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Abstract

Due to awareness of consumers towards clean and safe meat availability, plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) such as essential oils, organic acids, saponins and flavonoids etc. are rapidly gaining attention since last few decades. PSMs are the secondary compounds that are produced by plants and they don’t have primary role as nutrients. These can be the effective alternative to antibiotics because of their promising effects on overall performance of poultry and monogastric animals. Saponins are high molecular weight glycosides which are able to form foam in aqueous solution. They are credited with several pharmacological and biological activities like hypocholesterolaemic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and immunomodulatory effects on both poultry and animals. Saponins can be obtained from various parts of plants such as seed, stem, root, pericarp, shell and bark. Optimum level of saponin is being used as feed supplement in poultry and monogastric animal’s nutrition and has shown many beneficial effects. In the present review an attempt was made to summarize these promising effects of saponin in poultry and monogastric animal’s nutrition.
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2018) 7(7): 3218-3225
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Review Article https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2018.707.375
Saponin in Poultry and Monogastric Animals: A Review
Sandeep K. Chaudhary1, Jaydip J. Rokade2*, Ganesh N. Aderao1, Akansha Singh1,
M. Gopi2, Alok Mishra1 and Kanti Raje1
1ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, 2ICAR-Central Avian Research Institute,
Izatnagar, Bareilly, U.P.-243122, India
*Corresponding author
A B S T R A C T
Introduction
Phytobiotics or phytogenic feed additives
(PFAs) in poultry nutrition had shown many
promising effects on overall production as
well as welfare of the birds. Feed constitutes
major production cost for these enterprises.
The shortage of quality feed as well as rapid
growth rate of poultry industry had made
poultry enterprise more challengeable.
The phytogenic feed additives mainly
comprise of organic acids, essential oils,
saponins and flavonoids etc. and inorganic
substances like antibiotics, growth promoters,
etc. But there is increasing public concerns
towards presence of chemical residues in
poultry products and microbial resistance to
antibiotics. Therefore, use of phytogenic feed
additives against antibiotics as performance
enhancer is becoming very popular practice
now days (Wallace et al., 2002). Thus, the
present review had made an attempt compile
the information’s on one of the important
PSMs, saponin in poultry production.
International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences
ISSN: 2319-7706 Volume 7 Number 07 (2018)
Journal homepage: http://www.ijcmas.com
Due to awareness of consumers towards clean and safe meat availability, plant secondary
metabolites (PSMs) such as essential oils, organic acids, saponins and flavonoids etc. are
rapidly gaining attention since last few decades. PSMs are the secondary compounds that
are produced by plants and they don’t have primary role as nutrients. These can be the
effective alternative to antibiotics because of their promising effects on overall
performance of poultry and monogastric animals. Saponins are high molecular weight
glycosides which are able to form foam in aqueous solution. They are credited with several
pharmacological and biological activities like hypocholesterolaemic, anti-carcinogenic,
anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and immunomodulatory effects on both
poultry and animals. Saponins can be obtained from various parts of plants such as seed,
stem, root, pericarp, shell and bark. Optimum level of saponin is being used as feed
supplement in poultry and monogastric animal’s nutrition and has shown many beneficial
effects. In the present review an attempt was made to summarize these promising effects of
saponin in poultry and monogastric animal’s nutrition.
Ke ywords
Saponin, Poultry,
Immunity, Anti-
oxidant, Fertility,
Hatchability.
Accepted:
24 June 2018
Available Online:
10 July 2018
Article Info
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2018) 7(7): 3218-3225
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Saponin
Saponins are diverse group of high molecular
weight plant secondary metabolites (PSMs),
containing either a tetracyclic steroidal or a
pentacyclic triterpenoid aglycone and one or
more sugar chains. The name is presumed
from the Latin word sapo (soap) reflecting
their wide spread ability to form stable soap-
like foams in aqueous solutions (Vincken et
al., 2007).
Chemistry of saponins
Sugar moieties (pentoses, hexoses or uronic
acid) of saponin is glycosidically linked to a
hydrophobic aglycone (sapogenin) which may
be either triterpenoid or steroid in nature
(Francis et al., 2002). Triperpenes are the most
widely, naturally occurring saponins. The
skeleton of triterpenoid and steroid saponins
are oleanane and spirostane or furostane,
respectively (Sparg et al., 2004; Siegler,
1998). The biological property of saponins
varies according to the ring structure of
aglycone moieties and number of sugars
attached to it.
Effects of saponins
Effect on feed intake, growth and litter
quality
Optimum dietary level of saponin from
different sources, favored higher growth rate,
better feed efficiency (Yejuman et al., 1998),
as well as reduced the emission of noxious
ammonia from excreta (Al-Bar et al., 1993)
thereby improving the health and welfare of
poultry and pigs (Anthony et al., 1994).
Addition of Chlorophytum root @ 0.015% in
broilers has shown improvement in nitrogen
utilization and profitability (Gaurav, 2015).
Gaurav (2015) reported a higher growth rate
in Camellia seed saponin supplemented (@
600 mg/kg) group. Miah et al., (2004)
reported that diet containing 75 mg saponin/kg
had improved body weight gain at all stages of
growth with better feed efficiency and
performance index as well as improved
carcass quality. Saponins increase the
permeability of intestinal mucosal cells in-
vitro, inhibit active mucosal transport and
facilitate uptake of substances that are
normally not absorbed (Johnson et al., 1986).
In optimum levels, it would increase nutrient
absorption from the intestine by increasing
villi diameter by 40-50Ao thereby making
those permeable to large molecules like
ferritin; this fact may be responsible for better
growth rate (Seeman et al., 1973).
Ammonia, a bacterial breakdown product of
uric acid is the most noxious gas in poultry
houses. Poor management practices and wet
litter are the predisposing factors, favoring the
continual release of ammonia from the litter.
Excessive levels of ammonia are detrimental
for broiler health (Yeo and Kim, 1997). Yucca
schidigera extract has been reported to reduce
atmospheric ammonia in poultry farms by
inhibiting urease enzyme activity (Ayasan et
al., 2005). Chaudhary (2017) reported that
supplementation of soapnut shell powder @
150 ppm had significantly reduced excreta
moisture content, thus, helped in reducing
pollution as well as improved welfare of
broiler breeders.
Effect on serum and meat cholesterol levels
A number of studies had shown that saponins
from different sources lowered serum
cholesterol levels (Matsuura, 2001; Gaurav,
2015, Chaudhary, 2017). Saponin and bile
acids interaction in the gut leads to formation
of large mixed micelles which promotes
increased cholesterol excretion (Oakenfull,
1986) and finally results in reduction of serum
cholesterol level. It has been found that the
ethanolic extract of de-fatted fenugreek seeds
inhibits taurocholate and deoxycholate
absorption in-vitro, in a dose-dependent
manner in everted intestinal sacs (Stark and
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Madar, 1993). The hypocholesterolemic
activity of saponins is also due to delaying of
intestinal absorption of dietary fat by
inhibiting pancreatic lipase activity (Han et
al., 2000). Saponins are also reported to
reduce the harmful LDL-cholesterol
selectively in the serum of rats, gerbils as well
as in poultry (Matsuura, 2001; Gaurav, 2015;
Chaudhary, 2017).
Gaurav (2015) and Chaudhary (2017) reported
that serum total cholesterol level was
significantly decreased and the HDL-
cholesterol was significantly increased
following supplementation of saponin rich
feed additives. Researchers reported that
saponins from different sources had lowered
serum cholesterol level in broiler chickens
(Matsuura, 2001; Afrose et al., 2010; Owolabi
et al., 2010).
Age of the broilers and presence of saponin in
feed or both, influences the total cholesterol
content in breast meat. Ponte et al., (2004) in
their study found that Alfalafa saponin
lowered the total cholesterol in the meat
without affecting the in-vivo biosynthesis of
cholesterol.
Effect on haemato-biochemical parameters
Gupta et al., (2005); Gaurav (2015) and
Chaudhary (2017) did not find any significant
change in haemato-biochemical parameters
(Hb, PCV, Glucose, creatinine, total protein,
albumin, globulin, A: G ratio, calcium,
inorganic-phosphorus, SGOT, SGPT and
ALP) in rats, chickens and broiler breeders
following supplementation with saponin from
different sources. Kaya et al., (2004) reported
that dietary supplementation of Yucca powder
@ 100 ppm to quails did not affected serum
total protein concentration but albumin level
was decreased.
Effect on antioxidant activity
Antioxidants are the compounds which
inhibits the oxidation of other molecules.
Oxidation is a chemical reaction produces free
radicals that damages the cells and manifest as
adverse biological effects. Superoxide
dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase
(GPx) and catalase (CAT) are the main
antioxidant enzymes in the body, contributing
to the antioxidant activity. Shi et al., (2014)
reported that activity of these antioxidant
enzymes was increased significantly following
supplementation of alfalfa saponin extract @
15 g/kg in weaned piglets. Malondialdehyde
(MDA) is one of the most frequently used
indicators of lipid peroxidation.
Increased MDA can be interpreted as cellular
membrane damage (Niedernhofer et al.,
2003). MDA content in the serum, liver,
spleen and muscle was decreased following
alfalfa saponin extract supplementation in
weaned piglets (Shi et al., 2014).
Group-B soyasaponins from legumes (kidney
beans, peanuts, chickpeas, clover, and
Japanese bush clover etc.), contains an
antioxidant moiety at C23, DDMP (2,3-
dihydro-2,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-
one) which allows saponins to scavenge
superoxide’s by forming hydroperoxide
intermediates, and thus preventing bio-
molecular damage by free radicals (Hu et al.,
2002).
The administration of saponin from Solanum
anguivi fruit significantly increased both CAT
and SOD activities in heart, whereas,
concentration of MDA was decreased
(Elekofehinti et al., 2012). Diosgenin (a
steroidal sponin of Dioscorea spp.)
supplementation (0.5%) caused a 27% and
13% increase in GPx and CAT activities in
erythrocytes of rats (Son et al., 2007).
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Effect on immune system
Saponins are capable of stimulating immune
system and thereby enhancing resistance to the
diseases (Cheeke, 2001). Saponins can
stimulate secretion of cytokines and trigger
innate immunity (Song and Hu, 2009), as well
as enhance humoral and cellular immune
responses (Palatnik et al., 2004). Significant
immune-stimulation and protection to diseased
are achieved by immunization of chickens
with immune-stimulating complexes
contained purified saponins (Berezin et al.,
2010). Zhai et al., (2014) reported that
administration of saponins isolated from
ginseng stems and leaves through drinking
water of chickens significantly enhanced the
immune responses to vaccination against
Newcastle disease, avian influenza and
infectious bursal disease. Sahoo et al., (2015)
reported that antibody titre against Newcastle
disease virus in broiler chicks on 7th and 14th
day post-vaccination was significantly higher
in the Yucca schidigera extract group.
Supplementation of Yucca up to 100 or 150
mg/kg diet improved immunity in layers
(Alagawany et al., 2016). Chaudhary (2017)
reported that soapnut shell powder saponin @
75 and 150 ppm had significantly improved
both cell mediated and humoral immune
response in broiler breeders.
Effect on egg production and egg quality
Yucca supplementation up to 100 mg/kg in
diet is effective in improving egg production,
egg mass and shell thickness in laying hens
(Alagawany et al., 2016). Ayasan et al.,
(2005); Gurbuz et al., (2011) and Alagawany
et al., (2016) observed that Yucca
supplementation to layer’s diet had no effect
on egg weight, shape index and shell weight
compared to non-supplemented groups. Guclu
(2003) and Kutlu et al., (2001) reported that
Yucca extract supplementation to the layers
did not affect egg production, albumin and
yolk index, shape index, Haugh unit and shell
thickness but reduced egg’s specific gravity
and number of cracked eggs. Egg yolk
cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly
reduced by dietary Karaya saponin
supplementation (Afrose et al., 2010).
Chaudhary (2017) reported that broiler
breeders supplemented with graded level of
soapnut shell powder saponin did not manifest
any significant difference in quality of egg lay.
Effect on semen quality and sex hormones
Miah et al., 2004 reported that
supplementation of saponin resulted in an
increased testis size in male broiler birds s. An
increase in seminiferous tubule diameter in
cockerels receiving a diet containing 100
mg/kg saponin was reported by Hong et al.,
(1976). SFTT (Saponin rich fraction of
Tribulus terrestris) had a beneficial effect on
male reproductive functions in rats. It altered
reproductive functions in males and improved
the quality of spermatozoa. SFTT (Saponin
rich fraction of Tribulus terrestris) treated rats
had significantly higher sperm concentration
compared to control (Hemalatha and Hari,
2015).
Rats fed with 5% Panax ginseng have shown
significant increase in blood testosterone
levels (Fahim et al., 1982). Ginsenosides are
triterpenoid saponins found in Panax ginseng
that structurally resemble the steroid
hormones. Ginsenoside Rg1, the major active
constituent in Panax ginseng, is responsible
for the increased serum testosterone levels and
improvement in the copulatory behavior
(Wang et al., 2010). Ginsenoside Rb1, a key
ginsenoside found in American ginseng, is
found to increase the secretion of LH by
acting directly on the anterior pituitary gland
(Tsai et al., 2003). Oyeyemi et al., (2015)
reported an increased sperm motility and
count with increasing dose of saponin from
Vernonia amygdalina treatment to male wistar
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rats resulted in an increased fertilizing
capacity of the spermatozoa. Balazi et al.,
(2013) reported that Yucca schidigera
administration increased the spermatozoa
concentration and motility of rabbit buck.
Chaudhary (2017) reported that soapnut shell
powder supplementation to broiler breeders
had significantly improved the semen quality
as well as serum and seminal plasma
testosterone levels.
Effect on fertility, hatchability and
embryonic mortality
Fertility, hatchability and embryo mortality
are the major parameters of reproductive
performance of a breeding flock. Yucca
schidigera supplementation @ 120 ppm in
diet did not affect hatchability of total eggs
set, hatchability of fertile eggs set and fertile
egg percent in quails (Ayasan, 2013). Enaiat
et al., (2011) found that cocks supplemented
with Yucca schidigera and Yucca schidigera
in combination with aluminum chloride had
recorded significantly higher fertility percent
than control. Chaudhary (2017) reported that
supplementation of soapnut shell powder
saponin @ 75 ppm in diet to broiler breeders
had significantly improved fertility,
hatchability of total eggs set and hatchability
of fertile eggs set as well as decreased total
embryonic mortality.
It is concluded from above information that
saponins reduces total cholesterol and LDL-
cholesterol levels in serum and meat. Also it
improves semen quality as well as
testosterone level in serum and seminal
plasma of both poultry and mono-gastric
animals vis a vis improves fertility and
hatchability of eggs.
Saponins helps in overall improvement in
production, immunity, litter quality, gut
health, meat quality and welfare of poultry as
well as monogastric animals without affecting
cost economics. So, it can be used as an
alternative to antibiotics for production of
clean and green meat which ultimately helps
us to achieve one health concept.
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How to cite this article:
Sandeep K. Chaudhary, Jaydip J. Rokade, Ganesh N. Aderao, Akansha Singh, M. Gopi, Alok
Mishra and Kanti Raje. 2018. Saponin in Poultry and Monogastric Animals: A Review
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci. 7(07): 3218-3225. doi: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2018.707.375
... They have a wide range of biological activities that have attracted human interest from ancient times. The biological and pharmacological activities of triterpenoid saponins such as anti-fungal (Chludil et al. 2002), anti-inflammatory (Sarkhel 2016), anti-microbial (Kaczorek et al. 2016), anti-viral (Chen 2014), anti-oxidant (Chaudhary et al. 2018), and immunomodulating activities (Chaudhary 2017) and cardioprotective (Li et al. 2014) and hepatoprotective effects (Wang et al. 2014) have been reported. In animal husbandry, triterpenoid saponins have been reported to improve production, immunity, gut health, and meat quality of monogastric animals without affecting production cost (Chaudhary et al. 2018). ...
... The biological and pharmacological activities of triterpenoid saponins such as anti-fungal (Chludil et al. 2002), anti-inflammatory (Sarkhel 2016), anti-microbial (Kaczorek et al. 2016), anti-viral (Chen 2014), anti-oxidant (Chaudhary et al. 2018), and immunomodulating activities (Chaudhary 2017) and cardioprotective (Li et al. 2014) and hepatoprotective effects (Wang et al. 2014) have been reported. In animal husbandry, triterpenoid saponins have been reported to improve production, immunity, gut health, and meat quality of monogastric animals without affecting production cost (Chaudhary et al. 2018). ...
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We evaluated the effects of Quillaja saponin (400 mg/kg) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, fecal gas emissions, and meat quality in pigs when used as a supplement in a finishing pig diet. In total, 80 finishing pigs [(Yorkshire × Landrace) × Duroc] with an average initial body weight of 61.53 ± 4.41 kg were used in a 61-day study. Pigs were allotted to one of two treatments according to initial body weight with 10 replicate pens per treatment and four pigs (two barrows and two gilts) per pen. The dietary treatments consisted of (1) a basal diet (CON), or (2) a CON + 400 mg/kg Quillaja saponin (QS) diet. The growth performance and nutrient digestibility were not affected by supplementing the diet with QS. The ammonia emissions were decreased by Quillaja saponin supplementation (P
... Saponin has the role of increasing the permeability of the intestinal cell wall so that absorption of food substances. This is in accordance with the opinion of Chaudhary., et al. [16] stated that saponins increase the permeability of intestinal mucosal cells and help the absorption of substances that are usually not absorbed optimally in the intestine. ...
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Keywords: Aloe Vera; Crude Fat; Crude Fiber; Crude Protein; Immunity Broiler This study aims to determine the effect of the use of Aloe vera in the ration on nutrient digestibility in male broiler chickens. The research was conducted at the Poultry Cattle Maintenance Experiment Laboratory, Boyolali University, Faculty of Animal Husbandry, on 100 male DOCs kept in 20 cages consisting of 5 chickens per plot of cage. The raw material used was a commercial ration commonly circulated in the market for formulation of starter feed and finisher feed. The design used was a completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 treatments and 5 replications. The data obtained were tested using analysis of variance. If there was an average difference between the treatment effects, then it was continued using Duncan's multiple range test. The treatment given during the study was as follows: T0 = Control ration. T1 = chicken given commercial ration and Aloe vera 0.75%. T2 = chicken given commercial ration and 1.5% Aloe vera. T3 = chicken given commercial ration and 2% Aloe vera. The parameters studied were included crude protein digestibility, crude fat digestibility, crude fiber digestibility, liver weight, and bursa of Fabricius weight. Based on the results of the research, it was concluded that the nutrient digestibility of the crude protein value of aloe vera treatment was below the T0 control, while the digestibility value of T3 and T2 crude fiber was higher than T0 (control) but not T1, and the digestibility value of crude fat T0 was higher than T1, T3 and T2, respectively. The results of this study showed that administration of 0.75% aloe vera in feed affects the percentage of heart, spleen and long intestine compared to controls. Whereas, 2% aloe vera in food increase the percentage of bursa of Fabricius better than control.
... Also, quails fed with Cv oil (1.5 mL/kg diet) showed 3.43% improvement in BW compared with the control group (Hussein et al., 2019). This effect was explained by Kaur et al. (2019) as they found Cv buds contain the high values from saponin (Chaudhary et al., 2018). Changkang et al. (2007) reported that 600 mg water extract of AV gel results in high is weight gain during third and sixth weeks. ...
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... It was observed, in this study, that the concentration of saponins in AOLP was relatively high compared to other examined phytochemicals. This content could be beneficial since an optimal dietary saponin content impedes the operative mucosal transport, increases the villi diameter and villi permeability, and consequently enhances the growth performance [41]. ...
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... In addition, the polyphenols compound present in Y. schidigera also plays a major role in anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activity, as well as free-radical hunting characteristics and immune enhancement, which all improve the growth performance of broilers [8]. Saponins contained in Y. schidigera have been described as an anti-nutritional agents in most cases with regard to their biological function [15,16]. Nonetheless, the beneficial effects of Y. shidigera were greatly affected by the level of inclusion and the amount of steroidal saponins extracted. ...
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... Promising results from phytogenic supplementation have also been obtained in other animal models, for example, berberine has been shown to ameliorate TJ damage in a mouse model of endotoxemia [150]. The inclusion of PFAs in the pigʼs diet has also been widely discussed [61,140,[151][152][153]. Jang et al. proved that flavanol-enriched cocoa powder contributes to gut health improvement by a positive influence on gut microbiota and modulation of markers of localized intestinal immunity [154]. ...
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... So far, 33 different saponins have been identified in alfalfa but only a few of them have been analysed and described in detail (Berrang et al. 1974). Although having some negative effects, sa ponins may positively affect the immune system of animals and meat quality (reduction of the cholesterol content in meat) as well as the well-being of pigs and poultry through good intestinal health (Chaudhary et al. 2018). ...
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... Use of the saponin is a suitable choice in the catalytic processes as a natural compound with the advantages of cheapness, availability, and interesting property arising from water-and fat-soluble parts. 14 Also, considering the unique structure of saponins' with multiple saccharide chain structure and hydroxyl groups (as the hydrophilic moieties) 15 and because of the wide variety of polycyclic structures (as the lipophilic moieties), 16 they are widely used in phase-transfer catalytic processes and can be transferred between water and organic phases, easily. 17 So, in order to synthesis a recoverable and efficient catalyst bearing transition metal complex 18 using saponin, the immobilization of saponin as a green shell on Fe 3 O 4 NPs, as a magnetic solid support, seems to be a smart strategy. ...
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... Kaur et al. (2019) found that clove buds contain the highest values from saponin and the lowest oxalate value. Concerning biological role, saponin has been defined as an antinutritional agent in most cases (Chaudhary et al., 2018). In some cases, it has been maintained to decrease feed intake, inhibit growth rate in poultry, and show some toxicologic effects with higher levels in diets (Miah et al., 2004). ...
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Light scattering, viscometry , fluorescence spectroscopy, electron microscopy and equilibrium dialysis have been used to study the aggregates formed by the interactions of saponins and bile acids in aqueous solution. Purified saponins from three plant sources were used: commercial 'saponin white' (from Saponaria officinalis), quillaia saponin (from Quillaia saponaria), and saponin from soya beans. Alone, the saponins formed small micelles, dimers in the case of saponin white and soya saponin , and larger aggregates of about 50 molecules for quillaia saponin . With bile acids, the saponins formed large mixed micelles. The size and structure of these depended on the chemical structure of the saponin . Saponin white and quillaia saponin gave filamentous structures with the hydrophobic triterpene groups of the saponin forming elongated stacks interleaved with bile acid anions. Soya saponin formed very different micelles with bile acids. These had a loose, open structure with considerable interpenetration of water. These results help to explain the increased faecal excretion of bile acids which has been observed in response to foods rich in saponins.
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New generation vaccines such as recombinant, antigen purified and DNA vaccines are poorly immunogenic due to the lack of an innate immune stimulus. Therefore, search of new adjuvants for these vaccines has become a topic of interesting. In new adjuvant development, saponins are outstanding candidates. Recently, increased attention has been received on plant-derived saponins in search of new adjuvant candidates from traditional Chinese medicinal herbs such as Panax ginseng, Astragalus species, Panax notoginseng,Cochinchina momordica, Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Achyranthes bidentata. Many of the saponins have been found to have adjuvant effects on purified protein antigens. The chemical structures of the saponins are related to their adjuvant activities, and influence the nature of the immune responses. Saponin adjuvants have been reported to stimulate secretion of a broad range of cytokines, suggesting that saponins may act by triggering innate immunity. As these plant-originated adjuvants may promote different branches of the immune system, they have the potential to be used in design of new vaccines so as to induce a desired immune response.