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Abstract and Figures

Pink quartz, not to be confused with rose quartz, is an extremely rare color variety, which is completely transparent and is only known from a few occurrences worldwide. It is believed that the pink color is due to small amounts of aluminum and phosphorus that substitute silicon, and exposure of the quartz to natural gamma radiation. Sands with a dominating proportion of pink quartz excavated from the soil and extracted from a breccia layer in the crater strewn field of the Chiemgau meteorite impact suggest that normally colorless quartz sand was irradiated during the impact event and may possibly be found at other impact sites.
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Pink!quartz!-!a!new,!meteorite!impact-related!origin?!
Part!1:!Observations!and!first!hypothesis!of!formation!
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Kord!Ernstson*!(2018)!
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Abstract.!-!Pink!quartz,!not!to!be!confused!with!rose!quartz,!is!an!extremely!rare!color!
variety,!which!is!completely!transparent!and!is!only!known!from!a!few!occurrences!
worldwide.!It!is!believed!that!the!pink!color!is!due!to!small!amounts!of!aluminum!and!
phosphorus!that!substitute!silicon,!and!exposure!of!the!quartz!to!natural!gamma!
radiation.!Sands!with!a!dominating!proportion!of!pink!quartz!excavated!from!the!soil!
and!extracted!from!a!breccia!layer!in!the!crater!strewn!field!of!the!Chiemgau!meteorite!
impact!suggest!that!normally!colorless!quartz!sand!was!irradiated!during!the!impact!
event!and!may!possibly!be!found!at!other!impact!sites.!
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Key+words:!Pink!and!rose!quartz,!Chiemgau!meteorite!impact,!neutron-gamma!radiation!!
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*Faculty!of!Philosophy!I,!University!of!Würzburg,!Germany,!kernstson@ernstson.de!
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1!Introduction!
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Colors!from!ionizing!radiation!is!an!effect!that!occurs!in!many!minerals!as!a!result!of!
natural!and!artificial!exposure.!Well!known!colored!quartz!transparent!crystal!varieties!
are!amethyst,!citrine!and!smoky!quartz.!
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Pink!quartz!crystals!were!first!discovered!in!the!1930's!in!Maine,!USA,!and!later!in!1959!
in!Minas!Gerais!in!Brazil!(Dake,!et!al.!1938,!Akhavan!2005-2013).!In!both!cases!the!pink!
quartz!was!considered!as!common!rose!quartz!that!formed!crystals.!Only!recently!pink!
quartz!crystals!have!been!found!also!in!the!Himalayan!Mountains,!and!pink!quartz!in!
general!!goes!round!in!esoteric!circles!as!so-called!"healing!stones".!
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This!"crystalline!rose!quartz"!raised!the!interest!of!mineralogists!who!found!distinct!
differences!between!pink!quartz!and!common!rose!quartz,!which!is!now!generally!
accepted!(Balitsky!et!al.!1998,!Hori!2001,!Maschmeyer!and!Lehmann!1983,!Rykart!
1995).!In!their!opinion!the!pink!quartz!forms!in!phosphorous-rich!pegmatites!where!
few!silicon!is!replaced!by!phosphorous!and!aluminum,!and!the!color!is!the!result!of!
gamma!ray!radiation!from!uranium,!thorium!and!potassium-40!decay!in!the!rock,!which!
may!affect!existing!trapped-hole!centers.!Exposure!to!sunlight!(UV)!and!heating!above!
200°C!leads!to!discoloration.!
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Here!I!report!on!the!discovery!of!quartz!sands!composed!of!a!dominating!fraction!of!
pink!quartz!grains!that!are!suggested!to!be!related!with!the!meanwhile!established!
Chiemgau!meteorite!impact!in!Bavaria,!Southeast!Germany.!!
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2!!The!Chiemgau!impact!event!
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The!Chiemgau!impact!strewn'field'(Schüssler'et'al.'2005;'Rappenglück'et'al.'2009;'
Ernstson!et!al.!2010,!2012;!B.!Rappenglück!et!al.!2010;!Liritzis!et!al.!2010;!Hiltl!et!al.!
2011)!discovered!in!the!early!new!millennium!and!dated!to!the!Bronze!Age/Celtic!era!
comprises!about!100!rimmed!craters!scattered!in!a!region!of!about!60!km!length!and!ca.!
30!km!width!in!the!very!South-East!of!Germany!(Fig.!1).!The!crater!diameters!range!
between!a!few!meters!and!a!few!hundred!meters,!among!them!Lake!Tüttensee!with!a!
rim-to-rim!diameter!of!about!600!m!and!an!extensive!ejecta!blanket.!SONAR!echo-
sounder!measurements!show!a!striking!structure!at!the!bottom!of!Lake!Chiemsee,!which!
is!completely!untypical!for!the!bottom!of!an!ice-age!lake.!The!structure!measuring!about!
800!m!x!400!m!is!a!doublet!crater!with!a!ring!wall.!Since!the!crater!strewn!field!extends!
beyond!Lake!Chiemsee,!it!is!plausible!that!fragments!of!the!large!meteorite!have!also!
fallen!into!Lake!Chiemsee!and!created!craters!on!the!ground!(Fig.!1).!The!height!of!the!
resulting!tsunami!could!exceed!several!decameters.!Clear!indications!of!such!a!tsunami!
are!provided!by!diamictites!with!pronounced!block!layers!and!cross!bedding,!as!they!can!
be!found!in!various!gravel!pits!on!the!eastern!side!of!Lake!Chiemsee!(Ernstson!2016).!
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Geologically,!the!craters!occur!in!Pleistocene!moraine!and!fluvio-glacial!sediments.!The!
craters!and!surrounding!areas!are!featuring!heavy!deformations!of!the!Quaternary!
cobbles!and!boulders,!abundant!fused!rock!material!such!as!impact!melt!rocks!and!
various!glasses,!strong!shock!metamorphism!(planar!deformation!features![PDFs]!in!
quartz!and!feldspar,!diaplectic!glass!from!quartz!and!feldspar),!geophysical!(gravity,!
geomagnetic,!ground!penetrating!radar)!anomalies!(Ernstson!et!al.!2010;!Neumair!and!
Ernstson!2011,!Rappenglück!et!al.!2017)!and!widespread!impact-induced!rock!
liquefaction!features!(Ernstson!et!al.!2011,!Ernstson!and!Neumair!2011,!Ernstson!and!
Poßekel!2017).!Impact!ejecta!deposits!in!a!catastrophic!mixture!contain!polymictic!
breccias,!shocked!rocks,!melt!rocks,!and!artifacts!from!Neolithic!and!Bronze!Age/Iron!
Age!people!The!impact!is!substantiated!by!the!abundant!occurrence!of!metallic,!glass!
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and!carbonaceous!spherules,!accrecionary!lapilli!and!microtektites!(Ernstson!et!al.!2012,!
2014).!Strange,!probably!meteoritic!matter!in!the!form!of!iron!silicides!like!gupeiite,!
xifengite,!hapkeite,!naquite!and!linzhite,!various!carbides!like,!e.g.,!moissanite!SiC!and!
khamrabaevite!(Ti,V,Fe)C,!and!calcium-aluminum-rich!inclusions!(CAI),!minerals!krotite!
and!dicalcium!dialuminate!(Hiltl!et!al.!2011;!Rappenglück!et!al.!2014)!add!to!the!finds.!
Carbonaceous!spherules!contain!fullerene-like!structures!and!nanodiamonds!that!point!
to!an!impact-related!origin!(Yang!et!al.!2008).$Such$spherules$were$found$embedded$in$
the$fusion$crust$of$cobbles$from$a$crater$as$well$as$a$possible$outfall$in$soils$widespread$
over%Europe%(Rösler%et%al.%2005;%Hoffmann%et%al.%2006;%Yang%et%al.,%2008).%Abundant!finds!
of!glass-like!carbon!fragments!with!pumice!texture,!which!has!been!given!the!name!
chiemite,!contain!the!carbon!allotropes!diamond!and!carbyne!in!a!largely!amorphous!
matrix!of!more!than!90!%!carbon!(Shumilova!et!al.!2018).!A!formation!of!a!direct!
airburst!shock!transformation!of!the!target!vegetation!(wood,!peat)!to!carbon!melt!and!
vapor!in!the!impact!event!is!suggested.!
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Physical)and)archeological)dating)confines)the)impact)event)to)have)happened)most)
!"#$%$&'($)*+)),(-.-//(%,0(1//(2343(56%!!),7&89:()*(%&3(-/;/<(=>">*?>@()*(%&3(-/;/A3(Bhe!
impactor!is!suggested!to!have!been!a!roughly!1,000!m!sized!low-density!disintegrated,!
loosely!bound!asteroid!or!a!disintegrated!comet!in!order!to!account!for!the!extensive!
strewn!field!(Ernstson!et!al.!2010,!Rappenglück!et!al.!2017).!
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Fig.!1.!Location!map!for!the!two!pink!quartz!occurrences!within!the!roughly!elliptically!
encircled!Chiemgau!meteorite!impact!strewn!field.!
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3!The!pink!quartz!places!of!discovery!
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The!pink!quartz!sands!were!discovered!when!soil!and!rock!samples!from!interesting!
impact!locations!were!systematically!examined!for!potentially!impact-related!micro-
particles!like!glass,!metallic!and!carbon!spherules.!Experienced!observers!could!not!
overlook!the!concentration!of!so!many!pink!quartz!grains!(Fig.!2),!especially!when!they!
used!a!strong!magnet!to!separate!the!magnetic!fraction!and!found!that!the!pink!quartz!
grains!could!also!be!separated!by!an!obviously!slightly!enhanced!susceptibility!of!the!
basically!diamagnetic!quartz.!
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The!first!sample!was!excavated!near!the!village!of!Marwang!north!of!the!Lake!Tüttensee!
crater!(Fig.!1)!during!a!campaign!of!recording!magnetic!susceptibility!profiles!of!the!
upper!50!cm!to!!map!a!known!distinct!peak!of!enhanced!magnetic!susceptibility!(Fig.!3),!
which!was!first!measured!in!the!northern!part!of!the!impact!strewn!ellipse!(Hoffmann!et!
al.!2004).!The!Marwang!magnetic!peak!is!connected!to!a!horizon!enriched!with!fractured!
pebbles,!cindery!glass!and!carbonaceous!spherules,!which!is!considered!to!represent!the!
original!directly!impact-affected!Earth!surface.!Here,!an!accumulation!of!pink!quartz!
grains!attracted!attention.!
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Fig.!2.!Typical!magnetic!sand!fraction!with!an!enrichment!of!pink!quartz!grains.!The!dark!
fraction!is!mostly!composed!of!ore!and!amphibolite.!Field!of!view!4!mm.!
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Fig.!3.!Soil!magnetic!susceptibility!profile!with!the!suggested!impact!peak!and!sampling!of!
the!pink!quartz!grains.!
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The second sample comes from the diamictic layer found during the Stöttham archeological
excavation a few hundred meters apart from the shoreline of Lake Chiemsee (Fig. 1). The
several decimeters thick diamictite (Fig. 4) is embedded in colluvium layers and contains
brecciated and heavily corroded clasts, abundant organic material like wood, charcoal,
fractured animal bones and teeth, and intermixed archeological artifacts. High-temperature
signature is characterized by partly melted silica limestone, a typical rock from the Alps, and
sandstone clasts with sporadically interspersed glass. Moderate shock is indicated by an
abundant and strong kink banding of micas in gneiss clasts from the diamictite, and most
recently the author has established strong shock metamorphism in quartz in polymictic
breccias from the horizon. Millimeter-sized glass and tiny carbonaceous spherules were
extracted from the diamictite mud, the pink quartz grains being an important side effect. The
outcrop has in detail been described in Ernstson et al. (2012), and there is no doubt about the
connection with the Chiemgau impact event. The early description as a tsunami deposit (D.
Sudhaus, pers. report) has meanwhile received full support (Ernstson 2016).
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Fig.!4.!The!Stöttham!impact!catastrophic!layer!hosting!pink!quartz!grains.!
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4!Formation!hypothesis!!
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The!hypothesis!of!the!formation!of!pink!quartz!in!the!Chiemgau!impact!strewn!field!is!
based!on!the!original!explanation!of!pink!coloration!by!gamma!irradiation!in!pegmatites,!
in!which!little!quartz!silicon!was!substituted!by!phosphorous!and!aluminum!(see!1!
Introduction).!The!following!sequence!of!processes!could!have!taken!place!in!the!
Chiemgau!impact!event!(Fig.!5):!A!huge!plasma!cloud!in!the!airburst!of!the!comet!or!
asteroid!approaches!the!Earth.!-!Fast!neutrons!from!the!plasma!bombard!the!Earth's!
surface!and!hit!exposed!water-bearing!quartz!sands.!-!!The!fast!neutrons!are!captured!by!
collision!with!hydrogen!nuclei!and!lose!most!of!their!energy!due!to!the!same!mass,!to!
become!slow!or!thermal!neutrons.!-!The!capture!process!is!accompanied!by!the!emission!
of!a!strong!gamma!radiation.!-!The!gamma!radiation!hits!mineralogically!"well!
prepared"!quartz!grains!to!now!obtain!their!pink!color.!-!Immediate!post-impact!
sedimentation!by!probably!enormous!precipitations!prevents!exposure!to!sunlight!and!
discoloration.!!
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So!much!for!a!physical!scenario!of!a!possible!formation!of!the!pink!quartz!grains!in!the!
Chiemgau!impact!strewn!field,!the!significance!of!which!is!discussed!below.!
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Fig.!5.!Model!of!pink!quartz!formation!in!the!Chiemgau!meteorite!impact!event.!See!text.!
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5!Discussion!and!Conclusions!
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The!following!observations!are!fulfilled:!In!the!Chiemgau!impact!crater!strewn!field!
quartz!sands!were!excavated!that!contain!a!certain!amount!of!pink!quartz.!The!grains!
are!as!clear!as!rock!crystal!quartz.!The!pink!grains!are!slightly!enhanced!paramagnetic,!
as!they!can!be!separated!from!normal!grains!with!a!strong!magnet.!This!property!has!
not!yet!been!reported!for!other!pink!quartz.!Originally!surprising!for!the!author,!but!
now!understood!was!the!observation!that!the!pink!color!disappeared!after!the!grains!
were!exposed!to!daylight!for!some!time,!which!has!also!been!reported!for!other!pink!
quartz!(see!1!Introduction).!!
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A!chemical!analysis!of!the!pink!quartz!grains!by!e.g.!SEM!EDS!has!not!been!done!so!far!
and!will!be!performed!when!new!samples!are!available.!The!general!context!with!earlier!
discovered!pink!quartz!(see!above)!is!given,!taking!into!account!the!delivery!area!for!the!
quartz!sands!that!are!the!nearby!Alpine!mountains!where!quartz!pegmatites!and!
phosphorous!mineralization!are!common.!Direct!observations!of!pink!quartz!in!the!Alps!
are!unknown,!and!in!view!of!the!herds!of!mineral!collectors,!the!discovery!of!this!rare!
variety!would!have!been!reported.!On!the!other!hand,!it!cannot!be!ruled!out!that!other!
rare!chemical!elements!that!replace!silicon!may!also!be!susceptible!to!irradiation!pink!
coloring,!which!must!be!checked.!This!also!applies!to!the!slightly!enhanced!magnetic!
susceptibility!of!the!Chiemgau!pink!quartz,!and!a!superparamagnetic!behavior!of!the!in!
principle!diamagnetic!quartz!cannot!be!excluded.!!
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This!reminds!of!an!unusual!observation!in!the!Chiemgau!impact!strewn!field,!namely!the!
occurrence!of!strongly!magnetized!Quaternary!limestone!cobbles!and!boulders!from!the!
Alps,!which!were!excavated,!for!example,!from!the!smaller!Kaltenbach!and!
Mauerkirchen!impact!craters!showing!much!evidence!of!impact!overprint!(Neumair!and!
Ernstson!2011,!Procházka!and!Trojek!2017.!Moreover,!the!limestones,!which!are!
normally!magnetic!sterile,!have!demonstrably!acquired!considerable!ferrimagnetism!
and!associated!superparamagnetism!(Neumair!and!Ernstson!2011,!!Procházka!and!
Kletetschka!2016).!As!the!limestone!cobbles!and!boulders!are!completely!untouched!at!
the!outside,!shock!magnetization!is!considered.!It!can!currently!be!speculated!whether!
superparamagnetism!was!shock-generated!not!only!in!the!otherwise!"nonmagnetic"!
limestones,!but!also!in!the!pink!quartz!grains!with!a!slightly!different!chemistry!than!
"normal"!quartz.!!
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This!does!not!affect!the!irradiation!hypothesis!for!the!pink!coloring!as!related!to!an!
impact!!neutron!bombardment!of!water-bearing!quartz!sands!and!a!secondary!gamma!
radiation!(Fig.!5)!postulated!for!the!other!pink!quartz!occurrences.!!
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A!heavy!neutron!bombardment!during!the!Chiemgau!impact!event!has!been!discussed!
by!us!earlier!when!several!radiocarbon!(14C)!ages!for!deep-seated!(2!-!3!m)!organic!
matter!(bones,!wood)!in!impact!catastrophe!layers!(Lake!Tüttensee!ejecta!layer;!
Ernstson!et!al.!2010)!gave!far!too!high!14C!values!corresponding!to!impossible!medieval!
and!even!today's!ages.!Inconclusive!radiocarbon!ages!are!not!unknown!for!dating!of!
young!impacts!(e.g.,!Rasmussen!et!al.!2000).!In!our!case!an!impact!plasma!neutron!
bombardment!could!have!initiated!what!normally!happens!in!the!atmosphere!to!
produce!the!more!or!less!constant!14C!level!as!the!known!basis!for!the!radiocarbon!
dating.!In!the!atmosphere,!spallation!neutrons!collide!with!nitrogen!14N!nuclei,!which!
leads!to!a!nuclear!reaction!and!production!of!the!radioactive!14C.!Neutrons!that!
bombard!the!Earth's!surface!in!an!impact!event!could!collide!with!14N!isotopes!in!
organic!matter,!and!the!same!reaction!as!in!the!atmosphere!could!occur,!which!produces!
excess!14C!and!today's!too!young!ages.!!
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In!conclusion:!There!is!much!evidence!from!earlier!investigations!in!the!Chiemgau!
impact!strewn!field!that!huge!airbursts!could!have!played!a!major!role!(Ernstson!et!al!
2010,!!Rappenglück!et!al.!2017,!Shumilova!et!al.!2018).!Plasma!formation!has!inevitably!
bombarded!the!earth's!surface!with!strong!neutron!showers.!Fast!neutron!collisions!
with!hydrogen!nuclei!from!water-bearing!quartz!sands!produced!the!gamma!radiation!
for!pink!quartz!coloring,!which!is!considered!to!be!the!cause!for!the!previously!known!
sites!of!pink!quartz.!
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The!next!steps!in!the!investigation!of!the!Chiemgau!pink!quartz!will!be!reported!in!an!
article's!Part!2.!A!systematic!search!for!more!occurrences!is!planned!and,!with!a!positive!
result,!a!documentation!of!their!distribution!in!relation!to!other!impact!features!in!the!
crater!strewn!field!and!possibly!at!places!definitely!outside!the!crater!field.!Pink!quartz!
grain!sizes!will!be!measured,!whereby!a!preferred!sorting!is!checked.!SEM!EDS!analyses!
for!phosphorous,!aluminum!or!other!elements!will!be!performed.!A!test!of!magnetic!
behavior!and!rock-magnetic!properties,!e.g.!for!superparamagnetism,!are!planned.!A!
controlled!observation!of!a!possible!discoloring!in!daylight!may!follow.!
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If!these!or!other!data!are!available,!it!may!be!possible!to!confirm!or!question!the!impact!
neutron-gamma!radiation!hypothesis,!and!a!search!for!pink!quartz!in!other!impact!
structures!may!be!promising.!!
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References!
!
! Akhavan,!A.C.!!http://www.quartzpage.de/pink.html!©!2005-2013!(accessed!July!
31,!2018).! !
! Balitsky,!V.S.,!Makhina,!I.B.,!Prygov,!V.I.,!Mar'in,!A.A.,!Emel'henko,!A.G.,!Fritsch,!E.,!
McClure,!S.F.,!Taijing,!L.,!DeGhionno,!D.,!Koivula,!J.I.,!Shigley,!J.E.!(1998).!Russian!
Synthetic!Pink!Quartz.!Gems!and!Gemology:!34:!34-43.! !
!Bauer,'F.,'Hiltl,'M.,'Rappenglück,'M.A.,'Neumair,'A.,'&'Ernstson,'K.'(2013).'Fe2Si'
(Hapkeite)!from!the!subsoil!in!the!alpine!foreland!(Southeast!Germany):!Is!it!associated!
with!an!impact?!Meteoritics!&!Planetary!Science,!48!(S1)!(76th!Annual!Meeting!of!the!
Meteoritical!Society),!Abstract!#5056.!!
!Dake,!H.C.,!Fleener,!F.L.,!Wilson,!B.H.!(1938).!Quartz!Family!Minerals:!A!Handbook!
for!the!Mineral!Collector,!304!p.,!Whittlesey!House,!McGraw-Hill!Book!Company.!
! Ernstson,!K.!(2016).!Evidence!of!a!meteorite!impact-induced!tsunami!in!lake!
Chiemsee!(Southeast!Germany)!strengthened.!47th!Lunar!and!Planetary!Science!
Conference,!Abstract!#1263.!!
!Ernstson,(K.,(Mayer,(W.,(Neumair,(A.,(Rappenglück,(B.,(Rappenglück,)M.A.,)
Sudhaus,!D.,!&!Zeller,!K.!(2010).!The!Chiemgau!crater!strewn!field:!Evidence!of!a!
Holocene!large!impact!event!in!Southeast!Bavaria,!Germany.!Journal!of!Siberian!Federal!
University!Engineering!&!Technologies,!1/3,!72103.!
!Ernstson,!K.,!Mayer,!W.,!Neumair,!A.,!&!Sudhaus,!D.!(2011).!The!sinkhole!enigma!
in!the!Alpine!Foreland,!Southeast!Germany:!Evidence!of!impact-induced!rock!
liquefaction!processes.!Central!European!Journal!of!Geosciences,!3/4,!385397.!
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!Ernstson,!K.,!Sideris,!C.,!Liritzis,!I.,"&"Neumair,"A."(2012)."The"Chiemgau"meteorite"
impact'signature'of'the'Stöttham'archaeological'site'(Southeast'Germany).'
Mediterranean!Archaeology!and!Archaeometry,!12/2,!249–259.!
!Ernstson,(K.,(Shumilova,(T.(G.,(Isaenko,(S.(I.,(Neumair,(A.,(&(Rappenglück,!M.!A.!
(2013).!From!biomass!to!glassy!carbon!and!carbynes:!Evidence!of!possible!meteorite!
impact!shock!coalification!and!car-!bonization.!Modern!problems!of!theoretical,!
experimental!and!applied!mineralogy!(Yushkin!Memorial!Seminar–2013):!Proceedings!
of!mineralogical!seminar!with!international!participation!(S.!369–371).!Syktyvkar:!IG!
Komi!SC!UB!RAS.!
! Ernstson,!K.,!Hiltl,!M.,!&!Neumair,!A.!(2014).!Microtektite-like!glasses!from!the!
Northern!Calcareous!Alps!(Southeast!Germany):!Evidence!of!a!proximal!impact!ejecta!
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Transparent crystals of facet-grade synthetic pink quartz, produced by hydrothermal growth from a fluoride solution and subsequent treatment, have been commercially available since 1994. The characteristic properties that distinguish this material from its natural counterpart are a tabular crystal morphology with two large, well-developed basal faces; color bands parallel to the basal faces and the seed plate; two-phase inclusions adjacent and perpendicular to the seed plate; and an intense broad band around 3420 cm -1 in the infrared spectrum. Color stability and cause of color in synthetic pink quartz are briefly discussed.
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Ernstson, K., Sideris, C., Liritzis, I., & Neumair, A. (2012). The Chiemgau2017 Fall Meeting, AGU, New Orleans, LA.
Nomenclature of Quartz Color Variation: Pink and Rose
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Hori, H. (2001). Nomenclature of Quartz Color Variation: Pink and Rose.
Meteorite impact on a micrometer scale: Iron silicide, carbide and CAI minerals from the Chiemgau impact event (Germany)
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Calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions in iron silicide (xifengite, gupeiite, hapkeite) matter: Evidence of a cosmic origin. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 48(S1), (76th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society), Abstract #5055. Rappenglück, M. A., Bauer, F., Ernstson, K., & Hiltl, M. (2014). Meteorite impact on a micrometer scale: Iron silicide, carbide and CAI minerals from the Chiemgau impact event (Germany). Proceedings of Problems and Perspectives of Modern Mineralogy (Yushkin Memorial Seminar-2014), Syktyvkar, 106-107. Rappenglück, M.A,., Rappenglück, B. & Ernstson. K. (2017). Kosmische Kollision in der Frühgeschichte. Der Chiemgau-Impakt: Die Erforschung eines bayerischen Meteoritenkrater-Streufelds. Zeitschrift für Anomalistik, 17, 235-260.