaging system. The changes between rest and maximum simile statuses represented alar mobility and generate by: MOBILITY=WIDTHsmile-WIDTHrestWIDTHrest×100%. Alar mobility and RMS (Root mean square) analysis were used for postoperative evaluations. Results In experimental group, alar flaring mobility decreased from 10.05±6.40% to 4.91±3.48% (P<0.05) and alar base mobility decreased from 16.83±5.69% to 12.50±4.89% (P<0.05) while no significant changes of alar mobility were found in control group. In RMS analysis, changes in experiment group were significantly higher than control group (P<0.05). Conclusions Botulinum toxin type A can effectively restrain alar mobility without any significant adverse events and improve alar dynamic esthetic, which can serve as minimal invasive method or supplemental treatment for rhinoplasty.
... With broadly spread of social media, alar dynamic aesthetic is getting more and more important than ever because instant interactions like live streaming, vlogs and so on require not only static but also dynamic facial aesthetic. Similar to ''Snapchat dysmorphia'' in past few years, which meant people sought plastic surgery to look better in selfies [17], the needs for dynamic aesthetic will come to trend in the future. However, there is still academic blank in this filed. ...
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Aim: The aim of this study is to conduct a quantitative analysis on alar mobility of HAN females and provided referenced materials for alar dynamic aesthetic. Methods: One hundred and fifty healthy HAN females without rhinoplasty, nasal injury, nasal deformity and craniofacial deformity were included in this study. 3dMD surface imaging system was used for anthropometric analysis. All participants were instructed to perform the desired dynamic facial expression from rest to maximum smile without reveling teeth and recorded by 3dMD dynamic surface imaging system simultaneously. Two frames of rest status and alar maximum enlargement were selected for measuring alar width, alar base width and inner-canthal distance. The difference between two status represented alar mobility, which was generated through equation: [Formula: see text]. Results: Alar mobility consisted of alar flaring mobility and alar base mobility. The alar flaring mobility was (9.49 ± 4.90)%, reference range was(1.45, 17.53)% and regression equation between rest and maximum smile was Y = 7.953 + 0.886X (R2 = 0.641, p = 0.000); the alar base mobility was (17.94 ± 10.44)%, reference range was (0.88, 35.00)% and regression equation between rest and maximum smile was Y = 4.481 + 0.966X (R2 = 0.528, p = 0.000. Conclusion: Asian alar anatomy has great distinction from Caucasian, processing conspicuous alar movement and damaging alar aesthetic dynamically. This study novelly defined alar mobility by three-dimensional anthropometric analysis, providing objective references for alar dynamic aesthetic and arousing plastic surgeons' attention on keeping balance of static and dynamic aesthetic in rhinoplasty. Level of evidence iv: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
... Patients brought their edited selfies to their aesthetic physicians, requesting "edits" to their appearance sometimes beyond the scope of even advanced plastic surgery (Ozgur et al, 2017). This phenomenon, referred to as "Snapchat dysmorphia," has caused widespread concern for its potential to trigger or worsen body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) (Rajanala et al, 2018). ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has seen a massive shift towards virtual living, with video-conferencing now a primary means of communication for both work and social events. Individuals are finding themselves staring at their own video reflection often for hours a day, scrutinizing a distorted image on screen and developing a negative self-perception. This survey study of over 100 board-certified dermatologists across the country elucidates a new problem of “Zoom Dysmorphia” where patients are seeking cosmetic procedures in order to improve their distorted appearance on video-conferencing calls.
... 30,31 Software apps which use AI such as Snapchat have created a new perception of beauty by making photo-editing technology readily available to the public. 32 Users can alter their appearance into an unattainable aesthetic. Increasingly people request cosmetic surgery to emulate the filtered versions of themselves, 33 which has been linked to deteriorating mental health and body dysmorphic disorder. ...
Article
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Introduction An increasing quantity of data is required to guide precision medicine and advance future healthcare practices, but current analytical methods often become overwhelmed. Artificial intelligence (AI) provides a promising solution. Plastic surgery is an innovative surgical specialty expected to implement AI into current and future practices. It is important for all plastic surgeons to understand how AI may affect current and future practice, and to recognise its potential limitations. Methods Peer-reviewed published literature and online content were comprehensively reviewed. We report current applications of AI in plastic surgery and possible future applications based on published literature and continuing scientific studies, and detail its potential limitations and ethical considerations. Findings Current machine learning models using convolutional neural networks can evaluate breast mammography and differentiate benign and malignant tumours as accurately as specialist doctors, and motion sensor surgical instruments can collate real-time data to advise intraoperative technical adjustments. Centralised big data portals are expected to collate large datasets to accelerate understanding of disease pathogeneses and best practices. Information obtained using computer vision could guide intraoperative surgical decisions in unprecedented detail and semi-autonomous surgical systems guided by AI algorithms may enable improved surgical outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. Surgeons must collaborate with computer scientists to ensure that AI algorithms inform clinically relevant health objectives and are interpretable. Ethical concerns such as systematic biases causing non-representative conclusions for under-represented patient groups, patient confidentiality and the limitations of AI based on the quality of data input suggests that AI will accompany the plastic surgeon, rather than replace them.
... People are using cosmetics at an increasingly younger age, while their expectations of beauty are often shaped by digitally altered images. Researchers talk about "snapchat dysmorphia," the younger generation being susceptible to excessive preoccupation with perceived flaws in appearance (Fried et al., 2020;Rajanala et al., 2018). Using digitally enhanced images created via "photoshopping" and now easily accessible selfie-editing technology, the skin care industry capitalizes on such trends. ...
Article
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Purpose Marketers of beauty products capitalize on consumers’ perception of beauty to enact a price placebo effect through setting high prices to insinuate a superior performing product. Yet, in the context of growing alternative beauty movements emphasizing inner beauty and self-acceptance, little is known on how the effect of price on a product’s perceived effectiveness and satisfaction is bounded by different modes of beauty conceptualization (BC). Hence, this study aims to investigate how distinct perceptions of beauty impact the effectiveness-based and satisfaction-based price placebo effects in Muslim-majority markets such as Turkey compared to markets largely driven by Western values such as New Zealand. Design/methodology/approach This research is based on a quasi-experimental factorial design based on the manipulation of the level of price for a beauty product and the observation of the extent of BC. The sample included 144 participants from Turkey and 147 participants from New Zealand. Findings This research finds that the manipulation of the price (low vs high) equally activates the effectiveness-centered price placebo effect in both countries. When expectations are taken into account, the (satisfaction-based) price placebo effect is non-existent in New Zealand, while in Turkey the higher price leads to an opposite effect: a significant decrease in satisfaction. It is also found that the effect of price on effectiveness is moderated by BC. In both countries, the price placebo effect is activated only when consumers narrowly conceptualize beauty, while this effect does not hold for broad conceptualizers. The effect of BC on the price placebo appears to be stronger in New Zealand in comparison to Turkey. Practical implications Marketing managers’ awareness of different perceptions of beauty and how these may influence the price placebo effect in different cultures would allow them to decide what strategies are most appropriate for different groups of customers. For example, by pursuing the movement toward inner beauty and its broad conceptualization, high-end brands are likely to compromise opportunities to capitalize on the price placebo effect. On the other hand, this alternative perspective may cultivate profound satisfaction in the long-term. Social implications The price placebo effect disappears when people conceptualize beauty from a broad (inner) perspective. This suggests that public policymakers, to counteract the negative effects of misleading marketing and to create fair exchanges, must promote broad BC in society. Originality/value This study contributes to the body of the existing research on price placebo by offering unique insights into the boundary conditions of the price placebo effect underscored by BC in two distinct cultural-religious settings. Also, it proposes two different variations of price placebo, namely, effectiveness-centered vs satisfaction-centered. From a methodological point of view, it is the first project in the Islamic marketing discipline that applies the Islamic perspective on causality.
... Although consumers as well as cosmetic surgeons have long described the goal of aesthetic surgery as the production of an "improved" but still "natural-looking" body, several empirical studies have demonstrated that "the artificial" has become increasingly prevalent within consumers' narratives of surgical enhancement. For example, in woman's desire for artificial breasts that look "too good to be real" (Gimlin, 2013) or in youngsters who try to look like their digitally filtered Instagram selfies through cosmetic surgery (Rajanala et al., 2018). In deliberately accentuating the artificially enhanced body, aesthetic "fakery" is celebrated instead of concealed or problematized. ...
Article
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Essentialists understand authenticity as an inherent quality of a person, object, artifact, or place, whereas constructionists consider authenticity as a social creation without any pre-given essence, factuality, or reality. In this paper, we move beyond the essentialist-constructionist dichotomy. Rather than focusing on the question whether authenticity can be found or needs to be constructed, we hook into the idea that authenticity is an interactive, culturally informed process of negotiation . In addition to essentialist and constructionist approaches, we discuss a third, less well-known approach that cannot be reduced to any of the two forms. This approach celebrates the authenticity of inauthenticity by amplifying the made. We argue that the value of (in)authenticity lies not in choosing for one of these approaches, but in the degree to which the process of negotiating authenticity enables a critical formation of selves and societies. Authenticity is often invoked as a method of social control or a mark of power relations: once something is defined as authentic, it is no longer questioned. Emerging technologies—especially data-driven technologies—have the capacity to conceal these power relations , propel a shift in power, and dominate authentication processes. This raises the question how processes of authentication can contribute to a critical formation of selves and societies, against the backdrop of emerging technologies. We argue in favor of an interactionist approach of authenticity and discuss the importance of creating space in authentication processes that are increasingly influenced by technology as an invisible actor.
... New mobile apps provide the general public access to methods that can alter or 'filter' their own appearance in photos (Aubusson, 2018). Recently, an association has been claimed between photo-enhancing mobile apps and an increase in the number of individuals seeking cosmetic surgery to improve their appearance based on their filtered photographs (Rajanala, Maymone & Vashi, 2018). Hence, it appears that these factors-patient desires, body image issues, and commercialisation in medicine-combine to foster the view that beauty concerns should potentially be considered as medical concerns. ...
Thesis
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My dissertation critically examines the practice of pathologising ugliness in cosmetic surgery. ‘Pathologising ugliness’ refers to the use of disease language and medical processes to foster and support the claim that undesirable features are pathological conditions requiring medical or surgical intervention. The first four chapters offer a conceptual analysis of the conflation of health and aesthetic norms that potentially contributes to pathologising ugliness. The conceptual analysis is based on competing philosophical accounts of health, disease, beauty and ugliness. The final two chapters offer a critique of the practice by using Daniel Callahan’s goals of medicine as an ethical framework. I argue that aesthetic judgments, which underpin the pathologisation of ugliness, fail at establishing robust processes of disease determination, standard diagnostic evaluation and legitimate clinical indications. Furthermore, I contend that the practice of pathologising ugliness, which relies on prejudicial standards of beauty, legitimises oppressive attitudes based on sex, race and disability. Thus, my analysis shows that pathologising ugliness raises ethical conflicts that ultimately undermine the goals of medicine.
... In cosmetic surgery over half of the posts are self-promotional nature, and the health care provider appear more trustworthy and honest. Vulnerable people may be exploited if doctors recommend specific brand or their own brand [38] . ...
Article
The widespread adoption of smartphones and other mobile devices amongst healthcare providers opened new possibilities arising from the use of non-medical apps, social media, meeting platforms, and non-medical devices with intended medical purposes, thus expanding the communication and imaging chat systems between these professionals and their patients, as well as among healthcare professionals. However, adapting non-medical applications, social media, videoconference platforms and devices for medical use present potential limitations, barriers, and risks, which should be fully recognized to reduce crossing the fine line between ethical and unethical. In the herein study, we analyse the ethical limits, coverage, and validation of non-medical applications adapted for medical use. Level of evidence: IV (evidence from well-designed case-control or cohort studies).
... Crucially though, virtually modifying one's appearance can impact how users feel about themselves and consequently their mental wellbeing Lee & Lee, 2021). A related phenomenon is "Selfie dysmorphia," where consumers experience negative self-esteem issues and perceived body distortion when visually enhancing selfies (Rajanala, Maymone, & Vashi, 2018). This can be exacerbated by AR filters, as virtual modification occurs in real-time and is more realistic. ...
Article
Augmented reality (AR) filters are a popular social media feature affording users a variety of visual effects. Despite their widespread use, no research to date has examined either ‘why’ people use them (i.e., motivations) or ‘how’ their usage makes people feel (i.e., well-being effects). Through the uses and gratifications theory supported by a sequential mixed-method approach (interviews N = 10 and survey N = 536), we provide three overarching contributions. First, based on prior literature and a qualitative study, we identify nine motivations that can potentially drive AR face filter usage on Instagram. Our survey indicates that seven of those motivations (e.g., creative content curation, social interactions) are significant drivers of usage behaviours, while two (true self-presentation and silliness) did not have a significant impact. Second, we provide nuanced insights into the multi-faceted nature of the self-presentation motives underpinning AR face filter use (ideal, true and transformed self-presentation). Lastly, we show filter usage can have both positive and negative well-being effects depending on the underlying motivation. The results offer important implications for policymakers, site designers and social media managers.
... Alarm has been expressed about this tendency, one report indicating, "This is an alarming trend because those filtered selfies often present an unattainable look and are blurring the line of reality and fantasy for these patients." [11] Wang et al [12] explored the relationships between self-esteem, body satisfaction and the posting of selfies in a group of Chinese female undergraduates. As with the present study, the researchers concluded that a firm association exists between satisfaction with one's bodily appearance and selfie-posting behavior. ...
... Research has demonstrated that women who are prone to engage in unfavorable appearance comparisons report greater appearance dissatisfaction and higher motivation to change aspects related to their face, hair, and skin, but not their weight . Indeed, data from a recent trend study show that the number of surgeons with patients undergoing cosmetic procedures to improve their appearance in selfies quadrupled from 13% in 2015 to 55% in 2017, with the greatest increase of patients occurring among adolescents and young adults (Rajanala et al., 2018). This escalation parallels the increased use of social media in this demographic (Pew Research Center, 2019). ...
Article
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Introduction. Social media use (SMU) and body image concerns are highly prevalent in youth. Although several studies have shown that high SMU is cross-sectionally associated with lower body esteem, experimental evidence is lacking. This pilot study experimentally evaluated the effects of reducing SMU on body esteem among transitional aged youth (TAY) with emotional distress. Methods. Thirty-eight undergraduate students presenting with elevated symptoms of anxiety/depression were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 16), where SMU was restricted to 60 minutes/day, or to the control group (n = 22), where SMU was not restricted. SMU was monitored via screen-time trackers in participants’ smartphone submitted daily during baseline (1-week) and intervention (3-week) periods. Baseline and post-intervention measurements were taken to assess appearance and weight esteem as well as symptoms of anxiety and depression as secondary outcomes. Results. A significant group × time interaction emerged indicating that the intervention participants showed a significantly greater increase in appearance esteem over the 4 weeks compared to controls. There was no significant between-group difference on change in weight esteem. A significant group × time interaction emerge on anxiety indicating that intervention participants showed a significantly greater improvement in anxiety over the study period compared to controls. There was no significant between-group difference on change in depressive symptoms. Discussion. Reducing SMU may be a feasible and effective method of improving appearance esteem and reducing anxiety in a high-risk population of TAY with emotional distress; however, more high-quality randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm findings.
... The digital marketplace supports these practices through the rise of mobile applications and software programmes to virtually augment one's image to be viewed. Beauty apps like FaceTune and Adobe Photoshop Express digitally afford consumers the tools to perfect their appearance, using technological filters, creating a source of visual capital (Gill 2019;Rajanala, Maymone, and Vashi 2018). All of these aesthetic practices are gendered, shaped by the cultural standards of beauty. ...
... They foster an expectation of constant availability, as well as suggesting who to date, which music to listen to and what to read (Turkle, 2008). The proliferation of the "selfie" culture has raised concerns about pursuing unrealistic standards of beauty, while new medical and social norms appear to foster a fit with the new sociotechnical practices (Rajanala et al., 2018). Technologies, thus, while being the fruits of human creativity, manifest not merely as neutral tools but also as productive elements in co-shaping how people perceive the world, each other and themselves. ...
Article
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This paper explores the productive role that social network platforms such as Facebook, play in the practice of memory-making. While such platforms facilitate interaction across distance and time, they also solidify human self-expression and memory-making by systematically confronting the users with their digital past. By relying on the framework of postphenomenology, the analysis will scrutinize the mediating role of the Memories feature of Facebook, powered by recurring algorithmic scheduling and devoid of meaningful context. More specifically, it will show how this technological infrastructure mediates the concepts of memory, control and space, evoking a specific interpretation of the values of time, remembering and forgetting. As such, apart from preserving memories, Facebook appears as their co-producer, guiding the users in determining the criteria for remembering and forgetting. The paper finishes with suggestions on how to critically appropriate the memory-making features of social network platforms that would both enable their informed use and account for their mediating role in co-shaping good memories.
... Our social media world has also caused a decrease in self-esteem. [3][4][5] Many articles refer to "Snapchat dysmorphia" and "Zoom dysphoria" as subtypes to body dysmorphic disorders. These dysphorias can be triggered by excessive staring and self-reflecting on distorted images of ourselves. ...
... | INTRODUC TI ON 3,4 Patients with complaints related to BDD experienced symptoms of anxiety and depression. In this pandemic, anxiety connected with the COVID-19 era and the closure of dermatologic clinics might incommode BDD patients seeking expert opinions. ...
Article
Introduction: COVID-19 related anxiety and preventative actions like the widespread shutdown of beauty-related services emerged as a stressful condition for BDD patients seeking expert opinions. Material and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional investigation to assess anxiety symptoms (by CDAS) and BDD (via BDD-YBOCS questionnaire) in patients referred to the aesthetic clinic. Results: A total of 120 individuals (106 females and 14 males; mean age: 45.53±11.84) were evaluated. 13.3% of subjects were diagnosed with BDD; 79.2%, 17.5%, and 3.3% of them perceived none or mild, moderate, and severe symptoms of anxiety, respectively. Conclusion: Anxiety was not connected with BDD in our investigation. Further evaluation of other psychiatric disorders associated with anxiety and BDD was recommended.
... Social media influence on the perception of beauty is undeniable; from filtered selfies to stories and reels, social media plays a vital role in shaping body image. 7 The heavily edited images posted on social media most often portray an unrealistic and unattainable reality. Health professionals are concerned that viewing heavily edited images in social media can create a sense of body dysmorphia in the viewers, especially as the viewers are unaware that they are looking at a distorted reality. ...
... Academics are called to make an impact through ongoing research to help understand and mitigate known and unknown psychological problems that will arise in the Metaverse. Potential research avenues include continuing to understand how users can be manipulated in advertisement scenarios [14,24], what physical properties of agents and avatars are likely to have psychological influence over users [39], how risky behaviors translate from real to virtual scenarios [7], and the overall psychological impact of digital interaction in the Metaverse that will translate into the daily lives of users (think how augmented images affect self-esteem [11,31]). There are many positive impacts that interaction with digital humans can have, and it is up to bring about an ethical iteration of the Metaverse. ...
Article
Each year, researchers and technologists are bringing the vision of the Metaverse, which is predicted to be the future of the internet, closer to becoming a reality. People will spend most of their time in this space interacting face-to-face, so to speak, with highly customizable digital avatars that seamlessly convey precise non-verbal cues from the physical movements of the users themselves. This is an exciting prospect; however, there are many privacy and security concerns that arise from this new form of interaction. Precision motion tracking is required to drive high-fidelity animation, and this affords a mass of data that has never been available before. This data provides a wealth of physical and psychological information that can reveal medical conditions, mental disorders, personality, emotion, personal identity, and more. In this paper, we discuss some implications of the availability of this data, with a focus on the psychological manipulation and coercion capabilities made available by it.
Article
Background Photo‐editing has become popular for individuals using social media like Instagram. However, it is unknown if the use of social media and photo‐editing applications by young adults has an association with seeking dermatologic care. Objective To assess the frequency of photo‐editing among a cohort of young adults using Instagram and the association with seeking dermatologic care. Methods A population‐based survey was administered to undergraduate students from April 2019 to May 2019 through an online platform. Results Of the 257 responses, 228 (88.7%) reported that they edited a photo prior to posting on Instagram. Of those who reported editing a photo, 145 (63.6%) edited a skin lesion, 104 (45.6%) whitened teeth, and 70 (30.7%) altered the size of their body. Of those who edited skin lesions, 128 (88.3%) edited acne/acne scars. Those who felt the editing made them more aware of their skin lesions were significantly more likely to feel they needed to see a dermatologist (p=0.02, 95% CI). Conclusion Photo‐editing is common among young adults using Instagram, especially in individuals with acne/acne scars. The effect of this behavior may be a motivating factor for individuals seeking dermatologic care.
Article
Health and wellness have become a cultural focus in Western countries, with weight-management highlighted as imperative for wellbeing. This focus is clearly represented on social networking sites (SNSs), which have grown rapidly in the past decade, and have evolved into an informal source of health education. A great deal of content on SNSs promotes images of idealised bodies, health foods, diets, and exercise, which receive high levels of engagement. Concern has risen that increased SNS use may be influencing mental health, contributing to body image concerns, eating disorders, and psychological distress. Further criticism has emerged that health and wellness content which promotes weight-management may be based on flawed assumptions, and therefore have unintended consequences, such as recurrent cycles of weight loss and regain, chronic stress, exercise avoidance, and depression. The health at every size (HAES) paradigm offers an alternative approach to addressing health, which encourages self-acceptance, intuitive eating, and life-enhancing movement. The present review examines the literature on social media use, body image, and eating disorders in Western cultures. Assumptions which underlie health and wellness content are critically evaluated and the current literature on HAES is explored as a modern approach to health promotion.
Conference Paper
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New technologies and dazzling features have experienced a marginal rise with every new technological component designed. However, it has lost its validity and level of influence for different reasons in its usage processes. Many reasons such as loss of impact level, getting used to the new, new expectations, usability factors, not reaching the expected satisfaction in the level of visual competence satisfaction and the interest towards the next new are known external losses of the new technology in the process. Each technology has social orientations and influence in social life beyond individual expectations. The age of technology we are in is influenced at the maximum level by existing factors in terms of being a social dominant age. In this respect, socio-dominant societies do not consist of local small groups and direct a global social-audience. The transformation of traditional media into social age took place parallel to the emergence of Web 2.0. Social media and developing mobile technologies and ways of using media tools have also been transformed and connected the societies to a global framework with the innovations it brings. Multidisciplinary studies examine the emerging social changes from different perspectives and work on the negative / positive outputs of the changes in the axis of results. Beyond its scientific fields of study, art addresses senses and perceptions. It stimulates the senses of the society and the individual by feeding on social facts and concerns. This study is based on the multidisciplinary perspective on the study of the above mentioned new media - new technologies and artistic works produced through the new social society. Nowadays, when we witness the shift of the new culture created over a social fantasy to an anti-social ground, it examines how real the social reality is. It questions the reality of the hyper-real identities created through the platforms where individuals act as 'as if'. Does the created fantasy turn into a dystopia? Do social media identities drag individuals into an anti-social channel? Is the increase of dystopic social-media themes processed especially in the films produced in recent years only a result of anxiety? The study offers reviews and examples through films, animations and social media studies in which social media are addressed in terms of individuals, societies and future perspectives. Artistic works produced on the basis of different topics such as social media addiction, sociological and psychological effects, personality disorder are examined. Reference is made to the messages given by many topics such as violation of privacy, individual relations, virtual harassment, cyberbullying, and virtual violence that arise with the misuse of social media. Apart from the conceptual context, the anti-social themes covered in the studies were examined with artistic components such as visual language, color, texture, and the level of visual perception desired to be created with the given message was compared. As a result, this study, which deals with new inequalities in the new media in the social-media axis, reveals a critical social-media picture by examining the negative effects of mass-intensive media environments on societies through artistic works.
Chapter
This paper analyzes the so-called “augmented reality filters” (ARF), a technology that makes it possible to produce and spread widely on social media a particular type of video selfies that are manipulated live while filming – for example, by modifying the somatic characters of the producer’s face. The first part of the paper analyzes ARFs in the light of a socio-semiotics of dispositives. This approach makes it possible to identify three interconnected aspects of ARFs: their technological consistency, which is closer to mixed reality than to augmented reality; their socio-psychological uses, and in particular personal identity construction through body image manipulation; and finally, their economic-political implications, linked to face recognition and social surveillance. The second part of the paper focuses on the marketing uses of ARFs and, in particular, on branded ARFs transforming users’ faces. In these cases, the radical involvement of brands in defining the identity of users requires a profound rethinking of the mechanisms of trust that bind them to consumers.
Article
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a serious and debilitating psychiatric condition that disproportionately presents in dermatologic and cosmetic surgery patients. BDD is currently underrecognized in cosmetic medical settings and is thought to be underdiagnosed by behavioral health professionals. The significant comorbidities associated with this disorder, as well as potential harm done to both patient and physician, raise ethical and medicolegal concerns regarding its treatment. While cosmetic interventions have historically been discouraged in BDD, recent studies have provided controversial evidence of benefit in certain cohorts. The rise of “snapchat dysmorphia” and the proposed explanatory phenomenon of perception drift have generated further debate around the de novo development or unmasking of BDD. We critically review and summarize existing debates around the treatment of BDD in cosmetic medicine. We provide guidance for screening, clinical interviewing, and the provision of psychoeducation in cases of suspected BDD.
Chapter
Body image dissatisfaction (BID) is a common and longstanding phenomenon in society. Originally introduced in 1985 by Rodin et al., the term “normative discontent” summarizes that this dissatisfaction is widespread and often present in women of all age groups. With increasing exposure to mass media and social media usage, we are seeing a new phenomenon dubbed “social dysmorphia” – an excessive preoccupation with the body and beauty ideals present on media platforms, which may act as a trigger for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). It is important for those who practice aesthetic medicine to be aware of the phenomenon of social dysmorphia and understand patients’ motivation for seeking cosmetic procedures. Though more research on the effect of social media on BDD is needed, clinicians need to understand its implications to better counsel patients and assess whether cosmetic procedures are warranted.
Article
The evolution of communication parallels shifts in anthropologic time periods. The Stone Age witnessed the birth of human language; the Industrial Age had the telephone. The advent of social media is the communicative paradigm shift of the Digital Age. In true globalist fashion, social media transgresses against traditional sociodemographic borders: it unites us all under one global banner. Chief among the domains of life that social media influences is medicine given our evolutionary drive for self-preservation.
Chapter
The Internet has heralded a new era of information technology and facilitated communication through different platforms. Several governments, organizations, and individuals recognize that social media has yielded significant advantages to their practices and easily delivers their messages. For the first time in their history, some governments and businesses offer jobs related to the social media landscape, such as Social Media Specialist, due to the technological and information revolution. Certainly, social media enables its users to distribute information and reach a mass audience irrespective of their geographic and demographic boundaries. Therefore, social media could breed new challenges when misused and exploited in dispensing rumors and misleading facts to the public, especially in crises. This chapter aims to underscore social media's existence and how it paves the way to smooth the flow of information and communication worldwide. By employing social media tools in their practices, both governments and businesses witness exceptional outcomes and acknowledge that social media laid the foundation for more effective communication. This chapter will also highlight social media’s disadvantages in increasing false information and inadequate facts that drive more uncertainty, sadness, anger, and lack of confidence among the public. It will also address the concept of crisis in general and focus on crisis management and crisis communication. Moreover, some countries will clarify the actions relevant to information filtering via prohibiting some popular websites and social media platforms. Furthermore, it will identify how governments and businesses deal with rumors in crisis, for example, COVID-19 outbreak, wars, financial scandals, business interruptions, and the like. Finally, the chapter will deliver the best practices that manage and control the fake information in social media and determine the best ways to spread accurate, reliable, and sufficient facts.
Article
#Plasticsurgery : When plastic surgeons take over social networks In the face of the "connected" patient, the debate over the boundaries between information and advertising in medicine is controversial. The purpose of this article is to understand the perception of a relatively new phenomenon: communication via Instagram by aesthetic surgeons and doctors. Through two qualitative studies conducted with doctors and young women using Instagram, this work builds on the typology of Suchman’s legitimacy and reveals the existence of contrasting positions in relation to this practice. The results present avenues for reflection that stakeholders can use to improve the patient / healthcare professional relationship.
Chapter
Augmented reality (AR) brings us into a new phase in the information society, whereby the virtual domain spills over into the physical domain. Precisely because of the direct link between AR and the physical world, the technology raises new ethical and societal issues. In this paper, we highlight the main developments in AR that put pressure on seven public values from our analysis of the scientific literature: privacy, safety, autonomy, balance of power, human dignity, justice, and rights over augmented space. Furthermore, in order to safeguard these public values, we formulate ten rules to shape AR in a socially and ethically responsible way. These rules should form the point of departure for the drafting of governmental policy for a livable hybrid world.
Article
The field of cosmetic dermatology has recently witnessed unbridled growth in the past several years. Part of this has been due to the increasing popularity of aesthetic treatments in men, who represent a growing patient population. Men tend to have higher levels of collagen density and greater skin thickness, but these begin to decrease earlier on. They can also more frequently have severe photodamage. Their clinical presentations can affect the selection of treatments. Physicians should be familiar with the subtle differences between treating men and women. Early studies and literature are beginning to shed more light on these important distinctions. We have reviewed the notable differences in facial aging, pathophysiology, and patient selection, as well as discussing available treatment options with these factors in mind.
Article
Within the history of social networking applications the use of Snapchat has risen rapidly. Users of Snapchat can apply filters to change their appearance before they share photos. The present study aimed at assessing body dysmorphic features among Snapchat users of “Beauty-Retouching of Selfies” and its relationship with quality of life. A total of 507 Arab females participated in this study by responding to the Quality of Life (QOL) and Body Dysmorphic Features (BDF) scales as well as some demographic questions. Results showed that the mean of the body dysmorphic features was slightly above the theoretical mean of the BDF scale, which indicates that females who use Snapchat Beauty-Retouching features have a high tendency toward body dysmorphic features. Additionally, the quality of life mean was clearly above the theoretical mean of the QOL, which means that participants in general have a good quality of life. The study found a fundamental relationship between the two variables, QOL and BDF, and the relationship is in the negative direction. The results indicated that the relationship between BDF and QOL changes with age, educational levels, and social status. This study proposes further research to focus on identifying the most noteworthy factors influencing body image and QOL.
Article
Over a year ago, the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in lockdowns and isolation, quickly shifting social interactions online. During this time, the authors cited worsening self-perception due to the altered and distorted image produced by front facing cameras, later called "Zoom Dysmorphia." A recent survey study was then conducted analyzing the mental health and self-image of people as they returned to in-person activities. Increased time spent online and use of filters, which provoked unrealistic expectations, correlated with worsening anxiety and worsening self-perception, especially in respondents under the age of 24 years. A large percentage of this cohort also planned to invest in their appearance to cope with this anxiety. After a year of being behind the screen, with the ability to enhance features with the click of a button, individuals are concerned about their appearance and their ability to return to a life in-person. Aesthetic physicians should be prepared to discuss the cosmetic concerns provoked by photo editing, filters, and videoconferencing to educate about realistic surgical goals and outcomes for patients.
Article
Highly visual social media (HVSM) platforms, such as Snapchat, Instagram and TikTok, are increasingly popular among young people. It is unclear what motivates young people to engage with these specific highly visual platforms and what impact the inherent features of HVSM have on young people’s mental health. Nine semi-structured focus group sessions were conducted with males and females aged 14 and 15 years (n = 47) across five secondary schools in Northern Ireland. Thematic analyses were conducted, and a conceptual model was developed to illustrate the findings. This study found that features such as likes/comments on visuals and scrolling through a feed were associated with the role of ‘viewer’, instigating longer-lasting feelings of jealousy, inferiority and pressure to be accepted. To combat these negative emotions, young people turn to the role of ‘contributor’ by using filters, selecting highlights to post to their feed and adjusting their personas, resulting in temporary feelings of higher self-esteem, greater acceptance and popularity. As users of HVSM are constantly switching between the role of viewer and contributor, the emotions they experience are also constantly switching between instant inadequacy and instant gratification. HVSM appears to trigger an unrelenting process of emotional highs and lows for its adolescent users.
Article
Background The usage of the smartphone and social media have introduced paradigm shifts to cosmetic surgery. Much has been studied regarding social media and its influences in plastic surgery, however, little is known about facial editing applications and how these relate to plastic surgery practices. Objectives Do face-editing applications influence patients’ pursuit of plastic surgery, and who and why do they use these applications? Methods An anonymous survey was administered between September and December 2019, including questions about demographics, familiarity and utilization of face-editing applications, motivations in usage and influences towards pursuing cosmetic procedures, and attitudes towards applications. Results Seventy patients completed the survey and 32.9% admitted to using face-editing applications. Patients using applications were significantly younger (36.9 years) than those who did not (54 years) (p < .001). Amongst those familiar with applications, women were significantly more likely than men to utilize them (100% vs. 78.6%, respectively) (p = 0.047). Social media was the most common influence for using apps (87%). The majority confirmed that these applications played a role in pursuing cosmetic procedures (56.5%). Most patients did not regret their usage of these applications (87%). Conclusions Face editing applications serve a role regarding patient decision making to pursue cosmetic surgery. Several motivators exist for application usage, the largest of which is social media. Younger females are the most likely demographic to utilize applications and generally do not express regret in doing so. Plastic surgeons would benefit in understanding patient motivations and expectations created by using these applications.
Article
The selfie, or self-photograph, has rapidly become one of the major photographic modalities of our time; in 2014 alone, there were over 93 billion selfies taken on Android phones per day.¹,2 Despite the ease with which selfies are taken, the short distance from the camera causes a distortion of the face owing to projection, most notably an increase in nasal dimensions.
Article
The digital world and social media are becoming increasingly important. Social media connect people together in a visual manner. Profile photographs are required by most social networking sites. A trend toward the increasing popularity of selfies on social media has rendered people more aware of their appearance. A selfie is a photograph that one takes of oneself, usually employing a smartphone or webcam, which is then shared on social media. Thus, the demand for aesthetic procedures correcting imperfections such as a prominent nose has increased, for which the technique is a rhinoplasty. Patients with reasonable expectations, treated by skilled surgeons, are usually very happy with the results. Rhinoplasty does not cure low self-esteem, but does correct more visible imperfections of the face. Although some hope that a rhinoplasty will resolve many unwanted facial features besides nose problems, it can only change the size and shape of the nose, improving its form. However, in the age of the selfie, everyone wants to look better. Self-consciousness is increasing, as are concerns over grooming and appearance at work and social events. These issues have become more important in recent years with the increase in selfie-taking; people are now more aware of how their nose appears to others. In this review, we discuss whether selfie-taking has triggered a rise in rhinoplasties along with a detailed survey of the literature.
Article
The deeply rooted fascination with beauty penetrates society worldwide. The indulgence to look and feel beautiful pervades all ages, genders, and nationalities, with research conferring a remarkable tendency to agree upon measures of attractiveness between these disparate groups. Research has shown that beautiful people do, in fact, receive more desirable outcomes in life and job satisfaction, family formation, and overall happiness. Humans have a tendency to respond to attractive persons more favorably, driving many patients to our clinics. Although some dissatisfaction with one’s appearance in common and normal, excessive concern with certain facial or body attributes can be sign of an underlying disorder. Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a disorder of self-perception. It is the obsession with perfection. Defined as the impairing preoccupation with a nonexistent or minimal flaw in appearance, BDD affects 0.7-2.4% of the general population and a much larger percentage of those attempting to receive aesthetic treatments. Clinicians should be aware of this disorder and remain vigilant as such patients will not be satisfied with corrective procedures. While not involving cosmetic intervention, the treatment of BDD does involve psychiatric referral and psychopharmacologic therapy, with those receiving having a much better prognosis.
Article
Social media engagement by adolescent girls is high. Despite its appeal, there are potential negative consequences for body dissatisfaction and disordered eating from social media use. This study aimed to examine, in a cross-sectional design, the relationship between social media use in general, and social media activities related to taking "selfies" and sharing specifically, with overvaluation of shape and weight, body dissatisfaction, and dietary restraint. Participants were 101 grade seven girls (Mage = 13.1, SD = 0.3), who completed self-report questionnaires of social media use and body-related and eating concerns measures. Results showed that girls who regularly shared self-images on social media, relative to those who did not, reported significantly higher overvaluation of shape and weight, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and internalization of the thin ideal. In addition, among girls who shared photos of themselves on social media, higher engagement in manipulation of and investment in these photos, but not higher media exposure, were associated with greater body-related and eating concerns, including after accounting for media use and internalization of the thin ideal. Although cross-sectional, these findings suggest the importance of social media activities for body-related and eating concerns as well as potential avenues for targeted social-media-based intervention. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2015). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Snapchat dysmorphia points to a troubling new trend in plastic surgery
  • J Brucculieri
Brucculieri J. Snapchat dysmorphia points to a troubling new trend in plastic surgery. Huffington Post. February 22, 2018. https://www .huffingtonpost.com/entry/snapchat-dysmorphia _us_5a8d8168e4b0273053a680f6. Accessed February 27, 2018.
More people want surgery to look like a filtered version of themselves rather than a celebrity, cosmetic doctor says. Independent
  • R Hosie
Hosie R. More people want surgery to look like a filtered version of themselves rather than a celebrity, cosmetic doctor says. Independent. February 6, 2018. https://www.independent.co.uk /life-style/cosmetic-surgery-snapchat-instagramfilters-demand-celebrities-doctor-dr-esholondon-a8197001.html. Accessed February 27, 2018.