Article

Active ageing in europe: Adding healthy life to years

Authors:
  • università per stranieri "Dante Alighieri" di Reggio Calabria
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Abstract

The European Union (EU) is a conglomerate of more than 500 million people, 19.2% (approximately 100 million) of whom are older adults (1). The ageing population is triggering dramatic demographic, epidemiological, and anthropological changes, highlighting the importance of active and healthy ageing (AHA). In Europe, the most common household type is single occupancy (33.4% of the total number of households) (2). This household type also recorded the highest increase from 2005 to 2015 (3). These findings highlight several questions from both an individual and public perspective. Who will take care of the current generation as we become older? What types of health and social organisations should we develop to preserve the quality of life of an ageing population and sustain our health care systems over the medium and long term? Supporting AHA is one answer to these questions: an AHA population is a resource that benefits all of society. Maintaining a healthy ageing population may also lower demands for health care services. In addition, in many cases, older adults in good health are able to support their fellow generation and represent a strength dedicated to the common well-being. ©2018 Liotta, Canhao, Cenko, Cutini, Vellone, Illario, Kardas, Poscia, Sousa, Palombi and Marazzi.

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Akılcı olmayan ilaç kullanımları, hem dünyada hem de ülkemizde toplum sağlığını etkileyen önemli bir sorundur. Yaşlılarda da ilaç kullanımın fazla olması, ilaç kullanımıyla ilgili sorunları beraberinde getirmektedir. Bu çalışma Bayburt ilinde huzurevinde yaşayan yaşlı bireylerin akılcı ilaç kullanım durumlarının belirlenmesi amacıyla tanımlayıcı olarak yapıldı. Çalışma evrenini Bayburt’ta faaliyet yürüten Memnuse Evsen Huzurevi Yaşlı Bakım ve Rehabilitasyon Merkezi’nde yaşayan yaşlı bireyler oluşturdu. Çalışmada örneklem seçimine gidilmeyip tüm evrene ulaşılmaya çalışıldı. Çalışmaya gönüllülük usülü ile dahil olan, iletişim kurmayla ilgili ağır engeli bulunmayan, genel durumu stabil olan 28 yaşlı birey alındı. Veri toplama aracı olarak kişisel bilgi formu ve Akılcı İlaç Kullanımı Ölçeği (AİKÖ) kullanıldı. Veriler 15-22 Şubat 2022 tarihleri arasında araştırmacılar tarafından yaşlılarla yüz yüze görüşme tekniğiyle toplandı. Veriler IBM SPSS 25 paket programda analiz edildi. İstatistiksel anlamlılık düzeyi p<0,05 olarak kabul edildi. Çalışmada Mann Whitney U testi ve Kruskal Wallis testi kullanılarak istatistiksel analiz yapıldı. Tanımlayıcı istatistikler sayı ve % olarak verildi. Yaşlı bireylerin %39,3’ünün 60-74 yaş arası, %60,7’sinin erkek, %46,4’ünün bekar, %53,6’sının ilköğretim mezunu ve üstü olduğu bulundu. Yaşlı bireylerin %57,1’i şuandaki sağlık durumunu ne iyi ne kötü olarak değerlendirdi. Yaşlı bireylerin %28,5’inin hipertansiyonu olduğu, %89,3’ünün ilaçlarını düzenli kullandığı ve ilaçlarını almayı unutmadığı saptandı. Yaşlı bireylerin %75’inin doktora muayene olmadan eczaneden ilaç almadığı, %92,9’unun komşuların/yakınların tavsiyesiyle ilaç kullanmadığı, %10,7’sinin komşuların/yakınların tavsiye ettiği ilacı doktordan reçete etmesini talep ettiği belirlendi. Yaşlı bireylerin günde en fazla 11 ilaç kullandığı ve günlük ilaç kullanım miktarının ortalama 2,21±2,11 olduğu bulundu. AİKÖ toplam puan ortalaması 57,57±7,75 olduğu bulundu. Cinsiyet ve eğitim durumu ile AİKÖ puanı arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı fark bulunmadı (p>0,05). Yaş gruplarıyla AİKÖ puanı arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı fark bulundu (H=7,595, p=0,022). Sonuç olarak huzurevinde yaşayan yaşlı bireylerin akılcı ilaç kullanım düzeylerinin ortalamanın üzerinde olduğu ve genç yaşlı bireylerde ileri yaşlı bireyelere göre akılcı ilaç kullanım düzeylerinin daha iyi olduğu söylenebilir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Akılcı İlaç Kullanımı, Huzurevi, Yaşlı Birey
Conference Paper
Akılcı olmayan ilaç kullanımları, hem dünyada hem de ülkemizde toplum sağlığını etkileyen önemli bir sorundur. Yaşlılarda da ilaç kullanımın fazla olması, ilaç kullanımıyla ilgili sorunları beraberinde getirmektedir. Bu çalışma Bayburt ilinde huzurevinde yaşayan yaşlı bireylerin akılcı ilaç kullanım durumlarının belirlenmesi amacıyla tanımlayıcı olarak yapıldı. Çalışma evrenini Bayburt’ta faaliyet yürüten Memnuse Evsen Huzurevi Yaşlı Bakım ve Rehabilitasyon Merkezi’nde yaşayan yaşlı bireyler oluşturdu. Çalışmada örneklem seçimine gidilmeyip tüm evrene ulaşılmaya çalışıldı. Çalışmaya gönüllülük usülü ile dahil olan, iletişim kurmayla ilgili ağır engeli bulunmayan, genel durumu stabil olan 28 yaşlı birey alındı. Veri toplama aracı olarak kişisel bilgi formu ve Akılcı İlaç Kullanımı Ölçeği (AİKÖ) kullanıldı. Veriler 15-22 Şubat 2022 tarihleri arasında araştırmacılar tarafından yaşlılarla yüz yüze görüşme tekniğiyle toplandı. Veriler IBM SPSS 25 paket programda analiz edildi. İstatistiksel anlamlılık düzeyi p<0,05 olarak kabul edildi. Çalışmada Mann Whitney U testi ve Kruskal Wallis testi kullanılarak istatistiksel analiz yapıldı. Tanımlayıcı istatistikler sayı ve % olarak verildi. Yaşlı bireylerin %39,3’ünün 60-74 yaş arası, %60,7’sinin erkek, %46,4’ünün bekar, %53,6’sının ilköğretim mezunu ve üstü olduğu bulundu. Yaşlı bireylerin %57,1’i şuandaki sağlık durumunu ne iyi ne kötü olarak değerlendirdi. Yaşlı bireylerin %28,5’inin hipertansiyonu olduğu, %89,3’ünün ilaçlarını düzenli kullandığı ve ilaçlarını almayı unutmadığı saptandı. Yaşlı bireylerin %75’inin doktora muayene olmadan eczaneden ilaç almadığı, %92,9’unun komşuların/yakınların tavsiyesiyle ilaç kullanmadığı, %10,7’sinin komşuların/yakınların tavsiye ettiği ilacı doktordan reçete etmesini talep ettiği belirlendi. Yaşlı bireylerin günde en fazla 11 ilaç kullandığı ve günlük ilaç kullanım miktarının ortalama 2,21±2,11 olduğu bulundu. AİKÖ toplam puan ortalaması 57,57±7,75 olduğu bulundu. Cinsiyet ve eğitim durumu ile AİKÖ puanı arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı fark bulunmadı (p>0,05). Yaş gruplarıyla AİKÖ puanı arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı fark bulundu (H=7,595, p=0,022). Sonuç olarak huzurevinde yaşayan yaşlı bireylerin akılcı ilaç kullanım düzeylerinin ortalamanın üzerinde olduğu ve genç yaşlı bireylerde ileri yaşlı bireyelere göre akılcı ilaç kullanım düzeylerinin daha iyi olduğu söylenebilir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Akılcı İlaç Kullanımı, Huzurevi, Yaşlı Birey
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A tanulmány célja áttekintést nyújtani a diádikus megközelítésű vizsgálatok jellemzőiről és módszertani sajátosságairól, valamint bemutatni a diádikus kutatások jelentőségét a szociális munka kutatásokban. Annak ellenére, hogy a szociális munka gyakorlata során gyakran dolgozunk diádokkal, illetve a szociális munkás és a szolgáltatást igénybevevő közötti kapcsolat is egy diádikus viszony, a kutatásoknak csak elenyésző része használ diádikus elemzési eszközöket. Egy adott jelenséget, a kapcsolat jellemzőit, egy szituációt többféleképp érzékelhetnek, értelmezhetnek és kommunikálhatnak mások felé az érintett felek. A főnök másként látja egy adott feladat fontosságát, sürgősségét, mint a beosztott; a szülő szerint más okok állnak a gyermek iskolai verekedése mögött, mint a verekedő (vagy megvert) gyermek szerint; a férj szerint leggyakrabban az anyagi ügyek miatt vitatkoznak, a feleség szerint viszont a barátokkal kapcsolatos konfliktusok a gyakoribbak. Könnyen belátható, hogy ha egy kapcsolatot, vagy olyan jelenséget szeretnénk vizsgálni, amiben többen érintettek, nem elegendő csak az egyik fél perspektíváját megismerni.
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