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Abstract

Invasive alien species are a major driver of global environmental change and a range of management interventions are needed to manage their effects on biodiversity, ecosystem services, human well-being and local livelihoods. Stakeholder engagement is widely advocated to integrate diverse knowledge and perspectives in the management of invasive species and to deal with potential conflicts of interest. We reviewed the literature in the ISI Web of Science on stakeholder engagement (the process of involving stakeholders (actors) in decision making, management actions and knowledge creation) in invasion science to assess and understand what has been done (looking at approaches and methodologies used, stakeholders involved, and outcomes from engagement) and to make recommendations for future work. Research on stakeholder engagement in invasion science has increased over the last decade, helping to improve scientific knowledge and contributing towards policy formulation and co-implementation of management. However, many challenges remain and engagement could be made more effective. For example, most studies engage only one stakeholder group passively using questionnaires, primarily for assessing local knowledge and perceptions. Although useful for management and policy planning, these stakeholders are not active participants and there is no two-way flow of knowledge. To make stakeholder involvement more useful, we encourage more integrative and collaborative engagement to (1) improve co-design, co-creation and co-implementation of research and management actions; (2) promote social learning and provide feedback to stakeholders; (3) enhance collaboration and partnerships beyond the natural sciences and academia (interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary collaboration); and (4) discuss some practical and policy suggestions for improving stakeholder engagement in invasion science research and management. This will help facilitate different stakeholders to work better together, allowing problems associated with biological invasions to be tackled more holistically and successfully.

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... TEK includes beliefs, values and criteria which guide local practices in relation to nature based on historical interactions and involvements with the surrounding environment (Berkes et al. 2000, Sillitoe 2006). It has been demonstrated that taking this kind of knowledge seriously increases the appeal and support of management activities among local groups (García-Llorente et al. 2011;Shackleton et al. 2019a). ...
... However, when implementing community engagement activities in pest and disease management programs, one of the most common obstacles is the discrepancy in perceptions that different stakeholders (e.g., local communities, authorities, experts) may have about management strategies or priorities. This often leads to misunderstandings, inefficiency, and even conflict (Shackleton et al. 2019a). As a result, the study of beliefs or attitudes that influence people's behavior can help gather information for the creation of environmental education campaigns and more effective management of invasive species (Prinbeck et al. 2011). ...
... Because of this, their requests directly influence the work of emergency services, both in terms of their quality and quantity (e.g., generating high peaks of requests). Consequently, human perceptions on this species and interactions among groups with different knowledge backgrounds play an important role in the shaping and outcomes of the control activities (Shackleton et al. 2019a). ...
Article
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Implementing management practices for the control of invasive species can be a complex task with multiple dimensions, where the identification of stakeholders and drivers of those practices is of paramount importance. The invasive hornet Vespa velutina has spread across Europe and Asia from its native range in SE Asia in recent years. A common control method is the removal and destruction of its nests on citizens’ request to call centers. In this paper we have explored the knowledge and main factors that influence the perceptions of the citizens on the species in an invaded municipality in NW Spain, as well as the management practices of the municipal emergency unit responsible for nest removal activities. Our analysis brings out multiple drivers of management practices that derive both from the citizens’ and practitioners’ knowledge, and highlights several points of conflict between both stakeholder groups connected to (1) the degree of service provided to the local population, (2) the risk of allergic reactions as a motive to urge removals, or (3) the quality of information provided by mass media. Our results support the crucial importance of environmental education programs that seek to increase the knowledge of the general public about the threats of invasive species. Such programs might be incorporated to implement and optimize management plans of V. velutina by enhancing communication between experts and local population.
... Environmental change is a complex phenomenon which is exacerbated by the fact that drivers are dynamic, interact with each other and may be context-dependent in different social-ecological systems (Hulme, 2006;Berkes et al., 2008;Steffen et al., 2015). In the framework of the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991), understanding human perceptions on environmental change provides key information about people's level of commitment and potential responses regarding the protection of natural resources, support for respective public policy options and potential conflicts (Botzen et al., 2009;Abate et al., 2010;Vanderhoeven et al., 2011;Bennett, 2016;Shackleton et al., 2019a). ...
... The way stakeholders, including members of rural communities, understand and weigh the positive and negative effects of an IAS implicitly affects the uptake and success of management interventions (García-Llorente et al., 2008;Schüttler et al., 2011;Urgenson et al., 2013;Estévez et al., 2015), because an individual's perception influences his/her behavior (Ajzen, 1991). For instance, if local stakeholders perceive that the invasion of an IAS results in net negative impacts on ecosystem services, they may be motivated and committed to planning and implementing management options that reduce the negative effects (Andreu et al., 2009;Shackleton et al., 2019a). On the other hand, stakeholders may be aware that the net long-term effect of an IAS on the environment and on society is negative, but they may still perceive that the IAS provides important short-term economic benefits and thus not be willing to implement management options, particularly at the early stages of invasion (Shackleton et al., 2007). ...
... Also, local stakeholders may have started using an IAS for balancing the losses of ecosystem services and income due to land degradation caused by the IAS itself and/or by overexploitation of natural resources (Linders et al., 2020). If little attention is given to stakeholders' perceptions and attitudes (Bremner and Park, 2007;Estévez et al., 2015;Shackleton et al., 2019a;Shrestha et al., 2019), results of conservation-oriented studies may come up with management recommendations that will not be taken up (García-Llorente et al., 2008;Selge et al., 2011;Shackelford et al., 2013). Therefore, an integrated analysis of both the actual and the perceived environmental impacts of IAS (Rochman et al., 2016), ideally collected in the same geographic region, are essential for improving communication and successfully implementing sustainable IAS management (Shackelford et al., 2013;van Wilgen and Richardson, 2014;Shackleton et al., 2019b). ...
... Stakeholder engagement research drawing on stakeholder theory has typically focused on conceptual and theoretical development (Dawkins, 2015;Desai, 2018;Greenwood, 2007;Patzer et al., 2018) as well as the organizational and societal benefits of stakeholder engagement (Cheng et al., 2014;Gupta et al., 2020;Henisz et al., 2014;Jones et al., 2018;Lumpkin & Bacq, 2019). In addition, the related environmental management and environmental policy literature has complemented stakeholder engagement research with a distinctively more practice-oriented approach drawing on stakeholder theory or policy literature or their combinations (Papagiannakis et al., 2019;Reed et al., 2009;Shackleton et al., 2019). ...
... colleagues (2009, p. 1935) noted that the participatory approach utilized in natural resource management "advocates ongoing and evolving involvement of stakeholders beyond stakeholder analysis, at every stage of the project cycle." Accordingly, the subsequent environmental management and policy literature has paid considerable attention to understanding the dynamic processes of stakeholder engagement through the duration of various projects and beyond (Geaves & Penning-Rowsell, 2016;Novoa et al., 2018;Shackleton et al., 2019;Vogel & Henstra, 2015). Environmental management and policy researchers have devoted distinct attention to the dynamics of organizationstakeholder-nature relations and have examined stakeholder engagement in relation to, for example, CSR and sustainability (Banerjee & Bonnefous, 2011;Dobele et al., 2014;Kumar et al., 2019), climate change and climate forecasts (Challinor, 2009;Luís et al., 2018;Tompkins et al., 2008;Vogel & Henstra, 2015), empowerment and remediation processes (Butler & Adamowski, 2015;Cundy et al., 2013), participatory processes (López-Rodríguez et al., 2020;O'Toole et al., 2013;Reed et al., 2013), and environmental resource management (Butler & Adamowski, 2015;Mease et al., 2018). ...
... Stakeholder engagement is an intentional activity with explicit or implicit aims linked to participants' interests (Nalick et al., 2016). In addition to the term aims, stakeholder engagement research also uses purpose (Viglia et al., 2018), reasons (Shackleton et al., 2019), and incentives (Miska et al., 2014). We choose to follow Novoa et al. (2018) and use the concept of aims to describe the goals of stakeholder engagement relating to both the stakeholders' and the focal firms' expectations of stakeholder relations. ...
Article
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Stakeholder engagement has grown into a widely used yet often unclear construct in business and society research. The literature lacks a unified understanding of the essentials of stakeholder engagement, and the fragmented use of the stakeholder engagement construct challenges its development and legitimacy. The purpose of this article is to clarify the construct of stakeholder engagement to unfold the full potential of stakeholder engagement research. We conduct a literature review on 90 articles in leading academic journals focusing on stakeholder engagement in the business and society, management and strategy, and environmental management and environmental policy literatures. We present a descriptive analysis of stakeholder engagement research for a 15- year period, and we identify the moral, strategic, and pragmatic components of stakeholder engagement as well as its aims, activities, and impacts. Moreover, we offer an inclusive stakeholder engagement definition and provide a guide to organizing the research. Finally, we complement the current understanding with a largely overlooked dark side of stakeholder engagement. We conclude with future research avenues for stakeholder engagement research.
... At the same time, the most successful management approaches toward invasive species tend to be those that gain social support (Stokes et al. 2006;Gozlan et al. 2013). Therefore, taking into account public perceptions toward biological invasions is key for policy and management (Decker and Chase 1997;Shackleton et al. 2019). Understanding public attitudes toward invasive species might provide insights into the reasons for their introduction and dispersal (Kemp et al. 2017), which can be used for prevention and early detection and increase the effectiveness of eradication and control measures (Hulme 2006;Kapitza et al. 2019). ...
... For instance, the Victorian Acclimatization Societies from Britain intended to introduce animals and plants to improve their economies, landscapes or gastronomies (Lever 1977;Rotherham 2017). This fact might be reflected in the willingness of the British respondents to introduce invasive species if there was an economic or recreational benefit to be justified (Dyer et al. 2017;Shackleton et al. 2019). The low degree of 'awareness index' in the UK might be a surprising result, given that, among the three countries, the UK has the strongest regulations in terms of prevention, early warning and management of invasive species (Tollington et al. 2017). ...
... Our study indicates that attitudes to invasive species differ. Identifying the characteristics of the public groups that can pose a risk to introduce species can be useful for implementing management and legal frameworks at different scales (Gaertner et al. 2016;Shackleton et al. 2019). According to our study, campaigns for prevention and support of invasive species management in Europe should stress the impacts on ecosystems and species extinctions and species perceived as causing the worst damage can be useful as case studies to help flag the impacts caused by invasive species. ...
Article
Understanding public attitudes toward invasive species is crucial to curtail the reasons for their introduction and to increase the effectiveness of control measures. A questionnaire was distributed in three European countries (Italy, Spain and United Kingdom) to evaluate public attitudes on the problems posed by invasive species, their perception of the impacts and their willingness to introduce and support management actions. People whose occupations are not nature related or who practice gardening as a main outdoor activity, represent the highest risk groups relating to the introduction of invasive species. Ecosystem damage and species extinctions were the main concerns for people, and signal crayfish and zebra mussel were the species of most concern. People firstly supported control and eradication followed by awareness resulting in increasing public awareness as management measures. This information can feed into educational, prevention and eradication campaigns promoting the necessary socio-cultural changes to prevent the negative impacts of invasive species.
... In the field of management studies, stakeholder engagement is used to examine multiple organizational activities, such as value creation Harrison & Wicks, 2013), social innovation (Baltazar Herrera, 2016), learning and knowledge creation (Mitchell et al., 2020), and entrepreneurship (Leonidou et al., 2020;Nair, 2020). In particular, stakeholder engagement is increasingly used to examine multiple phenomena in responsibility and sustainability-oriented management literature, such as corporate social responsibility (Arenas et al., 2009;Dobele et al., 2014;O'Riordan & Fairbrass, 2014), sustainable innovations (Todeschini et al., 2020), environmental management (Onkila, 2011;Papagiannakis et al., 2019;Shackleton et al., 2019;Sprengel & Busch, 2011), sustainability accounting and reporting (Herremans et al., 2016;Manetti & Toccafondi, 2012), and business ethics (Noland & Phillips, 2010;Patzer et al., 2018;Phillips, 1997). ...
... Stakeholder theory and engagement is increasingly used in research related to the growing field of sustainability management (Hörisch et al., 2014). Especially, stakeholder engagement is embedded into national and international public policy and environmental management research (Reed, 2008;Shackleton et al., 2019), where stakeholder engagement is examined from a practical viewpoint as a protocol or process to develop pathways for nature-inclusive decision-making in organizations and future society (e.g., Mitter et al., 2019). In this respect, stakeholder engagement has been used 13 to study, for example, biodiversity conservation (Jolibert & Wesselink, 2012), the management of alien species (Novoa et al., 2018;Shackleton et al., 2019), flood risk management (Geaves & Penning-Rowsell, 2016;Thaler & Levin-Keitel, 2016), gentle remediation (Cundy et al., 2013), and global environmental policy (Garard & Kowarsch, 2017;Vogel & Henstra, 2015). ...
... Especially, stakeholder engagement is embedded into national and international public policy and environmental management research (Reed, 2008;Shackleton et al., 2019), where stakeholder engagement is examined from a practical viewpoint as a protocol or process to develop pathways for nature-inclusive decision-making in organizations and future society (e.g., Mitter et al., 2019). In this respect, stakeholder engagement has been used 13 to study, for example, biodiversity conservation (Jolibert & Wesselink, 2012), the management of alien species (Novoa et al., 2018;Shackleton et al., 2019), flood risk management (Geaves & Penning-Rowsell, 2016;Thaler & Levin-Keitel, 2016), gentle remediation (Cundy et al., 2013), and global environmental policy (Garard & Kowarsch, 2017;Vogel & Henstra, 2015). As the theoretical foundations of stakeholder engagement in stakeholder theory are often overlooked in these studies, the conceptual understanding of stakeholder engagement in environmental management and public policy literature is not highly developed. ...
Preprint
Stakeholder engagement refers to the aims, practices and impacts of stakeholder relations in businesses and other organizations. According to a general framework, stakeholder engagement consists of four dimensions: (1) examining stakeholder relations, (2) communicating with stakeholders, (3) learning with and from stakeholders, and (4) integrative stakeholder engagement. Stakeholder engagement is increasingly used in areas such as strategic management, CSR, and sustainability management, while stakeholder engagement research in marketing, finance, and HR is still less common. Two main camps in the stakeholder engagement literature exist: the strategic and the normative. To foster an inclusive understanding of stakeholder engagement, future research in both camps is needed.While the strategic camp necessitates a relational view including both the firm and the stakeholder perspectives, the normative camp requires novel philosophical underpinnings such as humanism and ecocentrism. Furthermore, there is a constant debate on the argument that stakeholder engagement is and should be, most importantly, practical. Stakeholder engagement research should focus on solving real-life problems with practical consequences intended to make people’s lives better.
... Above we emphasize constraints associated with those formally involved with invasive species decision-making, research, and management projects (i.e., "project stakeholders"; Shackleton et al., 2019a). These include granting organizations, project managers, restoration practitioners, land managers, field biologists, researchers, hydrologists, native plant producers, and machine operators (Howell et al., 2012;Shackleton et al., 2019a). ...
... Above we emphasize constraints associated with those formally involved with invasive species decision-making, research, and management projects (i.e., "project stakeholders"; Shackleton et al., 2019a). These include granting organizations, project managers, restoration practitioners, land managers, field biologists, researchers, hydrologists, native plant producers, and machine operators (Howell et al., 2012;Shackleton et al., 2019a). However, most projects also have "community stakeholders" who are impacted or interested in invader spread and control (Howell et al., 2012;Shackleton et al., 2019a;Gamborg et al., 2019). ...
... These include granting organizations, project managers, restoration practitioners, land managers, field biologists, researchers, hydrologists, native plant producers, and machine operators (Howell et al., 2012;Shackleton et al., 2019a). However, most projects also have "community stakeholders" who are impacted or interested in invader spread and control (Howell et al., 2012;Shackleton et al., 2019a;Gamborg et al., 2019). These groups include policy makers, local and state agency representatives, support organizations, neighbors, citizen groups, and landowners (Howell et al., 2012;Shackleton et al., 2019a). ...
Article
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Wetlands provide critical wildlife habitat, improve water quality, and mitigate the impacts of floods, droughts, and climate change. Yet, they are drained, filled, dredged, and otherwise altered by humans, all of which contribute to their high susceptibility to plant invasions. Given the societal significance of wetlands and the disproportionately large amount of time and money spent controlling invaders in remaining wetlands, a fundamental shift must occur in how we approach restoration of plant-invaded wetlands. The need for more research is often used as an excuse for a lack of progress in invader management but, in fact, constraints to invader management are spread across the science, management, and stakeholder engagement domains. At their intersection are “implementation gap” constraints where the monumental efforts required to bridge the gap among scientists, managers, and community stakeholders are often unassigned, unrewarded, and underestimated. Here we synthesize and present a portfolio of broad structured approaches and specific actions that can be used to advance restoration of plant-invaded wetlands in a diversity of contexts immediately and over the long-term, linking these solutions to the constraints they best address. These solutions can be used by individual managers to chart a path forward when they are daunted by potentially needing to pivot from more familiar management actions to increase efficiency and efficacy in attaining restoration goals. In more complex collaborations with multiple actors, the shared vocabulary presented here for considering and selecting the most appropriate solution will be essential. Of course, every management context is unique (i.e., different constraints are at play) so we advocate that involved parties consider a range of potential solutions, rather than either assuming any single solution to be universally optimal or relying on a solution simply because it is familiar and feasible. Moving rapidly to optimally effective invasive plant management in wetlands may not be realistic, but making steady, incremental progress by implementing appropriate solutions based on clearly identified constraints will be critical to eventually attaining wetland restoration goals.
... In the field of management studies, stakeholder engagement is used to examine multiple organizational activities, such as value creation Harrison & Wicks, 2013), social innovation (Baltazar Herrera, 2016), learning and knowledge creation (Mitchell et al., 2020), and entrepreneurship (Leonidou et al., 2020;Nair, 2020). In particular, stakeholder engagement is increasingly used to examine multiple phenomena in responsibility and sustainability-oriented management literature, such as corporate social responsibility (Arenas et al., 2009;Dobele et al., 2014;O'Riordan & Fairbrass, 2014), sustainable innovations (Todeschini et al., 2020), environmental management (Onkila, 2011;Papagiannakis et al., 2019;Shackleton et al., 2019;Sprengel & Busch, 2011), sustainability accounting and reporting (Herremans et al., 2016;Manetti & Toccafondi, 2012), and business ethics (Noland & Phillips, 2010;Patzer et al., 2018;Phillips, 1997). ...
... Stakeholder theory and engagement is increasingly used in research related to the growing field of sustainability management (Hörisch et al., 2014). Especially, stakeholder engagement is embedded into national and international public policy and environmental management research (Reed, 2008;Shackleton et al., 2019), where stakeholder engagement is examined from a practical viewpoint as a protocol or process to develop pathways for nature-inclusive decision-making in organizations and future society (e.g., Mitter et al., 2019). In this respect, stakeholder engagement has been used 13 to study, for example, biodiversity conservation (Jolibert & Wesselink, 2012), the management of alien species (Novoa et al., 2018;Shackleton et al., 2019), flood risk management (Geaves & Penning-Rowsell, 2016;Thaler & Levin-Keitel, 2016), gentle remediation (Cundy et al., 2013), and global environmental policy (Garard & Kowarsch, 2017;Vogel & Henstra, 2015). ...
... Especially, stakeholder engagement is embedded into national and international public policy and environmental management research (Reed, 2008;Shackleton et al., 2019), where stakeholder engagement is examined from a practical viewpoint as a protocol or process to develop pathways for nature-inclusive decision-making in organizations and future society (e.g., Mitter et al., 2019). In this respect, stakeholder engagement has been used 13 to study, for example, biodiversity conservation (Jolibert & Wesselink, 2012), the management of alien species (Novoa et al., 2018;Shackleton et al., 2019), flood risk management (Geaves & Penning-Rowsell, 2016;Thaler & Levin-Keitel, 2016), gentle remediation (Cundy et al., 2013), and global environmental policy (Garard & Kowarsch, 2017;Vogel & Henstra, 2015). As the theoretical foundations of stakeholder engagement in stakeholder theory are often overlooked in these studies, the conceptual understanding of stakeholder engagement in environmental management and public policy literature is not highly developed. ...
... However, this rapid innovation has outpaced implementation and coordination (Iacona et al., 2019;Lahoz-Monfort et al., 2019;Martinez et al., 2020). Substantial advances have been made in conceptual tools and technologies that have great promise for predicting and reducing spread risk, including approaches to horizon scanning (Roy, Peyton & Booy, 2020), novel methods for occurrence data acquisition (Larson et al., 2020), spatially explicit environmental data (Dauwalter et al., 2017;Randin et al., 2020), and facilitating knowledge transfer and co-production (Shackleton et al., 2019a; see Section VI), but these tools are rarely applied in concert. A framework for conducting actionable, spatially explicit research on invasive alien species (IAS) occurrences and spread to guide management and decision-making. ...
... This knowledge transfer step closes the implementation or 'knowing-doing' gap, a top priority for IAS research . The diverse technological and methodological innovations from the preceding sections can be translated better into on-the-ground results if synthesized into products that are usable for those affected by or responsible for managing IAS impacts (Shackleton et al., 2019a;Kokotovich et al., 2020). Information uptake and use are increased by the inclusion of practitioners, decision-makers and stakeholders throughout the research process (Lemos et al., 2018; Table 3). ...
Article
Full-text available
Invasive alien species (IAS) are a rising threat to biodiversity, national security, and regional economies, with impacts in the hundreds of billions of U.S. dollars annually. Proactive or predictive approaches guided by scientific knowledge are essential to keeping pace with growing impacts of invasions under climate change. Although the rapid development of diverse technologies and approaches has produced tools with the potential to greatly accelerate invasion research and management, innovation has far outpaced implementation and coordination. Technological and methodological syntheses are urgently needed to close the growing implementation gap and facilitate interdisciplinary collaboration and synergy among evolving disciplines. A broad review is necessary to demonstrate the utility and relevance of work in diverse fields to generate actionable science for the ongoing invasion crisis. Here, we review such advances in relevant fields including remote sensing, epidemiology, big data analytics, environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling, genomics, and others, and present a generalized framework for distilling existing and emerging data into products for proactive IAS research and management. This integrated workflow provides a pathway for scientists and practitioners in diverse disciplines to contribute to applied invasion biology in a coordinated, synergistic, and scalable manner.
... Environmental managers, decision-makers and scientists have only recently recognized that any successful management strategy to tackle IAS, is highly associated with the involvement of the general public and all related stakeholders (Crowley et al. 2017, Shackleton et al. 2019, Ribeiro et al. 2021. For introduced species, research on public perceptions remained quite scarce until the mid-2000s, while during the last decade there has been a rapid increase of scientific IAS publications (Kapitza et al. 2019). ...
... Public engagement in the management of IAS may ensure the effective implementation of management actions, lowering the incidence of conflicts among stakeholders (Shackleton et al. 2019). However, research on the patterns of public awareness and perceptions on several aspects of IAS are still rather limited in several countries (Andreu et al. 2009. ...
Article
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Even though the ecological impacts of invasive alien species (IAS) have been well studied, social aspects of IAS in freshwater ecosystems are still poorly explored. This study aimed to assess the perceptions associated with non-indigenous freshwater fish species (NIFS) among environmental-related professional and non-professional stakeholders in a Mediterranean country that displays high levels of fish species endemism, by using a questionnaire survey approach. Overall, 203 individuals participated, from which, the majority (n=144) were related to environmental sciences. Most of the respondents perceived NIFS to be a threat of national importance, possibly attributed to the emotional effect of the term non-indigenous (conceived as intruder). However, NIFS were indicated as the least important threat affecting aquatic ecosystems when compared with other pressures. This contrasting perception could be explained by the fact that broad-scale impacts (i.e. climate change) exert stronger reactions compared to NIFS. Interestingly, non-professionals were more successful in identifying NIFS and native species compared to professionals, however both indicated low overall identification success. The majority of the respondents, both professionals and non-professionals, considered that: a) the official authorities do not implement actions for NIFS management, b) government spending should be increased to manage NIFS even if it should to be reduced for other needs, and c) early detection is the best way to manage NIFS. The establishment of a nationwide network consisting of all related stakeholders on NIFS issues, aiming to public awareness and preventive management actions to limit the spread and impacts of NIFS should be set as a priority.
... Recent research has highlighted divergent views among experts involved in gene drive research, especially in relation to engagement, decision-making and ethical acceptability (de Graeff et al., 2021a,b). Generating multistakeholder buy-in has previously been considered a critical component of successful stakeholder engagement, as well as knowledge translation and improved research impact (Shackleton et al., 2019;. These considerations drove both the design and the conduct of each workshop and informed the development of an investment decision framework which articulates the broader institutional environment for GBT investment in Australia. ...
... While "investment" typically refers to the provision of funding, the project applied a broader definition of investment in GBTs to include: partnering, networking and advocacy; strengthening governance pathways and; the brokering of knowledge and partnerships. A broader interpretation of investment is important when considering the diversity of capacities, resources and interests a diverse range of organizations can contribute to invasive species research and management (Shackleton et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Managing pest vertebrate species in Australia is a significant challenge for government, industry, research sectors and land-managers. Innovative tools such as genetic biocontrol offers decision-makers a potentially effective means of reducing the impact of pest species incursions. To determine the conditions for investment in genetic biocontrol, we applied qualitative engagement methodologies to identify and integrate existing knowledge of pest species research and management in Australia. Two facilitated workshops were held to determine key topics related to genetic biocontrol technologies for selected pest species. The topics explored during workshop discussions included: identifying existing knowledge gaps; risk perceptions; social and ethical considerations and; industry and business considerations. The workshops' aim was to assess the potential, the priorities and the risk parameters among expert stakeholders and decision-makers for using genetic biocontrol approaches to reduce the impacts of key pest species in Australia. This paper reports on the design, process and outcomes of each workshop to inform the creation of a decision framework. Stakeholders were cautiously optimistic of pursuing continued research and development for vertebrate pest management in Australia. However, employing an appropriate, transparent process for incorporating diverse stakeholder perspectives on genetic biocontrol technologies is essential to ensure their development and use remains supported. This outcome will require meaningful investment in both social science investigations and well-considered engagement processes concurrent with biotechnology development globally.
... In responding to changing perceptions of non-native species, their impacts, and their value to society, invasion science is facing challenges similar to those confronting other disciplines including the medical profession with regard to how best to communicate information about risk (Alaszewski and Horlick-Jones 2003). Social science research must also develop effective strategies or models for systematic engagement of stakeholders seeking sustainable solutions to invasions (Shackleton et al. 2019). ...
... To this end, Novoa et al. (2018) developed a 12-step process designed to place stakeholders at the center of the development and implementation of decisions relating to conflicts of interest in invasive species management. Fundamental requirements for achieving such aims are (i) to ensure that decisions and management actions are co-designed, co-produced, and co-implemented to promote social learning and provide feedback to stakeholders, and (ii) to increase levels of collaboration and partnerships beyond the natural sciences and academia (Shackleton et al. 2019). Further work is clearly needed to achieve integration of broad stakeholder engagement and co-operation in invasion research and management. ...
... This will be accomplished by holding regular mixed-format (virtual/live) workshops and seminars at conferences to illustrate the data submission process, answer questions, and gather feedback to help improve the process moving forward. We will solicit feedback on how the application process could be improved to continue optimizing the efficient and accurate use of the database for management and policy decisions (Shackleton et al. 2019;Morelli et al. 2021). As new technical details on eDNA methodology are discovered, and new standards and best practices are adopted, we plan to iteratively incorporate the best available science into these living documents. ...
... Building on past studies on the role of stakeholder participation in the design of PHS programs, in this paper we explore (1) how a locally informed context-specific RPS encourages collaboration between diverse PHS program stakeholders (e.g., government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, businesses, water users, and landowners) in PHS program design and decision-making (Lalicic and Weber-Sabil, 2019;Merlet et al., 2018;Moreau et al., 2019;Perrotton et al., 2017;Shackleton et al., 2019;Stokes and Selin, 2016), and (2) what improvements in PHS program design are most strongly highlighted (or recommended) by PHS stakeholders to meet local needs (Hayes et al., 2019;Irvine et al., 2016;Pfaff et al., 2019;Rodriguez and Á vila-Foucat, 2013;Sims et al., 2014). In responding to these questions, we explore in what ways the RPS fostered policy innovation. ...
Article
Payments for hydrological services (PHS) apply an incentive-based approach to achieve conservation and socioeconomic goals. PHS policies are most successful when they are designed and implemented with participation from diverse stakeholders and respond to local needs and conditions. Role-play simulations (RPS) engage stakeholders from different organizations and decision-making roles in policy deliberations and innovations. This paper explores how a science-based RPS encourages participation from diverse actors to inform PHS policy innovation in Veracruz, Mexico. We present results from two RPS workshops which engaged 69 stakeholders in negotiations on the future design of a hypothetical PHS program. Our RPS integrated qualitative and quantitative information from operating PHS programs to inform a hypothetical, but realistic, decision-making scenario. This paper analyzes data collected from surveys of workshop participants, audio recordings of workshop discussions, and post-workshop, in-depth interviews. We found the RPS fostered collaborative decision-making by engaging participants in constructive conversations about PHS program design options to effectively contribute to forest conservation and socioeconomic well-being, including incentivizing environmentally friendly farm practices and complementing cash payment with in-kind transactions. We also found the collaborative method of RPS challenged the exclusive role of technical expertise in decision-making by eliciting ideas for improvement of PHS programs and fostering understanding and empathy towards others and their interests, particularly for small landowners who do not typically participate in decision-making. We conclude that a science-based RPS can be a valuable tool for encouraging multi-stakeholder participation in policy design that reflects local environmental and socio-economic values and needs.
... Ultimately, these types of studies can contribute to the success of conservation and management outcomes (Reed 2008, Sterling et al. 2017. Other analyses have shown an increase in publications dealing with stakeholder engagement in invasion science during the 2000s, and particularly since 2009 (Shackleton et al. 2019). ...
Article
Invasive alien species are a major driver of global environmental change. Escalating globalization processes such as international trade and long-distance transport have contributed to an increase in the ecological, economic, and sociocultural impacts of biological invasions. As a result, their management has become an increasingly relevant topic on environmental policy agendas. To better understand the role of policy in invasion science and to identify trends and gaps in policy-oriented research, a systematic literature review was conducted covering 2135 publications. The results highlight that international policy instruments are contributing to an increased interest in pursuing policy-oriented research. Specifically, key historical periods in policy development (e.g., the Convention on Biological Diversity's COP10 in 2010) coincide with periods of active policy-focused research in invasion science. Research is, however, more applied to local scales (i.e., subnational, and national) and is more focused in places with high research capacity or where severe environmental or economic impacts are well documented.
... The controversy surrounding invasive species denialism (ISD) is worth considering, particularly in the context of invasive species management and policy. Management of invasive species relies not only on researchers and decision-makers, but also the involvement and cooperation of various stakeholders to ensure success (Shackleton et al. 2019). Regardless of whether any of these groups might consider themselves to be denialists, the fact remains that at least some researchers, decision-makers, and members of the public have been perceived by prominent invasive species researchers as making denialist claims (Russell and Blackburn 2017;Ricciardi and Ryan 2018a). ...
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Invasive species denialism (ISD) is a controversial and hitherto underexplored topic, particularly with regard to its potential impacts on stakeholder engagement in support of invasive species management and policy. We examined how ISD is framed within the Great Lakes invasive species community, as well as the impacts of excluding and including those perceived as denialists in engagement efforts. We interviewed key informants in the region to gain an understanding of their framings of ISD, as well as focus groups allowing participants to discuss the impacts of exclusion and inclusion of stakeholders during the engagement process. ISD discussions were organised into three framings: 1) invasive species denialism; 2) invasive species cynicism; 3) invasive species nihilism. Participants raised concerns about outright exclusion of stakeholders and offered recommendations for mitigation of the impacts of inclusion of proponents of ISD in during stakeholder engagement. Our results have shown that a better understanding of the different framings of ISD is crucial to improve communication with stakeholders and to better inform responses and mitigation efforts. The newly defined framings of invasive species cynicism and invasive species nihilism demonstrate that more targeted responses to specific forms of ISD are needed to improve stakeholder engagement outcomes.
... There is a lack of coordinated collaboration between stakeholders across Greece to collectively overcome climate challenges (Siders 2019). However, stakeholder analysis and engagement is increasingly seen as a key factor in adapting or overcoming various environmental challenges and developing well-informed national and regional governance responses to climate change impacts (Baird et al. 2016;Calliari et al. 2019;Pasquier et al. 2020;van Aalst et al. 2008;Shackleton et al. 2019). The analysis and engagement of political decision-makers is crucial for the implementation of CCA actions, since they require economic and political decision-making in a multilevel governance framework (Amundsen et al. 2010). ...
Article
Stakeholder mapping and analysis is essential in climate change adaptation (CCA) projects to assess and identify the importance and needs of the relevant stakeholders (SHs). The complexity and importance of the implementation of CCA actions depends on the cooperation of diverse groups of stakeholders in line with the policy implementation characteristics which apply in Greece. To map the actors involved in adaptation planning and implementation in Greece, a multicriteria analysis was performed. The SHs involved in CCA in Greece were divided into national- and regional-level stakeholders. The stakeholder analysis was based on the mapping of SHs identified through the organizational charts of relevant institutions and by other projects with a direct or indirect link to CCA. The relative importance of each stakeholder for the purposes of this analysis was assessed by evaluating their power, proximity and urgency with respect to CCA and by assigning specific weighting factors for each criterion to calculate a single priority index. Based on the priority index value, SHs were classified as low, medium or high priority for CCA at both national and regional levels. At the national level, ministerial directorates were classified as high priority, followed by academic and research centers, which were classified as medium priority. At the regional level, high index values were calculated for the Special Directorate of Environment and Spatial Planning. The General Directorate of Civil Protection and the Directorate of European Programs were classified as medium and low priority, respectively.
... Central to effective communication is establishing a reciprocal dialogue between project coordinators and participants, which should ideally be based on a two-way process (Shackleton et al. 2019). Sustained engagement throughout the project, where participants are able to provide feedback and ask questions, enables project coordinators to refine their approach to identify issues, which need to be tackled to reach the intended educational, engagement and research outcomes (Druschke and Seltzer 2012). ...
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Community science (also often referred to as citizen science) provides a unique opportunity to address questions beyond the scope of other research methods whilst simultaneously engaging communities in the scientific process. This leads to broad educational benefits, empowers people, and can increase public awareness of societally relevant issues such as the biodiversity crisis. As such, community science has become a favourable framework for researching alien species where data on the presence, absence, abundance, phenology, and impact of species is important in informing management decisions. However, uncertainties arising at different stages can limit the interpretation of data and lead to projects failing to achieve their intended outcomes. Focusing on alien species centered community science projects, we identified key research questions and the relevant uncertainties that arise during the process of developing the study design, for example, when collecting the data and during the statistical analyses. Additionally, we assessed uncertainties from a linguistic perspective, and how the communication stages among project coordinators, participants and other stakeholders can alter the way in which information may be interpreted. We discuss existing methods for reducing uncertainty and suggest further solutions to improve data reliability. Further, we make suggestions to reduce the uncertainties that emerge at each project step and provide guidance and recommendations that can be readily applied in practice. Reducing uncertainties is essential and necessary to strengthen the scientific and community outcomes of community science, which is of particular importance to ensure the success of projects aimed at detecting novel alien species and monitoring their dynamics across space and time. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10530-022-02858-8.
... The social dimension of non-native species has been intensively investigated (reviewed by [10][11][12][13][14], among others). Attitudes to animals and their management are becoming increasingly important for the success of conservation and environmental initiatives [15]. ...
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People’s attitudes to animals are becoming increasingly important for the success of invasive species management. We asked college students from Argentina to fill a questionnaire that included a question about their favorite free-living animal. A total of 159 responses were obtained. Native species were significantly less preferred than non-native species. We tested if these preferences were associated with animal stereotypes. The stereotype hypothesis predicts that animals from the contemptible stereotype (invertebrate, rodents, and reptiles) should be the least preferred taxa, and animals from the protective stereotype (pets, horses, and primates) should be the most preferred taxa; animals from the subordination (lagomorphs and birds) and threatening–awe stereotype (large carnivores) should show intermediate preferences. The first prediction was supported. However, students showed significant preference for non-native taxa included in the threatening–awe stereotype. We proposed that people prefer large carnivores (stereotypically strong, intelligent, and beautiful animals) when they are exotic, because they did not represent a risk.
... When such regulatory instruments are formed, they are likely to be received positively by local people as most of them feel possessiveness of the instrument [60]. Normally, decision-making in PAs management affects both social and ecological interests, therefore requires governance system that calls for stakeholders' collaboration to provide a consensus among them [63]. Such collaboration ensures for the availability of the best information to be used [64] for a sustainable management of invasive plants. ...
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As the influx of different invasive species and their spread to new areas increases, there is a need for a rigorous and relevant scientific evidence-based control and restoration (EBCR) approaches to inform practical decisions and policymaking. While evidence-based decision is gaining popularity in science and policy, its potential for transformative change especially in the management of invasive plant species remains unexplored. Control and restoration of areas invaded by invasive plant species in natural and protected ecosystems require such decisions. Here, we provide a framework to guide how EBCR can contribute to transformative change and we argue that upscaling existing EBCR practices in areas invaded by invasive plant species (especially in protected areas (PAs)) requires coalitions of interdisciplinary science, public, private, and civil society actors with a common goal. Since actors’ roles and stakeholder interactions are dynamic, to achieve durable impacts, the upscaling process must continually engage and involve actors, while maintaining a balance of incentives among them. Social and cultural dimensions of local communities as well as their indigenous and local knowledge need to be incorporated. Pathways to upscaling EBCR may involve leveraging adaptive governance, integrating successful initiatives and lessons into public policy and practices, or reinforcing governance and management-led change with private efforts. We identify general lessons from (complex) PAs for successful upscaling of EBCR and illustrate the components of our framework through a novel application of a nature-based approach (NbA) in PAs invaded by invasive plant species.
... Due to the increasing urbanization and the establishment of new residential complexes, there is a large reduction of green areas and ornamental or even edible dendroflora in the entire territory of the city of Novi Sad, which leads to a decrease in biological diversity . Urbanization is one of the most important social and economic disturbances that occur as a consequence of anthropogenic impact, including population and economic growth and expansion of urban land, and has a direct or indirect impact on ES (Shackleton et al 2019;Ouyang et al 2021). In the territory of the city of Novi Sad, ornamental deciduous and shrub species are more dominant over the conifers, while coniferous species occur in smaller numbers. ...
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The green infrastructure of the city of Novi Sad is characterized by a significant presence of ornamental invasive alien species, which might lead to their uncontrolled spread and suppression of autochthonous dendroflora. This study aimed to determine the ecosystem services and disservices of ornamental dendroflora in Novi Sad, as well as how they can affect urban green areas. Of the total ornamental dendroflora in Novi Sad, 88.33% of species with a good adaptation were determined, while 10% had a medium and 1.67% had a very good adaptation. Thirty-four allochthonous species showed very high (38.24%), moderate (47.06%), and low (14.71%) invasive potential according to the conducted invasiveness risk assessment. These species are also characterized by high (2.94%), moderate (67.65%), and low (29.41%) allergenic potential. On the contrary, 26 ornamental autochthonous species are characterized by moderate (38.46%) and low (61.54%) rates of spread on public green areas, while also characterized by high (26.92%), moderate (50%), and weak (23.08%) allergenic potential. Ornamental dendroflora provides many more positive ecosystem services, such as urban afforestation, climate regulation, decorative-aesthetic value, air and water purification, ecotourism and recreation, and other services that are of great benefit to the residents of that city. The highest calculated values of ecosystem services in allochthonous and autochthonous species were 27 and 26.5 (out of possible maximal value 40), while ecosystem disservices accounted down to the value of − 13.5 (out of possible minimal value − 22). Therefore, intrinsic disservices such as the production of large amounts of green waste of ornamental dendroflora can be shifted into a novel ecosystem service–green solutions based on nature, to avoid unsuitable deposition of seeds in the soil and creation of suitable vegetation on public green areas. Graphical abstract
... Obviously, studies on stakeholders' perceptions and attitudes toward BWM are still limited and just for ship's stakeholders like as ship owner and operators. However, diverse stakeholder participation is key in marine environmental management, and incorporating stakeholders' perceptions to design and formulate the management plan is helpful for achieving successful implementation [23,24]. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the perceptions and attitudes of stakeholders towards ballast water management. ...
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Accidental introduction of nonindigenous aquatic species (NIAS) is usually mediated by shipping through ballast water. Ballast water management plans are being developed and implemented around the world to prevent the spread of NIAS. However, for marine environmental management, incorporating stakeholders’ perceptions into designing and formulating management plans is key to achieving successful implementation. This study used qualitative interviews and grounded theory to induce the influencing factors and conceptual model of stakeholders’ perceptions on ballast water management (BWM) issues. The interplay of the pressure–state–response conceptual model based on grounded theory was established to elaborate on stakeholders’ perceptions. The study results indicated that local ballast water management required comprehensive port state control (PSC) and technical competency development. Second, an international commercial port can be used as a demonstration area to demonstrate the effectiveness and the potential benefits of BWM implementation due to its potential to link with international networks. Moreover, legislation, surveying/monitoring, institutional capacity and outreach/education are the four fundamentals to marine bio-invasion management. Initiating ballast water management measures as part of port environmental management aims to enhance marine pollution management capacity, especially in the field of marine bio-invasion management.
... and-most importantly-to work with stakeholders at every stage of their managementShackleton et al., 2019).4.4.2 | Trader knowledge of IASThe findings of the present study indicate that almost all of the traders did not know about the origins of the prickly pear or what IAS are. All of them responded that prickly pear was a natural or South African native plant. ...
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Opuntia ficus‐indica, commonly known as prickly pear, is a widely distributed plant originating in central America. Its wide distribution and popularity as a cultivated plant are due to the sweetness of its fruits. Here, the role of O. ficus‐indica in the livelihoods of people in Limpopo Province, South Africa, was investigated. Roadside traders of prickly pear were surveyed 2019–2020 using paper‐based questionnaires and a convenience sampling strategy. Evidence of O. ficus‐indica trading as a means to generate income was uncovered. Notably, none of the traders knew about invasive species. Future studies should seek to understand the motivations of purchasers. The extent to which rural communities use this species for food security and poverty alleviation is not fully understood. The Opuntia ficus‐indica (whose fruits are traded in South Africa) is a species that is classified according to the National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act (10/2004) Alien and Invasive Species (NEM:BA A&IS) regulations as an invasive species. This study sought to provide an understanding of the socio‐economic value of O. ficus‐indica and the characteristic profiles of the people who trade with O. ficus‐indica in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. A convenience sampling strategy was conducted along trading roads in Limpopo province, and the data were collected by surveying traders' attitudes toward the prickly pear trade using questionnaires. Our findings show that at the time of sampling 72 traders participated in prickly pear trading along the roadside. Unemployment is cited as the primary reason for their involvement in trading. O. Ficus‐indica is an important fruit for rural communities in Limpopo province. It helps communities living below the poverty line to generate income and to support their livelihoods. Our study highlights the need for the establishment of a Prickly Pear Traders' Agency in order to promote the trade of O. ficus‐indica as a measure to generate income, alleviate poverty, and ensure food security. The paper concludes with recommendations for local government support for O. ficus‐indica traders through the formalization of the trade and through monetary support. Opuntia ficus‐indica, commonly known as prickly pear, is a widely distributed plant originating in central America. Its wide distribution and popularity as a cultivated plant due to the sweetness of its fruits. Here, the role of O. ficus‐indica in the livelihoods of people in Limpopo Province, South Africa, was investigated. Roadside traders of prickly pear were surveyed 2019–2020 using paper‐based questionnaires and a convenience sampling strategy. Evidence of O. ficus‐indica trading as a means to generate income was uncovered. Notably, none of the traders knew about invasive species. Future studies should seek to understand the motivations of purchasers. The extent to which rural communities use this species for food security and poverty alleviation is not fully understood.
... A key stage in strategy building is engagement with actors to achieve ownership of strategies, a supportive institutional framework, and the ability to continuously learn and adapt Shackleton et al. 2019a). Given the hybrid local and global nature of the invasive species phenomenon, strategies must be locally rooted but globally connected. ...
... A key stage in strategy building is engagement with actors to achieve ownership of strategies, a supportive institutional framework, and the ability to continuously learn and adapt (Novoa et al. 2018;Shackleton et al. 2019a). Given the hybrid local and global nature of the invasive species phenomenon, strategies must be locally rooted but globally connected. ...
Chapter
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As human communities become increasingly interconnected through transport and trade, there has been a concomitant rise in both accidental and intentional species introductions, resulting in biological invasions. A warming global climate and the rapid movement of people and vessels across the globe have opened new air and sea routes, accelerated propagule pressure, and altered habitat disturbance regimes, all of which act synergistically to trigger and sustain invasions. The complexity and interconnectedness of biological invasions with commerce, culture, and human-mediated natural disturbances make prevention and management of invasive alien species (IAS) particularly challenging. Voluntary actions by single countries have proven to be insufficient in addressing biological invasions. Large gaps between science, management, and policy at various geopolitical scales still exist and necessitate an urgent need for more integrative approach across multiple scales and multiple stakeholder groups to bridge those gaps and reduce the impacts of biological invasions on biodiversity and human well-being. An evidence-based global strategy is therefore needed to predict, prevent, and manage the impacts of IAS. Here we define global strategies as frameworks for evidence-based visions, policy agreements, and commitments that address the patterns, mechanisms, and impact of biological invasions. Many existing global, regional, and thematic initiatives provide a strong foundation to inform a global IAS strategy. We propose five recommendations to progress these toward global strategies against biological invasions, including better standards and tools for long-term monitoring, techniques for evaluation of impacts across taxa and regions, modular regulatory frameworks that integrate incentives and compliance mechanisms with respect to diverse transcultural needs, biosecurity awareness and measures, and synergies with other conservation strategies. This proposed approach for IAS is inclusive, adaptive, and flexible and moves toward global strategies for better preventing and managing biological invasions. As existing research-policy-management networks mature and others emerge, the accelerating need for effective global strategies against biological invasions can finally be met.
... A key stage in strategy building is engagement with actors to achieve ownership of strategies, a supportive institutional framework, and the ability to continuously learn and adapt Shackleton et al. 2019a). Given the hybrid local and global nature of the invasive species phenomenon, strategies must be locally rooted but globally connected. ...
Chapter
The invasion of alien species manipulates the structure, function, and composition of the recipient ecosystem causing ecological, economic, and social impacts. However, these impacts can be positive or negative, depending on the effect and context of the invasion. In some cases, invasions enhance primary productivity of the ecosystem and increase species richness. On the other hand, in the majority of cases, the invasive species displace native species, adversely impacting native ecosystem and jeopardizing natural resources. The outcome of the impacts is based on several factors, such as mode of introduction, type of invasive species, condition of the invaded habitat, and characteristics of native species. For instance, specialist native species are predicted to suffer adverse effects, while generalists may flourish even when invasive species are abundant. There has been considerable debate in recent times about whether claims of severe impacts of invasive species are exaggerated and whether efforts to manage them are unnecessary or even harmful, and some unintended consequences of invasive species management have been documented. Regardless of the lack of consensus on the impacts of invasive species, they are posing a measurable cost to society. Invasive species severely affect agriculture, fisheries, tourism, forestry, and property values. Countries that rely on agriculture with small landholders are the most vulnerable to the invasion of exotic species. The rate of spread of invasive species is currently surging due to increased travel, trade, and transport in combination with climate change. Accurate and comprehensive information on economic and environmental impacts of invasive species is seriously lacking, and more research is needed to develop management strategies based on the impacts of invasive species.KeywordsAgricultureBiodiversityEcosystem servicesFisheriesForestryLivelihoods
... A key stage in strategy building is engagement with actors to achieve ownership of strategies, a supportive institutional framework, and the ability to continuously learn and adapt Shackleton et al. 2019a). Given the hybrid local and global nature of the invasive species phenomenon, strategies must be locally rooted but globally connected. ...
Chapter
Humans have exchanged plant species beyond their native borders since millennia. The pathways of exchange and their relative importance have differed among regions, times and species. Here, we review the temporal developments of pathways of alien plant species introductions and how these relate to trends in alien plant species richness at a global scale. Although the rate of exchange of alien plants has grown steadily over time, significant advancements in human technological progress initiated new bursts of acceleration in global spread. Examples include the discovery of new seaways around 1500, the start of modern industrialisation in the early nineteenth century and the rise of global trade and human prosperity after World War II. Apart from a continuous intensification, the relative importance of pathways remained surprisingly stable. During the last 500 years, the introduction of plant species for cultivation represents the dominating pathway and was associated with more than half of all introductions. Although the relationship between horticulture and the occurrence of alien plants is often difficult to prove, the huge number of plants cultivated in the world makes it likely that, in the future, many introductions will continue to originate from private or public gardens. Indeed, horticulture remains the only introduction pathway which, up to now, has increased in relative importance among all pathways globally. Despite the rising awareness of the issues of introducing new alien species, the current socio-economic developments indicate that we have to expect many more alien plant species to come in the future.KeywordsBiological invasionsGlobalisationHistoricLong termNeophytesTime seriesWeeds
... Because cats are originally human companion animals, effective outdoor cat management requires public support (e.g., Lewis et al. 2019, Shackleton et al. 2019. However, owing to both the positive and negative impacts of outdoor cat management, this leads to difficulty in building consensus regarding outdoor cat management among stakeholders, thereby impeding public support for outdoor cat management, and hence impacting its effectiveness (McNeely 2001. ...
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Message framing contributes to an increase in public support for invasive species management. However, little is known about people's preferences for the multiple objectives of management within different contexts relating to the challenges and benefits of invasive species management. We examine Japanese citizens' preferences for the goals of free-roaming unowned cat (Felis catus) management in three contextual frames by applying experimentally controlled information and the best-worst scaling technique. Our results indicate that the ecological frame highlighting the ecological impacts of free-roaming unowned cats on native ecosystems significantly increases Japanese citizens' concern about cat predation, although the frame did not change the preference ranking of goals. There are differences in the effects of message framing depending on cat ownership. The best-worst scaling technique shows that Japanese citizens prefer to maintain a sanitary environment, followed by the prevention of zoonotic diseases. Although the ranking of sanitary environmental management does not depend on cat ownership, the ranking of the other goals differs depending on cat ownership. The findings highlight the importance of strategic message framing and its prioritization in encouraging public support for invasive species management.
... What are the most important potential harms from a technology that should be avoided? Many existing areas of scholarship are well suited to inform engagement efforts for gene drive technology including: responsible innovation (e.g., Stilgoe et al., 2013), ecological risk assessment (e.g., Nelson et al., 2007), and invasive species management (e.g., Shackleton et al., 2019). In a previous article we reviewed these relevant literatures and explored the diversity of forms engagement could take in the context of emerging biotechnologies to address invasive species (Kokotovich et al., 2020). ...
Article
Emerging biotechnologies, such as gene drive technology, are increasingly being proposed to manage a variety of pests and invasive species. As one method of genetic biocontrol, gene drive technology is currently being developed to manage the invasive agricultural pest spotted-wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii, SWD). While there have been calls for stakeholder engagement on gene drive technology, there has been a lack of empirical work, especially concerning stakeholder engagement to inform risk assessment. To help address this gap and inform future risk assessments and governance decisions for SWD gene drive technology, we conducted a survey of 184 SWD stakeholders to explore how they define and prioritize potential benefits and potential adverse effects from proposed SWD gene drive technology. We found that stakeholders considered the most important potential benefits of SWD gene drive technology to be: 1) Decrease in the quantity or toxicity of pesticides used, and 2) Decrease in SWD populations. Stakeholders were most concerned about the potential adverse effects of: 1) Decrease in beneficial insects, 2) Increase in non-SWD secondary pest infestations, and 3) Decrease in grower profits. Notably, we found that even stakeholders who expressed support for the use of SWD gene drive technology expressed concerns about potential adverse effects from the technology, emphasizing the need to move past simplistic, dichotomous views of what it means to support or oppose a technology. These findings suggest that instead of focusing on the binary question of whether stakeholders support or oppose SWD gene drive technology, it is more important to identify and assess the factors that are consequential to stakeholder decision making – including, for example, exploring whether and under what conditions key potential adverse effects and potential benefits would result from the use of SWD gene drive technology.
... For each NNS, managers can attempt to eradicate a population, make efforts to avoid any further expansion into new areas, or acknowledge that control is not possible and work on mitigation strategies [24,25]. These limited options are compounded by the vast costs associated with control or eradication, and even when control methods may be possible, they might be politically or publicly unacceptable [26,27]. Furthermore, control measures can be unsuccessful because of incomplete eradication of the target species or ongoing species reintroductions [22,28,29]. ...
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The use of molecular tools to manage natural resources is increasingly common. However, DNA-based methods are seldom used to understand the spatial and temporal dynamics of species' range shifts. This is important when managing range shifting species such as non-native species (NNS), which can have negative impacts on biotic communities. Here, we investigated the ascidian NNS Ciona robusta , Clavelina lepadiformis , Microcosmus squamiger and Styela plicata using a combined methodological approach. We first conducted non-molecular biodiversity surveys for these NNS along the South African coastline, and compared the results with historical surveys. We detected no consistent change in range size across species, with some displaying range stability and others showing range shifts. We then sequenced a section of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) from tissue samples and found genetic differences along the coastline but no change over recent times. Finally, we found that environmental DNA metabarcoding data showed broad congruence with both the biodiversity survey and the COI datasets, but failed to capture the complete incidence of all NNS. Overall, we demonstrated how a combined methodological approach can effectively detect spatial and temporal variation in genetic composition and range size, which is key for managing both thriving NNS and threatened species. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Species’ ranges in the face of changing environments (part I)’.
... Stakeholder engagement frameworks have been gaining traction in recent years as they hold significant potential to mitigate conflict, reducing barriers to management, increasing inclusiveness in decision making, acceptance of management and equitable outcomes (Victorian Goverment 2010;Braysher 2017;Crowley et al. 2017a, b;Hui and Richardson 2017;Sarkar and Minteer 2018;Shackleton et al. 2019a;Aley et al. 2020;Palmer et al. 2020;Villarreal-Rosas et al. 2020). Such engagement is crucial given that oftentimes limited literature, research funding, time constraints and different value systems would otherwise hinder the understanding of trade-offs and the diversity of perceptions on DE-IAS (Gaertner et al. 2016;Woodford et al. 2017). ...
Article
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In addition to being a major threat to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, biological invasions also have profound impacts on economies and human wellbeing. However, the threats posed by invasive species often do not receive adequate attention and lack targeted management. In part, this may result from different or even ambivalent perceptions of invasive species which have a dual effect for stakeholders—being simultaneously a benefit and a burden. For these species, literature that synthesizes best practice is very limited, and analyses providing a comprehensive understanding of their economics are generally lacking. This has resulted in a critical gap in our understanding of the underlying trade-offs surrounding management efforts and approaches. Here, we explore qualitative trends in the literature for invasive species with dual effects, drawing from both the recently compiled InvaCost database and international case studies. The few invasive species with dual roles in InvaCost provide evidence for a temporal increase in reporting of costs, but with benefits relatively sporadically reported alongside costs. We discuss methods, management, assessment and policy frameworks dedicated to these species, along with lessons learned, complexities and persisting knowledge gaps. Our analysis points at the need to enhance scientific understanding of those species through inter- and cross-disciplinary efforts that can help advance their management.
... Ecological restoration is a nature-based solution that involves 'the process of assisting the recovery of damaged, degraded, or destroyed ecosystems to a reference condition' (SER 2004). However, total recovery of degraded ecosystems is difficult to achieve at large spatial scales due to factors such as threshold-level changes in ecosystems, limited resources, poor management, diverse and incompatible stakeholder aspirations for change, and a lack of stakeholder interest (Gaertner et al. 2012;Novoa et al. 2018;Shackleton et al. 2019;Adams et al. 2020). Rehabilitation is one of several activities along the restorative continuum and aims to reinstate a level of ecosystem functioning for ongoing provision of ecosystem services, where restoration to a reference ecosystem is not feasible in the short to medium term (Gann et al. 2019). ...
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Restoring riparian ecosystems in human-dominated landscapes requires attention to complexity, and consideration of diverse drivers, social actors, and contexts. Addressing a Global North bias, this case study uses a mixed-method approach, integrating historical data, remote sensing techniques and stakeholder perceptions to guide restoration of a river in the Western Cape, South Africa. An analysis of aerial photographs of the riparian zone from 1953 to 2016 revealed that although anthropogenic land conversion happened primarily before the 1950s, several land use and land cover classes showed marked increases in area, including: waterbodies (+ 1074%), urban areas (+ 316%), alien weeds (+ 311%) and terrestrial alien trees (+ 79%). These changes have likely been driven by land fragmentation, disturbance, and agricultural intensification. Stakeholder interviews revealed that despite the clear need for restoration, several barriers exist to successful implementation; these stem from inadequate financial resources, inappropriate funding models, institutional challenges, and a lack of techno-scientific knowledge. We give several recommendations to overcome these barriers.
... Finally, N2000 sites provide a multitude of ecosystem services, closely related to humans and their activities (see above), which can also negatively impact conservation goals. For this reason, effective management of IAS in these protected areas requires cooperation between the different stakeholders involved (Shackleton et al. 2019). Collaboration and multidisciplinary partnerships are recommended and beneficial to minimize conflicts in conservation. ...
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Gummosis on Acacia decurrens, an invasive tree species that was established in Merapi Volcano National Park (MVNP) after the eruption of the Mount Merapi volcano in 2010, was studied to i) identify the causal organism of the disease, ii) analyze the disease symptoms, iii) understand the spatio-temporal distribution of gummosis in the tree population and iv) examine how the disease affects the anatomy of tree wood. Pathological, morphological and molecular assessments were used in this study. Ceratocystis fimbriata was found associated with gummosis in the affected trees. The disease spread was probably aided by an ambrosia beetle, Euwallacea sp., which bores holes in the stem. The number of parenchyma cells in infected stems was significantly higher than in healthy stems, which apparently facilitated water and nutrition transport within trees, helping them to grow normally despite serious gummosis. The disease is noted to spread from the base of the trees, where the ambrosia beetle bores holes first, to the upper part. The management of invasion by A. decurrens in the MVNP area poses a serious challenge due its success as an invader in the volcano-impacted area and the threat of the gummosis pathogen spreading to other species, both of which will affect the regeneration and establishment of native species and recovery of the ecosystem.
... Furthermore, evaluating the amount of seeds on a visitor's footwear as the outcome of the behavior, together with the investigation of the links, can empirically verify the logical series of links among a visitor's knowledge about biological invasion, awareness of biological invasion, behavior to prevent invasion (e.g., cleaning footwear), and being a seed carrier. Moreover, investigation on the series of links would enrich frameworks on stakeholder engagement in dealing with biological invasion--which is crucial in managing non-native species (Shackleton et al., 2019a). In contrast, the relevant framework (Novoa et al., 2018) focuses mainly on raising awareness rather than facilitating behavior or is more weighted on established population of non-native species rather than a potential introduction. ...
Article
Unintentional seed introduction mediated by visitor's clothing and footwear is a major source of biological invasion into natural areas. To effectively avert these unintentional introductions, we must understand the links that connect relevant knowledge and desired outcome (i.e., seeds not carried on visitor's belongings); however, until now, these links have not been examined. Here, we investigated the links among a visitor's knowledge about biological invasion, awareness of biological invasion, behavior to prevent introduction (cleaning footwear), and being a seed carrier to identify a potential bottleneck between visitor knowledge and ecological outcome. In order to achieve this, we conducted a questionnaire survey and soil sampling from the footwear of visitors to an alpine national park. Soil samples (n = 344) were subjected to a germination experiment, and the number of emerged seedlings was recorded for each sample. We observed seedlings emerging from 27 soil samples (7.8 % of visitors; 44 seedlings in total), comprising non-native species. The degree of a visitor's knowledge about biological invasion increased with the increase in the degree of awareness. However, the high degree of awareness was not linked with the actual behavior of cleaning their footwear before the visit, although footwear cleaning effectively reduced the number of emerged seedlings. We found the lack of a clear association between awareness and behavior (cleaning the footwear) to be the bottleneck. We also investigated the major sources of knowledge about human-mediated seed introduction from footwear and found that television was the most important information source. The key to effectively preventing negative impacts on ecosystems caused by the introduction of non-native species could be to revise methods for informing the community, which will help overcome the bottleneck between awareness and behavior.
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Natural resource management is rapidly shifting to incorporate a deeper understanding of ecological processes and functioning, including attention to invasive species. The shift to understand public perceptions of resource management and invasives is much slower. Information influences both landscape preference and behaviors. Theory suggests that increasingly engaging information should have concurrently greater impacts. This research tested the effect of increasingly engaging information on visitor preferences and intentions to return to landscapes treated in response to emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis). Park visitors in a midwestern-U.S. state randomly received one of four messages about forest management in response to EAB (control, photo, augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR)). Messaging impacted preferences for three of the four management approaches, but significant changes in displacement intentions emerged in only one of the four. Specifically, VR and AR increased preferences for complete harvest compared to photos/text, but not differently from those who received no information. VR significantly lowered preferences for select harvest with natural regeneration. The photo/text treatment increased preference for select harvest with planted trees over no information. Any information reduced displacement in response to a photo depicting “select harvest, planted trees.” Subsequently judicious use of advanced communications like VR can optimize increasing scarce resources and maintain or optimize ecological services. Future research directions across geographic and content areas are recommended.
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Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) are native to southeastern Asia, however, there is an established invasive population inhabiting much of southern Florida throughout the Greater Everglades Ecosystem. Pythons have severely impacted native species and ecosystems in Florida and represent one of the most intractable invasive-species management issues across the globe. The difficulty stems from a unique combination of inaccessible habitat and the cryptic and resilient nature of pythons that thrive in the subtropical environment of southern Florida, rendering them extremely challenging to detect. Here we provide a comprehensive review and synthesis of the science relevant to managing invasive Burmese pythons. We describe existing control tools and review challenges to productive research, identifying key knowledge gaps that would improve future research and decision making for python control.
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Understanding the impact and dynamics of invasive alien species (IAS) is essential for tailoring appropriate management plans. This information can be difficult to obtain in the short term, and intrinsic difficulties of monitoring hard-to-reach areas may hamper prompt estimation of IAS distributions. Using the case of the invasive Asian common toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus) in Madagascar, we show how public surveys coupled with a multi-analytical approach can promptly provide accurate information on invasion dynamics and impacts. On the basis of key-informant responses, we built polynomial regressions to investigate the spatiotem-poral invasion patterns, false-positive occupancy models to estimate species occupancy , and mixed-effect models to evaluate the public perception and attitudes. The invasion followed a linear expansion of approx. 2 km year À1 , with human-mediated dispersal facilitating the spread of the species. Toad occupancy decreased towards the invasion front and increased in the southern portion of its range. Negative perception decreased in urban areas, where people were less concerned by toad impacts on ecosystems, and in recently invaded localities, suggesting density-or time-dependent effects. We also identified 12 potential impacts, with "loss of domestic apiaries", "poisoning of poultry" and "decline of snakes" standing out for prevalence and potential severity. Our results bring important insights into the invasion dynamics and the human-toad interactions in Madagascar, highlighting the versatility of public surveys to obtain essential information for invasion science and management, which can be especially useful in hard-to-monitor regions of the world with a low in-country capacity to counter invasive species.
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Verbesina encelioides (Cav.) Benth. & Hook. Fil ex Gray (Asteraceae) is a perennial herb species belonging to the family Asteraceae. The plant is an aggressive obligate outbreeder weed that has invaded vast expanses of pastures, orchards, and forest areas in tropical and subtropical regions. The purpose of this study was to determine the suitability of current and potential future habitats for V. encelioides, an invasive weed in South Africa, using species distribution modelling techniques with the sdm package in R. The result of the ensemble model, based on current climatic conditions, highlights that Verbesina encelioides has a high probability of occurrence in all nine provinces of South Africa, across all the projected future scenarios, namely, 2030, 2050, 2070 and 2090. Area values ranged from 810,612.09 km 2 in 2070, an increase of 4.23% over the current projection, to 663,356.44 km 2 in 2090, a decrease of 14.7% from the current projection. The outcome of these predictions showed that V. encelioides would benefit from the predicted climate change in South Africa. The findings could be used as a warning to implement early detection and a rapid response, or for developing one.
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1. Biodiversity loss in European agricultural landscapes is progressing rapidly despite a growing number of conservation efforts. One of the reasons for this is that farmers do not have enough decision-making power and do not receive adequate advice to tailor conservation measures to local conditions and regional biodiversity targets. 2. In this paper, we therefore address the potential and practical implementation of co-designing conservation measures through close collaboration between farmers and other stakeholders (e.g. other practitioners, conservation experts, agricultural advisors, scientists and policymakers). 3. Based on interviews with four researchers from ongoing European co-design projects, one national and one European farmers' organizations, we discuss the challenges and provide recommendations for co-design in the context of biodiversity conservation in agricultural landscapes. 4. Our aim is to reach scientists, practitioners and local decision makers working on innovative and locally adapted conservation efforts.
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Invasive plants are a complex problem and a leading driver of global environmental change. Successful management of invasive plants requires the active participation of diverse communities across land tenures. This can be challenging as communities do not always share the views of scientists and managers. They may directly disagree, have alternative views, or be unwilling to manage invasive plants. Gaining effective participation requires understanding what lay people think and do, and why they think and act as they do. We use meta‐ethnography to unlock accounts and interpretations of lay perspectives in qualitative social science invasive plant research. We find that action and meaning regarding invasive plants are influenced by six broader meta‐themes in personal and social life: dissonance, priorities, difference, agency, responsibility, and future orientations. These meta‐themes represent levers and tensions by which we reframe lay people in terms of capacity for reflective invasive plant management rather than as obstacles. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Chapter
Invasive plant management has moved beyond the application of conventional control methods, and new methods and approaches are constantly being developed. In this chapter, we summarize a number of recent advances in the management of different stages of the invasion process of alien plants. We discuss advances in managing the whole invasion process, such as systematic examinations (horizon scanning) to identify potential future invaders as well as management issues involving stakeholders in the development and implementation of management actions and managing pathways of introduction and spread. We also discuss advances in the management of particular stages. At the introduction stage, covering the important pathway of invasive ornamental plants, the development of noninvasive cultivars (noninvasive crop ideotypes) could offer a management solution for some ornamental alien plants. For monitoring the establishment and spread stages, we discuss the use of technologies to analyze DNA sampled directly from the environment (environmental DNA) and detect and monitor the physical characteristics of particular areas (remote sensing) and the contributions of volunteer citizens (citizen science). At the spread stage, further technological advances are expected from editing genes (CRISPR-Cas9 gene drive) in biological control, while for some species, utilization or acceptance could offer viable alternatives. Modelling approaches are considered as a useful tool for decision-making on management actions with limited resources. Finally, focusing on increasing the resistance of ecosystems against invasive plants seems to be a promising approach for ecosystem-level management. While many of these advances have shown great potential for improving invasive plant management, we still find a lack of collection of evidence for their effectiveness in real-world applications.KeywordsCitizen scienceCRISPReDNAHorizon scanningRemote sensingStakeholder engagementUtilization
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Cortaderia selloana , also known as pampas grass, is native to the Pampas region in South America. Nowadays, it is a widespread invasive plant in several regions of the World, including the south of the Atlantic Arc in Europe, where it has been used as an ornamental species. As such, citizens may play an important role in the dissemination of this invasive species, but on the other hand, if they are aware of its invasive behavior, can contribute to its control and prevent spread. An online survey was performed to better understand the perception and knowledge of Portuguese and Spanish citizens about pampas grass. 486 and 839 citizens answered the questionnaire in Portugal (PT) and Spain (ES), respectively. In general, most respondents were between 41 and 64 years old, mostly women in Portugal and equally women and men in Spain, with higher education and working mostly in the services sector. The majority of respondents in both countries recognized the plant, know it is invasive and many were able to name it, but fewer were aware of the legislation that limits its use, and most were not able to identify particular characteristics of the species. Respondents' occupation in PT and education in ES seem to influence their knowledge and perception about pampas grass. Our results confirm that education and raising awareness of citizens regarding invasive species is of the utmost importance so that citizens can be part of the solution and not the problem, especially when regarding ornamental species like pampas grass.
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Smartphone apps have enhanced the potential for monitoring of invasive alien species (IAS) through citizen science. They now have the capacity to massively increase the volume and spatiotemporal coverage of IAS occurrence data accrued in centralised databases. While more reporting apps are developed each year, innovation across diverse functionalities and data management in this field are occurring separately and simultaneously amongst numerous research groups with little attention to trends, priorities and opportunities for improvement. This creates the risk of duplication of effort and missed opportunities for implementing new and existing functionalities that would directly benefit IAS research and management. Using a literature search of Early Detection and Rapid Response implementation, smartphone app development and invasive species reporting apps, we developed a rubric for quantitatively assessing the functionality of IAS reporting apps and applied this rubric to 41 free, English-language IAS reporting apps, available via major mobile app stores in North America. The five highest performing apps achieved scores of 61.90% to 66.35% relative to a hypothetical maximum score, indicating that many app features and functionalities, acknowledged to be useful for IAS reporting in literature, are not present in sampled apps. This suggests that current IAS reporting apps do not make use of all available and known functionalities that could maximise their efficacy. Major implementation gaps, highlighted by this rubric analysis, included limited implementation in user engagement (particularly gamification elements and social media compatibility), ancillary information on search effort, detection method, the ability to report absences and local habitat characteristics. The greatest advancement in IAS early detection would likely result from app gamification. This would make IAS reporting more engaging for a growing community of non-professional contributors and encourage frequent and prolonged participation. We discuss these implementation gaps in relation to the increasingly urgent need for Early Detection and Rapid Response frameworks. We also recommend future innovations in IAS reporting app development to help slow the spread of IAS and curb the global economic and biodiversity extinction crises. We also suggest that further funding and investment in this and other implementation gaps could greatly increase the efficacy of current IAS reporting apps and increase their contributions to addressing the contemporary biological invasion threat.
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The present study reports on the occurrence of Ipomoea hederifolia L. in South Africa. The established populations of Ipomoea hederifolia were detected in 2019 and 2020 in different locations in the Limpopo Province, with herbarium records showing at least four other localities in the country. Further work is now needed to determine the impact of Ipomoea hederifolia on native biota and agricultural production.
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The present study reports on the occurrence of Ipomoea hederifolia L. in South Africa. The established populations of Ipomoea hederifolia were detected in 2019 and 2020 in different locations in the Limpopo Province, with herbarium records showing at least four other localities in the country. Further work is now needed to determine the impact of Ipomoea hederifolia on native biota and agricultural production.
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It is generally accepted that urbanisation is changing the composition of species, mostly in urban and surrounding areas, through intentional introduction. The South African National Status Report of 2017 on biological invasions has shown that there is a dearth of knowledge about the invasion status of many invasive alien species in many parts of the country, such as the critically threatened vegetation, Woodbush Granite Grassland (WGG) in Limpopo Province. Consequently, the present study investigated the status of alien plants species in WGG. A roadside survey was carried out in Haenertsburg Village and its vicinity. Roads were used as survey units, and the dumpsite was used as a high risk area. A total of 136 species were identified, belonging to 46 botanical families. This study report the occurrence of 72 species which are regulated by the South Africa’s National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act (NEMBA, Act 10 of 2004). The present study found results significantly different from existing databases (χ2 =16.33473, p = .0001). Included in our list are alien species that need urgent eradication: Coreopsis lanceolata L., Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link, Iris pseudacorus L., Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr, -and Rubus species as NEMBA category 1a species. Illegal dumping of agricultural waste was found to be one of the contributing factors to IAS in the area. Our study shows that Woodbush Granite Grassland is facing a new threat from invasive species.
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Transdisciplinary research often utilizes collaborative ways of knowledge production to enable deliberate transformations towards sustainability. Multiple concepts with varying definitions are applied, leading to confusion in the aims and uses of these concepts. In this article, we review five concepts relevant to the current debate on the new collaborative ways of knowledge production in transdisciplinary research. We focus on the concepts of co-creation, co-production, co-design, co-learning, and adaptive co-management in the context of natural resources management (NRM). This study couples a literature review and a conceptual analysis, and aims to clarify definitions, use, the interlinkages of these concepts and to shed light on their intertwined nature. We propose an integrative understanding of the concepts to facilitate collaborative modes and to enable the transformative aims of research processes. To this end, we discuss how to harvest the transformative potential of the “co-concepts” by focusing on reflexivity, power analysis and process orientation.
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Invasive alien species (IAS) are a growing threat globally and cause a variety of ecological, economic, and social impacts. People can introduce IAS and facilitate their spread, and can also implement, support, or oppose their management. Understanding local knowledge, awareness, and perceptions are therefore crucial if management and policy are to be effective. We administered questionnaires to members of the public in eight small towns along the Berg River Catchment in the biodiverse fynbos biome of South Africa. We aimed to assess: (1) awareness of IAS by the general public, (2) local perceptions of the impacts associated with IAS, (3) whether awareness of IAS is correlated with demographic covariates and IAS density, and (4) people’s willingness to detect, report, and support IAS management. Overall, 262 respondents participated in the survey. Most respondents (65%) did not know what IAS are, and 10% were unsure. Many respondents also perceived IAS as beneficial. Using a logistic regression, we found that IAS density, educational level, and gender influenced people’s knowledge and perceptions about IAS in the region. There were a small number (4%) of respondents currently detecting and reporting IAS, but many respondents were interested to learn more. We concluded that people living in small towns in the Western Cape of South Africa remain largely unaware of IAS and their impacts. It is crucial to increase awareness-raising initiatives, and build support and engagement in management of IAS in small towns.
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Environmental education seeks to foster an appreciation for nature and the impact of humans on it while introducing citizens to scientific thinking. Biological invasions affect different aspects of life on earth and mandate urgent management actions. Education and public awareness are strongly recommended for successful prevention and management of invasive alien species (IAS). This work presents a study on knowledge and perception of the educational community of Argentina about native species and IAS. We designed an on-line semi-structured questionnaire to examine perception of the environment, recognition of native species and IAS and awareness about biological invasions. Educators recognised an important number of biotic components, mostly represented by trees, birds and mammals. Recognition of native species and IAS, and awareness of biological invasions were different between NST (Natural Science Teachers) and non-NST. Respondents had different performances when they were exposed to recognising native species though written names or photographs. Out of 532 respondents, 56% knew what biological invasions are, 21% answered “Maybe” and 23% had never heard about them. We need to foster capacity-building and encourage a two-way communication between educators and scientists, formally and informally, to engage the participation of the whole society in recognition, prevention and management of IAS.
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In the last decades, the number of publications dedicated to the application of species distribution models (SDMs) to invasive alien plants (IAPs) has constantly increased. Although recent reviews have addressed very relevant issues in the application of SDMs, the modelling approaches (i.e., algorithms) applied to IAPs have not been systematized. Therefore, we undertook a bibliographic review of articles devoted to SDMs and IAPs, from 1996 to 2019. Our results indicate that maximum entropy, generalized linear models, boosted regression trees and random forest were the four most frequent types of modelling approaches. It was clear that there was a variety of different approaches, regarding the type of algorithm to be used. We discuss the characteristics of the most cited algorithms, providing examples of their application in SDMs dedicated to IAPs. We advocate the use of a combination of different algorithms, an intensive evaluation of predictors, a thorough validation process, and a critical analysis of model predictions.
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Tree invasions are increasing globally, causing major problems for biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being. In South America, conifer invasions occur across many ecosystems and while numerous studies address the ecological consequences of these invasions, little is known about social perceptions and people's attitudes toward their control. The social perceptions on the effect of invasive conifers can include recreational, cultural and conservation dimensions. This study, conducted in the Malalcahuello National Reserve, aims to assess visitor's perception about invasive pines (Pinus spp.) and their effects on the endangered Araucaria araucana forests and determine their willingness to pay for pine control. We used a questionnaire to survey visitors to the reserve in both winter and summer (n = 138 for each season). When confronted with six images of araucaria and pine forests with and without snow, visitors consistently preferred landscapes without pines and disliked those completely dominated by pines the most. Almost half, 46.5%, of the visitors expressed their willingness to pay (WTP) for pine control and after given a brief explanation about pine impacts, this number rose to 79%. Visitors who said they were unwilling to pay argue ethical, aesthetic and pragmatic considerations relating closely to a number of social value systems and beliefs. Our study shows that there is a high variation in how people assess the threat of invasive pine species in natural areas, but education even in a very brief format can help to increase awareness of the problem and build social and financial support for its control.
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Many alien plant species are introduced to urban areas to create, augment or restore ecosystem services (ES). However, many of these species spread beyond original plantings, sometimes causing negative effects on existing ES or creating novel ecosystem disservices (EDS). An understanding of the perceptions of urban residents regarding invasive alien plants (IAPs) and the ES and EDS they provide is needed for the effective prioritisation of IAP management efforts in cities. Using the city of Cape Town, South Africa as a case study, we conducted questionnaire-based surveys (online and face-to-face) to determine the perceptions of urban residents regarding IAPs and their capacity to provide ES and EDS. Most urban residents perceive IAPs negatively (i.e. agreeing that they create EDS), but many recognise their importance in providing ES. Although most residents are not opposed to the management of IAPs, such actions are not perceived as a high priority relative to other environmental problems. Socio-demographic variables such as age, education, environmental awareness, and ethnicity shape urban residents' perceptions of IAPs. Older, more educated respondents were more likely to perceive IAPs negatively, while respondents with greater environmental awareness were aware of the benefits provided by IAPs. This study highlights the need to integrate public perceptions into the planning and management of IAPs and emphasises the importance of including ES assessments into the decision-making process, particularly in urban areas.
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The management of invasive species is a complex, yet an essential component of biodiversity established linkage between biological invasions and human activities, the social dimension of invasive species management is less explored as compared to the ecological aspects. In IAPs and prioritize IAPs for management. In the prioritization exercise, participants of each 39 recent years, the active participation of local communities, such as assessing levels of awareness and the selection of targeted species prioritized by communities, has been considered as a crucial element for managing invasive species. We conducted 32 focus group discussions including 208 participants in Chitwan-Annapurna Landscape (ChAL) of central Nepal, to assess knowledge and perceptions of agrarian and forest-dependent communities about invasive alien plants (IAPs), document the efforts of the community management of FGD were asked to rank three IAPs using scoring methods and to express their experience about the effects of the selected IAPs on humans and the environment. We found that biodiversity conservation and environmental management has informed local forest-dependent agrarian communities about the consequences of biological invasions and communities had a living memory of the arrival of some of the IAPs in their locality without knowing the exotic nature of IAPs. Biodiversity loss, livestock poisoning, reduced agricultural production and forage supply, and negative impact on forest regeneration were reported as major negative impacts of IAPs. Communities also reportedly utilized IAPs for medicinal purposes, making compost by using biomass, and controlling floods and landslides. None of the government and non-governmental organizations working in the sectors of management of IAPs. However, local communities had already started controlling the spread of some IAPs through manual uprooting. They were able to spot, identify and prioritize IAPs for management and some of the prioritized species were among the world’s worst invasive species. Ageratum houstonianum was the top-ranked worst invasive species in agroecosystems while Chromolaena odorata and Ageratina adenophora were the top-ranked worst species in natural ecosystems. Our findings will be useful for guiding community management plans, such as Nepal’s National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. (This preprint version will be amended with its final and printed version in Journal of Environmental Management with due acknoledgement that they possesses the Copyright.)
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It has been suggested that existing frameworks for guiding management of invasive species in rural areas and protected areas are inadequate for dealing with invasions in urban settings. A framework for selecting appropriate goals for managing invasive species in urban areas was developed by Gaertner et al. in 2016. This framework groups species into three management approaches (control priority, active engagement, and tolerance) depending on their real or perceived benefits and their potential to generate negative impacts. This study tests the practical application of the framework using the example of Cape Town. We assess the suitability of the framework to support decision-making for managing invasive species in urban ecosystems using a questionnaire-based survey of members of the public, and an e-mail-based survey and a workshop with invasion biology researchers and managers. Specifically, we (1) determine the differences in perceptions regarding the benefits and impacts of invasive species between the public, managers and researchers; (2) investigate how consistently managers and researchers group invasive species into the three management categories; and (3) identify, with the help of managers and researchers, issues linked to the framework and give suggestions to overcome the identified issues. We found no clear pattern in the perceptions of the public, managers and researchers regarding perceived benefits and negative impacts. Instead, the answers were widely scattered among all groups for most of the species that were considered. However, using the framework leads to a higher consistency among managers in placing the species into management categories, compared to invasive species grouping without guidance of the framework. We conclude that decision-support frameworks can assist managers in placing invasive species into management categories. However, even more specific guidelines on the use of invasive species management frameworks in urban areas are needed.
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Management of invasive species often raises substantial conflicts of interest. Since such conflicts can hamper proposed management actions, managers, decision makers and researchers increasingly recognize the need to consider the social dimensions of invasive species management. In this exploratory study, we aimed (1) to explore whether species’ taxonomic position (i.e. animals vs. plants) and type of invaded landscape (i.e. urban vs. non-urban) might influence public perception about the management of invasive species, and (2) to assess the potential of public awareness to increase public support for invasive species management. We reviewed the scientific literature on the conflicts of interest around the management of alien species and administered two-phased questionnaires (before and after providing information on the target species and its management) to members of the public in South Africa and the UK (n = 240). Our review suggests that lack of public support for the management of invasive animals in both urban and non-urban areas derives mainly from moralistic value disagreements, while the management of invasive plants in non-urban areas mostly causes conflicts based on utilitarian value disagreements. Despite these general trends, conflicts are context dependent and can originate from a wide variety of different views. Notably, informing the public about the invasive status and negative impacts of the species targeted for management appeared to increase public support for the management actions. Therefore, our results align with the view that increased public awareness might increase the public support for the management of invasive species, independent of taxonomic position and type of landscape.
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Alien species can have major ecological and socioeconomic impacts in their novel ranges and so effective management actions are needed. However, management can be contentious and create conflicts, especially when stakeholders who benefit from alien species are different from those who incur costs. Such conflicts of interests mean that management strategies can often not be implemented. There is, therefore, increasing interest in engaging stakeholders affected by alien species or by their management. Through a facilitated workshop and consultation process including academics and managers working on a variety of organisms and in different areas (urban and rural) and ecosystems (terrestrial and aquatic), we developed a framework for engaging stakeholders in the management of alien species. The proposed framework for stakeholder engagement consists of 12 steps: (1) identify stakeholders; (2) select key stakeholders for engagement; (3) explore key stakeholders' perceptions and develop initial aims for management; (4) engage key stakeholders in the development of a draft management strategy; (5) re-explore key stakeholders' perceptions and revise the aims of the strategy; (6) co-design general aims, management objectives and time frames with key stakeholders; (7) co-design a management strategy; (8) facilitate stakeholders' ownership of the strategy and adapt as required; and (9) implement the strategy and monitor management actions to evaluate the need for additional or future actions. In case additional management is needed after these actions take place, some extra steps should be taken: (10) identify any new stakeholders, benefits, and costs; (11) monitor engagement; and (12) revise management strategy. Overall, we believe that our framework provides an effective approach to minimize the impact of conflicts created by alien species management.
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Since the 1990s, there have appeared numerous articles in scholarly journals and the popular press that deny the risks posed by non-native species and claim that the field of invasion biology is biased, uninformative and pseudoscientific. Unlike normal scientific debates, which are evidence based, this discourse typically uses rhetorical arguments to disregard, misrepresent or reject evidence in attempt to cast doubt on the scientific consensus that species introductions pose significant risks to biodiversity and ecosystems; thus, it is similar to the denialism that has affected climate science and medical science. Invasive species denialism, like science denialism in general, is typically expressed in forums where it avoids expert peer review. Denialist articles have increased exponentially over the past three decades, most notably in the mainstream popular press. This burgeoning phenomenon could impede development and implementation of policies designed to safeguard against invasive species spread and impact.
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This article differentiates between descriptive and explanatory factors to develop a typology and a theory of stakeholder and public engagement. The typology describes different types of public and stakeholder engagement, and the theory comprises four factors that explain much of the variation in outcomes (for the natural environment and/or for participants) between different types of engagement. First, we use a narrative literature search to develop a new typology of stakeholder and public engagement based on agency (who initiates and leads engagement) and mode of engagement (from communication to coproduction). We then propose a theory to explain the variation in outcomes from different types of engagement: (1) a number of socioeconomic, cultural, and institutional contextual factors influence the outcomes of engagement; (2) there are a number of process design factors that can increase the likelihood that engagement leads to desired outcomes, across a wide range of sociocultural, political, economic, and biophysical contexts; (3) the effectiveness of engagement is significantly influenced by power dynamics, the values of participants, and their epistemologies, that is, the way they construct knowledge and which types of knowledge they consider valid; and (4) engagement processes work differently and can lead to different outcomes when they operate over different spatial and temporal scales. We use the theoretical framework to provide practical guidance for those designing engagement processes, arguing that a theoretically informed approach to stakeholder and public engagement has the potential to markedly improve the outcomes of environmental decision-making processes.
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Human-mediated transport beyond biogeographic barriers has led to the introduction and establishment of alien species in new regions worldwide. However, we lack a global picture of established alien species richness for multiple taxonomic groups. Here, we assess global patterns and potential drivers of established alien species richness across eight taxonomic groups (amphibians, ants, birds, freshwater fishes, mammals, vascular plants, reptiles and spiders) for 186 islands and 423 mainland regions. Hotspots of established alien species richness are predominantly island and coastal mainland regions. Regions with greater gross domestic product per capita, human population density, and area have higher established alien richness, with strongest effects emerging for islands. Ants and reptiles, birds and mammals, and vascular plants and spiders form pairs of taxonomic groups with the highest spatial congruence in established alien richness, but drivers explaining richness differ between the taxa in each pair. Across all taxonomic groups, our results highlight the need to prioritize prevention of further alien species introductions to island and coastal mainland regions globally.
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Background: This paper reviewed the benefits and negative impacts of alien species that are currently listed in the Alien and Invasive Species Regulations of the National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act (Act no 10 of 2004) and certain alien species that are not yet listed in the regulations for which conflicts of interest complicate management. Objectives: Specifically, it identified conflict-generating species, evaluated the causes and driving forces of these conflicts and assessed how the conflicts have affected management. Method: A simple scoring system was used to classify the alien species according to their relative degree of benefits and negative impacts. Conflict-generating species were then identified and further evaluated using an integrated cognitive hierarchy theory and risk perception framework to identify the value systems (intrinsic and economic) and risk perceptions associated with each conflict. Results: A total of 552 alien species were assessed. Most of the species were classified as inconsequential (55%) or destructive (29%). Beneficial (10%) and conflict-generating (6%) species made a minor contribution. The majority (46%) of the conflict cases were associated with more than one value system or both values and risk perception. The other conflicts cases were based on intrinsic (40%) and utilitarian (14%) value systems. Conclusions: Conflicts based on value and risk perceptions are inherently difficult to resolve because authorities need to balance the needs of different stakeholders while meeting the mandate of conserving the environment, ecosystem services and human well-being. This paper uses the identified conflict-generating species to highlight the challenges and trade-offs of managing invasive species in South Africa.
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Invasive alien species are a major problem for managers of protected areas (PAs) worldwide. Until the 1980s biological invasions were widely considered to be largely confined to anthropogenically disturbed sites and the widespread disruption of ecosystems in PAs by invasive species was not globally perceived as a major threat. A working group of the SCOPE program on biological invasions in the 1980s showed that PAs are not spared from major disruptive effects of invasions. Early research focused on descriptive studies of the extent to which PAs were invaded. More recent research explored drivers of invasion, and in the last decade much work has focused on understanding the impacts of invasions. We review the current understanding of alien plant invasions in PAs, focusing on four themes: (1) the status and macroecological patterns of alien plant invasions; (2) the threats that invasive alien plants (IAPs) pose and the impacts detected to date; (3) the current focus of invasion science in PAs; and (4) research priorities for advancing science-based management and policy. Of a sample of 59 widespread IAP species from a representative sample of 135 PAs globally, trees make up the largest proportion (32%), followed by perennial herbs (17%) and shrubs (15%). About 1857 papers have been published on alien species in PAs; 45% have focused on alien plants. Some textbook examples of impacts by IAPs originate from PAs, illustrating the severe threat to the core function of PAs. Impacts have been quantified at the species and community levels through the displacement and alteration of habitats. In some cases, native species abundance, diversity and estimated species richness have been altered, but reversed following control. At an ecosystem level, invasive plants have radically altered fire regimes in several PAs, in some cases causing regime shifts and transforming woodlands or savannas to grasslands. Invasions have also had a major impact on nutrient cycles. Protected areas are performing an increasingly important part of the global response to stem the rate of environmental change. Despite this, integrated efforts involving science, management and policy that are sufficiently resourced to generate insights on the status and dynamics of IAPs in PAs are insufficient or even lacking. Such efforts are needed to pave the way for monitoring trends, revising legislation and policies, and improving management interventions to reduce the extent and magnitude of impacts of invasive plants in PAs. While policy instruments to support management of non-native species date back to the 1930s, there has been a substantial increase in legislative support and general awareness since the early 2000s. Still, opportunities to improve research for PAs need to be created. Towards this goal, the establishment of a global PA research network could provide a unique vehicle to explore questions across species or functional groups and systems, at a scale currently beyond existing abilities. Developing an integrated global database with standardized, quantitative information could form part of such a networks function.
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It has long been claimed that a better understanding of human or social dimensions of environmental issues will improve conservation. The social sciences are one important means through which researchers and practitioners can attain that better understanding. Yet, a lack of awareness of the scope and uncertainty about the purpose of the conservation social sciences impedes the conservation community's effective engagement with the human dimensions. This paper examines the scope and purpose of eighteen subfields of classic, interdisciplinary and applied conservation social sciences and articulates ten distinct contributions that the social sciences can make to understanding and improving conservation. In brief, the conservation social sciences can be valuable to conservation for descriptive, diagnostic, disruptive, reflexive, generative, innovative, or instrumental reasons. This review and supporting materials provides a succinct yet comprehensive reference for conservation scientists and practitioners. We contend that the social sciences can help facilitate conservation policies, actions and outcomes that are more legitimate, salient, robust and effective.
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Despite broad recognition of the value of social sciences and increasingly vocal calls for better engagement with the human element of conservation, the conservation social sciences remain misunderstood and underutilized in practice. The conservation social sciences can provide unique and important contributions to society's understanding of the relationships between humans and nature and to improving conservation practice and outcomes. There are 4 barriers - ideological, institutional, knowledge, and capacity - to meaningful integration of the social sciences into conservation. We provide practical guidance on overcoming these barriers to mainstream the social sciences in conservation science, practice, and policy. Broadly, we recommend fostering knowledge on the scope and contributions of the social sciences to conservation, including social scientists from the inception of interdisciplinary research projects, incorporating social science research and insights during all stages of conservation planning and implementation, building social science capacity at all scales in conservation organizations and agencies, and promoting engagement with the social sciences in and through global conservation policy-influencing organizations. Conservation social scientists, too, need to be willing to engage with natural science knowledge and to communicate insights and recommendations clearly. We urge the conservation community to move beyond superficial engagement with the conservation social sciences. A more inclusive and integrative conservation science - one that includes the natural and social sciences - will enable more ecologically effective and socially just conservation. Better collaboration among social scientists, natural scientists, practitioners, and policy makers will facilitate a renewed and more robust conservation. Mainstreaming the conservation social sciences will facilitate the uptake of the full range of insights and contributions from these fields into conservation policy and practice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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