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How to Integrate Refugees Into the Workforce – Different Opportunities for (Social) Entrepreneurship



The literature on the role of (social) entrepreneurship for the vocational integration of refugees is scare. Drawing on examples of successful (social) enterprises, this paper aims to address this gap by proposing a typology of refugee and refugee-related (social) entrepreneurship, using Germany as main example. It aims to provide a framework for future research on these kinds of entrepreneurship by identifying three types of entrepreneurship for refugees and two by refugees, namely social intrapreneurship, intermediary concepts and job creation for refugees as well as refugee entrepreneurship and refugee social entrepreneurship by refugees. JEL: L31 The creation of the English-language version of these publications is fi nanced in the framework of contract No. 607/P-DUN/2018 by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education committed to activities aimed at the promotion of education.
The creation of the English-language version of these publications is Þ nanced in
the framework of contract No. 607/P-DUN/2018 by the Ministry of Science and
Higher Education committed to activities aimed at the promotion of education.
* Julia Freudenberg PhD Candidate, Leuphana University.
** Jantje Halberstadt Leuphana University.
Correspondence address: Leuphana University, Berthold-Schwarz-Str. 4, 22147 Hamburg; e-mail: julia.
Management Issues – Problemy ZarzÈdzania, vol. 16, no. 1(73) part 2: 40 –60
ISSN 1644-9584, © Wydziaï ZarzÈdzania UW
DOI 10.7172/1644-9584.73.3
How to Integrate Refugees Into the Workforce
Different Opportunities for (Social) Entrepreneurship
Submitted: 23.08.17 | Accepted: 07.02.18
Julia Freudenberg*, Jantje Halberstadt**
The literature on the role of (social) entrepreneurship for the vocational integration of refugees is scare.
Drawing on examples of successful (social) enterprises, this paper aims to address this gap by proposing
a typology of refugee and refugee-related (social) entrepreneurship, using Germany as main example.
It aims to provide a framework for future research on these kinds of entrepreneurship by identifying
three types of entrepreneurship for refugees and two by refugees, namely social intrapreneurship,
intermediary concepts and job creation for refugees as well as refugee entrepreneurship and refugee
social entrepreneurship by refugees.
Keywords: social entrepreneurship, refugees, vocational integration, work, framework, entrepreneurship
by refugees, entrepreneurship for refugees, intrapreneurship.
Jak wïÈczyÊ uchoděców do siïy roboczej
ĝne moĝliwoĂci przedsiÚbiorczoĂci (spoïecznej)
Nadesïany: 23.08.17 | Zaakceptowany do druku: 07.02.18
W literaturze istnieje niewiele opracowañ dotyczÈcych roli przedsiÚbiorczoĂci (spoïecznej) w integracji
zawodowej uchoděców. Celem artykuïu jest – przy wykorzystaniu przykïadów pomyĂlnie dziaïajÈcych
przedsiÚbiorstw (spoïecznych) – uzupeïnienie tej luki propozycjÈ typologii dziaïalnoĂci przedsiÚbiorczej
prowadzonej przez uchoděców oraz przedsiÚbiorczoĂci (spoïecznej) zwiÈzanej z uchoděcami, gïównie
na przykïadzie Niemiec. Celem jest okreĂlenie ram przyszïych badañ tych rodzajów przedsiÚbiorczoĂci
poprzez identyfikacjÚ trzech typów dziaïalnoĂci przedsiÚbiorczej podejmowanej na rzecz uchoděców
ibdwóch typów takiej dziaïalnoĂci podejmowanej przez uchoděców, a mianowicie: intraprzedsiÚbiorczoĂci
spoïecznej, pojÚÊ poĂrednich i tworzenia miejsc pracy dla uchoděców oraz przedsiÚbiorczoĂci uchoděców
i spoïecznej dziaïalnoĂci przedsiÚbiorczej prowadzonej przez uchoděców.
Sïowa kluczowe: przedsiÚbiorczoĂÊ spoïeczna, uchoděcy, integracja zawodowa, praca, ramy, przedsiÚ-
biorczoĂÊ uchoděców, przedsiÚbiorczoĂÊ na rzecz uchoděców, intraprzedsiÚbiorczoĂÊ.
JEL: L31
Management Issues Problemy ZarzÈdzania vol. 16, no. 1(73) part 2
, 2018
How to Integrate Refugees into the Workforce – Different Oppor tunities for (Social) Entrepreneurship
1. Introduction
In 2016, the forced displacement of more than 65.6 million individuals
globally reached the highest numbers on record, even exceeding the previ-
ous record in 2014 and 2015(UNHCR, 2015a, 2016, 2017). As described
by Charnoff (2015), “Globally, conflict and violent persecution have dis-
placed more people than at any time since World War II”. In coun-
tries such as Turkey, “[…] the largest refugee-hosting country worldwide
[…]” (UNHCR, 2015b) or the Lebanon, which has the largest number
of refugees in relation to its national population (232 refugees per 1,000
inhabitants; UNHCR, 2015a), these developments have already led to
major humanitarian crises.
Thus, one of the major challenges, today and in the future, will be
to integrate refugees. Since the successful integration into workforce has
abpositive impact on long-term societal integration (Ager and Strang,
2008; Phillimore and Goodson, 2006), there is a great need and potential
for research on how to foster this and overcome challenges like missing
language skills or difficulties with the expected qualifications. However,
this is challenging in different ways. Even though current figures are
still not available, it appears that the qualifications of refugees do not
match or meet required standards (Brücker, Hauptmann and Vallizadeh,
2015). Furthermore, even if certificates or diplomas are available, these
documents are not necessarily officially recognized in host countries to
the full or to some extent (Chiswick and Miller, 2007; Dietz et al., 2015;
Mirbach and Triebl, 2010; OECD, 2006). Therefore, innovative and sus-
tainable concepts are needed that can be used to integrate refugees into
the workforce.
For this reason, we draw attention to entrepreneurial activity that can,
we argue, offer many opportunities for both entrepreneurs and refugees,
and these could be exploited with social or more traditional approaches to
entrepreneurship. As we see a huge gap between the ad hoc awareness in
science and practice, we followed the research question: What are relevant
(social) entrepreneurial concepts to foster the vocational integration of refu-
gees? To identify and categorize these concepts, we conducted a literature
review and, since studies on social entrepreneurship by and for refugees are
scarce, added successful cases of matching entrepreneurial activity. Based
on the results, we carve out different perspectives on the topic and propose
a research framework for further classification and better understanding on
how entrepreneurial activities play a critical role for refugee integration. As
all these activities are context-specific, as the refugees’ situation and their
options are bound to a large extent to the country’s context, we decided
to focus on the situation in Germany, but also consider further important
examples from abroad.
Julia Freudenberg, Jantje Halberstadt
DOI 10.7172/1644-9584.73.3
2. Important Parameters for Refugee Integration
Before addressing the complex challenge of how to integrate refugees in
the workforce, we first need to clarify our understanding of the term refu-
gee, as this definition has profound implications for (social) entrepreneurial
activities, for example with regard to legal status. As the situation with and
about refugees is rather complex, the definition of the term “refugee” is
important. In a next step, the importance of work for integration and the
need for (social) entrepreneurial activities will be discussed.
2.1. Definition of “Refugees” and Integrational Influence of Work
The Geneva Convention defines refugees as individuals who had to leave
the country of their nationality due to a “well-founded fear of being perse-
cuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular
social group or political opinion” (UNHCR, 19 54). Even though there is
a debate on this definition in general and its narrow scope in particular
(Robinson, 2012), the mandate provided by UNHCR had to be interpreted
more broadly and extended significantly over the past twenty years (Betts,
Lo escher and Milner, 2012; Milner, 2014). As Glynn (2012) explains, “refu-
gees in the twentieth century often comprised people escaping persecution,
wars and humanitarian disasters”. In everyday discussions and in the media,
the term refugee is often used interchangeably with words such as asylum
seeker, or migrant, but there are crucial differences. Joly et al. (1992) even
define five types of refugees in Europe. When it comes to refugees, many
host countries distinguish between first asylum seekers (sought protection
as refugee, but claim not yet assessed) and then “recognized refugees,”
a distinction that has major implications concerning the legal status of
abperson. In contrast to refugees, migrants are often defined as people
who “choose to move not because of a direct threat of persecution or
death, but mainly to improve their lives by finding work, or in some cases
for education, family reunion, or other reasons” (UNHCR, no date). The
question, however, whether or not it is possible to categorically differenti-
ate between refugees and migrants only based on the distinction between
voluntary or forced migration is highly controversial (Seukwa, 2014). Often,
“refugees are treated as just a part of the immigrant population without
stating anything about them separately” (Wauters and Lambrecht, 2006).
While there are some factors, challenges, and difficulties that are
shared by both refugees and migrants, it is important, as numerous schol-
ars have argued (Bernard, 1977; Bo llinger and Hagstrom, 2004; Cortes,
2004; Gitelman, 1978; Gold, 1992; Rose, 1985; Wauters and Lambrecht,
2006) to consider the differences when conducting research on refugees.
Both target groups differ in terms of their demographic, family-related,
social, occupational, and economic characteristics. For example, refugees
often cannot rely on a social network, whereas migrants usually can. As
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How to Integrate Refugees into the Workforce – Different Oppor tunities for (Social) Entrepreneurship
they had to escape from their country of origin, refugees usually have no
or only little access to their former resources. They normally will not only
have no assets or certificates, but they are also less likely be familiar with
the language spoken in the host country, in part because they often do not
even know which country they will be able to reach. Not all refugees are
suited for paid work, as some may be traumatized or lack the occupational
skills needed in their host countries. All of these factors have abmajor
impact on the lives of refugees and can severely limit opportunities for
integration and participation.
Many refugees have already arrived and more are projected to come;
for this reason, their integration has been at the center of public discussion
in general and debates on policy in particular (Ager and Strang, 2008).
Although there is no generally accepted model, definition, or theory for the
integration of refugees (Castles et al., 2002), a helpful conceptual framework
has been proposed by Ager and Strang (2008), which addresses what they
describe as the ten core domains of integration. The first one is employ-
ment. The identification of vocational integration, which many researchers
regard as the probably most important factor for social integration, affects
many areas of life such as gaining economic value and independence, estab-
lishing contacts, receiving social recognition, improving language skills, or
boosting self-esteem (Ager and Strang, 2008; Bloch, 1999; Coussey, 2000;
Deakins, Ram and Smallbone, 2003; Juretzka, 2014; Kontos, 2003a; Philli-
more and Goodson, 2006; Tomlinson and Egan, 2002; Van den Tillaart,
2007). Asylum seekers and refugees coming to the EU and to Germany
possess know-how, talents, skills, and (working) experience that need to be
recognized, developed, and promoted (EQUAL, 2007). It is important to
no te here that the persons most “capable of acting” are the ones who were
the first to arrive in Europe (Hieronymus, 2014). Some of them have been
regarded as highly skilled human resources (Fong et al., 2007; Klingholz,
Reiner, Sievert and Stephan, 2014). Thus, integrating refugees could be
seen as an integral part of securing enough skilled labor. Their potential
is increasingly acknowledged by German society and those of other host
countries (Juretzka, 2014). It therefore makes sense to support the integra-
tion of refugees into the labor market because it not only helps refugees,
but also is beneficial to the economy a nd so ciety as a whole.
2.2. The Need for (Social) Entrepreneurial Activity
Several strategies have been used to improve the vocational integration of
refugees. The involvement of the state, churches and religious organizations,
and the non-profit sector has increased in recent years, especially with the
additional funding provided by the European Social Fund (ESF). Since the
resources available are, however, neither sufficient nor adequate to address
the needs of refugees, new solutions must be found to address the situation
beyond what is known as a “care and maintenance” approach (Chanoff,
Julia Freudenberg, Jantje Halberstadt
DOI 10.7172/1644-9584.73.3
2015). Social entrepren eurial activity can be crucial in this respect because
it may help to develop and implement required innovative approaches, e.g.
through the foundation of market-oriented social enterprises for disabled
people as suggested by Gidron (2014). Social entrepreneurship has been
described as delivering visionary and creative new (business) models that can
solve social problems by discovering and exploiting opportunities to create
sustainable social value (Bornstein, 2004; Mair and Marti, 2004; Zahra et
al., 2009). Although some authors seek to move beyond definitional debates
concerning social entrepreneurship (Grimes et al., 2013), there is still no
common definition (Zaefarian, Tasavori and Ghauri, 2015; see Bacq and
Janssen, 2011, Brouard and Larivet, 2009, Dacin, Dacin and Matear, 2010
and Nandan and Scott, 2013, providing lists of up to 37 different defini-
tions). Many researchers agree, however, that social entrepreneurship is
“the process of employing market-based methods to solve social problems”
(Grimes et al., 2013) and that social entrepreneurial activity “[…] combines
the passion of a social mission with an image of business-like discipline,
innovation, and determination […]” (Dees, 1998, p. 1). As Wulleman and
Hudson (2016, p. 183) state: “Social enterpris es can be for-profit, NPOs,
hybrids, in the private or public sectors, but have to achieve a social goal.”
Agrawal and Gugnani (2014, p. 439) add that in social entrepreneurship
“higher priority is given to promoting social value” than “capturing eco-
nomic value.” These activities often specifically address needy or minority
groups (Kidd and McKenzie, 2014; Wang and Altinay, 2012). According to
the Schwab Foundation, social entrepreneurship aims to “[apply] practical,
innovative and sustainable approaches to benefit society in general, with an
emphasis on those who are marginalized and poor” (Schwab Foundation,
no date). Frank (2006, p. 234) found non-profit entrepreneurs to “operate
under a different incentive structure that for-profit entrepreneurs.” Martin
and Osberg (2007) stated that “[t]he social entrepreneur’s value proposition
targets an underserved, neglected, or highly disadvantaged population that
lacks the financial means or political clout to achieve the transformative
benefit on its own.” This particularly applies to refugees, a “particularly
vulnerable population” (Harris, Minniss and Somerset, 2014, p. 9202), and
several successful companies have already been founded to address this gap.
Even though the combination of social entrepreneurship and the integra-
tion of refugees into the labor market seem to be a promising approach,
research on these issues is scarce. A systematic review of successful examples,
academic research, and the reports issued by organizations working with
refugees showed that there are only very few peer-reviewed studies.
2.3. Analyzing Relevant Literature and Practical Cases
In order to get an overview of existing research and empirically based
insights on using entrepreneurial activities as well as practical examples to
improve the current environment for fostering refugees’ opportunities within
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How to Integrate Refugees into the Workforce – Different Oppor tunities for (Social) Entrepreneurship
the labor market, we started to conduct a systematic literature review. We
used a four-step search process based on keywords as presented in the
following figure. The keyword combinations consist of different expres-
sions used for refugees and entrepreneurial term components. Since our
research focuses on bringing together refugees and companies, we also
included terms for intrapreneurial activities as intrapreneurship describes
entrepreneurship within existing organizations (Antoncic and Hisrich, 2001,
2003). After searching for articles and examples covering the determined
combination or key terms, we checked them for fitting into our topic and
removed those dealing with other questions, but using the same term com-
binations. For the remaining articles, we reviewed the cited literature and
exemplary cases in the relevant fields. For these results, we repeated step
two and checked them again for matching our topic et cetera.
Identification or articles via keyword combinations, e.g.
Control for fit into our main topic
(entrepreneurial activities focusing
on refugees and work)
Include article/example in list
Review of cited articles
examples in relevant areas
Exclude article/
example from list
Allocate article/
example to field
Asylum Seek*
Ethnic minorit*
(Social) entrepr*
(Social) ventur*
Social business*
(Social) intrapr*
no match
Fig. 1. Systematic literature review process. Source: Own illustration, compiled by the authors.
This search process conducted within (scientific) literature databases
and searching engines delivered a broad variety of interesting examples of
entrepreneurial activities in the respective field. Unfortunately, we found
far fewer research articles than expected. Even though we initially got quite
a lot of hits, for several reasons most of them did not fit when having
abcloser look at them: a considerable amount of literature dealt with the
so-called refugee effect, not dealing with refugees themselves, but describ-
Julia Freudenberg, Jantje Halberstadt
DOI 10.7172/1644-9584.73.3
ing the phenomenon of people choosing being an entrepreneur because of
lacking alternatives, for example as a response to unemployment or poor
future employment opportunities (Oladele, Akeke and Oladunjoye, 2011;
Thurik et al., 2007).
Other “mismatches” can be traced back on the applied terms. All terms,
particularly migrants, refugees and ethnic minorities, are used often and by
many, but there is no clear differentiation – sometimes they are used inter-
changeably, some authors make differences. Often, “refugees are treated as
just a part of the immigrant population without stating anything about them
separately” (Wauters and Lambrecht, 2006, p. 510). Indeed, as shown above,
there are some factors, challenges and difficulties, which are similar for
migrants and refugees. Nevertheless, there are good reasons to do separate
research as both target groups differ in basic parts of their demographic,
family-related, social, occupational and economic characteristics (Bernard,
1977; Bollinger and Hagstrom, 2004; Cortes, 2004; Gitelman, 1978; Gold,
1992; Rose, 1985; Wauters and Lambrecht, 2006).
The review process of practical entrepreneurial activities in the field of
vocational integration of refugees was conducted comparably, but through
public search engines as Google, as well as our existing networks in both
the “third sector” and the refugee networks. We compared and analyzed
the identified examples with regard to their approach towards refugees
and their concrete action taking: What does the (social) entrepreneur or
the initiative do? Are they approaching refugees or migrants? Do they
support refugees in finding existing jobs, creating jobs or starting to be
self-employed? Who founded the initiative, a local or a refugee? Who are
their employees?
Based on both, the systematic literature review and the review process
of entrepreneurial activities, we found different perspectives on (social)
entrepreneurship, which will be discussed as follows.
3. Different Perspectives on (Social) Entrepreneurship
and Refugees
3.1. Types of Refugee Focused Entrepreneurship
When it comes to refugee entrepreneurship, different types of entre-
preneurial activity can be observed. Considering practical examples and
research on related fields (such as migrant entrepreneurship), two different
types of entrepreneurial activity are discerned: entrepreneurship for and
entrepreneurship by refugees. In the following, we will focus on these two
types and identify subtypes. In both cases, entrepreneurial activity can reduce
refugees’ dependency on aid and foster their ability to promote absustain-
able integration into the workforce and society in general (Rigeterink and
Rogers, 2000). This activity can be a response to a wide range of social
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How to Integrate Refugees into the Workforce – Different Oppor tunities for (Social) Entrepreneurship
issues, and the new ventures can have very different organizational forms or
structures, since social entrepreneurship can take the form of, for example,
non-profit organizations in the public sector as businesses following a social
mission (Roper and Cheney, 2005).
3.1.1. Entrepreneurial activity for refugees
Existing companies’ internal concepts (social intrapreneurship)
In this survey, only a few examples of intrapreneurial efforts involving
refugees have been identified. The authors argue, however, that there is
considerable potential for future activities in this area. According to Bode
and Santos (2013), social intrapreneurs respond to perceived shortcomings
in society and utilize the resources of the firm to provide market-based
solutions to address them. Spitzeck (2010) provided a similar definition:
“Social intraprene urs create innovations which are both socially and finan-
cially beneficial by leveraging the resources and capabilities of their organi-
zations.” Grayson et al. (2014) similarly defined social intrapreneurs as “[…]
people within a large c orporation who take direct initiative for innovations
that address social or environmental challenges while also creating com-
mercial value.” Intrapreneurial activity can begin in companies or other
organizations and could, as it will be shown below, have a social impact
by fostering refugee employment.
There are a few examples that indicate that intrapreneurial approaches
can be effective. For instance, the Toronto Region Immigrant Employ-
ment Council (TRIEC) already applies innovative solutions to immigrant
employment and considers entrepreneurial and intrapreneurial approaches
(TRIEC, 2015). Chipotle, primarily known for selling food, established
abfoundation supporting refugees in different ways (Cipotle, 2015). Schmitz
and Scheuerle (2012) examined three German Christian non-profit orga-
nizations operating in the field of social integration and social services.
One of these worked with refugees. The paper stressed the potential of
social intrapreneurship and provided a research agenda, but it also noted
that most of the studies on social entrepreneurship do not consider intra-
preneurship. More specifically, Schmitz and Scheuerle (2012) described
intrapreneurship as an “[…] almost neglected perspective in the discourse
on social entrepreneurship.” It is emphasized that intrapreneurial activities
could increase refugee employment.
Intermediary concepts (social entrepreneurship)
Some other activities observed during the research project aimed to
integrate refugees into the labor market, for example, by bringing together
refugees and companies or offering training. Since these activities are meant
to mediate between refugees and potential employers, they are called inter-
mediary concepts, which can be primarily observed in the non-profit sector.
For example, the organization Refugee Action, which supports refugees
Julia Freudenberg, Jantje Halberstadt
DOI 10.7172/1644-9584.73.3
concerning a wide range of issues, is part of an initiative bringing together
refugees and employers using the Internet platform (Refu-
gee Action, 2015). The Refugee Council offers advice on employment and
support services to refugees in the UK (The Refugee Council, 2015). Jane
Leu, the founder of “Upwardly Global,” described how she came to the
conclusion that private and governmental efforts have failed to integrate
refugees with a professional background into the workforce, and she there-
fore established a non-profit organization. This organization helps refugees
to find a job that matches their skills (Brock, 2008; Upwardly Global, 2011).
ISeek is another example of an organization sup porting refugees during
their job search by, e.g., introducing different employment services offered
by other organizations or the government on their website (ISeek, 2015).
A recent German example is the launch of a job search engine target-
ing refugees and companies, As shown by critics such as
Bloch (2004), there are similar activities that seek to connect refugees and
potential employers in other countries.
As indicated by a few recent examples, the integration of refugees into
the labor market has, however, also great potential for social ventures
pursuing “[…] a hybrid business model [that] combines conventional busi-
ness management practices and market discipline with real accountability
for social and environmental outcomes” (Olsen and Galimidi, 2009). The
authors see a considerable potential especially for new social ventures whose
business activity, i.e., offering services such as matching processes, diversity
and integration consulting, and legal support to companies will contribute to
solving increasing social problems related to the core business model, namely
getting refugees to work. One of these ventures, Impact Dock, a start-up
in Hamburg, Germany, aims to match refugees and key players from local
companies for mutual benefit by means of a cross-mentoring approach as
the first step (Impact Dock Hamburg, 2015). There are several advantages
for companies and the mentors provided by them: increasing their attrac-
tiveness as prospective employers, reducing organizational blindness, access
to high competencies, building up high loyalty, and improving intercultural
competencies. Mentees may benefit by establishing new contacts, acquir-
ing vocational insights, and even receiving job offers. The vision of Impact
Dock is to develop a network and implement a process that makes it raise
awareness among businesses and the general public concerning the (high)
potential of refugees as prospective employees. Besides concepts such as
the one by Impact Dock, there is an enormous variety of social business
models that aim to mediate between refugees and employers. Some offer
IT-based matching tools or educational and job-training concepts, whereas
others offer childcare and thereby enable refugees with children to enter
the labor market.
Research has not paid attention to these and related intermediary con-
cepts yet, although some studies have indirectly addressed this issue. In
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How to Integrate Refugees into the Workforce – Different Oppor tunities for (Social) Entrepreneurship
their article examining social entrepreneurial identity, Bull et al. (2008) at
least discuss an example involving refugees. Conducting a case study using
a narrative approach, the authors focus on a social entrepreneur and his
story founding a refugee help center in Australia. Among other services,
the center seeks to prepare refugees for the labor market.
Generating refugee employment (social entrepreneurship)
In addition to these intermediary concepts, there are also those that
aim to create jobs for refugees. Integrating refugees into the workforce by
generating specific employment can lead to (business) models that reflect
the competencies of refugees and that foster employee diversity. A grow-
ing number of such activities can be observed worldwide. For example, the
UNHCR piloted a project that provided support to social entrepreneurs
who aimed to expand or create new jobs for refugees and asylum seekers
and that included a competition for the best projects, which were awarded
equipment and funding for their first month of operation (UNHCR, no
date). A quite similar project called Ankommer (Arrivers) was recently
(2015) funded by SocialImpact and the KfW Foundation (www.ankommer.
eu), which is meant to support the founding of start-ups with the specific
purpose of creating jobs for refugees. In addition to projects such as Ank-
ommer, there are also smaller local projects that pursue similar goals. For
example, Bosnian Handicrafts, which was founded by Lejla Radoncic and
supported by the Schwab Foundation, employs female refugees displaced
by the war in Bosnia in a handicrafts business (BHcrafts, no date). Another
social business is Palestyle, a company offering handbags and clutch bags
hand-stitched by a Palestinian woman living in a refugee camp in Lebanon
(Redvers, 2014). Even (pop-up) restaurants that, for instance, use other
restaurants as a venue when these are not open during regular business
hours or vacations can draw on the cultural background of refugees. They
offer multi-national food and provide information on refugees, their nations,
and their personal stories, especially concerning their flights. In this manner,
they can offer opportunities for employment and raise awareness at the
same time (see, for example, the LOKAL, Lüneburg Leuphana University
Schub, no date).
Of course, hybrid forms combining these kinds of ventures and those
based on the intermediary concept can be observed as well. One of these
is run by Jem Stein, who restores bicycles with the help of young refugees
and give them to others. According to Stein, “Bikes, for refugees who have
nothing, are literally a means of social mobility getting out and about to
get a job” (Pozniak, 2013). Another example is CUCULA, a company that
produces and sells furniture produced by refugees and that thereby provides
them with vocational training for the labor market (CUCULA, no date).
As indicated by these examples, there are several possibilities for inte-
grating refugees into the labor market, but these have yet to be examined
Julia Freudenberg, Jantje Halberstadt
DOI 10.7172/1644-9584.73.3
by researchers. The survey of the literature only yielded a few studies on
social entrepreneurship involving refugees. In their article on the general
understanding of social entrepreneurship, Roberts and Woods (2005) at
least mentioned the possible impact that social entrepreneurial activity can
have by creating jobs for refugees. Barraket et al. (2014) addressed refugees
as a target group for entrepreneurial activity in their paper on concepts
and classifications of social enterprises in Australia. As an example, Bar-
raket et al. refer to Rewi Alley, a social entrepreneur who coined the
term “Gung Ho,” which means “work together,” and who provided work
for refugees escaping from China starting in 1937. To analyze opportunity
identification in social entrepreneurship, Corner and Ho (2010) conducted
multiple case studies focusing on an exemplary social enterprise, the Trade
Aid Incorporated (TAI), a company supporting Tibetan refugees by selling
the ir handcrafted goods.
3.1.2. Entrepreneurial activity by refugees
In addition to examining social ventures created providing crucial support
to refugees, the authors also consider entrepreneurial activity by refugees.
Depending on their legal status, refugees can either found their own busi-
ness or become social entrepreneurs in projects or organizations.
Refugees’ self-employment (business entrepreneurship)
Even though self-employment is a frequently proposed option in the
literature on the vocational integration of refugees, this legal status is only
granted in countries such as Germany to refugees who are allowed to stay
and have been recognized as asylum seekers. Most studies that examine
refugee entrepreneurship suggest that this involves refugees founding their
own company and thereby creating their own places of employment. This
approach allows refugees to gain both economic value and social recogni-
tion (Deakins, Ram and Smallbone, 2003; Kontos, 2003a; Van den Tillaart,
2007). Because it reduces unemployment among refugees and fosters their
integration into society, this kind of venturing can be described as social
entrepreneurship (or as social entrepreneurial activity), even though these
ventures are not social ventures, but traditional businesses.
Refugee entrepreneurs can be found in a variety of business fields. Some
organizations have identified different examples of successful refugee entre-
preneurs, who may sell artificial flowers, open hair cutting salons, become
involved in automotive sales, own video production companies, or sell dif-
ferent products (e.g. Robb, 2015; UNHCR/Dunmore, 2015; Wolfington,
2006). Many refugee entrepreneurs can be identified in the food business,
for example as founders of grocery stores or restaurants (Ayadurai, 2011;
Fong et al., 2007) About one third of the entrepreneurs in the Indian
bicycle industry are refugees from Pakistan (Singh, 1994).
While only some studies state that especially ventures by migrant entre-
preneurs coming from developing countries are of low added value, mar-
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How to Integrate Refugees into the Workforce – Different Oppor tunities for (Social) Entrepreneurship
ginally innovative, and often not profitable (Light and Rosenstein, 1995;
Waldinger, 1999, ©1996), it is, in light of the high number of practical
examples and in combination with other empirical studies, very likely
that these dimensions are also important when it comes to other refugee
entrepreneurs. As Else, Krotz and Budzilowicz (2003) stated, “Refugee
entrepreneurs are truly the genuine article. Like entrepreneurs everywhere,
they are focused on measurable results, want fast and effective business
development services, and are keenly interested in becoming self-sufficient.”
This observation is supported by Macchiavello (2010), who argued that
“[i] nstead of being regarded as shiftless, destitute and dishonest, they are
given abpsychological boost by being perceived as would-be-entrepreneurs
worthy of trust.” Thus, fostering entrepreneurial activity of refugees is fre-
quently recommended (Ayadurai, 2011).
Whereas these three studies explicitly address the situation of refugees,
the literature has primarily focused on the importance of self-employment of
ethnic minorities. In recent decades, many studies have investigated what is
now referred to as “minority” or “ethnic entrepreneurship” (Hammarstedt,
2001; Kloosterman and Van Der Leun, 1999; Kontos, 2003b; Leung, 2003;
Li, 2000; Masurel et al., 2002; Pécoud, 2003; Portes, 1995; Spener and
Bean, 1999; Tienda and Raijman, 2004; Waldinger, Aldrich and Ward,
1990). However, these studies either do not pay attention to refugees as
abseparate group or, if research about refugees in the vocational context
can be found, self-employment is hardly ever covered as a separated field of
research (Beiser and Hou, 2000; Bollinger and Hagstrom, 2004; DeVoretz,
Pivnenko and Beiser, 2004; Valtonen, 1999).
There are, however, exemplary studies that do focus on refugee entrepre-
neurship. For example, Gold (1988, 1992) compared the specific situation of
recent refugees to that of economic immigrants and analyzed its impact on
entrepreneurial activities. He focused on refugee businesses in the US and
evaluated the prospects of refugee self-employment with a distinct emphasis
on the characteristics, resources, and motives of self-employed refugees. In
their work on the integration of refugees into the Norwegian labor mar-
ket, Hauff and Vaglum (1993) examined how the traumatic experiences of
refugees may affect entrepreneurial activity. Fong et al. (2007) analyzed the
challenges and success factors of refugee entrepreneurs in Texas. Ayadurai
(2011) specifically focused on female refugees initiating entrepreneurial
ventures in Kuala Lumpur, whereas Wauters and Lambrecht (2006) studied
refugee entrepreneurship in Belgium. They described refugee entrepreneur-
ship as “[…] killing two birds with one stone. By promoting this kind of
entrepreneurship both the integration of refugees in society can be aided
and entrepreneurship in general can be boosted” (p. 509). While this and
the other studies discussed above address very different contexts, they all
stress the particular potential of refugee entrepreneurship and the specific
challenges refugee entrepreneurs have to face and overcome.
Julia Freudenberg, Jantje Halberstadt
DOI 10.7172/1644-9584.73.3
Refugee social entrepreneurship
Refugee entrepreneurs can also found a business that matches directly
the criteria of social entrepreneurship. This hybrid venture can address the
social issues of integrating refugees into the labor market in a variety of ways.
They can do so by engaging in the same kind of social entrepreneurial activity
discussed above, namely ventures that either hire refugees or act as inter-
mediaries. As suggested by the “protected market hypothesis” (Light, 1972),
the initial markets for ethnic entrepreneurs are their respective communities:
“If ethnic communities have special sets of needs and preferences that are
best served by those who share those needs and know them intimately, then
ethnic entrepreneurs have an advantage” (Aldrich and Waldinger, 1990). It
is very likely that this is also true for refugees and that they may develop
entrepreneurial solutions for problems that are also their own or that are
experienced by those living in close relation to them. One example is the Red
Lion Bakery, founded by a Sierra Leonean refugee in a refugee camp. As
the demand for products increased, he trained other refugees and employed
them (Cavaglieri, 2010). A Liberian refugee founded a school that is free of
charge for the children in his refugee camp and developed it into an orga-
nization offering a variety of programs today (VAAFD, no date). To foster
social entrepreneurship among refugees, programs such as RISE (Refugee
Initiative for Social Entrepreneurs) offer programs to empower, support,
and fund this kind of entrepreneurship (Spear et al., 2013).
While there are many other initiatives in addition to the ones described
ab ove, there are, to the best of our knowledge, only a handful of studies
bGold (1992), Teasdale (2009, 2010) and Merie (2015) – on this important
topic. In the study already mentioned above, Gold (1992) showed that
self-employed refugees in the US founded their business with the intention
of hiring co-ethnic employees. In his studies, Teasdale (2009) draws back on
a case study dealing with a social enterprise founded by a group of refugees
and asylum seekers, who produced a theatrical play based on their collective
experiences. As shown by a study conducted by Merie (2015), which focused
on refugees’ perception of entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship,
refugee social entrepreneurship can be a promising strategy for integrat-
ing refugees, as they have a high potential for being social entrepreneurs.
3.1.3. Typology of Refugee focused entrepreneurship
As shown above, several types of (social) entrepreneurial activity can be
identified by distinguishing between two perspectives on entrepreneurship,
namely for and by refugees. Activities by non-refugees (for refugees) can be
divided into social intrapreneurship, which involves internal entrepreneurial
efforts, and social entrepreneurship, which either results in job opportunities
for refugees or intermediary solutions bringing together refugee employees
and employers. The entrepreneurial activities of refugees are mainly seen
as refugee business entrepreneurship to create and foster self-employment.
Management Issues Problemy ZarzÈdzania vol. 16, no. 1(73) part 2
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How to Integrate Refugees into the Workforce – Different Oppor tunities for (Social) Entrepreneurship
Refugee entrepreneurship can, however, also include social entrepreneur-
ial activity or even specifically focus on issues related to the daily lives of
refugees. In this case, it is also possible to distinguish between ventures
that hire refugees and intermediary concepts (for refugees by refugees).
There are, of course, also other hybrid concepts that do not match one of
the types of entrepreneurial activities for refugees that we propose here.
Figure 2 provides an overview of the types of entrepreneurial activity that
can be used to integrate refugees in the labor market.
Refugee Integration via Entrepreneurial Activities
– Research Fields –
Non-Refugees‘ Entrepreneurial Activity (for refugees)
Refugees‘ Entrepreneurial Activity (by refugees)
V. Refugee Social Entrepreneurial (by refugees for refugees)
Existing Companies‘
Internal Concepts
(Social Intrapreneurship)
Intermediary Concepts
(Social Entrepreneurship)
Generating Refugee
(Social Entrepreneurship)
Refugees‘ Self-
Employment (Business
Fig. 2. Entrepreneurial activity as a means to integrate refugees into the labor market:
activities and possibilities for future research. Source: Own illustration, compiled by the
4. Conclusion
In light of the recent dramatic increase in the number of refugees world-
wide, their integration becomes more and more important. As vocational
participation is one of the key factors for successful integration into society,
many actors have begun to explore different possibilities and ideas; these
approaches are, however, not sufficient. To address this shortcoming, we
propose a greater emphasis on (social) entrepreneurial approaches which
could facilitate the integration of refugees into workforce and society. In
their comprehensive survey of the literature on migrant businesses, Men-
zies, Brenner and Fillion (2003) noted that many studies “[…] point to
the limitations of current knowledge, the lack of currently viable theoreti-
cal models and the necessity for future theoretically grounded research.”
As our results show, entrepreneurial activities for refugees have received
even less academic attention. Studies on (social) entrepreneurship by and
for refugees are scarce, and more research needs to be conducted on all
perspectives on entrepreneurial activities. In our review, we identified abfew
Julia Freudenberg, Jantje Halberstadt
DOI 10.7172/1644-9584.73.3
important studies examining different dimensions of refugee (social) entre-
preneurship. There is, however, potential for improvement in terms of both
quality and quantity. More specifically, sustainable approaches need to be
developed, and these need to be promoted to a greater extent than they
have in the past.
Especially through our analysis of entrepreneurial activities, we found
several strategies to achieve refugee integration, leading to a typology of
potential research areas. Following the proposed structure of (social) entre-
preneurial activities, we argue, many possibilities for future research on the
vocational integration of refugees shall be pursued. Even though the practi-
cal approaches are multiple and diversified, they are as well too unique and
often too prototyped to be scalable. A further limitation of our research is
the focus on mainly German or European practical examples, as it shows
the specific challenges in the highly restricted European market, where
many informal activities are simply forbidden. Addressing research questions
within these different categories, future research can most certainly provide
and develop a solid knowledge base to inform practice about how to become
more effective and efficient. Entrepreneurial activities by and for refugees
are promising research areas that should be investigated carefully to learn
“[…] how to translate research findings into solutions” (Rousseau, 2006,
p. 267). In other words, there is a great demand for practically oriented
research in each of the fields we examined to support the development of
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... Entsprechend zeigt sich ein deutlicher Bedarf an spezifischen Unterstützungsmaßnahmen für diese Zielgruppe. Zahlreiche Einzelpersonen und Initiativen haben in den vergangenen Jahren versucht, mit neuen Angeboten diese Lücke zu schließen, darunter auch Sozialunternehmer*innen. Während arbeitsmarktintegrative Sozialunternehmen (Davister, Defourny, & Gregoire, 2004;Anastasiadis, 2016;Gruber, 2003) und auch die Arbeitsmarktintegration von Geflüchteten in den letzten Jahren vermehrt beforscht wurden (Barraket, 2007;Freudenberg & Halberstadt, 2018;Verwiebe, et al., 2018;Hosner, Vana, & Khun Jush, 2017;Vogtenhuber, Steiber, & Leitner, 2018), gibt es jedoch nur wenige Untersuchungen von sozialunternehmerischen Angeboten für Menschen mit Fluchthintergrund in Wien (siehe z.B. Haindorfer, Liedl, Kittel, & Verwiebe, 2019). ...
... Die Soziale Survey Österreich (SSÖ), eine Studie des Austrian Social Science Data Archive (AUSSDA) zeigt, dass der Arbeitsmarktzugang von Geflüchteten vor allem von losen Netzwerken und informelle Strukturen geprägt ist und selten über etablierte Wege verläuft: Nur 15% der Geflüchteten gaben an über das AMS eine Arbeitsstelle gefunden zu haben, sieben Prozent der Befragten mit Fluchthintergrund gaben an, über NGOs oder Vereine Zugang zum Arbeitsmarkt erhalten zu haben (Wittfeld, 2019 (Anastasiadis, 2016;Hosner, Vana, & Khun Jush, 2017;Verwiebe, et al., 2018;Haindorfer, Liedl, Kittel, & Verwiebe, 2019) (Ager & Strang, 2008;Eggenhofer-Rehart, et al., 2018). Ökonomische Unabhängigkeit, die Steigerung von Sozialkontakten, die Verbesserung von Sprachkenntnissen, die gesellschaftliche Anerkennung und die damit verbundene Steigerung des Selbstwertgefühls sind oft positive Auswirkungen einer adäquaten, bezahlten Erwerbstätigkeit (Freudenberg & Halberstadt, 2018;Barraket, 2013 (Freudenberg & Halberstadt, 2018). Weitere Unterschiede in der Zielgruppe sind mögliche Traumatisierungen als Folge von Erfahrungen im Herkunftsland und auf der Flucht, die die Integration am Arbeitsmarkt erschweren können, sowie der oft fehlende Zugang zu Ressourcen im Herkunftsland (Freudenberg & Halberstadt, 2018;Verwiebe, et al., 2018). ...
... Die Soziale Survey Österreich (SSÖ), eine Studie des Austrian Social Science Data Archive (AUSSDA) zeigt, dass der Arbeitsmarktzugang von Geflüchteten vor allem von losen Netzwerken und informelle Strukturen geprägt ist und selten über etablierte Wege verläuft: Nur 15% der Geflüchteten gaben an über das AMS eine Arbeitsstelle gefunden zu haben, sieben Prozent der Befragten mit Fluchthintergrund gaben an, über NGOs oder Vereine Zugang zum Arbeitsmarkt erhalten zu haben (Wittfeld, 2019 (Anastasiadis, 2016;Hosner, Vana, & Khun Jush, 2017;Verwiebe, et al., 2018;Haindorfer, Liedl, Kittel, & Verwiebe, 2019) (Ager & Strang, 2008;Eggenhofer-Rehart, et al., 2018). Ökonomische Unabhängigkeit, die Steigerung von Sozialkontakten, die Verbesserung von Sprachkenntnissen, die gesellschaftliche Anerkennung und die damit verbundene Steigerung des Selbstwertgefühls sind oft positive Auswirkungen einer adäquaten, bezahlten Erwerbstätigkeit (Freudenberg & Halberstadt, 2018;Barraket, 2013 (Freudenberg & Halberstadt, 2018). Weitere Unterschiede in der Zielgruppe sind mögliche Traumatisierungen als Folge von Erfahrungen im Herkunftsland und auf der Flucht, die die Integration am Arbeitsmarkt erschweren können, sowie der oft fehlende Zugang zu Ressourcen im Herkunftsland (Freudenberg & Halberstadt, 2018;Verwiebe, et al., 2018). ...
... Selain daripada itu, perusahaan sosial juga turut membantu golongan pelarian terutamanya dalam memberi peluang pekerjaan. Ini disebabkan golongan pelarian mempunyai cabaran dari segi kemahiran bahasa atau mempunyai kesulitan dalam kelayakan yang diperlukan oleh pihak majikan (Freudenberg & Halberstadt, 2018). Perusahaan sosial berpotensi untuk melengkapi dan mempercepatkan keperluan pelarian yang belum atau tidak dapat dipenuhi oleh pihak yang berkaitan (Harima & Freudenberg, 2019). ...
... Dalam erti kata lain, menerusi perusahaan sosial ini ia mewujudkan nilai sosial dan membantu penyesuaian pelarian dengan kehidupan masyarakat setempat dengan penyelesaian yang lebih lestari (Mollaogullari & Temel, 2017). Keadaan ini adalah disebabkan oleh sesetengah daripada mereka mungkin mengalami trauma atau kekurangan kemahiran pekerjaan yang diperlukan di negara tuan rumah mereka (Freudenberg & Halberstadt, 2018). ...
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Social enterprise is a model of solving various problems through its enterprise elements that are widely applied by the whole world to develop the well-being of the global community. This situation also makes this social enterprise can contribute to a community through the goals developed in the social enterprise. However, how well does this enterprise contribute to the development of a community such as curbing social injustice are subjected to explore. Therefore, the objective of this article is to identify the impact of the social enterprises to the community in Malaysia. This study is a preliminary study and uses a qualitative approach through face-to-face interview methods. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with three informants of social enterprise owners. Interview narratives were analyzed using thematic methods with the help of Atlas.ti software. The results of the study have identified 31 basic themes, eight main themes, and three emerging categories. The three categories that have been identified in achieving the objectives include a) through helping the vulnerable, b) improving the economy through increasing income, as well as c) assisting in preserving and conserving the environment. However, the findings through these categories do not cover the whole aspect, especially for contributions in the welfare aspect that can be further enhanced. The results of the analysis also found that the goal of social enterprise is less emphasis on issues to curb social inequality. A social enterprise has no problem if they only make certain contributions for a short period of time. However, in the long run, the goals of entrepreneurs' social responsibility towards social welfare and social inequality are recommended to be developed through social innovation instruments.
... In recent years, scholars have paid attention to the entrepreneurial potential of refugees (Betts et al. 2014;Bizri 2017;Shepherd et al. 2020;Wauters and Lambrecht 2008). Researchers have studied different aspects of refugee entrepreneurship, such as social capital (Bizri 2017;Mboko 2020;Yassine et al. 2019), innovations created by refugees (Betts and Bloom 2015), entrepreneurial intention (Alexandre et al. 2019;Mawson and Kasem 2019), barriers that refugees face in the host country (Alrawadieh et al. 2018;Kachkar 2018;Wauters and Lambrecht 2008), support programs for refugee entrepreneurs Meister and Mauer 2019), social entrepreneurship for and by refugees (Freudenberg and Halberstadt 2018), and psychological factors such as resilience and hope Shepherd et al. 2020). ...
... One reason for the rapidly growing interest is the stringent necessity to facilitate the economic integration of refugees in the host country (Karakas 2015). Scholars consider entrepreneurship as a useful but frequently necessary option for refugees to integrate themselves into the economic systems and societies of host countries (Collins 2017;Freudenberg and Halberstadt 2018). While both public and private sectors have made substantial efforts to facilitate the employment of newly arriving refugees in the European Union (EU), refugees commonly suffer from the socalled "refugee gap" (Bakker et al. 2017;Connor 2010;Easton-Calabria and Omata 2016) or "canvas ceiling" (Lee et al. 2020), which hypothesizes that labor-market disadvantages exist for refugees. ...
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Recently, the entrepreneurial potential of refugees has received growing attention from scholars and policymakers. However, the literature on refugee entrepreneurship suffers from the fragmentation of previous research findings, which has been mainly attributed to the fact that refugees have heterogeneous backgrounds. Tackling this challenge, this study conceptualized the framework for the multiple embeddedness of refugee entrepreneurs by applying and extending the concept of mixed embeddedness. Based on 50 semi-structured interviews with refugee entrepreneurs who relocated to Germany, France, and Ireland, we identified six patterns in which refugees’ multiple embeddedness and their actions as entrepreneurial agencies interacted to develop entrepreneurial opportunities: (i) value creation with homeland resources, (ii) acting as transnational middleman minorities, (iii) integration facilitation, (iv) qualification transfers, (v) homeland-problem solving, and (vi) creative innovation. This study contributes to the literature on refugee entrepreneurship by considering multiple contexts in which refugees can be embedded in and by elaborating on the interactions between opportunity structure emerging within the multiple embeddedness, actions, and capabilities of refugees as entrepreneurial agencies.
... The use of social entrepreneurial frameworks represents a new research opportunity in the field. A few researchers (Freiling & Harima, 2019;Freudenberg & Halberstadt, 2018;Lee, 2018) started seeing some potential for social entrepreneurship among refugees, while it is acknowledged in the field and by the GRR that refugee entrepreneurs contribute positively to their community and the host country. Social entrepreneurship, generally assumed as fitting the GRR expectations towards RCEs, naturally directed the study to focus on the existing expectations, resulting from the top-down approach in the humanitarian system. ...
... 1-There is huge talent in the world's refugee camps. We must realize this overlooked potential Hangi & Levin (2019) 2-Key words: refugee camp, talent, entrepreneurial spirit 3-Control: -Context of refugee camps -cases of entrepreneurial activities by the refugees Figure 3 Data selection process, inspired by Freudenberg & Halberstadt (2018). Created by the author. ...
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The research thesis investigates refugee entrepreneurship challenges in refugee camps and the impact of the rising expectations from the global refugee regime towards refugee camp entrepreneurs. Through a qualitative analysis of policy reports and articles published by agencies, the research aims at analysing the existing challenges of refugee camp entrepreneurs connected to the shift of responsibilities currently happening within humanitarian approaches with the promotion of individual self-reliance. The adoption of a social entrepreneurial theoretical framework focusing on value creation and innovation integrating entrepreneurial role expectations offers new perspectives on refugee entrepreneurship. The transposition of social entrepreneurship to the context of refugee camps helps acknowledging the limitations of the individual self-reliance approach. The mechanisms of role expectations and role ascriptions demonstrate great pressure on the refugee camp entrepreneurs unfortunately not adapted to the context of the camps.
... The integration of migrants requires concerted efforts across macro, meso (organizational) and individual level in host country which is called as multilevel policy or governance in a multilevel system (Matusz-Protasiewicz, 2013), but such efforts can yield real benefits (Beaman, 2011;Freudenberg & Halberstadt, 2018;Juretzka, 2014;Working Together…, 2018). Nowadays, however, a feature common to many European countries is that the body of scientifically based knowledge on immigrant integration has increased substantially, while at the same time public authorities seem to have become less interested in making use of the assembled knowledge. ...
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Plain English Summary Refugee entrepreneurship is an intriguing topic, providing a unique perspective for exploring the link between experiencing disruptive life events caused by being forced to leave one’s homeland and founding a new business in an unplanned country of resettlement. Refugee entrepreneurship has been of recent interest to researchers due to its potential to alleviate the grand socioeconomic challenges triggered by the “refugee crisis” of mid-2010s. Vigorous scholarly engagement has generated many publications on the topic. However, refugee entrepreneurship is not a well-developed research area because current knowledge is scattered across different fields, and there exists no unified conceptualization to understand refugee entrepreneurship activities. Hence, this study makes a comprehensive analysis and organization of its subject matter to create a common academic basis for future research. The principal implication of this study is that the scope for designing better refugee-integration policies should also involve a nuanced understanding of refugee entrepreneur/ship.
Conference Paper
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Refugee" is usually defined as a person who seeks shelter due to reasons of war, conflict, assimilation, femine, natural disasters and so forth. However, in a much more humanistic approach, we should perhaps start with Hannah Arendt's words, "In the first place, we don't like to be called refugees. We ourselves call each other newcomers or immigrants." Immigration basically defines a shift in place and it is an instinctive act for human-beings; therefore, rather than being a "problem", it actually is a solution to the problems which makes it hard or impossible to live in a certain place. Within this point of view, the aim of the research study focuses on the question of how the experiences of place and space affect the relationship between newcomers and their location. The paper focuses on the place-making experiences of newcomers, through the perception of space and its effect on individuals. Results of the research indicate that the experience of place is a vital aspect for achieving integration between newcomers and locals. Integration and adaptation are actualized when the opportunity arises for newcomers and locals to meet and cooperate with each other, both physically and socially. The dynamics of social integration is standing on two pillars which are social entrepreneurship and common acts between locals and newcomers; and through the experiences' of place-making, it becomes possible to create and maintain a physical integration. This research paper introduces three graduation projects, known as Integration Centers, from X University, 2019 Spring semester. The projects were designed by students for social integration of Syrian people through the social entrepreneurship idea. Students created different design proposals which offer public, semi-public and private space for newcomers to encounter locals and places, and to be able to understand the relationship between individuals and place, and its effects on their integration.
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Em um contexto de crise financeira, aumento das desigualdades sociais, problemas demográficos e ambientais de diversas ordens, o empreendedorismo social pode ser visto como um importante instrumento de mudança social. Por ser ainda um campo em construção, o empreendedorismo social precisa de aportes teóricos-metodológicos. Para tanto, faz-se necessário analisar o que já está colocado na literatura. Diante disso, este trabalho tem como objetivos: 1) analisar como se configura a literatura internacional sobre empreendedorismo social e 2) construir uma agenda de pesquisa para estudos futuros. Para alcançar estes objetivos será realizada uma revisão bibliométrica. Os resultados mostram que o campo ainda é recente, mas já conta com referencial próprio. A agenda de pesquisa mostra que o empreendedorismo social deve buscar analisar a influência do contexto institucional para estimular ou restringir estes empreendimentos, incorporar o conceito de bricolagem, desenvolver metodologias de pesquisas e buscar o aprofundamento teórico do conceito.
Female refugees face additional challenges and obstacles on their path to entrepreneurship. This can be explained by intersectionality, taking into account compounded discrimination due to gender, ethnicity, socio-economic status, and also religion. While conservative religious values and norms tend to be portrayed in a negative light, as hindering female leadership and fostering patriarchal views, this chapter assesses the positive impact that religion and spirituality may have for women refugee entrepreneurs. From the perspective of social psychology, it also considers how a comprehensive and creative training for female entrepreneurs should account for the demand-side, supply-side, soft skills, mental health, and religion and spirituality, preceded by a sound analysis of the context.
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This paper seeks to improve the understanding of social entrepreneurship models based on empirical evidence from Mexico, where social entrepreneurship is currently booming. It aims to supplement existing typologies of social entrepreneurship models. To that end, building on typology it begins by providing a new framework classifying the three types of social entrepreneurship. A comparative case study of 10 Mexican social enterprises is then elaborated using that framework. Findings suggest that these distinct typologies are evolving in a dynamic manner determined by the resources and ambitions of social entrepreneurs. Starting either as social bricoleurs or as social constructionists, social entrepreneurs aspire to become social engineers. Moreover, social constructionists usually present hybrid business models.
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This paper draws on a particular case of social entrepreneurship, by which we have made an effort to outline context, dimensions and challenges for social entrepreneurship. While social entrepreneurship is not a new phenomenon, in the last 15 years, it is growing extensively with a new breed of entrepreneur developing solutions to social problems. This paper brings insight of creating a successful business model in social entrepreneurship with the help of the case. The case is about a European international company, Vestergaard Frandsen, which specialises in disease control along with complex emergency response products. This company is directed by a unique humanitarian entrepreneurship business model in which humanitarian responsibility is in its core business and their business model is based on 'profit for purpose'. This organisation is involved in innovating products and concepts which are more useful for the developing world. This separates them from other companies who innovate for developed countries which are wealthier regions of the world and then adapt it for other developing countries. This paper focuses on how social entrepreneurship can extend boundaries and function in different countries. This paper concludes by identifying the needs for generating financially sustainable innovation and a continuously evolving business model for social entrepreneurship.
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In the increased discussions among scholars about social entrepreneurship, the definitions strongly emphasize innovation, social change and social value creation by using economic means. Although researchers ́ definitions of social entrepreneurship do not couple social entrepreneurship to the founding of new organizations, empirical research overemphasizes those leaders that have started a new venture not long ago, often just studying those organizations or persons that have been selected by one of the practitioner groups or fellowship organizations. The effect is a vast neglect of social entrepreneurship within traditional organizations, what is usually called social intrapreneurship. Here we present three German Christian-based NPOs operating in the field of social integration and social services. The paper showcases that there is a vivid, promising and innovative potential within NPOs that is worth being investigated. We would like to contribute to a view that refocuses on well- established organizations as social change agents with high leverage power, high experience (of practices and markets) and a reasonable acquaintance with risk. A research agenda will be presented based on these findings.
In response to the world’s rapidly growing social, economic and environmental challenges, a growing wave of “social intrapreneurs” are harnessing the power of large companies to create new business solutions to address societal problems. Social Intrapreneurism and All That Jazz reveals how these highly creative social innovators are improvizing alliances across, as well as beyond, their companies to create micro-insurance products for low-income people; offer delivery services to millions of small businesses in slums around the world; develop alternative-energy solutions inside a major gas and oil corporation; partner with a Brazilian community to produce new natural care products; establish a green advertising network within a major media company; apply engineering expertise to help alleviate poverty and much more - all while generating commercial value for their companies.Distilling insights from interviews with social intrapreneurs, their colleagues and experts around the world, the authors bring to life how business can be about more than just maximizing profit. They identify the mind-sets, behaviours and skills that have helped successful social intrapreneurs journey from initial idea to roll-out by their company - and some of the pitfalls.Although their journeys may be lonely at times and require considerable hard work while working “against the grain” of large conventional businesses, successful social intrapreneurs are, above all, great communicators who inspire others to join them in achieving a higher purpose beyond the realms of conventional business.Drawing on the metaphors of ensemble jazz music-making, the authors describe how “woodshedding”, “jamming”, “paying your dues”, being a “sideman”, joining and building a “band” but, above all, “listening” to what is happening in business and the wider world - are all part of the life of a successful social intrapreneurism project.Whether you’re an aspiring social intrapreneur who wants to change the world while keeping your day job, or want to renew the entrepreneurial spirit of your own company, this book is for you.