Book

Pile Design and Construction Practice

Authors:
... However, it has not yet been accurately quantified as to how soft a soil has to be before allowing for the reductions in section modulus, this decision is left to engineering judgement. This is eloquently suggested by Tomlinson (1977): ...
... The very first use of piling has not been credited to a particular civilisation but it is generally accepted that the earliest developments in timber piles where during (Tomlinson, 1977). The Pagoda of Longhua, built in 977 during the Sung Dynasty is regarded as one of the first examples of bearing piles used to support large-scale structures (Kerisel, 1987). ...
... The generation of interlock friction aids the strength and stiffness but to varying affect and that it may well lay in the engineers hands to decide a reasonable reduction in strength or stiffness that can be expected for different soil types. This returns us back to one of the opening statements made in this thesis, a quotation from Tomlinson (1977) that 'piling is both an art and a science'. ...
Thesis
p>Recent concern surrounding the potential of RMA has provided an inclusion of strength and stiffness reduction factors in the forthcoming Eurocode 3 Part 5. The aims of this research are to increase the understanding of RMA. It aims to accurately model realistic loading conditions present in practical pile walls, accurately predict the amount of friction developed in the interlock of a steel sheet pile and develop a series of reduction factors dependant on the situation in which the retaining structure is used. This thesis presents tests carried out using miniature piles loaded for the first time in a manner that closely replicates that of a steel sheet pile (SSP) wall. Tests show that friction between piles can in certain circumstances largely prevent the development of RMA. Investigations prior to this research have found that interlock friction causes only mild increase in strength. The present investigation provided a more realistic simulation of ground conditions, adopting span to depth ratios similar to those found in real life pile walls. A numerical model simulating the behaviour of realistic pile wall conditions has been developed and validated using the results from scale piles. Use of the numerical model has demonstrated that restrained SSP walls with capping beams are unlikely to exhibit RMA. However, cofferdams propped at their tops and bottoms are likely to exhibit the full effects of RMA and should be strengthened as a result to ensure safe design. This numerical model has produced a series of curves that can be used to estimate the effects of RMA on strength and stiffness of U-section piles.</p
... The design aids for pile design and construction proposed few empirical relations to estimate skin friction between different foundation materials and soil [42]. For concrete as interface material in clean fine to medium sand conditions, the friction angle of pile material is taken as 0.75 times the friction angle of contact soil. ...
... From Table 5, it is evident that estimation of pile friction angle through international codes offered conservative results of skin friction components compared to experimental inter-frictional data [37,42]. The experimental data from the present studies reported an enhancement in friction angle values since it depended upon pile material characteristics, infill medium and state of shear-induced stresses. ...
... The investigation about the sufficiency of international codes in assessing pile skin friction revealed heavy dependence of codes on the infill material's friction angle rather than interfacial frictional values, leading to conservative skin friction components. But the microscopic studies proved Interfacial friction angle between pile wall and soil The present study (post peak friction angle) Design aids for pile construction [42] (post peak friction angle) ...
Article
Full-text available
Piles are slender members made of concrete, steel, aluminium or timber installed in the ground to transfer the loads to soils at some significant depth below the base of the structure. The material property of the pile influences load-deformation response, bearing capacity, surface roughness and interfacial shear behaviour. The current study aims at assessing interfacial friction through a series of laboratory studies using three different pile materials, viz. concrete, wood and aluminium with sand as infill material. The surface roughness of three pile materials is analysed using a three-dimensional optical profilometer. Among the three pile materials considered for the study, the abrasive action of infill on concrete is more evident due to granular particles’ intrusion on the cracked concrete surface. Wood and aluminium specimens developed enhanced tangential and adhesive action after shearing action. The three-dimensional profilometer studies could capture the abrasive action and subsequent wear and tear of the pile material.
... Extraction of the pipe using a vibrator causes compaction and good integration of the pile shaft with the ground. An additional advantage of the technology is the short time necessary for installation in diverse soil conditions, and concreting in a casing pipe ensures pile continuity [1][2]. ...
... These methods are among the group of direct methods and have been based on empirical dependencies. The CPT is particularly useful for designing pile foundations [1,6]. Probing parameters q c and f s obtained from the CPT are directly used to determine unit resistance under the base and on the pile side surface. ...
Article
Full-text available
Vibro piles belong to the group of full displacement piles with an expanded base, characterised by a very high load capacity, especially in non-cohesive soils. The problem is to adopt a reliable method for the determination of full load–settlement (Q–s) curve. A frequent difficulty is the determination of the load capacity limit based on the static load test because the course of the load–settlement curve is of a linear nature. This publication presents the empirical method. It allows direct prediction of a full axially loaded pile settlement curve based on the values of q c cone resistance obtained in cone penetration test (CPT). The advantage offered by this procedure is the accuracy of the obtained limit values in relation to the actual load-bearing capacity as compared to other methods based on soil parameters obtained in in situ testing. An additional advantage is the Q–s characteristics, which enable designing for intermediate values, allowing for the criterion of minimal or equal settlements. The shape of analytical curves was compared with static pile load test (SPLT) curves. This comparison showed large convergences between the analytical and measured curves.
... (3) Di mana, z merupakan kedalaman tiang. Menurut Tomlinson (2008), koefisien R merupakan faktor kekakuan tiang yang dapat dicari dengan formula sebagai berikut: ...
Article
Full-text available
The foundation is one of the most important parts of a structure. The distribution of bearing capacity in pile foundations is inversely related to depth. The part of the pile that is close to the acting force will carry a greater force than the part of the pile that is at a deeper depth. By paying attention to this, the reinforcement of the pile foundation can be varied according to the distribution of the pile bearing capacity. The type of pile foundation to be analyzed is a drilled pile foundation or bored pile in the form of an end bearing pile, with soil data located in Semarang. Analysis was carried out on three piles with a diameter of 600 mm, 1000 mm, and 1800 mm with a pile length of 65 m. In this study, an analysis of the internal force diagram that occurs in the pile will be carried out. The results of the analysis show that the need for pile reinforcement are getting less and less at the pile which is further away from the working load. The result of the need for pile reinforcement is also less than the reinforcement based on applicable regulations. Abstrak Fondasi merupakan salah satu bagian terpenting dalam sebuah struktur. Salah satu jenis fondasi yang sering digunakan pada proyek pembangunan gedung dan struktur-struktur besar lainnya merupakan fondasi tiang. Distribusi daya dukung pada fondasi tiang berkebalikan dengan kedalaman. Bagian tiang yang dekat dengan gaya yang bekerja akan memikul gaya yang lebih besar dibandingkan bagian tiang yang berada pada kedalaman yang lebih dalam. Dengan mempehatikan hal tersebut, maka penulangan fondasi tiang daanapat divariasi sesuai dengan distribusi daya dukung tiang. Penelitian ini akan dibantu dengan menggunakan program untuk mendapatkan penulangan tiang. Jenis fondasi tiang yang akan dianalisis merupakan fondasi tiang bor atau bored pile berupa end bearing pile, dengan data tanah yang berlokasi di Semarang. Analisis dilakukan terhadap tiga tiang dengan diameter 600 mm, 1000 mm, dan 1800 mm dengan panjang tiang 65 m. Dalam penelitian ini, akan dilakukannya analisis diagram gaya dalam yang terjadi pada tiang sehingga dapat diketahui nya letak dan kebutuhan tulangan sepanjang tiang. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa hasil kebutuhan penulangan tiang semakin sedikit dan renggang pada bagian tiang yang semakin menjauhi beban yang bekerja. Hasil kebutuhan penulangan tiang juga lebih sedikit dibandingkan penulangan berdasarkan peraturan yang berlaku.
... Pile foundations are executed to transfer loads from the structure to the deeper layers when embedded in soil or weak rock stratum (Sekhri et al., 2020). Contemporary piling techniques are assorted and the term 'pile' is used to define an extensive variety of columnar load-transferring components in a foundation (Tomlinson, 1994). They are considered a suitable design choice for sites with weak and shallow soil/rock layers to support heavy structures. ...
Article
Full-text available
The practice of using Continuous Flight Auger (CFA) piles in the Middle East construction industry has increased considerably in the last few decades. The rapidity and economy of environment-friendly CFA pile construction can offer added benefits to infrastructure projects in the shallow ground conditions. In this article, the static behavior of strain gauge instrumented CFA pile in compression has been studied in the Jebel Ali Container Terminal, Dubai to understand the piles performance and verification of the design. The test was carried out for four 1000mm diameter instrumented piles (namely, PTP1, PTP2, PTP3 and PTP4) with a load ranging from 6010kN to 8820kN in dense sand, sandstone and calcareous siltstone formations. Vibrating wire waterproof robust sister bar strain gauges of 914 mm length, consisting of four units at each level, were attached to the rebar of the test piles. The load transfer, skin friction and settlement analysis were carried out to understand the soil-pile interaction performance of the piles. Reassessment of the original pile design using strain gauge instrumented static load tests demonstrated that the pile lengths can be further optimized to provide a cost-effective unequivocal solution for the shallow foundation construction industry in the region.
... Defleksi tiang akibat beban horizontal dapat ditentukan menggunakan metode ini berdasarkan persamaan dibawah ini [6]. Defleksi tiang bebas dapat dinyatakan dengan persamaan ...
Article
Metode perhitungan daya dukung lateral tiang bor tunggal menggunakan metode Broms (1964), Intrepretasi hasil pembebanan lateral tiang bor tunggal menggunakan metode Davisson (1972). Data Cone Penetration Test dan Lateral Loading Test diambil dari Proyek Lavish Kemang Residence Jakarta. Pondasi tiang bor tunggal yang dianalisis adalah tiang bor BP-434 dan data penyelidikan dan properties tanah yang digunakan adalah titik DB-4. Daya dukung ijin lateral pondasi tiang bor berdasarkan metode Broms (1964) sebesar 71,36 Ton. Defleksi total tiang bor berdasarkan metode Broms (1964), untuk siklik 1 sebesar 3,65 mm, untuk siklik 2 sebesar 10,05 mm, untuk siklik 3 sebesar 18,26 mm, dan untuk siklik 4 sebesar 46,98 mm. Daya dukung lateral tiang bor berdasarkan perhitungan statik menggunakan metode Davisson (1971) sebesar 40 Ton. Daya dukung ijin lateral berdasarkan metode Broms (1964) lebih besar 78,40% dibandingkan daya dukung lateral berdasarkan metode Davisson (1972). Perbandingan defleksi total tiang bor, untuk siklik 1 defleksi total berdasarkan metode Broms (1964) lebih besar 33,21% dibandingkan perhitungan hasil uji statik, untuk siklik 2 defleksi total berdasarkan metode Broms (1964) lebih besar 6,12% dibandingkan dengan perhitungan hasil uji statik, untuk siklik 3 defleksi total berdasarkan metode Broms (1964) lebih kecil 14,71% dibandingkan perhitungan hasil uji statik, dan untuk siklik 4 defleksi total berdasarkan metode Broms (1964) lebih kecil 32,32% dibandingkan perhitungan hasil uji statik.
... Although the behaviour of piles and pile groups has attracted the attention of researchers for decades (e.g., [6][7][8][9][10]), current design practice still considers the loads (vertical V, horizontal H, and overturning moment M) separately, typically neglecting their interaction. The literature on the bearing capacity of single piles under vertical or horizontal loading is vast, including analytical (e.g., [11][12][13][14]), empirical (e.g., [9,[15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22]), and numerical methods (e.g., [23][24][25]). [26] presented a comparative assessment of design and analysis methods, commonly adopted in practise, for the case of a pier founded on a monopile. ...
Article
Motivated by the need for retrofit of existing bridges, this paper explores the nonlinear response of pile groups in clay under combined loading. The problem is analysed numerically, employing a kinematic hardening model for soil, and the Concrete Damaged Plasticity (CDP) model for the reinforced concrete (RC) piles. Using a reference 2 × 1 pile group, it is shown that three resistance mechanisms are mobilized: axial pile loading (Max), pile bending (Mb), and pilecap resistance (Mcap). While current design practice typically considers only the first mechanism, it is shown that allowing for strongly nonlinear soil response and full mobilization of all three mechanisms may lead to a significant increase of pile group moment capacity. The analysis also reveals the need to account for axial force–bending moment (N−M) interaction of the RC piles, which is feasible through the CDP model. Especially for existing pile groups, more realistic estimation of ultimate moment capacity may facilitate the development of rational retrofit strategies. A parametric study is subsequently conducted, exploring the effect of the safety factor against vertical loading (FSv), the moment to shear (M/H) ratio, interface modelling, and pilecap contribution. The results are generalized by analysing more complex 3 × 1 and 4 × 1 pile group typologies and by deriving 3D failure envelopes in the V – H – M space. Thanks to the contribution of the pilecap, the decrease of FSv leads to an expansion of the failure envelope, which can be of relevance for existing pile group assessment after bridge widening. Finally, the interaction diagrams are normalized, leading to a unique non-dimensional 3D failure envelope for all examined pile group typologies.
... Os parâmetros do pedregulho adotado no modelo numérico foram: γ de 20 kN/m³, γsat de 23 kN/m³, E50 de 32 MPa, c' de 1 kPa e ø' de 40°. Todos os parâmetros dos materiais de solo foram estimados baseado em resultados de ensaios de Texas Cone Penetrometer (TCP) e correlações propostas na literatura para solos típicos (Poulos e Davis, 1974;Stroud e Butler, 1975;Mesri, 1975;Kulhawy e Maine, 1982;Tomlinson, 1993). ...
... Large-diameter bored piles have a broad scope of application as foundation elements for carrying vertical building loads, foundation elements for retaining walls, temporary building pit walls components of the final structure, protection against uplift and for taking up tension loads slope security and energy piles. Tomlinson, 1994 2.Testing Program ...
Article
Full-text available
An analytical approach based on field data was used to determine the strength capacity of large diameter bored type piles. Also the deformations and settlements were evaluated for both vertical and lateral loadings. The analytical predictions are compared to field data obtained from a prototype test pile used at Tharthar-Tigris canal Bridge. They were found to be with acceptable agreement of 12% deviation. Following ASTM standards D1143M-07e1,2010, a test schedule of five loading cycles were proposed for vertical loads and series of cyclic loads to simulate horizontal loading .The load test results and analytical data of 1.95m in diameter test pile proved efficiently to carry a working load of 450 tons. The calculated lateral displacements based on a specified coefficient of subgrade reaction are compared to the measured values from dial gauges and strain gauges placed at various locations along the length of the pile. Keyword :bored piles, lateral displacement ,horizontal loads, vertical loads. ‫االسموب‬ ‫التحميمي‬ ‫ل‬ ‫لركائز‬ ‫التحمل‬ ‫قوة‬ ‫الكبيرة‬ ‫األقطار‬ ‫ذات‬ ‫الحفر‬ ‫الحقمية‬ ‫البيانات‬ ‫باستعمال‬ ‫الخالصة‬ ‫خقذيم‬ ‫خم‬ ‫ودائج‬ ‫إلى‬ ً ‫مغدىذا‬ ‫خحليلي‬ ‫خصوس‬ ‫حقليث‬ ‫فحوصاج‬ ‫خام‬ ‫ككازل‬ ‫الرةياشت‬ ‫اطقرااس‬ ‫راج‬ ‫الحراش‬ ‫لشكاائض‬ ‫الدحمل‬ ‫قوت‬ ‫لدقييم‬ ‫مقاسوث‬ ‫كخم‬ ‫كالجاوةيث‬ ‫العموديث‬ ‫اطحمال‬ ‫بدأثيش‬ ‫كالهةوطاج‬ ‫االوحشافاج‬ ‫خقييم‬ ‫الىدائج‬ ‫الدحليليث‬ ‫مع‬ ‫ودائج‬ ‫خام‬ ‫الداي‬ ‫الحقلياث‬ ‫الرحوصاج‬ ‫القياط‬ ‫كاملث‬ ‫الشكيضت‬ ‫فحص‬ ‫مه‬ ‫عليها‬ ‫الحصول‬ ‫كالدي‬ ‫كيلو‬ ‫جغش‬ ‫في‬ ‫اعدخذامها‬ ‫خم‬ 05 ‫الثشثااس‬ ‫قىات‬ ‫على‬ ‫الواقع‬-‫كجاذ‬ ‫لقاذ‬. ‫دجلاث‬ ‫حذكد‬ ‫في‬ ‫باوحشاف‬ ‫الىدائج‬ ‫في‬ ً ‫مقةوال‬ ً ‫خوافقا‬ ‫أن‬ 21 .% ‫خماح‬ (ASTM standards D1143M-07e1, 2010) ‫للمواصارث‬ ً ‫كفقاا‬ ‫الرحاص‬ ‫بشواامج‬ ‫إن‬ ‫العالمياث‬ ‫ب‬ ‫مشاحال‬ ‫خماظ‬ ‫الجاوةياث.‬ ‫اطحماال‬ ‫لمحاكااج‬ ‫الدحميال‬ ‫دكساج‬ ‫ماه‬ ‫كعلغلث‬ ‫العموديث‬ ‫لألحمال‬ ‫لشكياضت‬ ‫الدحميال‬ ‫فحاص‬ ‫كوداائج‬ ‫الدحليلياث‬ ‫الىداائج‬ ‫ان‬ ‫اا‬ ‫قرشها‬ 2,50 ‫اذاسها‬ ‫مقا‬ ‫اث‬ ‫دذميا‬ ‫اوت‬ ‫قا‬ ‫ال‬ ‫لدحما‬ ‫اا‬ ‫كراهخها‬ ‫اح‬ ‫اثةدا‬ 005 ‫اائج‬ ‫ودا‬ ‫اث‬ ‫مقاسوا‬ ‫ام‬ ‫خا‬ ‫اذ‬ ‫كقا‬ ‫اه‬ ‫طا‬ ‫ااج‬ ‫القياعا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫ما‬ ‫اث‬ ‫الجاوةيا‬ ‫ااج‬ ‫االوحشافا‬. ‫الشكيااااااااضت‬ ‫طااااااااول‬ ‫علااااااااى‬ ‫مخدلرااااااااث‬ ‫وقاااااااااط‬ ‫فااااااااي‬ ‫المثةدااااااااث‬ ‫كاالوحااااااااشاف‬ ‫االورعااااااااال‬ ‫مالنااااااااشاج‬ ‫مااااااااه‬ ‫المااااااااأدورت‬ : ‫الرئيسية‬ ‫الكلمات‬ ‫,اال‬ ‫االفقيث‬ ‫,االحمال‬ ‫العشضيث‬ ‫,اإلصاحاج‬ ‫الحرش‬ ‫سكائض‬ .
... With the help of the numerical Introduction A typical pile foundation is classified as either a short pile or a long pile based on the Length to diameter ratio (L/ D ratio). If the L/D ratio of the pile is less than 12, it will behave as a short pile, and if the L/D ratio is greater than 12, it will behave as a long pile [1]. In general, due to the application of load, short pile will deflects with respect to certain point of rotation and long pile will deflect like long slender column. ...
Article
Geotechnical Engineers face a constant challenge when it comes to well foundation systems. Predicting the lateral response of the Well foundation is one of the most difficult tasks. Although a lot of study has been done to predict the exact lateral response of a pile, predicting the lateral response of a well foundation is still complicated. For the prediction of lateral response, parameters such as size, shape, and in-situ properties of the soil around the foundation playing a vital role. By using this parameter, with the help of numerical tools such as LPILE, FB-MultiPier, and others, many researches have been effective in forecasting the lateral reaction of pile foundations. Even though the approach was considered satisfactory, the results are insufficient for large diameter foundations and well foundations. Furthermore, selecting an appropriate geotechnical model in the numerical tool is problematic. For most foundations, the subgrade response approach is a regularly used method for estimating lateral displacement. For estimating the modulus of subgrade reaction, several formulae have been developed. Vesic’s equation is the most often used. However, it has the drawback of underestimating the lateral capacity of larger diameter Pile and Well foundations. To overcome this modified Winkler’s equation is proposed. With the help of the numerical analytic software FB-MultiPier, an extensive comparison of Vesic’s and Modified Winkler’s Equations for two different length to diameter ratios (L/D) ratios is carried out and in this work.
... The hyperbolic formula describing the behaviour is as per Eqn. Further reading on the topic of laterally loaded pile behaviour may be taken from CIRIA Report 103 (1984), Broms (1964aBroms ( , 1964b) Laaksonen (2011) and Tomlinson (1994). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
In this thesis, the influence on SSI reactions of pertinent bridge geometry and load parameters was investigated. To this end, a series of parametrically varied 2D and 3D bridge models with soil springs were created and subsequently analysed. The parameters of span length, abutment height and soil condition for different percentages of live load and thermal expansion/contraction/gradient were investigated and their influence on SSI reactions were revealed through the series of parametric model testing. Pile lateral loading vs deflection relationships tend to be non-linear, however the spring reaction relationship for increasing span and load (once a pile is incorporated into an integral bridge system) was unknown prior to the analysis work captured in this thesis. The basic hypothesis for the thesis is that 3D models with realistic properties assigned to the springs will be required to capture the true behaviour of the integral bridge springs (which are suspected to be non-linear in nature), and that simplified 2D models can nonetheless provide some basic understanding of their behaviour and characteristics, but will not be able to completely model the bridge spring reaction behaviour. The model test results showed that the maximum spring reactions (for abutments, piles and footings) followed either a linear relationship with increasing span or tended towards more non-linear relationships. The results showed distinct and significant differences between the spring reaction vs span relationships for the abutments and the piles (for the same bridge types). Further interpretation of the test results also showed that as spans increase (irrespective of the abutment height), the maximum spring reaction ratio (abutment/pile reaction ratio) tends towards unity under live loading.
... Many load spread angles have been recommended by various authors; 18.4° by Young and Focht (1981); 45° by Myslivec and Kysela (1978); equal to ϕ by Baglioni et al. (1982) and Das and Dallo (1984); 26.6° by Terzaghi andPeck (1948), Kraft Jr andHelfrich (1983), Dutt and Ingram (1984), Chiba et al. (1986) and Tomlinson (1986); 18.4-11.3° by Kellezi and Kudsk (2009); and around 40° for geotextile and greater than 45° for geogrid reinforcement by Palmeira and Antunes (2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the bearing capacity of a geogrid-reinforced granular working platform for heavy tracked plants on clay subgrade using a 2D plane strain finite element method. It substantially extends a case study investigated by incorporating wider soil parameters, depth-to-width ratios and geogrid stiffness modulus. The developed models are first verified by comparing them with the published literature and found to be in good agreement. The parametric modelling results are then used to develop a comprehensive set of design charts with non-dimensional parameters, bearing capacity ratio verses shear strength ratio, so that they can be directly used by practitioners. With the help of a design example, minimum design thickness of the granular working platform is compared and benchmarked with other established design methods. The results show that the proposed design charts and methods are comparable and provide reasonable predictions for the bearing capacity and working platform design thicknesses. A design example shows that thickness of the geogrid-reinforced granular base could be reduced from 1.2 to 55.6% for different geogrid strengths whereas the reduction is very nominal for soft geogrids ranging from only 1.2 to 3.0%.
... Enfin, Tomlinson, (1994) a établi des abaques sur lesquels l'évolution du facteur d'adhérence α est fonction de la résistance au cisaillement non drainée de l'argile, du ratio entre la longueur de pieu dans l'argile ( Les méthodes de dimensionnement des pieux en bois utilisées sur le territoire américain sont répertoriées dans le guide intitulé « Timber Pile Design and Construction Manual » (AWPI, 2002). Le dimensionnement de cette technologie de pieux à partir de la résistance au cisaillement non drainée de l'argile fait référence aux abaques de la Figure Pieux en bois coniques (Tomlinson et Wimpey, 1957) Pieux en bois à section droite (Tomlinson et Wimpey, 1957) Pieux en bois (Flaate et Selnes, 1977) Pieux en bois raboutés (Flaate et Selnes, 1977) Pieux en bois coniques (Tomlinson et Wimpey, 1957) Pieux en bois à section droite (Tomlinson et Wimpey, 1957) Pieux en bois (Flaate et Selnes, 1977) Pieux en bois raboutés (Flaate et Selnes, 1977) (c) (f) Tomlinson, 1994) Évolution du facteur d'adhérence α en fonction du degré de surconsolidation de l'argile Les recherches menées en géotechnique offshore dans les années 1980 ont mis en évidence une dépendance (non linéaire) entre la mobilisation du frottement latéral unitaire d'un pieu battu dans l'argile et son degré de surconsolidation. Les travaux menés par Randolph et Wroth, (1982), cités par Tomlinson, (1994) ont montré que l'influence du degré de surconsolidation de l'argile sur le facteur d'adhérence pouvait être prise en compte en divisant la résistance au cisaillement non drainée de l'argile par la contrainte verticale effective dans le sol σ'v0. ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Proposition d'une méthode de dimensionnement des pieux en bois à partir des caractéristiques pressiométriques des terrains Ce document a été élaboré dans le cadre du projet C2D2 PieuxBois avec le soutien du Ministère de l'Écologie, du Développement Durable et de l'Énergie, en charge des technologies vertes et des négociations sur le climat (DGITM). Il comporte un seul volume de 77 pages consacré à la proposition d'une méthode de dimensionnement des pieux en bois à partir des caractéristiques pressiométriques des terrains. Les documents tels que rapports de recherche, plans et photographies proviennent des archives de l'IFSTTAR ou des CETE, certaines photographies ont été prises sur des sites internet ou des plaquettes publicitaires, la plupart des dessins ont été faits par le premier auteur. Les informations contenues dans ce livrable n'engagent que son auteur et ses co-auteurs. Ces derniers ne sont pas responsables de l'usage qui pourrait en être fait.
... Very comprehensive manuals have been published by the US Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and are available in the public domain. Also, several authored and edited references (Hannigan et al., 2006;Washington State Department of Transportation, Geotechnical Design Manual, 2020;Fellenius, 2014;Sands, 1992;Smoltczyk, 2003;Fang, 1991;Tomlinson, 1994;Das, 2011;Rowe, 2001;Naser et al., 2011;and others) prove quite valuable. ...
Chapter
Structural health monitoring (SHM) has the potential to transform the bridge engineering industry by providing stakeholders with additional information to inform decisions about the design, operation, and management of bridges throughout their life. This chapter gives guidance on SHM for engineers who design, build, operate and maintain bridges. There remain numerous technical challenges to overcome when deploying SHM systems, but the most important issues to be considered are how to decide what information is required and then how to develop a strategy to deliver this information in a form that is easy to interpret so as to inform decision making. This chapter presents a series of case studies to show how SHM systems can be used in practice to obtain valuable data and to explore the challenges faced during such projects. Future directions for emerging technologies and approaches for future research and management of bridge SHM systems are also discussed.
... Unfortunately, the soil pressure cell 4 of CF3 was damaged after installation. Tangent intersection method [34,35] Graphical construction Q TI is determined as the intersection of two lines drawn as tangents to the initial linear and final linear portions of the load-displacement curve and projected to the loaddisplacement curve. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study elucidates the compression behavior of a type of composite foundation of spread footing anchored by helical anchors. Three composite foundations were installed at a field site, and compression load testing was carried out on each foundation. Both the site conditions and the load tests were documented comprehensively. The compression load-settlement curves of composite foundations exhibit an initial linear-elastic segment, a curve transition, and a final linear region, and their capacities should be interpreted from the load-settlement curves. Five representative interpretation criteria (Chin, Terzaghi and Peck, slope tangent, tangent intersection, and L1–L2) were employed to determine the capacity of each foundation. Both the helical anchors and the footing share compression loadings on the composite foundation. Soil pressure cells at the center, near the edge, and at the corner of the footing represent a distribution from the lower, middle, and higher ranges of incremental soil pressures underneath the footing. Helical anchors underneath the footing approximately share 60%–80% of total load applied on the composite foundation pier, and higher compression resistance of a composite foundation can be obtained by increasing the footing embedment depth and the number of helical anchors underneath the footing.
... Sasaran dari metode Sand Compaction Pile (SCP) adalah tanah yang mempunyai daya dukung (bearing capacity) yang rendah seperti tanah berpasir (sandy soil) dan tanah lempung (clay soil) (Masaki, 2005). Cara bekerja metode Sand Compaction Pile (SCP) adalah dengan enginjeksikan pasir ke dalam tanah dan akan di padatkan menggunakan alat vibrator dengan menggunakan pipa sebagai casing agar pasir yang diinjeksikan tetap pada jalurnya dan membentuk sand pile (Michael Et Al. 1977), seperti gambar 2. ...
Article
Full-text available
Construction on the peat soil and alluvial soil will increase rapidly in the future, if we don’t know the characteristics of the soil, construction problems and failures will occur. Peat soil and alluvial soil has a very low bearing capacity, so they have a very large settlement. Alluvial soil and any other sandy soils has a very low bearing capacity, just like peat soil, and sandy soil has a highly potential of liquefaction. This research is to find out whether Sand Compaction Pile method can improve the bearing capacity of the peat and alluvial soil, and prevent liquefaction in sandy soil. In this case study, we only focus to one bore hole that has a peat layer above the alluvial layer and then improve it with Sand Compaction Pile method. Comparing the bearing capacity results, before and after the improving, with Sand Compaction Pile method, we can find out whether the Sand Compaction Pile can be used for the soil improving method on the peat and alluvial soil. Pembangunan di atas tanah gambut dan tanah aluvial akan meningkat secara drastis kedepannya, apabila kita tidak mengetahui karakteristik dari tanah tersebut maka akan banyak masalah da/atau kegagalan konstruksi. Tanah gambut dan tanah aluvial memiliki daya dukung yang rendah sehingga akan mengakibatkan terjadinya penurunan yang besar. Tanah aluvial atau tanah berpasir lainnya juga memiliki daya dukung yang rendah dan kemungkinan potensi terjadinya likuefaksi sangat tinggi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui apakah dengan metode Sand Compaction Pile (SCP) dapat memperbaiki parameter tanah, meningkatkan daya dukung dari tanah gambut dan tanah aluvial, dan mencegah potensi terjadinya likuefaksi pada tanah berpasir. Studi kasus ini lebih difokuskan terhadap salah satu bor log yang memiliki lapisan gambut yang tebal dan kemudian di perbaiki dengam metode Sand Compaction Pile. Dengan membandingkan hasil dari daya dukung tanah sebelum di perbaiki dan setelah di perbaiki dengan metode Sand Compaction Pile, kita dapat mengetahui apakah Sand Compaction Pile dapat di gunakan sebagai metode perbaikan tanah di tanah gambut dan tanah aluvial.
... Por lo tanto, junto con las cargas de fricción negativa sólo es necesario incluir las cargas permanentes, siempre que las cargas temporarias sean menores que las cargas de fricción negativa. Las fuerzas de fricción negativa se pueden reducir aplicando una delgada capa bituminosa sobre la superficie del pilote (Tomlinson y Woodward, 2008). Varios investigadores como Vesic (1977) o Bowles (1982) aluden al plano neutro para determinar la longitud del pilote afectada por las fuerzas de fricción negativa, hecho que se materializa en códigos y reglamentos de construcción. ...
Article
Full-text available
RESUMEN El objetivo del presente artículo es comparar y desarrollar una serie de recomendaciones para el proyecto y cálculo de pilotes perforados de hormigón armado en ambientes marinos. Para ello se han recogido especificaciones correspondientes a varias normativas como el Reglamento CIRSOC 201-05, el código ACI 357.3-14, ACI 357R-84, ACI 543-12, UFC 2017, EM 1110-2-2906, ACI 350-06 y AASHTO LRFD-14. Adicionalmente, se incorporan algunos comentarios para el proyecto de dichas estructuras y se analiza el cálculo de las armaduras según los criterios modernos de durabilidad para el hormigón, concluyendo con una serie de requerimientos mínimos de estas estructuras y con la necesidad de generar recomendaciones para la elaboración de proyectos portuarios y de buenas prácticas constructivas en las obras que se ejecutan en ese ámbito. ABSTRACT The objective of this article is to compare and develop a series of recommendations for the project and calculation of perforated reinforced concrete piles in marine environments. For this purpose, specifications have been collected for various regulations such as CIRSOC Regulation 201-05, ACI 357.3-14, ACI 357R-84, ACI 543-12, UFC 2017, EM 1110-2-2906, ACI 350-06 and AASHTO LRFD-14. Additionally, some comments are incorporated for the project of these structures and the calculation of the rebar according to the modern durability criteria for the concrete is analyzed, concluding with a series of minimum of these structures and with the need to generate a guide in the elaboration of port projects and good construction practices in the works that are implemented in that field.
... To do this, a computer program (Omer et al. 2006) incorporating a large number of pile capacity calculation methods was used. The methods utilise a range of in-situ and laboratory soil test results together with empirical correlation formulae and classical bearing capacity equations (Tomlinson, 2001). By varying the pile length, as an input parameter in the program, values of design pile head capacity corresponding to different pile lengths were generated and plotted as shown in Fig. 3. To obtain the working loads from computed ultimate pile head capacities, safety factors were selected in the range of 2-3. ...
Book
Full-text available
This document contains all papers presented in ICGE'10 (Hammamet, Tunisia, 23-25 October 2010) including keynote lectures and oral presentations.
... However, it is not clear whether the analyses performed and the settlement and pile load calculation methods proposed in Hamderi (2018Hamderi ( , 2019 are applicable for piled rafts or pile groups. Therefore, to remove any ambiguity in this closure, the mechanics and design philosophies of piled rafts and pile groups are briefly reviewed (Poulos and Davis 1980;Tomlinson 1986;Bowles 1996;Salgado 2008) and their differences are pointed out. ...
... The effect of soilpile stiffness becomes much less significant for L/T ratios above 10. L/T = 4 has been commonly accepted as the limit beyond which the pile behaves like a long flexible unit [30], [44]. Information presented in Figure 10 can be used in the design of laterally loaded piles in similar local soils for a preliminary estimation of the ultimate lateral capacity. ...
Article
Full-text available
The behavior of continuous flight auger (CFA) piles and steel H-section piles to lateral loading is investigated using numerical analyses supported by field tests. A three-dimensional finite element numerical model to lateral load is presented. The numerical model was validated with the results of twelve lateral load tests performed on CFA and steel H-section piles installed in two deposits of sandy soils. The three-dimensional approach proposed in this study is in good agreement with the response observed with the field tests, and thus represents a reliable soil-pile interaction for laterally loaded piles in sandy soil. Parametric analyses were used to assess the influence of relevant variables to lateral soil-pile interaction. Major findings of this paper indicate that the ultimate lateral load of short rigid piles is considerably more influenced by changes in soil-pile relative stiffness than that of long flexible units. Pile diameter and soil-pile interface friction are found to exert a marked effect on the lateral load of CFA piles, while soil dilatancy is found to play a minor influence on the response of CFA piles.
... In order to meet the similarity of constitution, dynamics, and motion, the critical pile length is introduced to keep the long-term loading response law of the experimental model and the prototype pile under the consistent horizontal cyclic loading. e formula of critical pile length in sand [30] is ...
Article
Full-text available
To explore the pile-soil interaction response in saturated sand under long-term horizontal cyclic loading, a series of indoor 1 g model tests were carried out with self-made loading equipment. In this paper, the self-made loading system and test program are introduced firstly. Then, the long-term horizontal cyclic loading-induced pile top cumulative displacement, the rotation angle, the mono-pile horizontal cyclic stiffness, the cyclic p-y curve, the pore water pressure, the soil settlement, and cracks around mono-pile are fully studied. Based on the experimental results, the pile-soil interaction response shows a two-stage characteristic with the change in cycle (N), and the short-term effects of horizontal cyclic loading are greater than the long-term effects. In the first 1000 cycles, the cumulative displacement of pile top, the rotation angle of mono-pile, and the pore water pressure could reach more than 90% of the final value. In addition, the cyclic p-y curve obtained by the test is generally smaller than the p-y curve calculated from the API specification, and the soil near the mono-pile will settle with annular cracks under the cyclic loading.
... However, it is not clear whether the analyses performed and the settlement and pile load calculation methods proposed in Hamderi (2018Hamderi ( , 2019 are applicable for piled rafts or pile groups. Therefore, to remove any ambiguity in this closure, the mechanics and design philosophies of piled rafts and pile groups are briefly reviewed (Poulos and Davis 1980;Tomlinson 1986;Bowles 1996;Salgado 2008) and their differences are pointed out. ...
Article
Dalam mencari nilai daya dukung tanah dapat digunakan beberapa metode yang sangat beragam, dengan menggunakan berbagai data parameter tanah. Adapun Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kapasitas dukung tiang pancang pada tanah granular dengan menggunakan metode statis dan metode dinamis. Dalam penelitian ini penentuan kapasitas dukung metode statis berdasarkan data tanah N-SPT dan metode dinamis berdasarkan data hasil kalendering dengan menggunakan alat pancang Diesel Hammer DD-55. Dari hasil pengujian dapat diketahui bahwa nilai kapasitas dukung menggunakan metode dinamis mendapatkan hasil yang lebih besar dibandingkan menggunakan metode statis. Pada metode statis, metode Brom mendapatkan hasil yang lebih besar dari pada menggunakan metode Poulus dan Davis. Dan pada metode dinamis, metode ENR mendapat hasil yang lebih besar dari pada metode Hilley.
Article
Techniques of pile installation such as jacking, dropping weight, vibration, and explosion were applied but these methods were discovered to have weaknesses, such as high friction resistance and high settlements. To overcome these problems, this study introduces new method of pile installation which is Jacking and Rotary method (J&R). The objective of this study is to determine pile behaviour for static load test using common method namely jacking (J), and a new method, J&R through the ultimate pile capacity achieved by both methods. A stainless steel 25 mm circular pile, a 50 mm circular pile and a screw pile were used as test piles for this investigation. To achieve the objectives, this study employed graphical methods such as Brinch Hansen 80% and Tangent method to determine the ultimate pile capacity for both piling installation methods. Results revealed that for jacking method, the highest ultimate pile capacity value for the 50 mm circular pile was 1.186 kN, whereas the 25 mm circular pile had the lowest pile capacity reading of 0.539 kN. Screw pile shows the reading of 1.068 kN for its pile capacity. While for J&R, the highest average for both graphical methods are screw pile with 0.683 kN, while the 50 mm circular pile produced the lowest pile capacity which was 0.491 kN. For 25 mm, pile capacity using J&R is 0.543 kN. Result shows the acceptable for J&R methods to be introduced with further investigation such as the response of pile under axial loading and others.
Preprint
Pile foundations have wide acceptance around the world to transfer loads from super structure into the subsoil which has relevant strength and properties. In this paper we have focused on Marine piles which have significant importance in present day development near coastline. The main challenges in marine piles are very poor soil strata near sea shore and also the substantial lateral loads from wind, hydrodynamic wave and impact from moving vessels and even from earthquake. We will study various aspects of marine piles and their design challenges in consultancy offices in India. The main feature of this paper is to study a theoretical observation of design perspective and a future understanding of how a computer model study can be done, which is very urgent at today's digital age.
Chapter
Recent research on the rocking response of bridges founded on pilegroups has demonstrated the potential benefits of allowing full mobilization of pile bearing capacity during seismic loading. Especially for the retrofit of existing bridges, allowing strongly nonlinear foundation response may allow avoiding foundation retrofit, which can be a challenging and costly operation. However, this calls for 3D numerical analysis of the bridge–foundation system with adequately sophisticated constitutive models, which can be time-consuming. To promote practical application of such performance-based design philosophy, this study explores the efficiency of a simplified analysis method, where the pilegroup is replaced by an assembly of nonlinear (rocking) and linear (horizontal and vertical) springs and dashpots. Such a simplified approach has been shown to offer reasonable predictions for rocking shallow foundations, and it is therefore of interest to explore its applicability to pilegroups. A bridge pier founded on a 2 × 1 pilegroup in homogeneous clay is chosen as an illustrative example. The bridge-foundation system is initially modelled with 3D finite element (FE) analysis, accounting for soil and structural nonlinearity of the reinforced concrete (RC) piles. The system is subjected to monotonic and cyclic pushover loading, based on which the nonlinear rotational spring and the corresponding dashpot are calibrated. The simplified model is subjected to dynamic time history analyses and compared to the full 3D model. The comparison yields promising preliminary results, but also offers insights on the reasons of the observed discrepancies and the unavoidable limitations of such simplified technique.KeywordsPilegroupBridgeFinite element modellingSimplified method
Thesis
The motivation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and carbon footprint to prevent environmental damages has called for efficient use of structural concrete. These in addition with the importance of pile foundation in geotechnical engineering for supporting high significance structures necessitate the need to find the best pile foundation design in terms of performance and economy. These could be achieved by design optimisation. Thus, this study deals with optimum design of concrete pile foundations. A nonlinear optimisation technique based on Generalised Reduced Gradient (GRG) method embedded in Excel solver was implemented to find the minimum cost of pile foundation in frictional soil. This was achieved by obtaining the optimum pile length, diameter and area of steel satisfying the serviceability and ultimate limit state requirements of BS 8004 and EC7 for different loads. The formulated structural optimisation procedure was applied in a case study project located in Lagos, Nigeria to assess the efficiency of the proposed design formulation. The optimum results shows that pile capacity in a frictional soil depend largely on the soil friction angle. Also, the total cost of pile foundation construction reduces with an increase in the soil friction angle. It was excitingly found that the optimum angle of soil friction is 36o . The results of optimisation of pile foundation designs for the case study project shows up to 26% reduction in the cost obtained from the conventional design. This means optimisation shows exciting promises in pile foundation design. The study thus produced lots of design charts that can be used by civil and geotechnical engineers when designing concrete piles in frictional soil. Recommendations for further research were made.
The present design method in various codes for axially loaded piles embedded in consolidating soil is not satisfactory. It is too conservative in calculating the maximum pile force. Furthermore, the additional pile settlement due to the consolidation is neglected in ascertaining whether the requirements of allowable settlement have been met. This is because the behavior of such piles is not well understood. A new step-by-step design method based on the combination of results of extensive parametric studies of an elastoplastic load transfer model incorporating pile–soil slip reported previously is presented. In contrast to the iterative procedure required by some existing methods to determine the neutral plane location, these design charts can be used to determine the pile top settlement, neutral plane location, and maximum pile load directly. Further saving in the design of pile foundation is obtained with the concept of a compensating-pile foundation.
Article
Foundations supporting electrical transmission line structures are subjected to inclined loads due to gravity dead and live loads, and lateral wind loads. Due to land limitation and linear alignment of transmission lines, many structures are supported by drilled shafts installed in sand near sloping grounds. This paper evaluates the performance and ultimate capacity of piers installed in sand and subjected to inclined loading through a laboratory experimental program. A series of 1 g experimental model tests was conducted on fully instrumented model piers to evaluate their performance and ultimate capacity. The model pier was installed in a sand bed with a relative density of 70% at various setback distances from a slope and was subjected to various loading conditions. The results revealed that the peak soil pressure and the rotation point were captured at depths of 1.95Dpier and 0.74Lpier, respectively, below the ground surface in case of pure lateral loading. It was also found that, in case of pure vertical loading, 28.6% of the applied load was transmitted to the soil by the pier shaft resistance, indicating that the pier toe resistance had a significant contribution. The results, in addition, demonstrated that increasing the pier setback distance from the leads to a considerable increase in the pier capacity, and at a pier setback distance of ≥10D from the slope edge, the pier capacity reaches that of a pier buried in a flat ground. Finally, the results indicated that the ultimate capacity of a pier buried in a flat ground under inclined loads was significantly greater by 16.67% than that of a pier in a flat ground under pure vertical loads.
Article
Full-text available
In this study, the finite element method (FEM) is used to estimate the bearing capacity of strip footing on a non-stabilised and geogrid-stabilised granular layer over clay. The FEM model was developed using ABAQUS software that accommodates a range of angles of internal friction and thicknesses of overlying stronger granular layer and strength of underlying weaker clay layer. The results are used to develop design charts with dimensionless parameters in terms of linear-gradient ( m ) and the ratio of undrained shear strength of clay to effective vertical stress at the base of the granular layer ( $${{c}_{u}/p}_{0}$$ c u / p 0 ). The proposed charts also contain trend lines with simple power-rule equations for different angles of internal friction of the granular layer. The charts are validated and compared with the published results in the literature and found to be closely similar. A design example is provided to illustrate the comparison of the design curves and to benchmark with other established design methods. The comparative results reveal that the proposed approach yields a comparable outcome and predicts reasonable bearing capacity. Moreover, the developed design charts and the associated equations are relatively simple and easy to use. A typical result of the analysis indicates that the use of a geogrid-stabilised granular layer provides a capacity improvement factor (CIF) of 1.1 to 1.6 depending on the soil parameters and the thickness of the granular layer.
Chapter
Foundations are classified as shallow and deep. Their primary purpose is to provide support for super structure through transfer of load to layers of soil or rock, which have adequate bearing capacity. However, some ground conditions and site limitations make use of conventional foundations unsuitable. Micro-piles are the only alternative in this scenario. They can be used both as a ground improvement method and structural element designed as soil frictional piles and rock socketed piles either under tension or compression. They can be used in restricted access sites making them very favourable. The present paper is a case study of use of micro-pile for a G+10 commercial building where the access to the construction site is restricted and the ground conditions are unfavourable for conventional foundations. Also geotechnical and structural design of micro-pile are carried out using Indian codes in the present work.KeywordsMicro-pileFoundationLoad carrying capacity
Chapter
Some offshore and marine structures often include steel tubular piles of essential length (80–100 m and more) that should provide rather high bearing capacity regarding essential axial load. To increase piles bearing capacity under static pressing load, such an additional element as the internal diaphragm has been applied in some practical cases. Presented research aimed to study two connected processes during steel tubular pile driving: soil plug formation at the tip of the open-end pile and soil behavior under the internal diaphragm fixed inside the tubular pile’s shaft. Results of physical modelling in laboratory conditions and their numerical analysis are discussed. Numerical analysis of the gained experimental data gave the possibility to apply approximating function with good correlation indexes. Obtained information of internal diaphragm application may be useful to provide an increase of pile’s bearing capacity (in case of bearing capacity deficit) or to justify pile length reduction. Gained conclusions may facilitate design and construction of deep-water piled structures. KeywordsBearing capacityTubular pileSoil plagueInternal diaphragmLaboratory modelling
Article
This article is concerned with the design of steel baffles embedded in soil to contain fallen boulders rolling down a hill slope, with the buried segment of the baffles cast into concrete. Analytical solutions presented in the form of closed-form expressions based on a standardized static model enable optimized design solutions to be found readily. Dynamic testing of baffles has been undertaken to verify the accuracy of the proposed analytical model. Numerical simulations employing the program LS-DYNA have also been undertaken to extend the database of test results to track the trends and to provide further support of the calibrated model. This article presents the finding that the required depth of embedment of the baffle to achieve “long pile” behavior is scale-dependent, contrary to the commonly held notion based on observations from studies that have been undertaken on laterally loaded piles. The proposed analytical model, which is ideally suited to the design of steel baffles, will result in significant cost savings while maintaining acceptable performance.
Article
Full-text available
Most of the construction standards and project specifications allow using higher resistance factors once geotechnical design parameters are estimated through static pile load test results. Instrumented axial load tests are performed to verify the pile design and to provide valuable information to permit an economically feasible redesign. Bi-directional static load test (BDSLT or O-cell test), an innovative load test method, performed simultaneously in two directions; adopting sacrificial hydraulic cells was used frequently in the Middle East and the global foundation industry. This paper presents the performance of two preliminary instrumented bored cast-in-situ friction test piles of 1000 mm (PTP1) and 750 mm (PTP2) by BDSLT using sacrificial hydraulic jacks, socketed in the Sandstone and Calcisiltite of the Business Bay Project, Dubai. The test piles were instrumented with 4 levels of vibrating wire strain gauge technology and were load tested to determine the pile-rock interactions within the various segments of the piles. By using Eurocode 7 procedure, the characteristic compressive shaft resistance of piles was determined from the test results to optimize pile foundation design. The results have led to a reassessment of the piles and barrettesinitial pile design to quantify the geotechnical parameters precisely to execute an economically sustainable project in Dubai.
Article
This paper evaluates the effects of tip post-grouting on various capacity interpretation criteria for drilled shafts under compression loading. A wide array of load test data for drilled shafts constructed using three post-grouting methods, including tube-a-Manchette, flat jack, and jet grouting, is utilized for the analysis. The load tests were divided based on the different tip post-grouting methods, then they were further divided based on the soil conditions (undrained or drained). The interpreted capacity and displacement at the interpreted capacity are examined for each interpretation criterion. Furthermore, the interpreted results were compared with current studies on drilled shafts that are not subjected to tip post-grouting techniques to determine the effects of post-grouting methods. Based on these analyses, the normalized load–displacement curves and the relationships between various interpretation criteria for drilled shafts with tip post-grouting are established. The drilled shafts subjected to any post-grouting method produced higher capacity and yield larger displacement with the same amount of normalized capacities for undrained and drained soils compared to drilled shafts not subjected to any post grouting procedures. Among the three grouting methods studied, the jet grouting method can produce a greater capacity than the other methods, especially for drained soil conditions. Finally, specific recommendations to guide the design of drilled shafts with tip post-grouting are provided.
Article
The bridge at the Seluang-1 river is located around the palm oil plantation land owned by PT Lifere Agro Kapuas, Kapuas Regency, Central Kalimantan. In this Seluang-1 river, a bridge is planned to be built to facilitate the mobilization of palm oil plantation crops and other matters as well as transportation in the PT Lifere Agro Kapuas area because before there was a bridge the transportation traffic was cut off by the river so it had to circle quite a long way. The bridge is designed as a bridge with composite girder structure type. The methodology in the design of loading uses the SNI 1725-2016 concerning on the Loading Standards for Bridges and SNI 2833-2016 concerning on the Earthquake Resilience Planning Standards for Bridges. For methodology in designing concrete structures refer to SNI 2847-2013 concerning Structural Concrete Requirements for Buildings and methodology in designing steel structures refers to SNI 1729-2015 concerning Specifications for Structural Steel Buildings. The material used for abutment uses reinforced concrete material. The methodology in calculating the bearing capacity of the foundation uses the method by Mayerhof and also the method by Kazuto Nakazawa, while the methodology in calculating the lateral bearing capacity uses the Broms method, with the efficiency of the pile using a graph by O’Neill. From the results of topographic measurements taken a bridge design with a span of 30 m with a total bridge width of 7 m. The slab design is 25 cm thick with the compressive strenght of concrete is fc’ 30 MPa (K-350). The steel girder beam used WF Profile 1350.800.100.130 and the diaphragm beam used WF Profile 250.125.6.9 with BJ55 steel quality (fy 410 MPa). Whereas in the lower structure, the abutment designed with a height of 350 cm, a width of 320 cm and a length of 850 cm, was used with compressive strenght of concrete is fc’ 30 MPa (K-350). In the foundation used Spun Pile type piles with a diameter of 60 cm with a depth of 30 m piling as much as 8 piles on one abutment. Obtained Qallow = 116,37 tons > Qload = 114,69 tons so that the foundation is declared safe. The planned budget for the construction of a bridge on the Seluang-1 river is Rp 8.990.566.000,00.-
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Piles of a supported berthing structure on marine soils are loaded both axially and laterally. When tie rods are provided to support such structures there is a considerable amount of reduction in the forces acting on these piles. This paper describes the typical analysis of a berthing structure using finite element approach. The analysis of these laterally loaded piles is carried out considering the effect of tie rod and by varying the length of tie rod.
Article
Full-text available
Currently, foundation piles for inhabited areas are often constructed using a continuous flight auger, which is a cost- and time- efficient technology that does not require stabilization of the borehole wall; the steel bar reinforcement is embedded after the concrete has been poured. However, this reinforcement operation can lead to severe construction and structural issues. Thus, several improvements to this technology have been proposed since its first application in the 20th century, such as the use of more fluid concretes. Nevertheless, steel and polymers are emerging as a potential replacement for steel bars in concrete reinforcement for several types of structures and building com- ponents, with identified and quantified benefits from a sustainability perspective. Accordingly, this paper proposes and validates a multi- criteria decision-making approach designed with multidisciplinary experts within the construction field to assess the sustainability index of concrete pile foundations. The results of a case study enable us to conclude that polymeric fiber-reinforced concrete piles are the most sustainable due to their cost–structural efficiency ratio, high durability, and minimal risks during construction. Steel fiber-reinforced concrete alternatives were also found to be more sustainable than traditional reinforced concrete. Nonetheless, these results are unrepresentative of the current practice as direct costs were found to be the main driver in the decision-making processes, while other costs and both environ- mental and social indicators are disregarded. This justifies the urgency to provide sustainability-driven decision-making approaches capable of objectively quantifying the satisfaction degree of economic, environmental, and social indicators involved in the analysis.
Chapter
Piled raft foundations (PRFs) are essential for improving the load-bearing capacity of the foundation and for controlling the total and differential settlements. For an efficient design of the foundation for high-rise buildings, components of PRF such as length, diameter, and raft thickness are important factors. This study aims to examine the interaction behavior of pile–soil foundations for various parameters, namely the diameter and the length of the pile and also the raft thickness, which plays an important role in improving the behavior of piled raft foundation. The important aspects that must be taken into account to achieve a reliable design and strategies for the optimized design of PRF that is subjected to load–settlement with regard to the distribution of shear force and bending moment are also analyzed. In order to understand the behavior of piled raft foundation subjected to uniform loading, numerical simulations are carried out in this study by using a numerical tool based on the finite element method (FEM), ELPLA. This study reveals that proper pile arrangement can result in a significant reduction in the total and differential settlements, as well as induced shear force and bending moments on the raft.
Article
Full-text available
基樁已逐漸用於邊坡整治工程,作為阻止或減緩邊坡滑動的重要方法之一。然而,邊坡抗滑基樁與地層間之互制行為極為複雜,難以既有理論準確分析,因此基樁設計常無法精確掌握,而造成過保守(浪費)甚或不保守(不安全)之情況。本文以台18 線阿里山公路五彎仔地滑區第四至第六回彎之抗滑排樁為研究對象,以自行設計之土壓片、進行邊坡抗滑樁側土壓力之現場監測,並探討抗滑樁與其週遭土壤在邊坡中之受力與變形行為。依據現地監測結果顯示(e.g.,土壓力、地層位移、地下水位、降雨量等),降雨為邊坡滑動之主要促發因素,當邊坡滑動時將造成抗滑樁身側土壓力之改變。監測結果亦發現,抗滑樁埋置深度不同(i.e., 樁長是否深入穩定地層或僅「浮」於滑動塊體中)將影響樁體移動以及樁身側壓力分佈。除邊坡滑動影響外,地錨預力之施拉也將造成樁體變形與旋轉,同時也將產生樁身土壓力之局部變化。
Chapter
Usual design of building foundations is performed based on prescribed serviceability and strength criteria as laid down by various standard codes adopted by different countries. Generally, the total settlement of a foundation is described under the serviceability criterion; whereas a strength criterion is described by bearing capacity of the soil or rock underlying the foundation. Both of these safeguard a foundation from its stability and structural integrity point of view against the acting design loads that may appear during its lifetime. The important most function of a foundation is to transfer super-structure load to the underlying strata which are composed of either soil or rock or both in layers. Engineering properties of both soils and rocks vary geo-spatially in small to large scale. In view of the wide spectrum of soil/rock characteristics, the analysis and design of foundations are provided by understanding of basic soil and rock mechanics principles. Although a detailed analysis of site-specific solutions is a must for a vital and large-scale project as well as for a problematic site condition. Building codes present the most relevant guidance in design and construction of foundations. An attempt has, therefore, been made in the present study to revisit and compare foundation design methodology, by studying and investigating three popular design codes, namely Indian Standard Code (IS code), American Concrete Institute Code (ACI) and International Building Code (IBC) by the International Code Council (ICC). In this study, the basic technical information on (i) ‘general behavior of soil and rock,’ i.e., nature of soil, rock types, stability and properties along with its behavior under foundation, (ii) ‘effect of groundwater,’ i.e., the effect of underground water on foundation, (iii) ‘foundation settlement,’ i.e., foundation failure modes, (iv) ‘preventive and strengthening measures,’ i.e., improvement of bearing capacity of strata through stabilizing methods, etc., have been covered in brief.
Chapter
Foundations are classified as shallow and deep. They provide support for superstructure by transferring load to layers of soil or rock that have sufficient bearing capacity. However, certain ground conditions and site constraints make it difficult to use these conventional foundations. In such situations, micro-piles are seen as the only alternative. They can be used both as a ground improvement method and structural element designed as soil frictional piles and rock socketed piles either under tension or compression. They can be installed in restricted access sites making it very favorable. The present paper is a case study of use of micro-pile for a commercial building at Chhattisgarh, India, where the access to the construction site is restricted and the ground conditions are unfavorable for conventional foundations. The geotechnical design of micro-pile is carried out. The present paper also discusses the design of group of six micro-piles with a pile cap which were modeled in Plaxis 3D according to substrata conditions observed at a construction site and the deflection parameters were observed.
Chapter
This investigation presents the variation in modulus of elasticity and modulus of subgrade reaction of dry sand with respect to change in relative density of sand. The sand was collected from Orsang River and Narmada River (Poicha). The effect of the relative density of sands on both elastic properties was carried out at 40%, 60% and 80% relative density. Modulus of subgrade reaction was obtained by performing model plate load test and modulus of elasticity using simple triaxial test. Correlations between modulus of elasticity and modulus of subgrade reaction developed by various investigators were found from the literature review, and it was observed that the pattern of changing of modulus of subgrade reaction with respect to change in the relative density of sand obtained in the present study was nearer to correlation developed by Vesic and Selvadurai. It was also observed that as relative density of sand increased the modulus of elasticity and modulus of subgrade reaction were also increased.
Chapter
Full-text available
This study reviews the available design methods for the use of geogrid in unpaved roads. Characterization and properties of geogrid for effective utilization in pavements have been discussed briefly. The effective optimal location in the pavement, minimum number, interaction coefficient, and tensile strength criteria of geogrid have been well explained in this study. This study also includes results of experimental work, small scale laboratory test, and field performance of geogrid reinforced flexible road pavement. Currently, there is no proper guideline available for the use of geogrid reinforcement in flexible pavements. All the past application of geogrid in pavements is mainly based on experience, field study, laboratory study, and few limited available guidelines. This study provides a detail description of previous findings and research gap for the use of future research.
Chapter
Subgrade in flexible pavement is considered as the foundation of pavement structure. Improvement in subgrade stiffness in terms of California Bearing Ratio (CBR) is done by placing suitable thickness of compacted subgrade with higher CBR. Such increase in subgrade CBR reduces the total pavement thickness and increases the durability of pavement against rutting failure. Present paper deals with formulation of a methodology for determination of suitable thickness of a compacted subgrade on the top of weak natural subgrade using mechanistic-empirical design approach. In this paper, the allowable vertical stress on top of a compacted subgrade has been determined from the CBR—depth relationship corresponding to the axle load and tyre pressure developed by Yoder and Witczak. Moreover, the vertical compressive strain on the top of the natural subgrade has been determined from the rutting criteria as recommended in IRC-37:2018. The two layered system with compacted subgrade with higher CBR on weak natural subgrade with lower CBR has been transformed in this paper into a homogenous system by Odemark’s method to use the formulations of mechanistic approach. The thickness of compacted subgrade thus has been back calculated so that the layered system can withstand the design load repetitions by limiting the vertical compressive strain on the top of natural subgrade. It has been found that, appropriate thickness of compacted subgrade is necessary to achieve the specified CBR when placed over the weak natural subgrade for specified axle load repetitions. Such layer thickness significantly varies with the ratio of elastic modulus in a two layered system. In this backdrop, the concept of effective CBR as recommended in IRC:37-2018 and the provision of SP:72-2015 specification for adopting a fixed thickness of compacted subgrade in low volume rural road need to be revisited.
Chapter
Full-text available
Soft soil particularly clayey soil has a very low value of California bearing ratio (CBR). As the CBR value is low the thickness of the granular layer is more, which is resulting in the higher cost of pavement. To overcome this issue, geosynthetics (geogrids) are mainly used in the granular layer of pavement as reinforcement. For cost-effectiveness and durability of pavement, geosynthetics are used from the last 2–3 decades but still, there is no proper design philosophy available for use of geogrid in the flexible pavement. To quantify the benefits of geogrid reinforcement, field studies were conducted on the geogrid reinforced test section constructed on Mandvi-Serulla state highway by using falling weight deflectometer (FWD). Results of FWD data confirmed that the modulus value of geogrid reinforced layer is increased by 1.40 times than that of the unreinforced granular layer. A finite element model was also developed in PLAXIS 2D to justify the benefits of geogrid reinforcement against fatigue and rutting failure.
Chapter
In an established foundation design, it is usual to consider initially the use of shallow foundation. If shallow foundation is not adequate, deep foundation such as a pile foundation is recommended. Unlike the predictable pile foundation design in which the piles are designed to carry the major amount of load, the design of a Piled Footing allows the load to be collectively transferred between the footing and pile as well increase in capacity due to confinement below footing. Hence, it is important to take this complex soil–structure interaction effect into account. The present work is an attempt to determine the increase in capacity of piled footing due to the increase in skin friction of the pile beneath the shallow footing due to the confinement offered to the sand by the shallow footing. A parametric study is carried out only for cohesionless soil. The foundation type is circular footing over the circular pile of uniform cross-section. For this, different geometrical data viz. diameter of footing and diameter & length of the pile has been chosen after a review of different researches carried out in this area. To handle such type of soil–structure interaction problem, numerical simulation is done with the help of FEM software, PLAXIS 2D. While using PLAXIS 2D, the axisymmetric condition for modelling the pile, 15 nodded triangular elements, and Mohr–Coulomb model for the soil properties are used. After analyzing sets of problems in PLAXIS, it is concluded that Piled Footing proves to be advantageous for footing resting on loose sand rather than dense sand due to enhancement of skin friction beneath footing. The skin friction is increased even in dense sand, but at the cost of losing the capacity of shallow footing.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.