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Die Einbürgerung der Spätblühenden Traubenkirsche (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) in Mitteleuropa

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... Black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) is a deciduous tree native to a vast area of eastern North America (Fowells 1965). As the largest cherry tree of the United States (Marquis 1990), it was introduced into Europe in the 17th century (Wein 1930(Wein , 1931Starfinger 1990) via France (Eijsackers andOldenkamp 1976, in Muys et al. 1992) with the intention of producing timber of high commercial value (e.g., see Hough 1953;Baillieux et al. 1977). Its slow growth and poorly formed stems have mainly disappointed foresters. ...
... Its slow growth and poorly formed stems have mainly disappointed foresters. It was also planted to improve soil quality and for fire prevention in vulnerable pine stands (Starfinger 1990;Van Den Meersschaut and Lust 1997). Today, black cherry is not only an exotic species in Europe (Kowarik 2010) but its ability to displace other species (Spaeth et al. 1994) and to dominate the understory and suppress the regeneration of native species (Verheyen et al. 2007) can lead to a shift in vegetation composition (Starfinger 1991) that alters forest succession (Starfinger et al. 2003). ...
... We do not know of any success control studies and experiments on the influence of mechanical control measures on black cherry in riparian forest ecosystems. Experience with felling black cherry has, however, been made in France (e.g., Closset-Kopp et al. 2007;Chabrerie et al. 2010), Belgium (e.g., Lemmens and Van Tol 1977;Jager and Oosterbaan 1979;Muys et al. 1992), and Germany (e.g., Starfinger 1990;Brehm 2004;Münte 2009). So far, felling black cherry has not proven to be very effective. ...
Article
We assessed the effectiveness of different management strategies against the non-native invasive tree species black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.). The species causes substantial management problems in European forest ecosystems, like the Valle del Ticino Biosphere Reserve in Italy, by suppressing the regeneration of native tree species. This can modify ecological key processes and cause biodiversity loss. Since chemical and biological control has mainly been abandoned in European forest ecosystem management, mechanical control measures are presently the preferred option to proceed against the black cherry but have shown very limited results in the reserve. The aim was to control the success of felling the species and to test other mechanical control methods such as girdling and snapping the trees with regard to their efficiency by quantifying the species' growth reactions. For this purpose, observational studies were conducted in two forest stands of which one was treated in 1996 and the other more recently in 2009. A subsample of resprouting stumps was treated a second time in 2010 to observe the effect of a direct second cutback. An experimental study was implemented in a third forest stand also in 2010 to compare three different mechanical control methods. The results suggest that felling black cherry is ineffective if the objective is to reduce the species' abundance because resprouts occur on 100% of the treated trees and biomass increment is not reduced in the long term. Girdling proved to be the most effective treatment across the diameter classes considered.
... Soon, however, it was reported that the growth form on these poor soils was usually insufficient for the production of valuable timber (Schwappach 1907). Most of the individuals of P. serotina found in Germany today are shrubs or small trees of poor timber value (Starfinger 1990(Starfinger , 1997. Whether this is due to genetic or environmental factors, remains to be studied. ...
... In pine forests, dense P. serotina thickets often alternate abruptly with zones without any individuals or with only a few spontaneous individuals. According to several authors this indicates more a past planting pattern rather than a dispersal pattern due to the species' 'aggressive invasiveness' (van den Tweel and Eijsackers 1987;Starfinger 1990;Seidling 1993). When the history of individual stands can be traced back, it reveals that most of them originated from plantings. ...
... Within forests, P. serotina spreads much more slowly than in open agro-ecosystems with hedges (Kowarik 1995). The reason for this difference is the earlier and heavier fruit production of black cherry in Pine-oak forest Starfinger (1990) The year of the initial planting of P. serotina was known from historical evidence for locations 1-5. The distance from this planting to cherry regeneration was measured. ...
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Prunus serotina, a forest tree of North American origin, was introduced to central Europe and planted for various purposes. In the course of the centuries it was regarded as a valuable timber tree by European foresters; subsequently, as a useful non-timber species in forestry, a forest pest, a controllable weed and, eventually, as a species we have to live with. All these perceived qualities served as motives for action by humans without seeking scientific evidence for them: millions of specimens of P. serotina were planted, later millions of euros were spent in attempts at control. The species, and its changing perception through time, may be an example of the need for science-based assessments as a basis for developing policies concerning non-native plants.
... After being widely cultivated in forests for improving soil quality and for fire prevention around pine plantations, the species became invasive and received for a long time the name of ''wood pest'' (Leclercq, 1960). In Germany, the species was still planted in the 1980s (Starfinger, 1990b). In Belgium and The Netherlands, the planting of this species for forestry applications stopped around 1950, but its synanthropic distribution is still increasing, so that the extent of the problem is not yet fully realised (Maddelein, 1990). ...
... It mainly grows on sandy soil (Haeupler and Schönfelder, 1988), but the species can also germinate and establish on a wide range of other soil types (peaty to sandy) in many different plant communities (Starfinger, 1990a;Waterinckx, 2001). In Berlin, the species mainly develops in Quercion robori-petraeae communities, particularly in stands of the Pino-Quercetum petraeae association (Starfinger, 1990b). In Belgium the massive development of P. serotina in pine (Pinus nigra and Pinus sylvestris) plantations seems to be due to its successful establishment strategy, in combination with anthropogenic influence (soil disturbance and eutrophication) (e.g. ...
... In its synanthropic range, P. serotina has been studied for the consequences of its spread in different countries such as Germany (Starfinger, 1990a(Starfinger, , 1990b(Starfinger, , 1991, The Netherlands (Eijsackers and Oldenkamp, 1976;Eijsackers and van den Ham, 1984;Eijsackers, 1990;Farjon, 1986) or Italy (Sartori, 1988). In Belgium, most studies of P. serotina concern management techniques focused on the control of this invasive species (Maddelein, 1990;Versteynen, 1991;Muys et al., 1992;Muys and Maddelein, 1993;Van den Meersschant, 1996). ...
Article
The relation between invasion success of Prunus serotina and type of recipient habitat was studied in a large forest in central Belgium. The major emphasis in this study was the determination of factors controlling the abundance of P. serotina in understory strata. Environmental variables measured in 34 sample plots were slope, aspect, litter depth, soil type, pH, soil compaction, soil moisture, air humidity, soil temperature and light intensity in spring and late summer. Site conditions were also expressed indirectly for 210 sample plots using Ellenberg indicator values (soil nutrients, acidity, moisture, light conditions). Plots with P. serotina had lower mean indicator values for soil moisture, reaction (pH) and nitrogen, compared to plots without P. serotina. Twenty indicator species were identified for plots in which P. serotina occurs. The species richness of the herb layer was negatively correlated with the percentage cover of black cherry in the shrub layer. The percentage cover of P. serotina saplings in different overstory types was ranked as follows: Quercus > Pinus > Fagus > logging areas. Only three variables explained significant amounts of variation in Prunus abundance: slope, light intensity at 120 cm in April and light intensity at ground level in September. We found a positive response of black cherry seedlings to light intensity between 58 and 80% of full light (April measurements at 120 cm), while saplings showed a negative response within this range. Between 21 and 47% of full light (April measurements at 120 cm), seedlings were poorly represented whereas saplings showed a quite high cover. Between 0.3 and 1.8% light (September measurements at ground level), seedlings were almost absent while saplings maintained a high abundance. The results suggest that P. serotina shows a differential response to light intensity in relation to its development stage, i.e. the species is heliophilous at the seedling stage and becomes a shade plant at the sapling stage.
... It is the first scientific attempt to assess the impact of P. serotina on forest phytocenoses in Poland. Integration of the moss stratum into the floristic data differentiates out our analyses from the previous work carried out in other European countries (Chabrerie et al., 2008(Chabrerie et al., , 2010Godefroid et al., 2005;Nováková, 2008;Starfinger, 1990). Aggregations of these plants are considerably influenced by habitat conditions. ...
... Honnay et al. (1999), as well as Verheyen et al. (2007), studying the mixed forests of northern Belgium, identified a negative relationship between the extent of P. serotina expansion and the number of the coincident herb and shrub layer species. The work of German and Czech scientists (Starfinger, 1990;Starfinger et al., 2003;Nováková, 2008) confirm that this type of relationship does indeed exist. Negative correlation between black cherry cover and the number of plant species was also found in French forest after an analysis of a single set of invaded plots (Chabrerie et al., 2007a). ...
... It seems likely, though, that some allelopathic properties of a neophyte may play a role in its invasion (Callaway and Ridenour, 2004;Hierro and Callaway, 2003). Starfinger (1990) observes, with respect to P. serotina, that the secretion of allelopathic chemicals into the soil by numerous young seedlings puts them in an advantageous position compared to the other coincident species, which become stunted in their growth and development. ...
... Die nordamerikanischen Goldruten (Solidago canadensis und S. gigantea) werden vor allem auf für den Artenschutz bedeutsamen Ruderal-und Brachflächen als problematisch eingestuft . Die Spätblühende Traubenkirsche Prunus serotina gilt als die Hauptproblemart in Forsten (Starfinger 1990). ...
... 1994). Unter günstigen Bedingungen kommt sie schon nach 7-10 Jahren zur Fruchtbildung, in der Regel aber erst nach 20 Jahren (Starfinger 1990). Die Früchte werden von zahlreichen Vögeln und Säugetieren gefressen, wodurch die Samen über größere Entfernungen transportiert werden. ...
... Die Samen bleiben bis zu vier Jahren keimfähig, die Keimungsrate ist aber im ersten Jahr am höchsten. Die Jungpflanzen können lange im Kümmerwuchs verharren, bevor sie bei entsprechenden Wuchsbedingungen zur Baumschicht aufwachsen (Starfinger 1990). ...
... Dlatego te¿ pod drzewami na skrajach lasu obserwuje siê najwiêksz¹ liczebnooeae przyjmuj¹cych siê siewek czeremchy amerykañskiej (Deckers et al. 2005). Nasiona rozsiewane przez zwierzêta kie³kuj¹ nawet w odleg³ooeci do 600 m od owocuj¹cej rooeliny macierzystej (Starfinger 1990;Kowarik 1995). Badania prowadzone na terenie Niemiec wykazuj¹, ¿e zdolnooeae rozsiewania wydaje siê byae ograniczona do mniej ni¿ 1 km w ci¹gu 40 lat (Starfinger et al. 2003). ...
... Zacienienie takiego banku siewek dodatkowo polepsza warunki kie³kowania kolejnych nasion poprzez utrzymywanie sta³ego poziomu wilgotnooeci (Mulligan, Mundro 1981;Marquis 1990). Zaledwie 10% oewiat³a dziennego do-cieraj¹cego do dna lasu wystarczy, aby z banku siewek utworzyae zwart¹ warstwê podszytu czeremchy amerykañskiej (Starfinger 1990). ...
... Starfinger et al. (2003) oraz Vanhellemont et al. (2009) podkreoelaj¹, ¿e wykorzystanie potencja³u inwazyjnego Prunus serotina zale¿y od kondycji samych zbiorowisk rooelinnych. W fitocenozach leoenych podatnych na zmiany, wraz z up³ywem czasu i zwiêkszaj¹cym siê nasileniem wystêpowania czeremchy amerykañskiej ulega zmniejszeniu bogactwo gatunkowe runa (Starfinger 1990;Verheyen et al. 2007). Zauwa¿alny jest wieloetapowy, d³ugotrwa³y wp³yw czeremchy amerykañskiej na przemiany zasiedlonych zbiorowisk rooelinnych, co przyczyni³o siê do okreoelenia tego gatunku mianem in¿yniera ekosystemu (ecosystem engineer) (Cuddington, Hastings 2004). ...
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Przyczyny i skutki inwazji czeremchy amerykañskiej Prunus serotina w ekosystemach leoenych The reasons underlying the invasion of forest communities by black cherry, Prunus serotina and its subsequent consequences Abstract. Alien plant invasions result from a complex interaction between the traits of introduced species and the properties of recipient ecosystems. The traits of Prunus serotina together with its undemanding habitat requirements have allowed it to spread easily over continental Europe. In particular, P. serotina is capable of acclimating to a wide range of light environments while maintaining a positive carbon balance and growth rate. It also produces chemical compounds with allelopathic activity. Furthermore, P. serotina has a high reproductive capacity through both sexual and vegetative reproduction, and its fruits and seeds are effectively dispersed by birds and mammals. The paper reviews the multi-stage changes in species composition, structure and dynamics of recipient communities, in forest phytocenoses vulnerable to neophyte invasion.
... Tot voor kort gingen de meeste auteurs uit van een negatieve invloed van de vogelkers op de biodiversiteit in bosecosystemen, meestal beperkt tot de flora in de kruidlaag (Bakker 1963a;Starfinger 1990). Recenter literatuur sluit hier meer aan bij de praktijkervaring dat de vegetatie onder vogelkers sterk overeenkomt met vergelijkbare schaduwdruk en vochtconcurrentie onder andere boom-en struiksoorten (Starfinger e.a. ...
... In het Klever Wald werd de Vogelkers pas in de jaren zeventig geïntroduceerd. 7 In de jaren tachtig vond nog aanplant plaats in Sleeswijk-Holstein, in Hessen, in Oost-Duitsland en in Beieren langs autosnelwegen (Starfinger 1990). ...
... Vegetatiekundigen namen de vogelkers als een gewone soort in hun onderzoek mee (Leys 1964 Of zoals Starfinger het uitdrukt: 'Stellingname voor of tegen de acceptatie van de vogelkers wordt meer bepaald door politieke keuzen dan door ecologische argumenten' (Starfinger 1990). ...
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The introduction of black cherry (Prunus serotina) in northwest Europe has been driven in three main periods from different social needs. From 1623 the emphasis was on the aesthetic value. Late nineteenth century, the growing need for wood started dominating. From the first world war on intensive use by reforestation started. In each of these periods the tree species met the expectations. With the completion of reforestation, it lost its social utility and, nicknamed ‘forest pest’, eradication campaigns started. It seems that this narrow focus lengthy blocked research into the species and that objective assessments of its properties are still difficult to find.
... serotina was mainly planted in windbreaks and hedges surrounding fields (Hans Erik Svart pers comm). The species has also been planted along highways until the 1980s, e.g., in Germany (Starfinger 1990). The dream of producing high-quality P. serotina timber is still vivid, e.g., in Germany (Haag & Wilhelm 1998) and Turkey (Esen et al. 2007). ...
... In its native range, it has been classified as an opportunistic, fast-growing tree species with enough shade tolerance to persist in lower canopy positions (Sutherland et al. 2000). It is a typical gap-phase species that can regenerate in forest understories but needs more light for further growth (Auclair & Cottam 1971, Starfinger 1990, Closset-Kopp et al. 2007. ...
... Individual P. serotina trees produce some seeds nearly every year (Fowells 1965). Good seed crops occur at intervals of 1-5 years across the native range (Marquis 1990), and fruit production varied between years in a forest in Germany (Starfinger 1990) and central Belgium (Pairon et al. 2006a). In addition, flower and fruit production are affected by the age and size of the tree and the growing conditions (Starfinger 1990). ...
Article
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Prunus serotina, a North American tree species, is considered one of the 100 worst invaders in Europe. Although an increasing number of studies has focused on P. serotina in Europe, several aspects of the species have remained unstudied. Moreover, most studies focused on heavily invaded areas. We wanted to gain insight into the radial growth and the spatiotemporal variation in the regeneration of P. serotina in forest understories, the patterns of long-term spontaneous P. serotina colonization in areas where the species had not been introduced intentionally, and long-term forest development with P. serotina. Prunus serotina growth and regeneration were studied in seven Pinus sylvestris stands in Flanders. Growth was reduced by 50 % compared to growth in full light conditions and was related to tree age and diameter and competition with neighbouring trees. The seedling bank with high densities of seedlings smaller than 20 cm and up to 6 years old stabilized the erratic early regeneration of P. serotina. We also reconstructed the P. serotina invasion for a pine forest in the Netherlands and a deciduous forest in Flanders that had not been managed for over 60 years and were located in areas with an initially low propagule pressure of P. serotina. Long-distance dispersal events and windows of opportunity triggered the P. serotina invasion. Further colonization was directed by connectivity to seed sources and light availability. The presence of native shrub species, dense herb layers, and quick canopy closure seemed to hamper further P. serotina establishment while high herbivore densities may have favoured P. serotina over native species such as Quercus robur. We used the model SORTIE-ND to simulate 500 years of forest development for a pine forest with P. serotina. The output suggested that if Q. robur was able to regenerate, the longer lifespan of Q. robur may enable the species to become dominant over P. serotina. With this thesis, we demonstrated that the invasiveness of a species depends on the characteristics of the invaded ecosystem and that models of forest development such as SORTIE-ND can be useful to simulate the future role of invasive tree species in forests.
... Different varieties have been distinguished (Fowells 1965), the one imported in Europe probably being the variety serotina, but not of the Allegheny provenance (Wallis de Vries 1987). Black cherry was imported in Europe between 1620 and 1630 (Booth 1894, Borrmann 1988, Starfinger 1990) via France (Eijsackers & Oldenkamp 1976). Nowadays, a tree with a worse reputation can probably not be found in Western Europe (Maddelein 1990) : this woody weed has completely overgrown the substorey of thousands of hectares of pine forest on poor sandy soils (Starfinger 1990). ...
... Black cherry was imported in Europe between 1620 and 1630 (Booth 1894, Borrmann 1988, Starfinger 1990) via France (Eijsackers & Oldenkamp 1976). Nowadays, a tree with a worse reputation can probably not be found in Western Europe (Maddelein 1990) : this woody weed has completely overgrown the substorey of thousands of hectares of pine forest on poor sandy soils (Starfinger 1990). Its vigorous canopy almost prevents regeneration of any species but itself. ...
... Nowadays, black cherry is still used for forestry purposes in eastern-European countries, e.g. in Poland (Eijsackers & Oldenkamp 1976). In western-Europa, it is still planted along highways (Starfinger 1990, Martens 1991) and recreational infrastructures (Stichting Kritisch Bosbeheer 1983). Very remarkable is the fact that up til now, the dream of producing ever high quality timber of black cherry never completely disappeared. ...
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Black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), a tree native of North America, was introduced in Europe in the 17th century and applied as a forest tree from the end of the 19th century onwards. It was expected to produce valuable timber, even on poor sandy soils, but it seldom did. Until the fifties, it was massively underplanted in Scots pine (Pinus silvestris L.) stands where it was believed to ameliorate the soil. Nowadays, as a consequence of its offensive reproduction strategy and important atmospheric ammonia immissions, black cherry has completely overgrown the substorey of thousands of hectares of Scots pine forest in Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands, preventing regeneration of any species but itself. Some ecological, silvicultural and forest political aspects of this issue are presented and discussed. This paper shows that the soil ameliorating properties of black cherry are doubtful and suggests that it might be an important competitor of the timber crop for nutrients and water. Furthermore, it illustrates that the abundance of black cherry forces silviculture to maintain an everlasting age class system with clearcutting and very costful black cherry combat operations (mechanical or/and chemical) during each regeneration period. It finally states that the present forest policy in Belgium, that made the option to reconvert the first generation pine stands into mixed and more uneven aged stands, only can be realized with an efficient control of black cherry. In that respect, an integrated black cherry management plan issuing a total prohibition of planting and trade, an obligatory control of seed trees in public forests and a subsidized combat in private forests, is proposed in this paper.
... Für die Betrachtung der Phase von Dormanzbrechung und Keimung ist der Begriff der Schutzstelle ('safe site') nützlich: Ein Same muss das "Umweltsieb" ('environmental sieve'), welches sich aus für eine Keimung günstigen und ungünstigen Stellen zusammensetzt, "passieren", um keimen zu können (Harper 1977 (Starfinger 1990). Impatiens parviflora aus Mittelasien benötigt zur Aufhebung der Dormanz tiefe Temperaturen (mindestens 0°C, jedoch nicht viel tiefer). ...
... Eine ander Möglichkeit bei Konkurrenz um Licht zeigt Heracleum mantegazzianum; diese Art breitet schon sehr früh im Jahr ihre großen Grundblätter aus und verhindert dadurch die Ansiedlung bzw. das Wachstum anderer Arten (Caffrey 1994, Pyšek 1991 (Starfinger 1990), Rhododendron ponticum in Nord Wales (Gritten 1995) und Alliaria petiolata in den Wäldern Kanadas und der USA (Vaughn & Berhow 1999). Auch Modellierungen lassen vermuten, dass Alellopathie ganz entscheidend sein kann für den Invasionserfolg einer Art (Goslee et al. 2001 (Child & Wade 1999). ...
... Ein besonderer Fall passiver Konkurrenzstärke ist die sog. Oskar-Strategie: Jungpflanzen der gebietsfremden Gehölze Robinia pseudoacacia und Prunus serotina sind in der Lage, im Schatten der Baumkronen fast ohne Höhenwachstum zu überdauern, bis sich durch eine Lücke in der Baumschicht eine Möglichkeit für sie ergibt, zu wachsen (Kowarik 1990b, Starfinger 1990). In ähnlicher Weise ist es Bunias orientalis möglich, mit Hilfe phänotypischer Plastizität der Rosette unter Konkurrenz zu überdauern und bei Abnahme des Konkurrenzdrucks rasch zu reagieren (Dietz et al. 1999 • Fähigkeit zur Besiedlung von Standorten mit sehr unterschiedlichen abiotischen Bedingungen (breite ökologische Amplitude bezüglich der erforderlichen Konditionalfaktoren und benötigten Ressourcen) ...
... Jahrhunderts vor allem für forstliche Zwecke zahlreich gepflanzt worden ist (Sinner 1926, von Wendorff 1956. Heute zählt sie zu den regelmäßig bekämpften, problematischsten Neophyten in den Niederlanden, Belgien und auch in Deutschland (Borrmann 1988, Starfinger 1990, Muys et al. 1992, Schepker 1998, Olsthoorn & van Hees 2001, Kowarik 2001. P. serotina steht daher für einen Neophyten, an dessen Nutzen zahlreiche, mit der Zeit wechselnde und immer wieder enttäuschte Erwartungen geknüpft worden sind. ...
... Auf diese Weise wurden allein in Niedersachen mehrere Tausend Hektar mit einer Kombination von P. serotina und Kiefer oder Lärche als forstlicher Zielbauart bepflanzt (Starfinger et al. in press). Von reihenweisen Pflanzungen an Innen-und Außenrändern von Nadelholzforsten erhoffte man sich zudem eine positive Wirkung von P. serotina als Feuerschutzgehölz (Starfinger 1990). Mögliche positive Effekte wurden jedoch durch forstbetriebliche Probleme infolge der starken Naturverjüngung und nachfolgenden Bildung von Dominanz-Beständen innerhalb der Forsten wahrscheinlich mehr als kompensiert. ...
... In diesen Bereichen ist die Krautschicht durch Avenella flexuosa und Calamagrostis epigejos geprägt. Auffallend ist die deutliche räumliche Begrenzung der Dominanzbestände von P. serotina, die auch in anderen Untersuchungen festgestellt worden ist (Starfinger 1990, Seidling 1993, Schulte & Schulze 1994, Schepker 1998; "Ausbreitungsfronten"). ...
... Jahrhunderts vor allem für forstliche Zwecke zahlreich gepflanzt worden ist (Sinner 1926, von Wendorff 1956. Heute zählt sie zu den regelmäßig bekämpften, problematischsten Neophyten in den Niederlanden, Belgien und auch in Deutschland (Borrmann 1988, Starfinger 1990, Muys et al. 1992, Schepker 1998, Olsthoorn & van Hees 2001, Kowarik 2001. P. serotina steht daher für einen Neophyten, an dessen Nutzen zahlreiche, mit der Zeit wechselnde und immer wieder enttäuschte Erwartungen geknüpft worden sind. ...
... Auf diese Weise wurden allein in Niedersachen mehrere Tausend Hektar mit einer Kombination von P. serotina und Kiefer oder Lärche als forstlicher Zielbauart bepflanzt (Starfinger et al. in press). Von reihenweisen Pflanzungen an Innen-und Außenrändern von Nadelholzforsten erhoffte man sich zudem eine positive Wirkung von P. serotina als Feuerschutzgehölz (Starfinger 1990). Mögliche positive Effekte wurden jedoch durch forstbetriebliche Probleme infolge der starken Naturverjüngung und nachfolgenden Bildung von Dominanz-Beständen innerhalb der Forsten wahrscheinlich mehr als kompensiert. ...
... In diesen Bereichen ist die Krautschicht durch Avenella flexuosa und Calamagrostis epigejos geprägt. Auffallend ist die deutliche räumliche Begrenzung der Dominanzbestände von P. serotina, die auch in anderen Untersuchungen festgestellt worden ist (Starfinger 1990, Seidling 1993, Schulte & Schulze 1994, Schepker 1998; "Ausbreitungsfronten"). ...
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Impacts of alien plant species on ecosystems are often assumed without clear scientific evidence. This is true for Prunus serotina in pine forests on acid soils. The species is said to oust native understory vegetation, to influence the growth of canopy trees, and to improve the soil. The results of this study confirm the negative effects of P. serotina on the herb-layer of pine forests. Because of the deep shadow in dominant stands of P. serotina, there is a considerable reduction in the number of species in the herbaceous layer, also preventing the regeneration of native broad- leaved tree species. On the other hand, P. serotina has neither positive nor negative effects on the growth of the pine trees as shown by a comparison of the annual shoot increments and the basal area stands with and without P. serotina. Also, no evidence was found for an improvement of soil quality by Prunus serotina in pine plantations, which is often claimed to exist. On the contrary, despite higher nitrogen contents in the organic soil layers under P. serotina, it seems that 1. the availability of nitrogen in the ecosystem is not improved and 2. the availability of basic cations is even decreased by a deep reaching soil acidification.
... Eine detaillierte Zusammenfassung über die Erfahrungen mit der Spätblühenden Traubenkirsche Anfang des 20. Jahrhunderts vermitteln Sinner (1926) und Starfinger (1990). Demnach gab es vier Hauptgründe für den großflächigen Anbau von P. serotina als sog. ...
... Phartyal et al. (2009) Die unter einem dichten Kronendach gekeimten Schösslinge entwickeln eine "sit-and-wait"-Strategie (auch "Oskar-Strategie") und nehmen kaum an Höhe zu (< 0,06 mm pro Jahr, Auclair 1975, Closset-Kopp et al. 2007). Zudem sind sie in der Lage, bei einer Lichtversorgung von nur 10 % mehrere Vegetationsperioden zu überleben (Starfinger 1990). Kommt es zu einer Störung durch menschliche oder natürliche Einflüsse und das Kronendach wird durchbrochen, beginnen die Sämlinge rasch zu wachsen (Höhenwachstum > 56 cm pro Jahr) und besetzen die entstandene Lücke (Closset-Kopp et al. 2007). ...
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Eine nachhaltige, multifunktionale Forstwirtschaft hat den Anspruch, Wälder so zu pflegen und zu nutzen, dass deren Produktivität, Verjüngungsfähigkeit, Vitalität und biologische Vielfalt erhalten bleiben. In der Vergangenheit hat sich gezeigt, dass weder im Kielwasser der Rohholzerzeugung noch in jenem des Naturschutzes alle Waldfunktionen angemessen erfüllt werden. Die Integration eingeführter Baumarten in einen Waldbau auf ökologischen Grundlagen erfordert daher Kompromisse, die sich auf der Basis wissenschaftlicher Erkenntnisse in der Regel auch finden lassen. Konkret bedeutet dies, dass der Anbau nicht invasiver eingeführter Baumarten in gewissem Umfang vom Naturschutz ebenso akzeptiert wird, wie seitens der Forstwirtschaft naturschutzfachliche Interessen berücksichtigt werden, indem bei ihrem Anbau auf eine räumliche Ordnung geachtet wird und bestehende Vorkommen invasiver Baumarten zurückgedrängt werden. Ziel dieser Ausarbeitung ist es vor diesem Hintergrund, die Potenziale und Risiken von 15 eingeführten Baumarten auf der Grundlage wissenschaftlicher Literatur und langjähriger Forschungsarbeiten auf Versuchsflächen der verschiedenen Forschungseinrichtungen und Anbauflächen der Forstbetriebe aufzuzeigen, um die zwischen Naturschutz und Forstwirtschaft aufgekommene Diskussion zu versachlichen.
... positive association with total basal area in Table 2) and later life stages need more light. Certain researchers indeed have found long-lived seedling banks of P. serotina to exist (Marquis, 1990;Starfinger, 1990), but increased illumination was stated to be essential for further development. However, Canham et al. (1999) found relatively little effect of light level on 2-year-old P. serotina seedling size, growth rate, biomass allocation, or survival, and in the study of Godefroid et al. (2005) seedlings needed more light (58-80% of full light) than saplings (21-47% of full light). ...
... Although the mean species richness tended to be similar in plots with or without P. serotina, species richness did decrease with increasing P. serotina abundance. Likewise, Vanderhoeven et al. (2005) found a non-significant difference in total species numbers in non-invaded vs. invaded plots, while Starfinger (1990) and Honnay et al. (1999) found the abundance of P. serotina to be negatively correlated with species richness. ...
Article
The design of cost-efficient control strategies for invasive species that are too widespread and abundant for complete eradication, at least in the short term, will benefit from a rigorous analysis of invasion patterns and associated effects on native biodiversity. In this paper, the case of the invasive North American tree Prunus serotina in Flanders (Belgium) is presented. Our main objectives were to determine the susceptibility of forest stands to invasion by P. serotina and the subsequent effects of invasion on the understorey community. We used the large database of the first Flemish Forest Inventory. Multiple logistic regressions indicated that P. serotina occurred more frequently in privately owned, younger forest on coarse-textured, dry soils (podzols), and the combination of these factors allowed us to correctly predict presence/absence of P. serotina in 70% of the validation plots. However, locational variables proved to be important as well, indicating that the invasion process is still ongoing. Prediction of P. serotina densities by means of multiple linear regressions was less successful. Effects on the understorey richness were analysed by comparing the number of species and the mean Ellenberg values between pairs of plots, only differing by the presence of P. serotina in the shrub layer. A reduction of the understorey richness following invasion was only pronounced on the more moist soils, while compositional changes mainly occurred on drier soils. It is concluded that priority for control should be given to landscapes with a low fraction of invaded stands and to forest stands located on more moist soils. However, using its potential to threaten native biodiversity as an argument for control should be done with care as further research is needed whether the observed negative effects are due to a species (i.e. native vs. non-native) or a density effect (high vs. low).
... As many authors claim, fruits with seeds inside can be produced by black cherry individuals at the age of 10-15 (Bellon et al. 1977, Marquis 1990, Rutkowski et al. 2002, Jaworski 2011, but it greatly depends on the amount of available light. The age of first seed production could be even 4 -7 years in areas with high light availability (Deckers et al. 2005, Halarewicz 2011a), 20 years in forest understories (Starfinger 1990). If light requirements are taken under consideration, at the seedling stage shade is favorable and desirable (Godefroid et al. 2005). ...
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American black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) is an alien invasive tree species, which currently can be found in large numbers in many ecosystems in Poland. It grows relatively fast, reproduces very easily and occupies ecological niches of some native tree species. The main objective of this study was to estimate the number and basic biometric traits, such as height and diameter, of young black cherries growing on abandoned farmland in different light conditions. Ten square (1 0 × 1 0 m) sample plots were marked under the canopy of Scots pine small pole stand originating from afforestation. Another ten sample plots were marked in the open area of abandoned farmland covered mostly by herbaceous plants, located in the close vicinity to the stand. The two sites are the part of Zielonka Forest (52°33' N, 1 7°06' E), situated in west-central Poland. All black cherries growing in each of the twenty sample plots were counted and their height and diameter was measured. In case of the sample plots located inside the pine stand also light measurements were performed, to estimate light availability under the canopy of the stand. Simultaneously light was measured in the open area as the reference and expressed as photosynthetic photon flux (PPF). Our results indicate that number of black cherries growing under the canopy of the pine stand was significantly higher than those growing in the open space. Number of black cherries in the stand was negatively correlated with number of pines forming the stand’s main canopy, but at the same time we found no correlation between the amount of sunlight inside the stand and number of black cherries. Black cherries growing in the open area were higher and thicker than the ones growing under the canopy of the pine stand, but differences in height and diameter between these two groups were relatively small.
... The species is regarded as a more dangerous threat to the park's biodiversity than R. pseudoacacia, because of its ability to significantly reduce species numbers (e.g. Starfinger 1990Starfinger , 1997Schepker 1998;Verheyen et al. 2007;Caronni 2009), which could cause a shift in species composition away from the native species (Spaeth et al. 1994). The analysis of the soil seed bank showed that P. serotina is present in the seed bank on plots where it can be found in the tree layer. ...
Article
Soil seed banks are the ecological memory of plant communities and might represent their regeneration potential. This study examines the soil seed bank in hardwood floodplain forests of the biosphere reserve “Valle del Ticino” (Northern Italy) to find out whether the natural forest vegetation can potentially be restored by the soil seed bank. We compared near natural forests of the phytosociological association Polygonato multiflori–Quercetum roboris with stands dominated by the nonnative tree species Robinia pseudoacacia and Prunus serotina in order to investigate whether the composition of the soil seed bank is significantly influenced by the composition of the main canopy tree species and soil properties. Soil seed bank samples were taken from 20 randomly selected plots in stands that were differentiated into four groups related to the dominant forest canopy species. The germinated plants were counted and their species determined. A total of 2,427 plants belonging to 84 species were recorded. The composition of the dominant tree species and soil parameters significantly influence the composition of the seed bank. The similarity with the standing vegetation was very low. Only 13% of the species in the soil seed bank represent the target vegetation. The low percentage of target species and the high percentage of nonnative species imply that the regeneration of near-natural forest vegetation from the soil seed bank is not feasible. Consequently, disturbances that may activate the soil seed bank should be minimized. Thus, we recommend stopping the mechanical removal of the nonnative tree species in the Ticino Park.
... Among the undesirable results are: the change in structure in the layers of forest vegetation, the suppression of forest-floor vegetation and prevention of the natural rejuvenation of native woody plants. Thc higher density of Prunus serotina at the shrub and tree levels leads to fewer species at the herbaceous level (STARFINGER, 1989). ...
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Nearly half a millenium ago, Columbus' journey to North America initiated a biological process of worldwide significance: It ended to geographical isolation of organisms lacking the oeans to cross the dividing seas, organisms that had evolved in separate worlds for thousands of years and were integrated in their different ecological systems. Global trade and travel mixed the flora of areas that had been isolated from one another. This transfer of non-native species into completely new ecological systems is analog to releasing genetically engineered organisms into the environment. Both processes involve crossing barriers impenetrable by natural means: genetic barriers bctween species und geni as weIl as those preventing dissemination bctween continents. The source of the 'new' species resulting from said release or introduction is not of the same order (in the one case a strange continent, in the other a laboratory), although this cannot be said of the possible 'surprise effect' on the environment inherent in both instances. The possibility of predicting the reaction of 'new species' and the response of their environment is still limited. A time-lag of some decades (or even centuries in sorne cases) may exist between the release and the spontaneous spread. Meanwhile, the site conditions determining the behaviour of the released species could have been changed by external causes. As a consequence of this ecolagical perspective, it is necessary to minimize the risk of releases. If it is not possible to stop releases, the control mechanisms must be in place over lang periods of time.
... Unter anderen Gesellschaftsnamen finden sich jedoch auch schon bei HUECK (1925 u. 1929) sowie bei STEFFEN (1931) Vegetationsaufnahmen des von der Moorbirke dominierten Moorwaldes. HUECK( u. 1931( ) und LIBBERT (1933 unterscheiden sowohl für den Moorbirken-als auch für den Kiefern-Moorwald ein junges, bodennasses an O x y c o c c o -S p h a g n e t e a -A r t e n reiches und ein O x y c o c c o -S p h a g n et e a -A r t e n armes älteres und trockeneres Sukzessionsstadium. Insbesondere die jungen Sukzessionsstadien des Moorbirken-und Kiefern-Moorwaldes unterscheiden sich nach HUECK (1925) nur durch die Baumschicht. ...
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The present study deals with vegetation analyses of swamp forests, moorland, forests as well as bog-myrtle scrubs of the natural regions 'Niederrheinische Sandplatten' and 'Bergische Heideterrassen' and their syntaxonomical divisions. The study is focused on the impact of disturbances in syntaxa Sphagno palustre- and Carici elongatae-Alnetum glutinosae, Vaccinio uliginosi-Betuletum pubescentis and Myricetum gale. Different degrees of impairment are pointed out by comparison of moorlands near the conurbation metropolitan regions in the western part of Ruhr area in the centre of both natural regions to the northern and southern adjacent rural regions. Basis for the phytosociological classification and the elaboration of interference patterns are 1766 relevés (179 by the author, 213 previous covering the study area and 1374 supra-regional from literature). The succession processes, caused or modified by negative impact is the study focus. Based on current and previous relevés of the studied area from 1953 until 1985, the present status and the former successive processes are presented. General changes in plant communities have been traced back to the beginnings of the phytosociological research by comparison of relevés from the studied area with available previous relevés from central Europe in the 1920th until the 1940thdecades. Besides the chronological comparison the current relevés were also compared with those from other natural regions of Germany and thus spatially placed in a larger context. Based on the assumption that nutrient and water balance conditions are the key factors shaping the plant communities of the examined azonal vegetation types, the consideration of the succession processes focused on these ecologically relevant species. These include all species that characterize the nutrient and water balance of the site in a special way. As bryophyte species react often much more sensitive to environmental changes, their suitability is used as an indicator to explain the complex cause-effect structure, emerging in the vegetation pattern. Until now, however, the value for nitrogen (nitrogen number) has been missing for such environmental analysis in the list of the values for moss species (DÜLL 2001). According to the specifications of ELLENBERG et al. (2001) a nitrogen indicator value number was developed and applied in the present study. After evaluation of all proposed concepts in literature, alder carrs and swamp forests (Alnion glutinosae) are subdivided primarily by criteria of nutrient balance. A classification on association level based mainly by criteria of water balance and chorology is rejected. Both, the Sphagno palustris-Alnetum glutinosae (peatmoss alder carrs) and the Carici elongatae-Alnetum glutinosae (sedge alder carrs) are found in the investigated natural regions. The widespread nutrient-poor sands and gravels as the source material of the soil development in the investigation area assume that the Sphagno palustris-Alnetum glutinosae, with few exceptions, would be the natural alder carr community. According to the characterizing features of the nutrient and water balance for the differential species this community can be divided in 5 different near-natural or degraded associations. The sedge alder forest of the study area is a heterogenic complex and can be divided in 4 variants and a monostructural stadium of Carex acutiformis. Compared with previous investigations it is shown that wetness indicator species disappear especially from nutrient-poor sites, that nitrogen indicator species increase, and that alien plant species such as Impatiens glandulifera immigrate. In addition, some of the sedge alder carrs characterized forests show a development from former peatmoss alder carrs. Formerly sharp boundaries between the two communities gradually disappear and also the synsystematic dependency of species is more difficult to detect. Examples of such leveling are Polytrichum commune, which show a close synsystematical linking to the peatmoss alder carrs in the relevés of the 1920th to 1940th decades, and Carex elongata, which was only found in sedge alder carrs. Nowadays the peat moss Sphagnum squarrosum is much less frequently found in alder carrs than in former times. However, it can be assumed that a number of peat moss species in the past has been wrongly determinated as Sphagnum squarrosum. Not only Sphagnum palustre (as previously assumed) can form ecadic modifications with right angles recurved branch leaves (S. palustre mod. squarrosulum), that are confused with the similar Sphagnum squarrosum. Compared to recent conditions S. squarrosum was possibly also rare in alder carrs and swamp forests previously. Using the principle of the formation of species-specific identification method, both the young and older successional stages dominated by Betula pubescens are treated as downy birch swamp forests (Vaccinio-Betuletum pubescentis) in the present paper. The autonomy of swamp forests due to characteristic species adapted to oligotrophic sites and a preliminary summary of all swamp forest types in a separate class (WAGNER & WAGNER 2000) are recognized. Also the downy birch swamp forest implies structurally and floristically diversity and is divided into 7 variants that are perceived as young and older successional stages and more or less degraded vegetation, according to an ecological gradient, which also reflects the level of impairment. The discernible stronger degradation of the vegetation nowadays can be recognized, besides the increase in nitrogen indicator species of drier sites, in particular by the higher abundance of Molinia caerulea and Dryopteris carthusiana. Concerning mosses Sphagnum denticulatumoccurs as an indicator species of interference, which in the present study is considered as a characteristic species of the Sphagnum-alder carrs. Among the invasive alien plant species growing in downy birch swamp forests in particular Carex brizoides and Prunus serotina are mentioned, which can obtain high abundances. Regional floristic differences in the species composition of the Vaccinio-Betuletum pubescentis are particularly evident in the differential characteristic groups of species on nutrient-poor sites. Many of these species, adapted to extremely low nutrient sites, are found only in the relevés outside the agglomeration area and illustrate the significantly lower impact by eutrophication in these rural areas. The Myricetum gale, which in the study area can only be found in the southern heathland, is structurally and floristically heterogeneous and can be divided into 4 variants. The temporal comparison shows for the Myricetum gale in the study area in particular the displacement of eutrophication moos species by vascular plants. In the analysis of the site conditions through indicator species, the Myricetum gale is compared to the Vaccinio-Betuletum pubescentis a society of nutritious poorer locations. Older investigations found as nutrient indicators only the bryophytes Brachythecium rutabulum, Eurhynchium praelongum and Lophocolea bidentata, but today there are also vascular plants like Dryopteris dilatata and Phragmites australis. In Myricetum gale the high frequency of degraded stocks also outside the study area is noticeable, which highlights the particular sensitivity of this community to perturbances. Disproportionately often the subassociation 'peucedanetosum', named by WEBER (1998), occurs. The numerous outlines of site impairment concerning this subtype as mentioned in the subject literature contribute to the suggestion that it seems to be an anthropogenic community. According to investigation results of the present study a differentiation of subassociations is not followed, but a subdivision into different variants in concordance with the nutrient and maturity gradient. Regarding the associations Vaccinio uliginosi-Betuletum and Myricetum gale not only a deprivation of species, but also an increase of species from wet and low-nutrient habitats is recognized. This positive tendency of stock development is an obvious result of maintenance measures in the investigation area. In supra-regional comparison of the investigated syntaxa to recent relevés from all over Germany it is pointed out that the phenomenon of advanced succession of stocks is not locally occurring, but also present in other regions. Apart from the natural connection of wet and swamp forests, anthropogenic impairment as drainage and eutrophication lead to a decrease or extinction of syntaxonomic relevant species – or occurrences of not typical species which cause problems in recognition of units. The evaluation of floristic data comprises 218 vascular plant species and 99 bryophytic species with present occurrences in swamp forest, moorland forest and wet heath vegetation, additionally 35 vascular plants and 17 bryophytes that are disappeared by now. The species inventory in the investigation area was formerly documented by old floras, dating back to the end of the 18th century. Therefore the floristic changes in moorland, swamp forest and wet heath vegetation could be reconstructed. Negative influences are not a recent phenomenon, they already lead to a decrease of species 170 years ago (OLIGSCHLÄGER 1837). In the framework of the present investigations not only the decrease of typical moorland species, especially among the bryophytes, was detected. A number of typical moorland bryophytes were discovered or rediscovered: Mylaanomala (Gartroper Busch), Sphagnummagellanicum (Hemmings-Schlinke, Gartroper Busch), Cephalozia macrostachya (Gartroper Busch), Sphagnum warnstorfii und Sphagnum molle (Ohligser Heide, FUCHS & SONNENBURG 2009), Odontoschisma sphagni (Hildener Heide) etc. The highest species numbers are situated in the Duisburg-Mülheimer Wald area in the centre of the investigation area. But high species diversity is only assessed positively concerning the typical swamp and moorland forest species. With increasing proximity to agglomeration, the number of not biotope typical and neo- and industriophytic species increases. Compared to the neophytic proportion of the total flora, the part of non-native species in moorland and swamp forest and wet heath vegetation is relatively low. This illustrates that the investigated vegetation under wet and nutrient-low conditions forms a high barrier for immigration of neophytes. The most frequent perturbation indicator vascular plant species are Athyrium filix-femina, Dryopteris dilatata, Oxalis acetosella, Pteridium aquilinum and Rubus idaeus. Important bryophytic perturbation indicators are Plagiomnium affine, Calliergonella cuspidata, Sphagnum denticulatum, Brachythecium rutabulum and Eurhynchium praelongum. The neo- and industriophytic species inventory of the vegetation in the investigation area includes 15 tree and shrub species and 8 herbs. Unlike with tree and shrub species, which mainly immigrated from neighbouring forests in the moorland and swamp forest and wet heath areas, the non-native herbs are predominantly escaped from cultivation or garden waste. The most remarkable recent occurrences from garden escapes include the North American species Lysichiton americanus and Onoclea sensibilis. Their establishment in a swamp forest relict and a spring mire indicates an agriophytic persistence in near-natural habitats (FUCHS et al. 2003, FUCHS & KEIL 2004). Campylopus flexuosus is the only non-native bryophyte in the moorland and swamp forests. Disturbances in the bryophytic flora are therefore not caused by non-native species, but by increase of number and abundance of native but not biotope typical species. This process is enhanced by dry hammock sites. Increased dehydration leads to nitrification and subsequently to an enrichment of vascular plants, while bryophytes decrease. Overall it appears that in the investigation area the moorland and swamp forest and the wet heath vegetation were destroyed except of a few relicts by different causes in a period of less than 200 years. In a first stage the moor areas were destructed by land use intensification from agriculture, settlement building and industry, but the causes of present impairment are more complex, as there are influences of substance discharges by immissions, small-sized drainages within forest and water management measures and leisure activity. Conurbation sources of impairment are caused by urban settlement, industry and in particular by mining, while in the rural regions the impairment sources are mainly forestry, agriculture and gravel quarrying. Impairment sources from water management, traffic and recreation show no significant spatial differences. In sum of reasons the moorland and swamp forests near conurbation areas are more affected than those in rural regions. Nearly all recognized perturbance based processes in the studied communities directly or indirectly depend on interventions in nutrient and water balance. Processes in intra- and interspecific competition, soil alterations and the resulting transformations of communities can be distinguished. Regional dissimilarities are caused by different level and different duration of interventions. In rural regions first stages of drainage and eutrophication of an oligotrophic moor can be observed, while those processes are completed in the conurbation area. Other processes, triggered after long periods of impairment of nutrient and water balance, are noticed only or predominantly in the Duisburg-Mülheimer Wald area. For all investigated vegetation units the patchwork of habitats consisting of hummocks and hollows is common. Therefore disturbances as eutrophication and drainage within a single vegetation unit vary over time before being noticed. While drainage affects the hummock sites faster, the influences of eutrophication affect first the hollows. The total of all influences of perturbances leads to partly irreversible transformation processes in plant communities.
... A higher number of Q. rubra individuals in a forest patch and the closer Q. rubra canopy is associated with a greater reduction of resident plants, regardless of whether it occurs in the shrub layer or in the overstory. A shade which is too deep, created by a close overstorey of broadleaf trees, may also negatively affect shade-tolerant species [70] and complicate the natural restocking of trees [71], including invasive species like P. serotina [72,73] (cf: [74,75]) The increase of broadleaf tree density in coniferous forests may also result in the withdrawal of acidophilus vascular plant species as a result of changes in soil conditions [76][77][78]. However, no studies presently assess the impact of QR on the soil parameters. ...
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Some alien woody species used in commercial forestry become invasive and, as invaders, cause major problems in natural and semi-natural ecosystems. However, the deliberate introduction of aliens can bring unintended negative changes also within areas of their cultivation. This paper presents the effects of the intentional introduction of the North-American Quercus rubra in European mixed Scots pine-Pedunculate oak forests (POFs): Querco roboris-Pinetum (W. Mat. 1981) J. Mat. 1988. Phytosociological data from field research combined with GIS data analysis of the current distribution of Northern Red oak in the studied habitat were used to determine the composition and structure of forest communities in plots with and without Q. rubra participation. The results show that Q. rubra significantly reduces native species richness and abundance, both in old-growth and in secondary (post-agricultural) forests. Not one resident vascular plant benefits from the introduction of Northern Red oak and only a few are able to tolerate its co-occurrence. The natural restocking of all native woody species is also strongly limited by this alien tree. The introduction of Northern Red oak significantly limits the environmental functions of the POF ecosystem and weakens its economic and social aspects. However, its further cultivation is justified from an economic point of view, as the essential function of the studied forests is commercial timber production, and the introduction of this fast growing alien tree supports the provisioning ecosystem services. A clear description of the level of trade-off between the accepted negative and positive effects of the introduction of Q. rubra on forest ecosystem services requires further interdisciplinary studies.
... Die Verbreitung der Diasporen erfolgt vor allem endozoochor durch Rotwild, Nager oder Vögel (Hough 1960). Bei einem Kronenschlussgrad von 50-70 % bieten sich für die Etablierung der Baumart optimale Bedingungen (Marquis 1979 (Starfinger 1990). Die Kombination dieser beiden Strategietypen sichert P. serotina einen deutlichen Wachstumsvorsprung in der Naturverjüngung und macht sie somit äußerst konkurrenzstark gegenüber anderen Baumarten. ...
... Prunus serotina Ehrh., a North American tree species, was introduced into Europe in the 17th century and planted widely, mainly in the understory of pine forests, during the first half of the 20th century (Starfinger et al., 2003). The species successfully colonized new areas, became locally abundant, and has been reported to affect biodiversity, influence abiotic site conditions, and alter the succession of invaded ecosystems in Western and Central Europe (Chabrerie et al., 2008(Chabrerie et al., , 2010Godefroid et al., 2005;Starfinger, 1990;Verheyen et al., 2007). Despite many intensive and costly control programs (Starfinger et al., 2003), the species has continued to spread (Klotz, 2009). ...
Article
Invasive species may escape the enemies from their native range (‘enemy release’), but they can also acquire new enemies in their introduced range, which will affect the invasion process. For the invasive tree species Prunus serotina, seed predation by the native weevil Furcipus rectirostris has been reported in forests in its introduced range. In this study, we quantified how common the infestation of P. serotina seeds by F. rectirostris is in a 4000 km2 area in northern Belgium. Seeds were sampled on P. serotina trees in different habitats and in two years, i.e., with low and high P. serotina fruit production. Infestation was found throughout the study region, in 43 and 62% of the sampled trees in the two years of the study; the maximum infestation levels of infested seed samples were 50 and 69%. Overall, predation occurred in 4.4 and 10.8% of the sampled seeds. The level of infestation differed between habitats and years, and the number of fruits per raceme was inversely related to the infestation level. Notwithstanding the rather high incidence of F. rectirostris infestation in our study, the impact on P. serotina's invasiveness might remain low seeing the overall high seed production and dispersal capacity of the species.
... Although repeated seedling recruitment is reported from other clonal woody plants (Populus spp.: Rood et al. 1994;Acer circinatum: O'Dea et al. 1995), in many clonal invaders seedling recruitment is of minor importance for the local dynamics (Ailanthus altissima in closed forests: Kowarik 1995; Carpobrotus edulis: D'Antonio 1993; Calamagrostis canescens: Soukupova 1992; Solidago altissima: Meyer and Schmid 1992). The high seedling density in M. aquifolium populations is rather comparable to non-clonal woody invaders (Prunus serotina : Starfinger 1990; Acer negundo: Sachse 1992; Lonicera maackii: Luken and Goessling 1995). Why is seedling recruitment so common in M. aquifolium? ...
Article
The clonal shrub, Mahonia aquifolium, is an aggressive invader of some forests in central Germany. We analysed the importance of seedling recruitment for the local dynamics of these invasive populations. In contrast to many other clonal plants, repeated seedling recruitment takes place in M. aquifolium, contributing to the colonization of available space within populations. Thus, sexual reproduction is not only important for dispersal to new sites but also for the local invasion␣process. In situations with grass competition (Calamagrostis epigejos) the number of successful recruits is reduced, and clonal growth is the predominant mode of reproduction. Since seedling recruitment results in an increasing number of genets as well as ramets, the investigated populations are still below their carrying capacities. Seedling densities are higher beneath the canopy of adults than outside adult patches, and increase with increasing cover of adult ramets. The spatially clumped pattern of seedling emergence results in density-dependent mortality especially in the most crowded seedling clusters. However, adult neighbourhood imposes a much higher mortality. Therefore, we expect that the importance of seedling recruitment for the dynamics of local M. aquifolium populations will decline as the invasion process continues.
... Conversely, we did not consider the allelopathic action of P. serotina (Starfinger 1990(Starfinger , 2010Csiszàr et al. 2012) as a determinant driver of our assemblages' modification. We studied early stages of the invasion, in which density of P. serotina was very low (0.27 plant/m 2 in Calluna heaths and 0.09 plant/m 2 in Molinia meadows) compared to severely invaded forest (Closset-Kopp et al. 2007) potentially subjected to high level release of allelochemical compounds. ...
Article
Prunus serotina is one of the worst invasive alien plants throughout Europe, able to rapidly replace autochthonous vegetation and form monospecific stands both in open lands and forested areas. Invasion by shrubs and trees due to abandonment of traditional management practices, is one of the major threats to the conservation of “European dry heaths”, a priority habitat included in the Council Directive 92/43/EEC. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of P. serotina invasion on heathland vegetation in terms of species composition and cover, with special regards to the dominant Calluna vulgaris and Molinia arundinacea, in an area of North-Western Italy subjected to massive invasion by this alien species. We collected data on the plant cover along an invasion gradient in 10 linear transects running from P. serotina invaded stands towards non invaded ones. P. serotina differently affected the heathland vegetation. In particular, the cover of C. vulgaris and other typical heathland species such as Cytisus scoparius sharply decreased at P. serotina cover increasing. On the contrary, positive or no effect of P. serotina cover was found on M. arundinacea. Our results showed that shaded conditions created by the alien tree disfavored light demanding C. vulgaris and C. scoparius, enabling fast grower M. arundinacea to outcompete and replace them. This study emphasizes the urgency to develop management strategies to effectively control P. serotina spread in the area and to restore typical heathland species.
... Black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) is native to eastern North America (Marquis 1990) and was introduced to Europe as one of the first North American tree species (Starfinger et al. 2003). It was planted for producing high value timber, to improve the quality of nutrient-poor soils, as wind break, and for fire prevention (Van den Tweel and Eijsackers 1987, Starfinger 1990, Van den Meersschaut and Lust 1997). When the species began to spread rapidly and spontaneously , control measures were conducted, which were mainly unsuccessful. ...
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Black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) is considered to be an invasive species in different European ecosystems, like open land habitats and woodlands. In the study area, the ‘Valle del Ticino’ biosphere reserve (northern Italy), the species has established, since it reproduces and spreads. Its ability to dominate the understory of forests hampers the regeneration of native species. This can cause a shift in species composition, possibly lead to a loss of biodiversity, and modify ecological key processes. After being felled, P. serotina resprouts intensively, which makes it complicated to get rid of the species. The resprouting ability, however, is also an indication for the species’ biomass potential. This potential could be used, without surrendering to the objective of reducing the abundance of the species in the long run. The aim of this paper was to analyse different management options to derive recommendations for the future management of the species. The options were evaluated in terms of economic profitability and environmental compatibility. For this purpose, a stand development model was applied to simulate the P. serotina growth over a time period of 50 years. The results show that there are promising strategies, which are effective in reducing the abundance of P. serotina and could result in positive revenues for the land owners. The findings suggest only felling trees of larger diameter at breast height and not treating thinner trees. However, intensive harvesting approaches are to be avoided. They are not only quite laborious, but could also lead to a substantial nutrient depletion of the soils in the study area, which might affect the sustainable productivity of the forest. Furthermore, it can also be assumed that the resulting intensive disturbances and canopy openings would be conducive for the pioneer characteristics of P. serotina, which would indirectly again promote the species.
... It is the only species of its genus that provides lumber for commerce and is therefore one of the appreciated cabinet woods (Hough 1960). According to Starfinger (1990), Black cherry was introduced to Europe in the first half of the seventeenth century firstly as an ornamental plant in parks and gardens, later on with the aim to produce high-grade wood. However, the high expectations were not met since Black cherry in Europe forms most often shrubs or stems with heights significantly shorter compared to the original stands and it provides only low-quality lumber (Schröcker et al. 2013). ...
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The overall aim of this study was to provide comprehensive durability characteristics of wood species underutilized but frequently occurring in Central and Northern Europe: Common juniper (Juniperus communis L.), Black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), English yew (Taxus baccata L.), and Rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.). Decay resistance was tested against white and brown rot causing basidiomycetes and soft rot causing micro-fungi in terrestrial microcosms. Their wetting ability was determined in terms of capillary water uptake at the end-grain, the liquid water uptake during submersion, the water vapor uptake at high humidity, and the water release during drying. All tests were performed with unleached and leached specimens. Durability classes were assigned based on results from the different tests. Juniper and Yew were classified very durable (Durability class DC 1); Black cherry and Rowan were found to be less durable (DC 3–5). Leaching did not affect the durability classification significantly. Durability characteristics were completed with different indicators for the wetting ability of the four wood species. The combined effect of wetting ability and inherent decay resistance was considered for service life modeling based on a resistance model using dose–response relationships between material climate (dose) and fungal decay above ground (response).
... Az észak-amerikai származású kései meggy (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) Európa szerte elterjedt inváziós fafaj, jelentősebb állományai hazánkon kívül Németországban és Belgiumban találhatók, főként tápanyagszegény homoktalajokon (Starfinger 1990, 1997, Muys & Maddelein 1992, Kowarik 2010. Hazánkban számos termőhelyen, valamint különböző élőhelyeken, kultúrerdőktől a természetközeli élőhelyeken át megjelenik, előfordulásának súlypontja azonban a homokvidékekre tehető (Nyírség, Kiskunság, Belső-Somogy). ...
... Insgesamt übersteigt zum heutigen Zeitpunkt die Anzahl nichteinheimischer Gehölzarten die Zahl der in Deutschland einheimischen um das 16fache (Kowarik 2003). Von den Pflanzenarten, die vom Menschen in ein neues Gebiet eingeführt wurden, ist nur relativ wenigen eine Etablierung gelungen (Starfinger 1990). Und wiederum ein sehr geringer Anteil der etablierten gebietsfremden Arten wird im Sinne des Naturschutzes zum Problemfall (BfN 2005). ...
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Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Analyse von Invasionsbiologie und ökologischem Verhalten sowie der Etablierung der gebietsfremden Baumart Fraxinus pennsylvanica in den Auenwäldern der mittleren Elbe (Sachsen-Anhalt). Fraxinus pennsylvanica wurde im 18. Jahrhundert aus NO-Amerika nach Europa und auch Deutschland eingeführt. Die Baumart hat heute im Untersuchungsgebiet in Waldflächen auf Auenstandorten einen Flächenanteil von 21,4 %. Aufgrund der hohen Stetigkeiten und einer fortschreitenden Ausbreitung von Fraxinus pennsylvanica ist eine Bedrohung der standortstypischen Zusammensetzung der Hartholzauenwälder nicht auszuschließen und stellt vor allem für Bereiche mit Prozessschutz ein Risiko dar. Anhand ausgewählter Entwicklungsstadien der Baumart beschreibt die vorliegende Arbeit das Ausbreitungs- und Etablierungsverhalten von Fraxinus pennsylvanica und hat das Ziel, die zu erwartende mögliche weitere Ausbreitung im naturschutzfachlichen Rahmen des Untersuchungsgebietes zu analysieren und zu bewerten. Die Arbeit gliedert sich in Untersuchungen zu anemochorer und hydrochorer Diasporenausbreitung, zum Keimungs-verhalten und zur Dormanz der Samen sowie zum Vorkommen der Verjüngung auf Standorten des Hartholzauenwaldes. Die Untersuchungen zur Invasionsbiologie und zum ökologischen Verhalten von Fraxinus pennsylvanica wollen einen Beitrag leisten, die bisherigen Wissenslücken zur gebietsfremden Baumart im neuen Areal zu schließen und Grundlagen sowie Anregungen für ein sinnvolles Managementkonzept liefern.
... Beispielsweise wurde bis in die 1990er Jahre in beiden Teilen Deutschlands die Pflanzung der Späten Traubenkirsche (Prunus serotina) zur Bodenverbesserung gefördert und die Art in der privaten wie auch staatlichen Forstwirtschaft aktiv verwendet. Da die Pflanzen schon nach sechs Jahren im Freistand reichlich fruchten können und in Mitteleuropa viele Vögel vorkommen, die diese Steinfrüchte gern fressen, wird die Späte Traubenkirsche durch Ornithochorie effektiv regional ausgebreitet und findet in lichten Wäldern, Gebüschen und Saumstrukturen optimale Entwicklungsbedingungen (Starfinger 1990, Rode et al. 2002. Im Beispiel von Schulte & Schulze (in Kowarik 1995) konnte fast die Hälfte der Jungpflanzen der ersten Generation in mehr als 200 m Entfernung von der Pflanzung angetroffen werden, aber nach 41 Jahren nur fast die Hälfte der Pflanzen in mehr als 600 m Entfernung. ...
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Zusammenfassung: Frank, D. (2018): Die Lorbeerkirsche (Prunus laurocerasus L.) - ein oft gepflanzter Zierstrauch mit invasivem Potential. - Mitt. florist. Kart. Sachsen-Anhalt (Halle) 23: 27-39. Kultivare der Lorbeerkirsche (Prunus laurocerasus) gehören seit wenigen Jahrzehnten zu den beliebtesten Sträuchern für die Gartengestaltung. Die Steinfrüchte, die jährlich in großer Zahl gebildet werden, sind auch im mitteleuropäischen Klima in der Lage zu keimen. Im Schutz von Bodendeckern oder an geschützten Standorten bildet sich eine Sämlingsbank, aus der sich bei geeigneten Umweltbedingungen robuste und konkurrenzstarke Gehölze entwickeln. Auch starke Fröste führen meist nicht zum Absterben der ausgewachsenen Sträucher, nur zum Erfrieren der Blätter. Aufgrund der massenhaften Verwendung als Zierpflanze und einer effizienten Ausbreitung durch Ornithochorie hat die Art das Potential, auch naturnahe Lebensräume zu besiedeln und aufgrund ihrer Konkurrenzkraft lokal zu dominieren. Abstract: Frank, D. (2018): Laurel cherry (Prunus laurocerasus L.) - a frequently cultivated shrub has the potential to get invasive. - Mitt. florist. Kart. Sachsen-Anhalt (Halle) 23: 27-39. Cultivars of laurel cherry (Prunus laurocerasus) have been among the most popular shrubs in landscape gardening for a few decades. The drupes, which are produced in large numbers every year, also have the ability to germinate in the Central European climate. A seedling bank is formed in the shelter of ground cover or at protected sites from which robust and competitive shrubs develop under suitable environmental conditions. Even severe frosts do not usually lead to the dieback of mature shrubs but only cause the leaves to die. Due to its mass use as an ornamental plant and its efficient spread by ornithochory the species has the potential to colonize and as a result of its competitive power to dominate near-natural habitats locally.
... In den 1920er-Jahren begann sich das Vorkommen der Spätblühenden Traubenkirsche in den niederländischen und belgischen Wäldern zu häufen (Muys et al. 1992 . Die Spätblühende Traubenkirsche beeinflusst dabei die Zusammensetzung der Krautschicht (Starfinger 1990 Die Streu der Spätblühenden Traubenkirsche ist leicht abbaubar und fördert die Etablierung der Naturverjüngung von Arten später Sukzessionsstadien (z. B. Winterlinde (Hamm et al. 2015b)). ...
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Die Invasivität von Baumarten wird im Naturschutz und in der Forstwirtschaft unterschiedlich bewertet. Anhand zweier konkurrierender Bewertungen (GABLIS, Essl. et al. 2011 sowie Vor et al. 2015) werden die Unterschiede und Gemeinsamkeiten zwischen den Einschätzungen aufgezeigt und anhand des Management der Douglasie ein gemeinsames Managementkonzept dargestellt.
... Naturalisation of an introduced species is described as the process during which the species establishes new self-perpetuating populations, undergoes widespread dispersal and becomes incorporated within the resident flora (Richardson et al. 2000). Black cherry affects the composition of the herb layer (Starfinger 1990) and in open vegetation types, such as heathlands, it has a negative impact on the local ecosystem as it directly competes for light with other plants. Black cherry easily colonises heathland similarly to some native tree species such as Scots pine, silver birch and alder buckthorn. ...
... Après une certaine hésitation (Eijsackers and Oldenkamp 1976, Staatsbosbeheer 1984, Lust 1987, la perception négative du cerisier tardif a été intégrée à ce modèle climacique à chêne et bouleau (Starfinger 1990, Muys, Maddelein et al. 1992. Avec l'appui des scientifiques, des programmes d'éradication à grande échelle ont été développés et le discours contre le cerisier tardif a été intégré à la gestion multifonctionnelle de la forêt. ...
... O występowaniu P. serotina w Niemczech wspomina się już w roku 1685. Jej pojawienie się na terenie dzisiejszego Berlina nie jest przypadkowe -czeremcha amerykańska była sadzona w sposób planowany, dookoła Berlina, na obszarach Pruskiego Instytutu Badawczego Leśnictwa (Starfinger, 1990 Ekologia P. serotina była obiektem licznych badań. Ten ornitochoryczny gatunek cechuje się m.in. ...
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ABSTRACT With increasing globalization, large numbers of plant species are being moved from their areas of natural occurrence to new ecosystems and parts of the world. Several species belong to the invasive alien species with more or less negative impacts on their surrounding environment. In the urban forests of Berlin, we can already find five plants from the „List of Invasive Alien Species Recognized as Threatening the European Union“ (Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle, Asclepias syriaca L. Elodea nuttallii H. St. John, Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier & Levier, Impatiens glandulifera Royle), and a dozen plant species considered invasive and potentially invasive by the German Federal Office for Nature Conservation (Bundesamt für Naturschutz). However, not all of them are subject to eradication. The Berlin Forestry Administration and the Berlin Senate have focused on two groups of plants: species that have a significant negative impact on forest management, and species that threaten human and animal health and/or life. The aim of this paper is to present the history of invasive species in the urban forests of Berlin. Furthermore, it discusses which invasive species pose the biggest problems from a natural and economic point of view, and describes the measures to reduce and control them that have been taken so far in Germany. The paper discusses the significance of such important species as Prunus serotina Ehrh., Heracleum mantegazzianum and Ambrosia psilostachya L., as well as measures which have been taken so far to limit their populations. Keywords: invasive species, urban forests, Berlin, biodiversity, Prunus serotina, alien species control methods
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Conflicts with non-native plants occur frequently in Niedersachsen (Northern Germany), but are virtually confined to a small number of non-native species including Prunus serotina, Heracleum mantegazzianum, and Fallopia spp. Some non-native plants (17 species) are often subject to control, but the measures failed in 77 %. Most activities were launched without analysing assumed negative invasion effects. The measures are economically questionable, but nevertheless authorities tend to continue controlling plant invaders. These results stress a strong demand for a more rational strategy towards problematic invasive species. It is suggested to analyse the drivers of species’ success before acting, to assess the ecological and socio-economic effects of invasive species, to optimise methods of control and subsequent restoration and to implement monitoring following control.
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Propagule pressure and disturbance have both been found to facilitate invasion. Therefore, knowledge on the history of introduction and disturbance is vital for understanding an invasion process, and research should focus on areas in which the invasive species has not been deliberately introduced or managed to study unconfounded colonization patterns. Comparing the outcome of such spontaneous colonization processes for different ecosystems might provide a useful framework for setting management priorities for invasive species that enter new, uninvaded areas. We focused on the 70-year spontaneous spread of the invasive tree species Prunus serotina in a pine forest in the Netherlands. To reconstruct the invasion pattern, we combined historical maps, tree ring analysis, spatially explicit tree inventory data, seed density data, and regeneration data for both native and non-native species. Prunus serotina was the only species that showed successful regeneration: the species was present throughout the forest in the tree, shrub, and herb layer. Native species were not able to outgrow the seedling stage. Our data demonstrate that P. serotina is a gap-dependent species with high seed production that builds up a seedling bank. We also compared the results of this study with a similar study on P. serotina colonization in a deciduous forest in Belgium, where P. serotina invasion was not successful. The sharp contrast between the outcomes of the two invasion processes shows the importance of studying an invasive species and the recipient ecosystem jointly and made us raise the hypothesis that herbivore pressure may facilitate P. serotina invasion.
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Since most studies on Prunusserotina in Western Europe focused on heavily invaded areas, we wondered whether P.serotina also acts as an aggressive invader in areas with a low propagule pressure. Based on long-term data for the Liedekerke forest reserve, we found that connectivity to seed sources and light availability were the major drivers of P.serotina presence: long-distance dispersal events and ‘windows of opportunity’ seem to direct P.serotina colonization. In the studied forest, P.serotina could not be considered an aggressive invader since its spread slowed down rather quickly and did not hamper the establishment of native tree species. Furthermore, understory P.serotina showed low growth and seed production, while the high Rubus cover hampered germination and establishment. Nonetheless, calamities opening up the canopy layer in the few areas with high P.serotina sapling density might alter the course of the invasion process.
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We studied the regeneration dynamics of the semi-shade-tolerant invasive tree species Prunus serotina in the understory of 7 pine stands in its introduced range for 4 y, focusing on temporal, spatial, and spatiotemporal patterns. In each 20-× 40-m study plot, we inventoried all trees and shrubs taller than 1 m, counted seedlings in 3 age-height classes (224 subplots), trapped P. serotina seed rain (84 subplots), and identified the P. serotina seed trees. The seed set, seed rain density, and seedling densities of P. serotina all varied between the years and between the study plots, but the temporal stability of the spatial regeneration patterns increased with regeneration stage. There was a clear distinction between (1) seedlings smaller than 20 cm, younger than 6 y, occurring in very high densities and (2) seedlings between 20 cm and 1 m tall, older than 6 y, showing high spatiotemporal stability. Notwithstanding the large year-to-year variation in seed input, P. serotina maintained its regeneration potential in the forest understory by building up a short-lived seedling bank. The seedling bank strategy might represent an efficient way towards site occupancy of shade-tolerant non-native species in forest understories with few shade-tolerant native species.
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Conflicts with non-native plants occur frequently in Niedersachsen (Northern Germany), but are virtually confined to a small number of non-native species including Prunus serotina, Heracleum mantegazzianum, and Fallopia spp. Some non-native plants (17 species) are often subject to control, but the measures failed in 77 %. Most activities were launched without analysing assumed negative invasion effects. The measures are economically questionable, but nevertheless authorities tend to continue controlling plant invaders. These results stress a strong demand for a more rational strategy towards problematic invasive species. It is suggested to analyse the drivers of species’ success before acting, to assess the ecological and socio-economic effects of invasive species, to optimise methods of control and subsequent restoration and to implement monitoring following control.
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After 40 years of succession, the vegetation of a former railway territory (21 ha) in Berlin has been analysed by using the BRAUN-BLANQUET-approach. The vegetation consisted mainly of dry grasslands, tall herb communities and of stands of native Betula pendula, Populus tremula and alien Robinia pseudoacacia. Comparing two vegetation maps (1981/1991), the changes in the area of plant communities have been quantified showing that woody vegetation had increased from ca. 1/3 to 2/3 in about ten years. Finally, the value of the study area for nature conservation has been assessed.
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The Black Cherry (Prunus serotina), a North American forest tree, has successfully spread in Central Europe. By establishing dense shrub layers in previously sparse forests, it may outcompete native plant species and become a problem for nature conservation. Demographic studies were performed in its native range NW-Pennsylvania, and in Berlin, and the data were analyzed by means of multivariate methods. In both areas, the distribution in space and time of size classes suggests a “Oskar-behaviour” of Prunus serotina: the smaller trees can survive with limited height growth in the shade of the conspecific mother trees. This property is, together with other population biological characteristics, an important prerequisite for a successful colonization of new biotopes and the establishment of the species in Central Europe. The development of a Black Cherry population in both study areas follows various phases. Without disturbance, few large Black Cherry trees prevail and little regeneration. This trend can be seen from demographic analyses both in Berlin and Pennsylvania despite their very different vegetation types. From this it is concluded that Prunus serotina will continue to grow in Berlin. The density, however, will be lower than now.
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Black cherry (Prunus serotina EHRH.) is one of the most invasive plant species of Central Europe. Its presence is causing huge silvicultural and nature conservative challenges in the pine forests of northern Germany. The actions that have been taken in the past to reduce the massive dispersal were very labor and cost intensive. But what would in contradiction happen if no one would take actions to regulate the natural development? The presented project investigates the age-related development of the radiation availability under dense Black Cherry stand and furthermore the influence to the plant increment of native broadleaved tree species. Based on radiation measurements in a couple of stands of different development stages a radiation model has been deduced. The radiation is correlating to the diameter breast height of the 5% biggest Black cherry (dbh5%). Until a dbh5% of 5 cm the radiation decreases to less than 1% of the free range conditions. Stands of the Black cherry reaching this diameter within around 15 years. After that minimum has been reached the availability of radiation is increasing constantly. In older Black cherry stands very often radiation values of more than 3% of the free range conditions have been observed. That amount of radiation is fulfilling all the requirements of shade tolerant native tree species. A field test has been done to investigate the influence of the Black cherry to five native broad leaved tree species. In older Black cherry stands a low mortality and an increased growth of the planted tree species has been observed. Under all stand conditions the basswood (Tilia condata MILL.) showed the best growth and almost no mortality. The radiation related height increment of basswood could confirm the above described radiation model. A greenhouse test has been set up to investigate the effect of the Black cherry litter to the germination and the juvenile development of five native broad leaved tree species together with the Black cherry. Negative effects of the leaf litter to the germination and to the growth were not measurable. Assuming the improvement of the humus compensates the germination inhibiting effects of the Black cherry litter.
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De Amerikaanse vogelkers (Prunus serotina) is ondanks intensieve bestrijding volledig ingeburgerd in Noordwest Europa en niet meer uit te roeien. Afhankelijk van de terreindoelen is het aan de eigenaar/beheerder te beoordelen in welke mate vogelkers als een probleem moet worden beschouwd en in hoeverre maatregelen moeten worden getroffen om dominantie door vogelkers te voorkomen. We hebben een beslisboom ontwikkeld om handvatten te bieden om met deze ‘nieuwe’ boomsoort te leven. Afhankelijk van het begroeiingstype wordt in de beslisboom aangegeven hoe gewenste bos- en natuurtypen gerealiseerd zouden kunnen worden.
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Black cherry (Prunus serotina EHRH.) is considered one of the most invasive tree species in central Europe and causes problems for both nature conservation and silviculture. Besides mechanical control treatments, a suggested control method to prevent its ongoing spread is to underplant shade-tolerant native tree species. Therefore, we combined two mechanical treatments, with underplanting of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) or small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata MILL.) on fenced and unfenced plots. After the first growing season, survival rates were evaluated, and selected seedlings were destructively harvested to analyze their growth performance and leaf morphology in association with the different light regimes resulting from mechanical treatments Survival rates for both seedlings were very high (>95%). Survival rates were higher on fenced plots than on unfenced plots, most likely as result of browsing. The mortality of F. sylvatica decreased with increasing light availability on fenced plots. The mortality of T. cordata did not change along the light gradient. After one vegetation period no differences with respect to biomass allocation could be detected along the light gradient. However, the specific leaf areas of both species responded similarly, decreasing with increasing light availability. In summary, both species were able to establish and survive in the dense P. serotina understory and might have the potential to outcompete the invasive alien species in the long run.
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Litter decomposition was studied for 2years in a mixed forest serving as a water protection area (Rhine-Neckar conurbation, SW Germany). Two experiments differing in initial dry weight equivalent in litterbags were set up: one to compare decomposition of European beech leaves (Fagus sylvatica) with common oak leaves (Quercus robur), and the other comparing decomposition of Scots pine needles (Pinus sylvestris) with black cherry leaves (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), respectively. Mass losses were greater for oak litter than for beech (75.0 versus 34.6%), and for cherry litter than for pine (94.6 versus 68.3%). In both experiments, a strong initial loss of soluble compounds occurred. The changes in litter N and P concentrations and the decrease in C-to-N ratio coincided with changes in residual mass. However, neither tannin and phenolic concentrations nor NMR could explain the pronounced variation in mass loss after 2years. Differences in litter palatability and toughness, nutrient contents and other organic compounds may be responsible for the considerable differences in residual mass between litter types. The fast decay of black cherry leaves appears to play a major role in the present humus dynamics at the studied site. Since black cherry has a high N demand, which is mainly met by root uptake from the forest floor, this species is crucial for internal N cycling at this conurbation forest site. These effects together may significantly contribute to prevent nitrate leaching from the forest ecosystem which is subject to a continuous N deposition on an elevated level.
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