ArticlePDF Available


Due to awareness of consumers towards clean and safe meat availability, plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) such as essential oils, organic acids, saponins and flavonoids etc. are rapidly gaining attention since last few decades. PSMs are the secondary compounds that are produced by plants and they don’t have primary role as nutrients. These can be the effective alternative to antibiotics because of their promising effects on overall performance of poultry and monogastric animals. Saponins are high molecular weight glycosides which are able to form foam in aqueous solution. They are credited with several pharmacological and biological activities like hypocholesterolaemic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and immunomodulatory effects on both poultry and animals. Saponins can be obtained from various parts of plants such as seed, stem, root, pericarp, shell and bark. Optimum level of saponin is being used as feed supplement in poultry and monogastric animal’s nutrition and has shown many beneficial effects. In the present review an attempt was made to summarize these promising effects of saponin in poultry and monogastric animal’s nutrition.
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2018) 7(7): 3218-3225
Review Article
Saponin in Poultry and Monogastric Animals: A Review
Sandeep K. Chaudhary1, Jaydip J. Rokade2*, Ganesh N. Aderao1, Akansha Singh1,
M. Gopi2, Alok Mishra1 and Kanti Raje1
1ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, 2ICAR-Central Avian Research Institute,
Izatnagar, Bareilly, U.P.-243122, India
*Corresponding author
Phytobiotics or phytogenic feed additives
(PFAs) in poultry nutrition had shown many
promising effects on overall production as
well as welfare of the birds. Feed constitutes
major production cost for these enterprises.
The shortage of quality feed as well as rapid
growth rate of poultry industry had made
poultry enterprise more challengeable.
The phytogenic feed additives mainly
comprise of organic acids, essential oils,
saponins and flavonoids etc. and inorganic
substances like antibiotics, growth promoters,
etc. But there is increasing public concerns
towards presence of chemical residues in
poultry products and microbial resistance to
antibiotics. Therefore, use of phytogenic feed
additives against antibiotics as performance
enhancer is becoming very popular practice
now days (Wallace et al., 2002). Thus, the
present review had made an attempt compile
the information’s on one of the important
PSMs, saponin in poultry production.
International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences
ISSN: 2319-7706 Volume 7 Number 07 (2018)
Journal homepage:
Due to awareness of consumers towards clean and safe meat availability, plant secondary
metabolites (PSMs) such as essential oils, organic acids, saponins and flavonoids etc. are
rapidly gaining attention since last few decades. PSMs are the secondary compounds that
are produced by plants and they don’t have primary role as nutrients. These can be the
effective alternative to antibiotics because of their promising effects on overall
performance of poultry and monogastric animals. Saponins are high molecular weight
glycosides which are able to form foam in aqueous solution. They are credited with several
pharmacological and biological activities like hypocholesterolaemic, anti-carcinogenic,
anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and immunomodulatory effects on both
poultry and animals. Saponins can be obtained from various parts of plants such as seed,
stem, root, pericarp, shell and bark. Optimum level of saponin is being used as feed
supplement in poultry and monogastric animal’s nutrition and has shown many beneficial
effects. In the present review an attempt was made to summarize these promising effects of
saponin in poultry and monogastric animal’s nutrition.
Ke ywords
Saponin, Poultry,
Immunity, Anti-
oxidant, Fertility,
24 June 2018
Available Online:
10 July 2018
Article Info
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2018) 7(7): 3218-3225
Saponins are diverse group of high molecular
weight plant secondary metabolites (PSMs),
containing either a tetracyclic steroidal or a
pentacyclic triterpenoid aglycone and one or
more sugar chains. The name is presumed
from the Latin word sapo (soap) reflecting
their wide spread ability to form stable soap-
like foams in aqueous solutions (Vincken et
al., 2007).
Chemistry of saponins
Sugar moieties (pentoses, hexoses or uronic
acid) of saponin is glycosidically linked to a
hydrophobic aglycone (sapogenin) which may
be either triterpenoid or steroid in nature
(Francis et al., 2002). Triperpenes are the most
widely, naturally occurring saponins. The
skeleton of triterpenoid and steroid saponins
are oleanane and spirostane or furostane,
respectively (Sparg et al., 2004; Siegler,
1998). The biological property of saponins
varies according to the ring structure of
aglycone moieties and number of sugars
attached to it.
Effects of saponins
Effect on feed intake, growth and litter
Optimum dietary level of saponin from
different sources, favored higher growth rate,
better feed efficiency (Yejuman et al., 1998),
as well as reduced the emission of noxious
ammonia from excreta (Al-Bar et al., 1993)
thereby improving the health and welfare of
poultry and pigs (Anthony et al., 1994).
Addition of Chlorophytum root @ 0.015% in
broilers has shown improvement in nitrogen
utilization and profitability (Gaurav, 2015).
Gaurav (2015) reported a higher growth rate
in Camellia seed saponin supplemented (@
600 mg/kg) group. Miah et al., (2004)
reported that diet containing 75 mg saponin/kg
had improved body weight gain at all stages of
growth with better feed efficiency and
performance index as well as improved
carcass quality. Saponins increase the
permeability of intestinal mucosal cells in-
vitro, inhibit active mucosal transport and
facilitate uptake of substances that are
normally not absorbed (Johnson et al., 1986).
In optimum levels, it would increase nutrient
absorption from the intestine by increasing
villi diameter by 40-50Ao thereby making
those permeable to large molecules like
ferritin; this fact may be responsible for better
growth rate (Seeman et al., 1973).
Ammonia, a bacterial breakdown product of
uric acid is the most noxious gas in poultry
houses. Poor management practices and wet
litter are the predisposing factors, favoring the
continual release of ammonia from the litter.
Excessive levels of ammonia are detrimental
for broiler health (Yeo and Kim, 1997). Yucca
schidigera extract has been reported to reduce
atmospheric ammonia in poultry farms by
inhibiting urease enzyme activity (Ayasan et
al., 2005). Chaudhary (2017) reported that
supplementation of soapnut shell powder @
150 ppm had significantly reduced excreta
moisture content, thus, helped in reducing
pollution as well as improved welfare of
broiler breeders.
Effect on serum and meat cholesterol levels
A number of studies had shown that saponins
from different sources lowered serum
cholesterol levels (Matsuura, 2001; Gaurav,
2015, Chaudhary, 2017). Saponin and bile
acids interaction in the gut leads to formation
of large mixed micelles which promotes
increased cholesterol excretion (Oakenfull,
1986) and finally results in reduction of serum
cholesterol level. It has been found that the
ethanolic extract of de-fatted fenugreek seeds
inhibits taurocholate and deoxycholate
absorption in-vitro, in a dose-dependent
manner in everted intestinal sacs (Stark and
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2018) 7(7): 3218-3225
Madar, 1993). The hypocholesterolemic
activity of saponins is also due to delaying of
intestinal absorption of dietary fat by
inhibiting pancreatic lipase activity (Han et
al., 2000). Saponins are also reported to
reduce the harmful LDL-cholesterol
selectively in the serum of rats, gerbils as well
as in poultry (Matsuura, 2001; Gaurav, 2015;
Chaudhary, 2017).
Gaurav (2015) and Chaudhary (2017) reported
that serum total cholesterol level was
significantly decreased and the HDL-
cholesterol was significantly increased
following supplementation of saponin rich
feed additives. Researchers reported that
saponins from different sources had lowered
serum cholesterol level in broiler chickens
(Matsuura, 2001; Afrose et al., 2010; Owolabi
et al., 2010).
Age of the broilers and presence of saponin in
feed or both, influences the total cholesterol
content in breast meat. Ponte et al., (2004) in
their study found that Alfalafa saponin
lowered the total cholesterol in the meat
without affecting the in-vivo biosynthesis of
Effect on haemato-biochemical parameters
Gupta et al., (2005); Gaurav (2015) and
Chaudhary (2017) did not find any significant
change in haemato-biochemical parameters
(Hb, PCV, Glucose, creatinine, total protein,
albumin, globulin, A: G ratio, calcium,
inorganic-phosphorus, SGOT, SGPT and
ALP) in rats, chickens and broiler breeders
following supplementation with saponin from
different sources. Kaya et al., (2004) reported
that dietary supplementation of Yucca powder
@ 100 ppm to quails did not affected serum
total protein concentration but albumin level
was decreased.
Effect on antioxidant activity
Antioxidants are the compounds which
inhibits the oxidation of other molecules.
Oxidation is a chemical reaction produces free
radicals that damages the cells and manifest as
adverse biological effects. Superoxide
dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase
(GPx) and catalase (CAT) are the main
antioxidant enzymes in the body, contributing
to the antioxidant activity. Shi et al., (2014)
reported that activity of these antioxidant
enzymes was increased significantly following
supplementation of alfalfa saponin extract @
15 g/kg in weaned piglets. Malondialdehyde
(MDA) is one of the most frequently used
indicators of lipid peroxidation.
Increased MDA can be interpreted as cellular
membrane damage (Niedernhofer et al.,
2003). MDA content in the serum, liver,
spleen and muscle was decreased following
alfalfa saponin extract supplementation in
weaned piglets (Shi et al., 2014).
Group-B soyasaponins from legumes (kidney
beans, peanuts, chickpeas, clover, and
Japanese bush clover etc.), contains an
antioxidant moiety at C23, DDMP (2,3-
one) which allows saponins to scavenge
superoxide’s by forming hydroperoxide
intermediates, and thus preventing bio-
molecular damage by free radicals (Hu et al.,
The administration of saponin from Solanum
anguivi fruit significantly increased both CAT
and SOD activities in heart, whereas,
concentration of MDA was decreased
(Elekofehinti et al., 2012). Diosgenin (a
steroidal sponin of Dioscorea spp.)
supplementation (0.5%) caused a 27% and
13% increase in GPx and CAT activities in
erythrocytes of rats (Son et al., 2007).
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2018) 7(7): 3218-3225
Effect on immune system
Saponins are capable of stimulating immune
system and thereby enhancing resistance to the
diseases (Cheeke, 2001). Saponins can
stimulate secretion of cytokines and trigger
innate immunity (Song and Hu, 2009), as well
as enhance humoral and cellular immune
responses (Palatnik et al., 2004). Significant
immune-stimulation and protection to diseased
are achieved by immunization of chickens
with immune-stimulating complexes
contained purified saponins (Berezin et al.,
2010). Zhai et al., (2014) reported that
administration of saponins isolated from
ginseng stems and leaves through drinking
water of chickens significantly enhanced the
immune responses to vaccination against
Newcastle disease, avian influenza and
infectious bursal disease. Sahoo et al., (2015)
reported that antibody titre against Newcastle
disease virus in broiler chicks on 7th and 14th
day post-vaccination was significantly higher
in the Yucca schidigera extract group.
Supplementation of Yucca up to 100 or 150
mg/kg diet improved immunity in layers
(Alagawany et al., 2016). Chaudhary (2017)
reported that soapnut shell powder saponin @
75 and 150 ppm had significantly improved
both cell mediated and humoral immune
response in broiler breeders.
Effect on egg production and egg quality
Yucca supplementation up to 100 mg/kg in
diet is effective in improving egg production,
egg mass and shell thickness in laying hens
(Alagawany et al., 2016). Ayasan et al.,
(2005); Gurbuz et al., (2011) and Alagawany
et al., (2016) observed that Yucca
supplementation to layer’s diet had no effect
on egg weight, shape index and shell weight
compared to non-supplemented groups. Guclu
(2003) and Kutlu et al., (2001) reported that
Yucca extract supplementation to the layers
did not affect egg production, albumin and
yolk index, shape index, Haugh unit and shell
thickness but reduced egg’s specific gravity
and number of cracked eggs. Egg yolk
cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly
reduced by dietary Karaya saponin
supplementation (Afrose et al., 2010).
Chaudhary (2017) reported that broiler
breeders supplemented with graded level of
soapnut shell powder saponin did not manifest
any significant difference in quality of egg lay.
Effect on semen quality and sex hormones
Miah et al., 2004 reported that
supplementation of saponin resulted in an
increased testis size in male broiler birds s. An
increase in seminiferous tubule diameter in
cockerels receiving a diet containing 100
mg/kg saponin was reported by Hong et al.,
(1976). SFTT (Saponin rich fraction of
Tribulus terrestris) had a beneficial effect on
male reproductive functions in rats. It altered
reproductive functions in males and improved
the quality of spermatozoa. SFTT (Saponin
rich fraction of Tribulus terrestris) treated rats
had significantly higher sperm concentration
compared to control (Hemalatha and Hari,
Rats fed with 5% Panax ginseng have shown
significant increase in blood testosterone
levels (Fahim et al., 1982). Ginsenosides are
triterpenoid saponins found in Panax ginseng
that structurally resemble the steroid
hormones. Ginsenoside Rg1, the major active
constituent in Panax ginseng, is responsible
for the increased serum testosterone levels and
improvement in the copulatory behavior
(Wang et al., 2010). Ginsenoside Rb1, a key
ginsenoside found in American ginseng, is
found to increase the secretion of LH by
acting directly on the anterior pituitary gland
(Tsai et al., 2003). Oyeyemi et al., (2015)
reported an increased sperm motility and
count with increasing dose of saponin from
Vernonia amygdalina treatment to male wistar
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2018) 7(7): 3218-3225
rats resulted in an increased fertilizing
capacity of the spermatozoa. Balazi et al.,
(2013) reported that Yucca schidigera
administration increased the spermatozoa
concentration and motility of rabbit buck.
Chaudhary (2017) reported that soapnut shell
powder supplementation to broiler breeders
had significantly improved the semen quality
as well as serum and seminal plasma
testosterone levels.
Effect on fertility, hatchability and
embryonic mortality
Fertility, hatchability and embryo mortality
are the major parameters of reproductive
performance of a breeding flock. Yucca
schidigera supplementation @ 120 ppm in
diet did not affect hatchability of total eggs
set, hatchability of fertile eggs set and fertile
egg percent in quails (Ayasan, 2013). Enaiat
et al., (2011) found that cocks supplemented
with Yucca schidigera and Yucca schidigera
in combination with aluminum chloride had
recorded significantly higher fertility percent
than control. Chaudhary (2017) reported that
supplementation of soapnut shell powder
saponin @ 75 ppm in diet to broiler breeders
had significantly improved fertility,
hatchability of total eggs set and hatchability
of fertile eggs set as well as decreased total
embryonic mortality.
It is concluded from above information that
saponins reduces total cholesterol and LDL-
cholesterol levels in serum and meat. Also it
improves semen quality as well as
testosterone level in serum and seminal
plasma of both poultry and mono-gastric
animals vis a vis improves fertility and
hatchability of eggs.
Saponins helps in overall improvement in
production, immunity, litter quality, gut
health, meat quality and welfare of poultry as
well as monogastric animals without affecting
cost economics. So, it can be used as an
alternative to antibiotics for production of
clean and green meat which ultimately helps
us to achieve one health concept.
Afrose, S., Hossain, M.S. and Tsujii, H. 2010.
Effect of dietary Karaya saponin on
serum and egg yolk cholesterol in
laying hens. British Poultry Science.
51: 797804.
Alagawany, M., El-Hack, M.E.A. and El-
Khol, M.S. 2016. Productive
performance, egg quality, blood
constituents, immune functions, and
antioxidant parameters in laying hens
fed diets with different levels of Yucca
schidigera extract. Environmental
Science and Pollution Research. 23:
Al-Bar, A., Ismail, A., Cheehe, P.R. and
Nakaue, H. 1993. Effect of dietary
Yucca scidegera extract (Deodorage)
on environment ammonia and growth
performance of chicken and rabbits.
Proceeding of Western Section of
American Society of Animal Science.
44: 106.
Anthony, N.B., Balog, J.M., Staudinger, F.B.,
Wall, C.W., Walker, R.D. and Huff,
W.E. 1994. Effects of a urease
inhibitor and ceiling fans on ascites in
broilers. Environmental variability and
incidence of ascites. Poultry Science.
73: 801809.
Ayasan, T. 2013. Effects of dietary Yucca
schidigera on hatchability of Japanese
quails. Indian Journal of Animal
Sciences. 83(6): 641644.
Ayasan, T., Yurtseven, S., Baylan, M. and
Canogullari, S. 2005. The effects of
dietary yucca schidigera on egg yield
parameters and egg shell quality of
laying Japanese quails (Coturnix
coturnix japonica). International
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2018) 7(7): 3218-3225
journal of poultry science. 4(3): 159
Balazi, A., Foldesiova, M., Chrastinova,
Sirotkin, A.V. and Chrenek, P. 2013.
Effect of the herbal additive Yucca on
rabbit spermatozoa characteristics.
Journal of Microbiology and
Biotechnology and Food Sciences. 2:
Berezin, V.E., Bogoyavlenskyi, A.P.,
Khudiakova, S.S., Alexuk, P.G.,
Omirtaeva, E.S. and Zaitceva, I.A.
2010. Immunostimulatory complexes
containing Eimeria tenella antigens
and low toxicity plant saponins induce
antibody response and provide
protection from challenge in broiler
chickens. Veterinary Parasitology.
167: 28- 35.
Chaudhary, S.K. 2017. Assessment of the
performance of broiler breeders fed
diet containing soapnut (Sapindus
mukorossi) shell powder. M.V.Sc.
Thesis, Deemed University, Indian
Veterinary Research Institute,
Izatnagar pp. 78-80.
Cheeke, P.R. 2001. Actual and potential
applications of Yucca schidigera and
Quillaja saponaria saponins in human
and animal nutrition. Recent Advances
in Animal Nutrition in Australia. 13:
Elekofehinti, O.O., Adanlawo, I.G., Fakoya,
A., Saliu, J.A. and Sodehinde, S.A.
2012. Effect of saponin from Solanum
anguivi Lam. fruit on heart and kidney
superoxide dismutase, catalase and
malondialdehyde in rat. Current
Research Journal of Biological
Science. 4: 530-533.
Enaiat, A.M.M.E., Abou-Eitta, E.M., Salem,
A. and Al-Kotait, A.H.A. 2009. Effect
of Yucca schidigera extract and
aluminum chloride on pen’s
atmospheric ammonia, productive,
reproductive and physiology
performance of silver montazah cocks.
Egyptian Poultry Science. 29(1): 337-
Fahim, M.S., Fahim, Z., Harman, J.M.,
Clevenger, T.E., Mullins, W. and
Hafez, E.S. 1982. Effect of Panax
ginseng on testosterone level and
prostate in male rats. Archives of
Andrology. 8: 261-263.
Francis, G., Kerem, Z., Makkar, H.P.S. and
Becker, K. 2002. The biological action
of saponins in animal systems: A
review. British Journal of Nutrition.
88: 587605.
Gaurav, A.K. 2015. Studies on
supplementation of Chlorophytum
root and Camellia seed as feed
additives in broiler ration. M.V.Sc.
Thesis, Deemed University, Indian
Veterinary Research Institute,
Izatnagar pp. 50-61.
Guclu, B.K. 2003. The effects of Yucca
schidigera extract added to quail
rations on egg production, egg quality
and some blood parameters. Turkish
Journal of Veterinary and Animal
Sciences. 27: 567574
Gupta, R.S., Chaudhary, R., Yadav, R.K.,
Verma, S.K. and Dobhal, M.P. 2005.
Effect of Saponins of Albizia lebbeck
(L.) Benth bark on the reproductive
system of male albino rats. Journal of
Ethnopharmacology. 96: 3136.
Gurbuz, E., Balevi, T., Kurtoglu, V. and
Oznurlu Y. 2011. Use of yeast cell
walls and Yucca schidigera extract in
layer hens’ diets. Italian Journal of
Animal Science. 10(2): 134-138.
Han, L.K., Xu, B.J., Kimura,Y., Zheng, Y.N.
and Okuda, H. 2000. Platycodi radix
affects lipid metabolism in mice with
high fat diet induced obesity. Journal
of Nutrition. 130: 27602764.
Hemalatha, S. and Hari, R. 2015. Fertility
enhancing effect of saponin rich
butanol extracts of Tribulus terrestris
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2018) 7(7): 3218-3225
fruits in male albino rats. International
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical
Research. 7(1): 36-43
Hong, B.J., Kim-Cl, U.H. and Rec, Y.C.
1976. Effect of feeding ginseng crude
saponin extract on body weight gain
and reproductive function in poultry.
Korean Journal of Animal Science.
18: 355-361.
Hu, W.L., Liu, J.X., Wu, Y.M., Guo, Y.Q.
and Ye, J.A. 2006. Effects of tea
saponins on in-vitro ruminal
fermentation and growth performance
in growing Boer goat. Archives of
Animal Nutrition. 60: 8997.
Johnson, I.T., Gee, J.M., Price, K., Curl, C.
and Fenwick, G.R. 1986. Influence of
saponins on gut permeability and
active nutrient transport in vitro.
Journal of Nutrition. 116: 2270-2277.
Kaya, S., Erdogan Z. and Erdogan, S. 2004.
Effect of different dietary levels of
Yucca schidigera powder on the
performance blood parameters and
egg yolk cholesterol of laying quails.
Proceedings of the 22nd World
Poultry Congress, June 8-13, Istanbul,
Kutlu, H.R., Gorgulu, M. and Unsal, I. 2001.
Effects of dietary Yucca schidigera
powder on performance and egg
cholesterol content of laying hens.
Journal of Applied Animal Research.
20(1): 49-56.
Matsuura, M. 2001. Saponins in garlic as
modifiers of the risk of cardiovascular
disease. Journal of Nutrition, 131:
Miah, M.Y., Rahman, M.S., Islam, M.K. and
Monir, M.M. 2004. Effects of Saponin
and L-Carnitine on the Performance
and Reproductive Fitness of Male
Broiler. International Journal of
Poultry Science. 3(8): 530- 533.
Niedernhofer, L.J., Daniels, J.S., Rouzer,
C.A., Greene, R.E. and Marnett, L.J.
2003. Malondialdehyde a product of
lipid peroxidation, is mutagenic in
human cells. The Journal of Biological
Chemistry. 278: 3142631433.
Oakenfull, D. 1986. Aggregation of saponins
and bile acids in aqueous solution.
Australian Journal of Chemistry. 39:
16711683 Osbourn, A.E. 2003.
Saponins in cereals. Phytochemistry.
63: 1-4.
Owolabi, O. A., James, D. B., Ibrahim, A. B.,
Folorunsho, O. F., Bwalla, I. and
Akanta, F. 2010. Changes in lipid
profile of aqueous and ethanolic
extract of Blighia sapida in rats, Asian
Journal of Medical Sciences. 2: 177
Oyeyemi, M.O., Soetan, K.O., and Akinpelu,
O.B. 2015. Sperm characteristics and
haemogram of male albino rats (wistar
strain) treated with saponin extract
from Vernonia amygdalina del.
asteraeceae 110192. Journal of Cell
and Animal Biology. 9(3): 26-30.
Palatnik de Sousa, C.B., Santos, W.R., Casas,
C.P., Paraguai de Souza, E., Tinoco,
L.W. and da Silva, B.P. 2004.
Protective vaccination against murine
visceral leishmaniasis using aldehyde-
containing Quillaja saponaria
sapogenins. Vaccine. 22: 2470- 2479.
Ponte, P.I.P., Mendes, I., Quaresma, M.,
Aguiar, M.N.M., Lemos, J.P.C.,
Ferreira, L.M.A., Soares, M.A.C.,
Alfaia, C.M., Prates, J.A.M. and
Fontes, C.M.G. 2004. Cholesterol
levels and sensory characteristics of
meat from broilers consuming
moderate to high levels of Alfalfa.
Poultry Science. 83: 810814.
Sahoo, S.P., Kaur, D., Sethi, A.P.S.,
Chandrahas, Saini, A.L. and Chandra,
M. 2015. Effect of dietary
supplementation of Yucca schidigera
extract on the performance and litter
quality of broilers in winter season.
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2018) 7(7): 3218-3225
Animal Nutrition and Feed
Technology. 16: 475-484.
Seeman, P., Cheng, D. and Iles, G.F. 1973.
Structure of membrane holes in,
osmotic and saponins hemolysis.
Journal of Cell Biology. 56: 519-527.
Shi, Y.H., Wang, J., Guo, R., Wang, C.Z.,
Yan, X.B., Xu, B. and Zhang, D.Q.
2014. Effects of alfalfa saponin extract
on growth performance and some
antioxidant indices of weaned piglets.
Livestock Science. 167: 257-262.
Siegler, D.S. 1998. Saponins and cardnolides
in plant secondary metabolism.
Kluwer Academic Publishers,
Broton/Dordrecht/London. 427-455.
Son, I.S., Kim, J.H., Sohn, H.Y., Son, K.H.,
Kim, J. S. and Kwon, C.S. 2007.
Antioxidative and hypolipidemic
effects of diosgenin, a steroidal
saponin of yam (Dioscorea spp.), on
high-cholesterol fed rats. Bioscience,
Biotechnology and Biochemistry. 71:
3063 3071.
Song, X. and Hu, S. 2009. Adjuvant activities
of saponins from traditional Chinese
medicinal herbs. Vaccine. 27: 4883-
Sparg, S.G., Light, M,E. and van Staden, J.
2004. Biological activities and
distribution of plant saponins. Journal
of Ethnopharmacology. 94: 219-243.
Stark, A. and Madar, Z. 1993. The effect of
an ethanol extract derived from fenu
greek (Trigonella foenum-graecum)
on bile acid absorption and cholesterol
level in rats. British Journal of
Nutrition. 69: 277287.
Tsai, S.C., Chiao, Y.C., Lu, C.C. and Wang,
P.S. 2003. Stimulation of the secretion
of luteinizing hormone by
ginsenoside- Rb1 in male rats. The
Chinese Journal of Physiology 46:1-7.
Vincken, J.P., Heng, L., de Groot, A. and
Gruppen, H. 2007. Saponins,
classification and occurrence in the
plant kingdom. Phytochemistry. 68:
Wallace, R.J., McEwan, N.R., McIntosh,
F.M., Teferedegne, B. and Newbold,
C.J. 2002. Natural products as
manipulators of rumen ferementation.
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal
Sciences. 15: 1458-1468.
Wang, X., Chu, S., Qian, T., Chen, J. and
Zhang, J. 2010. Ginsenoside Rg1
improves male copulatory behavior
via nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine
monophosphate pathway. The Journal
of Sexual Medicine. 7: 743-50.
Yejuman, Y.H., Shiminghua, J., Niweiju,
M.H., Yeja, M. and Shi, N.I. 1998.
Effect of herbal origin bioactive
substances on growth rate and some
biochemical parameters in blood of
broilers. Journal of Zhejiang
University. 24: 405- 408.
Yeo, J. and Kim, K. 1997. Effect of feeding
diets containing an antibiotic, a
probiotic, or yucca extract on growth
and intestinal urease activity in broiler
chicks. Poultry Science 76:381-385.
Zhai, L., Wang, Y., Yu, J. and Hu, S. 2014.
Enhanced immune responses of
chickens to oral vaccination against
infectious bursal disease by ginseng
stem-leaf saponins. Poultry Science.
93: 24732481.
How to cite this article:
Sandeep K. Chaudhary, Jaydip J. Rokade, Ganesh N. Aderao, Akansha Singh, M. Gopi, Alok
Mishra and Kanti Raje. 2018. Saponin in Poultry and Monogastric Animals: A Review
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci. 7(07): 3218-3225. doi:
... They have a wide range of biological activities that have attracted human interest from ancient times. The biological and pharmacological activities of triterpenoid saponins such as anti-fungal (Chludil et al. 2002), anti-inflammatory (Sarkhel 2016), anti-microbial (Kaczorek et al. 2016), anti-viral (Chen 2014), anti-oxidant (Chaudhary et al. 2018), and immunomodulating activities (Chaudhary 2017) and cardioprotective (Li et al. 2014) and hepatoprotective effects (Wang et al. 2014) have been reported. In animal husbandry, triterpenoid saponins have been reported to improve production, immunity, gut health, and meat quality of monogastric animals without affecting production cost (Chaudhary et al. 2018). ...
... The biological and pharmacological activities of triterpenoid saponins such as anti-fungal (Chludil et al. 2002), anti-inflammatory (Sarkhel 2016), anti-microbial (Kaczorek et al. 2016), anti-viral (Chen 2014), anti-oxidant (Chaudhary et al. 2018), and immunomodulating activities (Chaudhary 2017) and cardioprotective (Li et al. 2014) and hepatoprotective effects (Wang et al. 2014) have been reported. In animal husbandry, triterpenoid saponins have been reported to improve production, immunity, gut health, and meat quality of monogastric animals without affecting production cost (Chaudhary et al. 2018). ...
Full-text available
We evaluated the effects of Quillaja saponin (400 mg/kg) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, fecal gas emissions, and meat quality in pigs when used as a supplement in a finishing pig diet. In total, 80 finishing pigs [(Yorkshire × Landrace) × Duroc] with an average initial body weight of 61.53 ± 4.41 kg were used in a 61-day study. Pigs were allotted to one of two treatments according to initial body weight with 10 replicate pens per treatment and four pigs (two barrows and two gilts) per pen. The dietary treatments consisted of (1) a basal diet (CON), or (2) a CON + 400 mg/kg Quillaja saponin (QS) diet. The growth performance and nutrient digestibility were not affected by supplementing the diet with QS. The ammonia emissions were decreased by Quillaja saponin supplementation (P
... Saponin has the role of increasing the permeability of the intestinal cell wall so that absorption of food substances. This is in accordance with the opinion of Chaudhary., et al. [16] stated that saponins increase the permeability of intestinal mucosal cells and help the absorption of substances that are usually not absorbed optimally in the intestine. ...
Full-text available
Keywords: Aloe Vera; Crude Fat; Crude Fiber; Crude Protein; Immunity Broiler This study aims to determine the effect of the use of Aloe vera in the ration on nutrient digestibility in male broiler chickens. The research was conducted at the Poultry Cattle Maintenance Experiment Laboratory, Boyolali University, Faculty of Animal Husbandry, on 100 male DOCs kept in 20 cages consisting of 5 chickens per plot of cage. The raw material used was a commercial ration commonly circulated in the market for formulation of starter feed and finisher feed. The design used was a completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 treatments and 5 replications. The data obtained were tested using analysis of variance. If there was an average difference between the treatment effects, then it was continued using Duncan's multiple range test. The treatment given during the study was as follows: T0 = Control ration. T1 = chicken given commercial ration and Aloe vera 0.75%. T2 = chicken given commercial ration and 1.5% Aloe vera. T3 = chicken given commercial ration and 2% Aloe vera. The parameters studied were included crude protein digestibility, crude fat digestibility, crude fiber digestibility, liver weight, and bursa of Fabricius weight. Based on the results of the research, it was concluded that the nutrient digestibility of the crude protein value of aloe vera treatment was below the T0 control, while the digestibility value of T3 and T2 crude fiber was higher than T0 (control) but not T1, and the digestibility value of crude fat T0 was higher than T1, T3 and T2, respectively. The results of this study showed that administration of 0.75% aloe vera in feed affects the percentage of heart, spleen and long intestine compared to controls. Whereas, 2% aloe vera in food increase the percentage of bursa of Fabricius better than control.
... Also, quails fed with Cv oil (1.5 mL/kg diet) showed 3.43% improvement in BW compared with the control group (Hussein et al., 2019). This effect was explained by Kaur et al. (2019) as they found Cv buds contain the high values from saponin (Chaudhary et al., 2018). Changkang et al. (2007) reported that 600 mg water extract of AV gel results in high is weight gain during third and sixth weeks. ...
Full-text available
This study was aimed to assess the impacts of Aloe vera (AV) and Clove (Cv) powder supplementation on growth performance, carcass quality, blood biochemistry and hematology of Japanese quails and studying the possibility of using them as alternatives to antibiotics growth promotors as a natural safe products. Four hundred, seven-day old mixed sex chicks were divided into four groups of five replicates 20 birds per replicate including (10 males& 10 females). Birds in the control group (T1) were fed a diet containing Enramycin (0.02%) as an antibiotic growth promoter (AGP), while T2, T3 and T4, birds were supplemented with AV leaf powder, Cv powder and mixture of both at 0.5, 0.5 and 0.25+0.25% of feed, respectively. Results showed that total feed intake in all supplemented groups were significantly (p<0.05) higher than T1. Weight gain and feed conversion ratio were significantly higher (p<0.05) in T4 while T2 and T3 were better (p<0.05) than T1. Breast yield and carcass weight were the highest (p<0.05) in T4 while T2 and T3 were significantly better than T1. High density lipoprotein was highest (p<0.05) in T4 whereas T2 and T3 showed higher value than T1. Blood cholesterol and serum enzymes (ALT, AST and ALP) values were significantly (p<0.05) higher in Tl and lower in T4. The highest hemoglobin level was observed in T4. White blood cells were significantly (p<0.05) higher in T3 and T4. No significant difference was observed in, red blood cells, serum total protein, calcium and phosphorous level, packed cell volume, neutrophils, lymphocyte, monocyte and eosinophil. It is concluded from this experiment that AV and Cv supplementation improved breast yield and carcass weight without any harmful effect on the liver and blood biochemistry. This showed that the supplementation of AV and Cv powder can improve growth performance and it can work as an alternative of AGP.
... It was observed, in this study, that the concentration of saponins in AOLP was relatively high compared to other examined phytochemicals. This content could be beneficial since an optimal dietary saponin content impedes the operative mucosal transport, increases the villi diameter and villi permeability, and consequently enhances the growth performance [41]. ...
Full-text available
Phytogenics, the plant-derived natural bioactive compounds, are increasingly used in animal feed to induce antibiotic and antioxidative impacts with the ultimate goal of enhancing their productivity and health. Proximate, phytochemical, mineral composition, and antioxidant activity of Anacardium occidentale leaf powder (AOLP) were determined in this study. The proximates: nitrogen-free extract (49.58 %), crude fiber (16.95 %), crude protein (14.65 %), crude fat (10.81 %), and ash (3.70 %) were determined, and bioactive compounds such as tannins, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, alkaloids, and phytate were also quantifiable in AOLP. Zinc (6.65 mg/kg), calcium (5.76 mg/kg), phosphorus (6.18 mg/kg) and magnesium (1.96 mg/kg) were also recorded in AOLP. The Phytate:Zn ratio of AOLP in this study falling above 10 and Calcium:Phytate molar ratio being lower than the 6 signaled impaired Zn availability. However, the value of [Ca] x [Phy]: [Zn] of AOLP in this study being less than 0.5 suggests unimpaired Zn bioavailability. The value recorded for 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and vitamin C in this study refers to the antioxidant capacity of AOLP. Therefore, AOLP could be used as a phytogenic supplement in animal feeding models.
... In addition, the polyphenols compound present in Y. schidigera also plays a major role in anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activity, as well as free-radical hunting characteristics and immune enhancement, which all improve the growth performance of broilers [8]. Saponins contained in Y. schidigera have been described as an anti-nutritional agents in most cases with regard to their biological function [15,16]. Nonetheless, the beneficial effects of Y. shidigera were greatly affected by the level of inclusion and the amount of steroidal saponins extracted. ...
Full-text available
This study aims to study the effect of Yucca shidigera as a phytobiotic supplementation in enhancing the production performance of commercial broilers reared under tropical environments. A total of 300 male day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly allocated into six treatment groups. Treatment 1 broilers were fed with commercial diets without antibiotics. Treatment 2 broilers were fed with commercial diets added with 100 mg/kg oxytetracycline antibiotic. Treatment 3, 4, 5, and 6 were fed with the same commercial diets added with 25, 50, 75, and 100 mg/kg Y. shidigera, respectively, without antibiotic. Throughout the six weeks study period, body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly for each replicate to calculate the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio. In addition, the nutrient digestibility, gut histomorphology, cecal microflora population, carcass characteristics, and meat quality were determined. The results showed significant differences (p < 0.05) in the growth performance, apparent ileal nutrient digestibility, gut histomorphology, carcass traits, and meat quality. Overall, T6 broilers supplemented with 100 mg/kg Y. shidigera demonstrated the best production performances as compared to the other treatment broilers. In summary, information from this study will be valuable for the usability of Y. schidigera, which could be developed as a feed additive to replace antibiotics in the poultry sector in the tropics.
... Promising results from phytogenic supplementation have also been obtained in other animal models, for example, berberine has been shown to ameliorate TJ damage in a mouse model of endotoxemia [150]. The inclusion of PFAs in the pigʼs diet has also been widely discussed [61,140,[151][152][153]. Jang et al. proved that flavanol-enriched cocoa powder contributes to gut health improvement by a positive influence on gut microbiota and modulation of markers of localized intestinal immunity [154]. ...
After the European Union ban of antibiotic growth promoters, works on different methods of improving gut health have intensified. The poultry industry is struggling with problems that were previously controlled by antibiotic growth promoters, therefore the search for optimal solutions continues. Simultaneously, there is also increasing social pressure to minimize the use of antibiotics and replace them with alternative feed additives. A variety of available alternatives is considered safe by consumers, among which phytogenics play a significant role. However, there are still some limitations that need to be considered. The most questionable are the issues related to bioavailability, metabolism of plant derivatives in birds, and the difficulty of standardizing commercial products. There is still a need for more evidence-based recommendations for the use of phytogenics in livestock. On the other hand, a positive influence of phytogenic compounds on the health of poultry has been previously described by many researchers and practical application of these compounds has auspicious perspectives in poultry production. Supplementation with phytogenic feed additives has been shown to protect birds from various environmental threats leading to impaired intestinal barrier function. Phytogenic feed additives have the potential to improve the overall structure of intestinal mucosa as well as gut barrier function on a molecular level. Recognition of the phytogenicsʼ effect on the components of the intestinal barrier may enable the selection of the most suitable ones to alleviate negative effects of different agents. This review aims to summarize current knowledge of the influence of various phytogenic constituents on the intestinal barrier and health of poultry.
... So far, 33 different saponins have been identified in alfalfa but only a few of them have been analysed and described in detail (Berrang et al. 1974). Although having some negative effects, sa ponins may positively affect the immune system of animals and meat quality (reduction of the cholesterol content in meat) as well as the well-being of pigs and poultry through good intestinal health (Chaudhary et al. 2018). ...
The aim of the research reported here was to assess the potential of alfalfa as a local protein resource when fed to different species and at different life stages. A total of 236 samples was taken from a commercial drying plant to assess the variation in nutrients of alfalfa and to evaluate the influence of hot air drying on the feed value. Samples of fresh material were compared to end products (hay, pellets). No significant nutritional differences were detected between the end products and the fresh material. In a further part of the research, the nutrient profiles of the output of the fractionation of dried alfalfa (fine, medium, long) were examined. Crude protein (CP), lysine, methionine and UDP 5 (rumen undegradable protein, the respective UDP content in CP assuming a passage from the forestomach of 5 % per hour) were concentrated in the fine fraction which had a lower concentration of fibre. A high protein content in the fine fraction points to its use as a source of protein for pigs and poultry. Furthermore, supporting ecosystem services were considered and additional factors influencing the content of valuable nutrients were identified (cuttings, vegetation stage, saponins, variety). The results of this study serve as the basis for the development of a quality-differentiation concept for alfalfa to make use of the variation in nutrients for all farm animals and to demonstrate resulting synergy effects. It is concluded that alfalfa is a valuable feed resource. Due to the high quality in several samples of alfalfa, it can be assumed that it is not only suitable for ruminants but also as a feed component for monogastric animals. However, this applies only if the large variation found in both whole plants and in plant fractions is thoroughly considered and used as a starting point for a target-oriented application designed to best fit the corresponding requirements of farm animals.
... Use of the saponin is a suitable choice in the catalytic processes as a natural compound with the advantages of cheapness, availability, and interesting property arising from water-and fat-soluble parts. 14 Also, considering the unique structure of saponins' with multiple saccharide chain structure and hydroxyl groups (as the hydrophilic moieties) 15 and because of the wide variety of polycyclic structures (as the lipophilic moieties), 16 they are widely used in phase-transfer catalytic processes and can be transferred between water and organic phases, easily. 17 So, in order to synthesis a recoverable and efficient catalyst bearing transition metal complex 18 using saponin, the immobilization of saponin as a green shell on Fe 3 O 4 NPs, as a magnetic solid support, seems to be a smart strategy. ...
Full-text available
Saponin, as a green and available phytochemical, was immobilized on the surface of magnetite nanoparticles then doped with Cu ions ([email protected]/Cu(ii)) and used as an efficient nanocatalyst for the synthesis of quinazoline and acridine derivatives, due to their high application and importance in various fields of science. Different spectroscopic and microscopic techniques were used for the catalyst characterization such as FT-IR, XRD, FE-SEM, EDX, TEM, TGA, VSM, BET, DLS, CV, and XPS analyses. All characterization data were correlated with each other so that the structure of the catalyst was accurately characterized. The reactions were performed in the presence of a low amount of [email protected]/Cu(ii) (0.42 mol%) as a green catalyst in water over a short period of time. The results show well the effective role of saponin in solving the problem of mass transfer in aqueous medium, which is the challenge of many organic reactions in aqueous medium and in the presence of heterogeneous medium. High catalytic activity was found for the catalyst and high to excellent efficiency was obtained for all quinazoline (68-94% yield) and acridine (66-97% yield) derivatives in short reaction times (less than 1 hour) under mild reaction conditions in the absence of any hazardous or expensive materials. There is not any noticeable by-product found whether for acridine or quinazoline derivatives, which reflects the high selectivity. Two reasonable mechanisms were proposed for the reactions based on observations from control experiments as well as literature reports. The catalyst could be easily recovered magnetically for at least six consecutive runs with insignificant reactivity loss.
... Kaur et al. (2019) found that clove buds contain the highest values from saponin and the lowest oxalate value. Concerning biological role, saponin has been defined as an antinutritional agent in most cases (Chaudhary et al., 2018). In some cases, it has been maintained to decrease feed intake, inhibit growth rate in poultry, and show some toxicologic effects with higher levels in diets (Miah et al., 2004). ...
Full-text available
Previous studies have shown positive outcomes associated with the incorporation of cloves into broiler chicken diets. This study aimed to evaluate carcass characteristics, meat quality, and sensory attributes of broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with different clove seed levels. A total of 240 day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were fed one of seven dietary treatments. The control group diet contained 0% clove seeds, whereas the treatment group diets contained 1up to 6% clove seeds. The chickens' final body weight was significantly different between the treatments, which decreased linearly with increasing levels of clove seed inclusion. Fortified broiler chickens with clove seeds did not significantly affect the chickens' carcass characteristics and body composition. However, an increment in weights of carcass components (liver, heart, and gizzard) was observed in low clove seed levels. Also, water-holding capacity, cooking loss percentages, and tenderness of the meat were improved due to clove seed inclusion (1 or 2%) compared to the control group. Further studies are warranted to optimize the outstanding use of cloves towards broiler chicken performance enhancement and produce a high quality of meat.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of Quillaja saponin (QS) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, fecal microbiota, and fecal gas emission in growing pigs. A total of 50 crossbred growing pigs [(Yorkshire × Landrace) × Duroc] with an initial body weight of 23.83 ± 1.95 kg were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments for a 56-day trial with 5 replicate pens per treatment and 5 pigs (2 barrows and 3 gilts) per pen. Dietary treatments including control diet and control diet supplemented with 200 mg/kg QS. The average daily gain was significantly increased during days 0-56, while the fecal ammonia emission on day 56 and fecal coliform bacteria counts on day 28 were significantly decreased in pigs fed with QS containing diet. However, dietary supplementation of QS had no significant effects on apparent total tract digestibility. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of 200 mg/kg QS had beneficial effects on growth performance, fecal microbiota, and fecal gas emission in growing pigs. Considering the carry-over effects, the adaption period should be at least 28 days when supplementing 200 mg/kg QS to the diet of growing pigs for improving the growth performance.
Full-text available
Infectious bursal disease (IBD), caused by infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), is an immunosuppressive infectious disease of global economic importance in poultry. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of oral administration of ginseng stem-leaf saponins (GSLS) on humoral and gut mucosal immunity in chickens vaccinated with live IBDV vaccine, and furthermore, to test its protective efficacy against virulent IBDV challenge following vaccination. In experiment 1, chickens were orally administered with GSLS at 5 mg/kg of BW for 7 d, and then immunized with live IBDV vaccine via the oral route. Serum was sampled on 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 wk postvaccination for detecting antibody titers by ELISA, and intestinal tissues were collected on 0, 1, 3, and 5 wk postvaccination for measurement of IgA-positive cells and intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes by immunohistochemical and hematoxylin-eosin staining, respectively. Result showed that antibody titers, IgA-positive cells and intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes were significantly higher in chickens drinking GSLS than the control, suggesting an enhanced effect of GSLS on humoral and gut mucosal immune responses. In experiment 2, chickens were delivered with GSLS and then vaccinated in the same way as in experiment 1. The birds were challenged with virulent IBDV at wk 3 postvaccination. Then the birds were weighed, bled, and necropsied at d 3 postchallenge and the bursae were sampled for gross and histopathological examination. Results demonstrated that GSLS provided a better protection against virulent IBDV challenge following vaccination than the control. In conclusion, oral administration of GSLS enhances both humoral and gut mucosal immune responses to IBDV and offers a better protection against virulent IBDV challenge. Considering its immunomodulatory properties to IBDV vaccine, GSLS might be a promising oral adjuvant for vaccination against infectious diseases in poultry.
Full-text available
There is increasing interest in exploiting natural products as feed additives to solve problems in animal nutrition and livestock production. Essential oils and saponins are two types of plant secondary compounds that hold promise as natural feed additives for ruminants. This paper describes recent advances in research into these additives. The research has generally concentrated on protein metabolism. Dietary essential oils caused rates of NH production from amino acids in ruminal fluid taken from sheep and cattle receiving the oils to decrease, yet proteinase and peptidase activities were unchanged. Hyper-ammonia-producing (HAP) bacteria were the most sensitive of ruminal bacteria to essential oils in pure culture. Essential oils also slowed colonisation and digestion of some feedstuffs. Ruminobacter amylophilus may be a key organism in mediating these effects. Saponin-containing plants and their extracts appear to be useful as a means of suppressing the bacteriolytic activity of rumen ciliate protozoa and thereby enhancing total microbial protein flow from the rumen. The effects of some saponins seems to be transient, which may stem from the hydrolysis of saponins to their corresponding sapogenin aglycones, which are much less toxic to protozoa. Saponins also have selective antibacterial effects which may prove useful in, for example, controlling starch digestion. These studies illustrate that plant secondary compounds, of which essential oils and saponins comprise a small proportion, have great potential as 'natural' manipulators of rumen fermentation, to the potential benefit of the farmer and the environment.
Full-text available
Kutlu, H.R., Görgülü, M. and Ünsal, I. 2001 Effects of dietary Yucca schidigera powder on performance and egg cholesterol content of laying hens. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 20: 49–56.The present study was carried out to determine whether dietary Yucca schidigera powder would affect egg yolk cholesterol content and laying performance of chickens. Sixty, 28-week-old White Hyline layers were divided into four dietary treatment groups of similar mean weight, comprising 15 birds each. A standard layer feed as the basal diet of the trial was supplemented with 0, 30, 60 or l20 ppm Yucca schidigera powder. Yucca supplementation to the diet did not affect feed intake, egg production, feed conversion efficiency, body weight gain, egg shell, white and yolk weights, shell thickness and shape index but reduced number of cracked eggs (P
Full-text available
A factorial bioassay was made to evaluate 4 different levels of exogenous saponin (S); 0 mg (S<sub>o</sub>), 25 mg (S<sub>1</sub>), 50 mg (S<sub>2</sub>) and 75 mg (S<sub>3</sub>) per kg and also a combination (SC) of 50 mg saponin plus 50 mg L-carnitine (S<sub>4</sub>) per kg maize-soybean meal based basal diet during the late autumn. In all, 5 experimental diets being iso-nutritive (as per NRC, 1994 recommendation) but for variable in presence and contents of saponin and L-carnitine were prepared. 8-day old male broiler chicks (n=150, Starboro) were distributed randomly into 15 groups of 10 chicks in each housed in separate pen of littered floor. Three such groups received each of 5 test diets ad libitum as mash up to 8 weeks of age. The plenty of water was made available to all chicks during the experimental period. It was found that S<sub>2</sub> diet significantly improved body weight gain (BWG) during growing (8 days to 3 weeks) period when compared with S<sub>0</sub>, S<sub>1</sub>, S<sub>3</sub> and S<sub>4</sub>. Dietary S and SC had no significant (p>0.05) effect separately and jointly on feed efficiency, protein efficiency and performance index. But S<sub>3</sub> and S<sub>4</sub> diets reduced abdominal fat significantly (p<0.05), while only S<sub>3</sub> significantly (p<0.05) increased tastes weight. S and SC added all diets significantly (p<0.05) reduced liver, gizzard and thyroid size with little enlargement of spleen size compared to S<sub>0</sub> fed group. Finally, it was concluded that 75 mg (S<sub>3</sub>) per kg exogenous saponin could be used as feed additive in broiler diet to improve growth and carcass quality.
The experiment was conducted to determine the effects of alfalfa saponin extract (ASE) on growth performance and some antioxidant indices in weaned piglets. A total of 96 piglets (Duroc×Landrace×Large white) with 7.5±0.9 kg mean body weight weaned at 28 d of age were randomly assigned to 4 treatments (4 replicate pen per treatment with 3 gilts and 3 castrated males per pen). Diets containing 0, 5, 10, and 15 g ASE/kg were fed to piglets for 30 d. There was a linear improvement in finial body weight, average daily gain, and average daily feed intake (P=0.029, 0.003, and 0.042, respectively) as the level of ASE in pig diets increased. Glutathione peroxidase activity in serum, liver, and muscle of weaned pigs increased linearly (P=0.004, 0.047, and 0.053, respectively) as the level of ASE in pig diets increased. Superoxide dismutase activity in serum, liver, spleen, and muscle increased linearly (P=0.009, 0.006, 0.010, and 0.016, respectively). Serum catalase (CAT) activity increased quadratically (P=0.038), while kidney and muscle CAT activity increased linearly (P=0.051 and 0.052, respectively). Malondialdehyde (MDA) content in serum, liver, spleen, and muscle decreased linearly (P=0.032, 0.011, 0.008, and 0.007, respectively) as the level of ASE in pig diets increased. These findings indicated that dietary inclusion of ASE up to 15 g/kg could increase activity of some antioxidant enzymes in weaned piglets, as well as promote their growth.
Light scattering, viscometry , fluorescence spectroscopy, electron microscopy and equilibrium dialysis have been used to study the aggregates formed by the interactions of saponins and bile acids in aqueous solution. Purified saponins from three plant sources were used: commercial 'saponin white' (from Saponaria officinalis), quillaia saponin (from Quillaia saponaria), and saponin from soya beans. Alone, the saponins formed small micelles, dimers in the case of saponin white and soya saponin , and larger aggregates of about 50 molecules for quillaia saponin . With bile acids, the saponins formed large mixed micelles. The size and structure of these depended on the chemical structure of the saponin . Saponin white and quillaia saponin gave filamentous structures with the hydrophobic triterpene groups of the saponin forming elongated stacks interleaved with bile acid anions. Soya saponin formed very different micelles with bile acids. These had a loose, open structure with considerable interpenetration of water. These results help to explain the increased faecal excretion of bile acids which has been observed in response to foods rich in saponins.
Ginsenoside Rg1 is the purified ingredient from ginseng, there has been little research on the effect of Rg1 on male copulatory behavior and its mechanism of action. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on copulatory behavior of male mice and the mechanism of its action. Male mice were treated with Rg1 intraperitoneally; three elements of copulatory behavior (mounting, intromission, pelvic thrusting) were assessed. After final treatment and behavior determination, nitric oxide (NO) concentration were determined by spectrophotometry method. Plasma testosterone, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in corpus cavernosum both in vivo and in vitro were measured by radioimmunoassay. Rabbit corpus cavernosum segments were incubated with Rg1 (0.05, 0.5 and 5 microM) in the presence of exogenous NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) (10 microM), and the cGMP level was measured. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of Rg1 for phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors was determined by measuring the conversion of cGMP to 5'-mononucleotides. Sildenafil was set as a positive control. MAIN COME OUT MEASURES: Mounting and intromission frequency, pelvic thrusts, serum testosterone, NO level, cGMP accumulation, IC50 for PDE5. Rg1 (10 mg/kg) significantly increased mounting and pelvic thrusting frequency and numbers of intromission of male mice from d16 to d20. Rg1 increased serum testosterone concentration, enhanced NO release, and cGMP accumulation in corpus cavernosum both in vivo and in vitro. The IC50 of sildenafil and Rg1 for PDE5 were 4.24 +/- 0.78 and 12.47 +/- 2.31 nmol/L. Ginsenoside Rg1 improved copulatory behavior of male mice and this may attribute to its actions at both testosterone level and signal transduction pathway in corpus cavernosum. NO/cGMP pathway appeared to play a key role in mediating the effect of Rg1 on male sexual function. These experimental data provide evidence that Rg1 could be a promising new drug for erectile dysfunction and low libido.
New generation vaccines such as recombinant, antigen purified and DNA vaccines are poorly immunogenic due to the lack of an innate immune stimulus. Therefore, search of new adjuvants for these vaccines has become a topic of interesting. In new adjuvant development, saponins are outstanding candidates. Recently, increased attention has been received on plant-derived saponins in search of new adjuvant candidates from traditional Chinese medicinal herbs such as Panax ginseng, Astragalus species, Panax notoginseng,Cochinchina momordica, Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Achyranthes bidentata. Many of the saponins have been found to have adjuvant effects on purified protein antigens. The chemical structures of the saponins are related to their adjuvant activities, and influence the nature of the immune responses. Saponin adjuvants have been reported to stimulate secretion of a broad range of cytokines, suggesting that saponins may act by triggering innate immunity. As these plant-originated adjuvants may promote different branches of the immune system, they have the potential to be used in design of new vaccines so as to induce a desired immune response.