Article

The carbon footprint of active sport participants

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Abstract

Researchers examining carbon dioxide-equivalent emissions (carbon footprint) in sport have focused on sport events and, to a lesser extent, sport teams, but provided only average or aggregate values. The author takes the perspective of active sport participants and considers the heterogeneity of individual sport participation behavior. Using online surveys, adult active sport participants (n = 6537) in 20 different sports with main residence in Germany were asked to report their sport-travel behavior in 2015, including traveling in the context of regular (weekly) activity, sport competitions/tournaments, league games, day trips, and training camps/vacations. Annual carbon footprints were estimated using information about travel distances and transportation means. The results revealed an average annual carbon footprint of 844 kg of carbon dioxide-equivalent emissions, with individual sports producing more emissions than team/racket sports. Participants in nature sports had the highest emission levels. Regression analyses revealed that environmental consciousness significantly reduced carbon footprint in individual sports, but not in team/racket and nature sports, supporting the existence of an environmental value-action gap. Activity years, club membership, weekly exercise hours, performance level, and income were mainly positively associated with annual carbon footprint, while gender was insignificant. The findings have implications for policy makers and managers in sport associations and clubs. © 2018 Sport Management Association of Australia and New Zealand

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... The self-reported performance level was assessed with the following question: In which of the following performance categories do you classify yourself as a SPORT player? The following five categories were provided: leisure athlete (infrequent participation, no competitions), leisure athlete (frequent participation, no competitions), mass sport athlete (local competitions), performance athlete (regional competitions), and elite athlete (national and/or international competitions) [64]. In each sportspecific survey, the corresponding league levels for mass sport athletes, performance, and elite athletes were provided as a guidance for respondents. ...
... The scale includes affective, conative, and cognitive items that capture the most important topics in the public debate of environmental protection in Germany [44]. A similar scale has been applied in previous sport environmental research [64,67]. Cronbach's alpha gives information about the construct reliability of a scale. ...
... This structure reflects the characteristics of members in German sport clubs (e.g., [15,63]). These sample characteristics are also typical in sport and environmental research [33,64]. ...
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To reduce global warming and climate change, the German government plans to implement a carbon tax, which will also affect sport organizations. This study investigates how much sport club members are willing to pay for environmental measures and how sport-specific, club-specific, environmental, and socio-demographic factors are associated with their willingness-to-pay. In 2019 and 2020, active adult sport club members in five team/racket sports were sampled using an online survey in Germany (n = 3036). The contingent valuation method was applied to estimate sport club members’ willingness-to-pay for environmental measures. Regression analyses were employed to investigate a set of factors that are associated with club members’ decision to pay at all and the amount of willingness-to-pay. The results show that 64.3% of respondents reported a positive willingness-to-pay. The average willingness-to-pay for environmental measures amounts to EUR 14.53 per year and to EUR 22.59 for those reporting a positive willingness-to-pay. The results of t-tests show that club members stating a positive WTP differ significantly from members who are not willing to pay anything in terms of sport-specific, club-specific, environmental, and socio-demographic factors. The logistic regression results indicate that the likelihood of reporting a positive willingness-to-pay increases with increasing environmental consciousness, educational level, weekly practice hours, identification and satisfaction with the club, and subjective well-being, while age has a U-shaped effect. The results of a Tobit model show that the amount of willingness-to-pay is positively determined by environmental consciousness, educational level, and satisfaction with the club. The findings suggest that the majority of club members are willing to pay higher membership fees for the implementation of environmental measures in sport clubs. Increasing members’ level of environmental consciousness through educational initiatives represents a way for sport policy and sport managers to help increase financial support for environmental measures among club members.
... Sports participation is one of the activities that contribute to individuals' health and well-being (e.g., Humphreys et al., 2014;Downward et al., 2016;Orlowski and Wicker, 2018;Wicker, 2020). However, practicing sports produces not only positive externalities like health and well-being but also negative externalities such as environmental impacts by deploying natural resources and producing emissions (e.g., Wicker, 2019;McCullough et al., 2020a,b). Accordingly, the review by Trendafilova and McCullough (2018) indicates that a number of studies have been conducted examining the environmental impacts of sports and environmentally sustainable behavior in sports. ...
... From 2008 onward, the growing public interest in environmental problems was accompanied by proportionally growing research in the field of sports environmental research (Dingle, 2017). While most studies in the early stage tried to answer questions about why and how environmental strategies are applied within sports (e.g., Trendafilova et al., 2013), studies of proenvironmental behavior of spectators and sports participants have attracted the interest of researchers (e.g., McCullough and Cunningham, 2011;Wicker, 2019). Most recently, a group of scholars has grouped the different environmental approaches in the existing literature under the subdiscipline of sports ecology (McCullough et al., 2020a). ...
... Previous research in the field of sports ecology was two-fold. The first and most often investigated perspective is the impact of sports on the environment (e.g., Wicker, 2018Wicker, , 2019McCullough et al., 2020b), while the second approach focused on the impact of environmental changes on sports (Orr and Inoue, 2019;Orr, 2020). ...
Article
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Environmentally friendly behavior has become increasingly important in recent years to reduce the speed of climate change and its negative impacts. Individual behavior, including environmentally friendly behavior, is largely formed by behavioral intentions. This study draws on the theory of planned behavior to examine the effects of attitudes toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control on intentions of environmentally friendly behavior. It also investigates differences between genders and among sports. The study is based on data from a nationwide online survey of community sports club members in Germany in five team/racket sports ( n = 3,036). Existing measures to operationalize the constructs were adapted to the present research context. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The results show that the theoretical assumptions of the theory of planned behavior were largely supported by the data, implying that the antecedents of environmentally friendly behavioral intentions can be applied to club members. Furthermore, gender- and sports-specific differences in the antecedents–intention relationship were detected. This study is among the first to examine environmentally friendly behavioral intentions in community sports clubs. It adds to an increasing body of research investigating environmental sustainability in sports.
... vehicles, transportation, and travel. These emissions are the focus of this study because information about travel distances and mode of transportation can be assessed in surveys and converted into CO 2 -e (Wicker, 2018(Wicker, , 2019. The other two scopes are indirect emissions stemming from purchased electricity, such as steam, heating, or cooling (scope II) or other indirect emissions that occur during the life cycle of a product (scope III), meaning from the initial resource acquisition to the waste disposal (Pandey et al., 2011). ...
... For example, Wicker (2018) estimated an annual carbon footprint of 432 kg CO 2 -e for skiers and boarders. The annual carbon footprint of participants in other nature sports, including surf sports, climbing, diving, and walking amounted to 1455 kg CO 2 -e and was, thus, two times higher than that of participants in other physical leisure activities (Wicker, 2019). Moreover, carbon footprints have been estimated for different sport events and divided by the number of spectators, resulting in an average carbon footprint per spectator of 7.67 kg CO 2 -e for the 2004 FA Cup Final, 20.2 kg CO 2 -e for the 2004 Wales Rally (Collins et al., 2009), and 50.5 kg CO 2 -e for the UK stages of the 2007 Tour de France (Collins et al., 2012). ...
... Previous studies have analyzed the correlates of individuals' carbon footprint. For example, age has an inverse u-shaped effect implying that middle-aged nature sport participants had the highest carbon footprint (Wicker, 2019). Moreover, the carbon footprint of skiers and boarders has been shown to be determined by participation frequency and the location of their residence, which ultimately determines the distance to destinations (Wicker, 2018). ...
Article
This study examines the economic impact (measured by visitor spending) and environmental impact (measured by carbon footprint) of leisure trips to the natural environment. It also investigates the tradeoff between them. This research uses survey data from England comprising information about randomly selected leisure trips to the natural environment (n = 15,535; 2012-2016). On average, each trip involves visitor spending of GBP 8.57 and a carbon footprint of 4.15 kg of carbon dioxide-equivalent emissions. The results of seemingly unrelated regression analysis and bivariate probit analysis show that trips involving eating, water activities, visiting attractions and the beach yield more expenditure, but also a higher carbon footprint. On the contrary, trips involving walking, land activities, and playing with children generate a lower carbon footprint, but also less visitor spending. These results and the significant correlation of residuals suggests that economic impact occurs at the expense of the natural environment.
... Since then, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and other professional sport organizations have developed sustainability strategies to face public criticism. However, sport policies, especially on the club level, continue to primarily focus on health and social outcomes and largely neglect pro-environmental initiatives (Wicker, 2019). However, to initiate change and facilitate pro-environmental behavior, knowledge about the factors contributing or restricting such behavior is important (e.g., Kennedy, Krahn, & Krogman, 2015). ...
... Specifically, this study investigates factors associated with two measures of pro-environmental behavior, including the carbon footprint caused by traveling to weekly training sessions and pro-environmental actions in different areas. The research context of sport clubs is selected because club members were found to behave less environmentally friendly in terms of travel behavior than non-club sport participants (Wicker, 2019). The authors advance the following research question: What factors affect the pro-environmental behavior of voluntary sport club members? ...
... Pro-environmental behavior can be performed either publicly or privately and is characterized to be intentional as well as freely selected. Following previous research, this study applies two indicators of pro-environmental behavior: Pro-environmental actions (Diekmann & Preisendörfer, 2003) and carbon footprint (Wicker, 2019). ...
Article
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Environmental sustainability and climate change have become increasingly important in public debates and politics. This study examines the determinants of sport club members’ pro-environmental behavior in Germany. Theoretically, we draw on the theory of planned behavior, ecofeminism, and the luxury good hypothesis to explain the effects of individuals’ environmental consciousness, gender, and income on their pro-environmental behavior, respectively. Data collection took place in 2019 and 2020 via a nationwide online survey of active sport club members in five team/racket sports ( n = 3038). Regression analyses were estimated to examine the determinants of two indicators of pro-environmental behavior, i.e., the monthly carbon footprint resulting from traveling to training sessions and pro-environmental actions. The results reveal that environmentally consciousness members behave more environmentally friendly, supporting the theory of planned behavior. Women have a significantly higher carbon footprint, but only in the model including the interaction with environmental consciousness, indicating that female gender only works in conjunction with environmental attitudes. Income is associated with a significantly higher carbon footprint for training, while it has no effect on pro-environmental actions related to club sport. The findings have implications for sport managers and policy makers.
... Singh et al., 2016), but has not explored sport event ecotourism specifically. Research in the sport context has largely focused on spectatorship and air pollution (Casper & Bunds, 2017;Locke, 2019;Triantafyllidis, Ries, & Kaplanidou, 2018), sport participation and the carbon footprint (Wicker, 2018(Wicker, , 2019Wicker et al., 2020), the environmental concerns of runners Triantafyllidis & Kaplanidou, 2019), and the environmental legacy of major events (e.g. Collins, Jones, & Munday, 2009;Death, 2011). ...
... Prior research in the sport context has largely focused on the environmental impacts like CO2 emissions, strategies to mitigate negative impacts, or to educate sport consumers (e.g. Mair & Laing, 2013;Mallen & Chard, 2011;Trendafilova & McCullough, 2018;Wicker, 2018Wicker, , 2019Wicker et al., 2020). Given there is no consensus about how to quantify tourism sustainability, nor a universal methodology accepted (Torres-Delgado & Saarinen, 2014), the WTO indicators were used as a framework to highlight all three facets of the triple bottom line within the natural environment. ...
... Sixth, developing shuttle or carpooling systems to allow more participants to minimize car-related pollution. Invest monies in a carbon off-setting programme to combat the number of carbon-emissions created by the participants at the event (Wicker, 2018(Wicker, , 2019. Finally, limit the use of pre-packaged food and drink to minimize waste. ...
Article
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The growth in sport event tourism to beautiful environments has led to some desirable benefits in many rural destinations, however it can also contribute to over-tourism, which is disadvantageous. This impact can be understood by examining sport event ecotourism – the sustainability and educational practices of events that occur in natural environments. The purpose of this study was to explore the juxtaposition of sport events and ecotourism by using the World Tourism Organization’s (WTO) Sustainability Indicators as a framework. A qualitative approach, using participant observation, semi-structured interviews, visual ethnography and content analysis, was employed to examine the sustainability practices of Vacation Races’ Grand Trailfest, which took place in a rural mountain town in Utah and throughout three national parks in the area. Findings suggest there are additional indicators extending beyond the WTO’s framework: education, literacy, political/special agendas and economic development that will help better identify ecotourism practices of sport events. Contributions to theory and practical implications are discussed.
... In the case of mega-and hallmark events, the use of unsustainable transportation modes can push the level of fine particles over the allowed limit, generating a serious threat to public health (Collins et al., 2007;Kuo, Lee, & Lai, 2006;Zhou et al., 2010). Numerous studies, particularly on sports events, have focused on measuring these environmental impacts, often providing useful suggestions to policymakers and organizers for improving events' environmental sustainability through the proper management of visitor mobility (Adema & Roehl, 2010;Chen et al., 2018;Collins et al., 2007;Dolf & Teehan, 2015;Dosomu et al., 2017;Kuo et al., 2006;Triantafyllidis, Ries, & Kaplanidou, 2018;Wicker, 2018). ...
... Indeed, the issue of transportation can have significant impacts on a wide range of event sustainability issues and on the success of the event itself, especially in the case of large recreational events (Chen et al., 2018;Dosomu et al., 2017;Prayag et al., 2013;Triantafyllidis et al., 2018;Wicker, 2018). Thus, the ability to show and measure the positive externalities of sustainable transportation policies during hallmark events could greatly benefit all stakeholders. ...
Article
In addition to positive externalities, hallmark events can generate negative social and environmental effects, giving rise to significant sustainability issues. Thus, sustainability is often a necessary constraint to containing damage. The aim of this article is to investigate the existence and the extent of a positive reciprocal influence between event sustainability and sustainable transportation. On one hand, visitors using sustainable urban transportation can enhance events’ environmental and social sustainability, while on the other hand, sustainable events that urge attendees to use public transit can contribute to economic sustainability of a green means of transportation. A method to measure the extent of this positive mutual relationship has been proposed using the main hallmark events held in Perugia, Italy, and that city’s urban light rail transit (LRT) as a case study. Performing a statistical regression model, the additional LRT tickets sold due to these events are quantified, allowing us to estimate both the CO2 savings and the effect on the LRT costs and revenues. The results suggest that sustainability can be seen from a win–win perspective, demonstrating that sustainable events can offer a significant contribution towards the economic sustainability of transport modes with a low environmental and social impact.
... After identifying all factors from the event with direct impacts on the environment, the next step in the LCA process would be to determine the type of impacts that exist for each factor and the ways in which to measure them. For example, in considering venue operations, many studies have typically focused on estimating the carbon footprint of hosting events (Collins & Flynn, 2008;Collins et al., 2009;Dolf & Teehan, 2015) with notable exceptions (Wicker, 2018(Wicker, , 2019. Although this can provide information regarding the amount of carbon dioxide and carbonrelated compounds that are emitted from hosting an event, this type of accounting system falls short in many aspects. ...
... For example, in estimating the carbon footprint, there is an inconsistency between organizations and researchers in regard to how to estimate the impact and the granularity at which the impact of an event should be considered. Notably, where many studies simply will utilize the number of visitors to sport events to estimate the carbon footprint (Wicker, 2019), organizations such as Quantis have used highly granular data sets that not only consider that each specific part of a stadium may have a different carbon footprint, but that the carbon dioxide emissions can vary between the use of new, refurbished, or temporary bleachers in a stadium (Quantis, 2016). In this manner, the more detailed a study can be in measuring impacts, the better an understanding can be provided in regard to the overall environmental impact of sport events. ...
Article
A paradox exists between the ways sport organizations evaluate their economic impact, compared with their environmental impact. Although the initial sustainability and corporate social responsibility efforts of sport organizations should be celebrated, it is appropriate to call for the next advancement concerning the assessment and measurement of environmental sustainability efforts in sport organizations. Specifically, there is a need for improved and increased monitoring and measurement of sustainable practices that include negative environmental externalities. To usher this advancement, the authors first reviewed the extant research and current industry practice involving environmental impact reporting in sport. Second, the authors proposed a conceptual framework that expands the scope of environmental assessment to be more comprehensive. As such, this expanded, yet more accurate, assessment of environmental impact can identify specific aspects of the event and the inputs and outputs of the before and after event phases that can be curtailed or modified to reduce environmental impacts of sport events.
... A second area related to the environmental impact of sport has focused on the carbon footprint of sport participation, including among community-based ice hockey players in Ontario , varsity athletes at The University of British Columbia (Dolf & Teehan, 2015), and skiers and snowboarders in Germany (Wicker, 2018). A broader study of adult sport participants in Germany by Wicker (2019) showed that participants in nature sports had larger carbon footprints than participants in team/racket sports. Furthermore, the environmental consciousness of athletes participating in individual sports significantly reduced their carbon emissions; the same was not true among participants in team or racket sports and nature sports. ...
... For organizations not actively involved in proenvironmental programming, several factors may contribute to their inaction. For instance, in their study of university athletic departments, Casper et al. (2012) noted that, although environmental concern was high among athletic administrators, there was little action being taken by the departments as a whole, again underscoring the value-action gap discussed previously by Wicker (2018Wicker ( , 2019. Reasons for athletic departments' reluctance included a lack of communication between the athletic department and the broader university, perceived costs of environmental programming, and a lack of knowledge about sustainability initiatives. ...
Article
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The relationship between sport and the natural environment is bidirectional and critical to the production of sport products, events, and experiences. Researchers have studied sport and the natural environment within the various subdisciplines of sport management. However, given the changing climate and mounting public concern for the environment, there is pressure to reconsider the relevance and significance of the natural environment, which is taken for granted in managerial contexts. Reflecting the importance of the natural environment, the robustness of the current literature, and the potential for the future, we propose a new subdiscipline of sport management called sport ecology. Thus, we proposed, in this paper, a definition for sport ecology, (re)introduced key concepts related to this subdiscipline (e.g., sustainability, green), and highlighted the leading research that serves as the foundation for sport ecology. We concluded with a discussion on the ways sport ecology can inform-and be informed by-other subdisciplines of sport management.
... These findings were found for leisure, tourism and professional sport activities. However, if physical activity-related travel represented 2.2-26% of the annual carbon footprint in German active adults [70], the annual carbon footprint of an English Premier League player [74] or professional race car driver [77] represents 5.3 and 10 times, respectively, the annual carbon footprint of British adults (i.e., 5.4 tons per year). ...
... However, other human behaviors should be integrated in future frameworks because negative or positive feedback loops can be anticipated. For example, an increase in daily physical activities could potentially increase individuals' carbon footprint due to higher food consumption [70] but also improve sleep quality [7,108]. Other human behaviors will also likely be Main results ...
Preprint
POST PRINT : https://avuer.hypotheses.org/files/2021/05/Bernard-2021-Climate-change-physical-activity-and-sport-a-systematic-review.pdf The climate change manifestations are associated with dramatic consequences for human health and threat physical activity behaviors.Objective The aims of this systematic review were to present the potential bidirectional associations between climate change consequences and physical activity (PA) behaviors in human and to propose the first synthesis of the literature through a conceptual model of climate change and PA. Methods Studies published before October 2019, were identified through database searches in Pubmed, PsycArticles, CINAHL, SportDiscus, GreenFILE and GeoRef. Studies examining the associations between PA domains and climate change (e.g., natural disaster, air pollution, carbon footprint) were included.ResultsA narrative synthesis was performed and the 63 identified articles were classified into 6 topics: air pollution and PA, extreme weather conditions and PA, greenhouse gas emissions and PA, carbon footprint among sport participants, natural disasters and PA and the future of PA and sport practices in a changing world. Then, a conceptual model was proposed to identify the multidimensional associations between climate change and PA as well as sport practices. The results indicated a consistent negative effect of air pollution, extreme temperatures and natural disasters on PA levels. This PA reduction will be more severe in adults with chronic diseases, higher body mass index and elderly. The sport and PA communities can play an important mitigation role in post-natural disaster contexts. However, transport related to sport practices are also a source of greenhouse gas emissions.Conclusion The climate change consequences increasingly and disproportionately impact PA at worldwide scale. PA has two concurrent mitigation and amplification roles towards climate changes.
... In return, our health behaviors could have a significant impact on climate change (see the discussion section below for a critical view of individual and collective actions to limit climate change). This impact can be positive, by participating in activities targeting climate change mitigation and adaptation (e.g., [99]), or negative, because, in some forms, health behaviors can increase individuals' carbon footprint (e.g., [100]). ...
... Aside from massive professional sport events, most sport-related emissions are caused by motorized transport required for participation. For example, physical activity-related travel (e.g., driving or flying to practice a specific activity) represented 2.2 to 26% of the annual carbon footprint of German active adults [100]. Further, and as mentioned previously, individual eating behaviors represent a significant contributor to GHG emissions worldwide (i.e., the total food system contributes to 21-37% of total anthropogenic GHG emissions; [2]). ...
Preprint
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Background: Human activities have changed the biosphere so profoundly over the past two centuries that human-induced climate change is now posing serious health-related treats to the current and future generations. Rapid actions from all scientific fields are needed to contribute to both the mitigation and adaption to climate change. Purpose: This article aims to identify bi-directional associations between climate change effects (i.e., rising average temperatures, natural disasters, air pollution, rising sea level) and health-related behaviors, as well as a set of key actions for the behavioral medicine community. Methods: We synthetized the existing literature about (i) the effects of rising average temperature, natural disasters, air pollution, and rising sea level on the food system and eating behaviors, physical activity, sleep, substance use, access to safe water, and preventive behaviors; and (ii) the concurrent positive and negative roles that health-related behaviors can play in mitigation and adaptation to climate change. Results: Based on this literature review, we propose one of the first model of the complex, occasionally bi-directional, associations between climate change and health-related behaviors. Key actions are proposed with particular consideration for health equity (i.e., between and within-countries, at the intergenerational level, as well as between men and women) of future behavioral interventions. Synergies are also proposed between the field of behavioral medicine, the study of complex systems and planetary health science. Conclusions: We contend that climate change is among the most urgent issue facing all scientists, and should become a central priority for the behavioral medicine community.
... The carbon footprint of the playing tennis agrees with prior studies [28] and active sport enthusiast [29,30]: ...
... We wanted to answer a growing question of marathon runners who are wondering about the carbon footprint of their sports practice with a new environmentalist trend that is considering not traveling anymore to participate in marathons and stay local. It was a question of demonstrating the practice of the marathon on the condition of taking part in local competitions (in sufficient supply due to the explosion of offers), will induce a carbon footprint as low as that reported in the literature for the practice of tennis in the context of a territory already well equipped in terms of terrain like Germany [28] However, the representativeness in the selection of calculation objectives is very low. There is no need for statistics since this study is a theoretical simulation of traditional training and competition practices of marathon runners [31]. ...
Article
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Marathon running leaves a significant carbon footprint regarding CO2 emissions; for example, 37 percent of New York Marathon participants travel internationally to New York. The aim of this study is to estimate the CO2 footprint of a person training and competing in a marathon; we will also propose methods to minimize the CO2 footprint because of transportation. In addition, we also examine the influence of food practices and hygiene on training and racing a marathon. Methods: We estimated the annual carbon footprint of one person taking part in a marathon. We considered all training, racing, and travelling (local and international) for one person (we are going to give him the first name of "Henri"), and then compared his CO2 footprint with his colleagues playing tennis and soccer. The excess CO2 footprint whilst running and for shoes, clothing, books, magazines, insurance, travel, hygiene, laundry, and resources for electronics and additional food consumed were calculated. For competitions, we estimated and compared the CO2 emission from transportation to national vs. international marathon (New York). Results: We estimated that our runner emitted 4.3 tons of CO2 equivalent (CO2e), including all greenhouse gases. A transatlantic flight to New York corresponded to 3.5 tons CO2, which is 83% of the annual carbon footprint of an average French citizen which is about 11 tons CO2e/year. This leads to a sudden 40% increase in Henri's annual carbon footprint. Conclusions: By focusing on the additional carbon footprint from one year of marathon training and racing, and traveling locally versus internationally, this sport still has a potentially significant carbon footprint that runners and race organizers ought to consider. We wanted to answer a growing question of marathon runners who are wondering about the carbon footprint of their sports practice in following with a new environmentalist trend that considers not traveling anymore to participate in marathons and to stay local. However, the representativeness in the selection of calculation objectives is very low. There is no need for statistics since this study is a theoretical simulation of traditional training and competition practices of marathon runners.
... These findings were found for leisure, tourism and professional sport activities. However, if physical activity-related travel represented 2.2-26% of the annual carbon footprint in German active adults [70], the annual carbon footprint of an English Premier League player [74] or professional race car driver [77] represents 5.3 and 10 times, respectively, the annual carbon footprint of British adults (i.e., 5.4 tons per year). ...
... However, other human behaviors should be integrated in future frameworks because negative or positive feedback loops can be anticipated. For example, an increase in daily physical activities could potentially increase individuals' carbon footprint due to higher food consumption [70] but also improve sleep quality [7,108]. Other human behaviors will also likely be Main results ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Climate change impacts are associated with dramatic consequences for human health and threaten physical activity (PA) behaviors.Objective The aims of this systematic review were to present the potential bidirectional associations between climate change impacts and PA behaviors in humans and to propose a synthesis of the literature through a conceptual model of climate change and PA.Methods Studies published before October 2020 were identified through database searches in PubMed, PsycARTICLES, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, GreenFILE, GeoRef, Scopus, JSTOR and Transportation Research Information Services. Studies examining the associations between PA domains and climate change (e.g., natural disasters, air pollution, and carbon footprint) were included.ResultsA narrative synthesis was performed and the 74 identified articles were classified into 6 topics: air pollution and PA, extreme weather conditions and PA, greenhouse gas emissions and PA, carbon footprint among sport participants, natural disasters and PA and the future of PA and sport practices in a changing world. Then, a conceptual model was proposed to identify the multidimensional associations between climate change and PA as well as sport practices. Results indicated a consistent negative effect of air pollution, extreme temperatures and natural disasters on PA levels. This PA reduction is more severe in adults with chronic diseases, higher body mass index and the elderly. Sport and PA communities can play an important mitigating role in post-natural disaster contexts. However, transport related to sport practices is also a source of greenhouse gas emissions.Conclusion Climate change impacts affect PA at a worldwide scale. PA is observed to play both a mitigation and an amplification role in climate changes.Trial Registration NumberPROSPERO CRD42019128314.
... The resulting environmental consciousness index represents the average of the nine items (Environmental consciousness). The index was previously validated [57] and has been frequently applied in existing sport ecology research [10,11]. Scale reliability was assessed using Cronbach's α, which was 0.894, suggesting very good reliability [66]. ...
... Hence, a higher or lower carbon footprint does not yield any SWB benefits or reductions. Since other studies among sport tourists [29] and sport participants [11] already indicated that leisure travel is associated with rather high perceived costs, this relationship might also apply to sport spectators. Moreover, the stadium location might indicate why perceived benefits from using environmentally-friendly travel alternatives are low. ...
Article
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n the context of leisure travel in sport, the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals to promote public health and combat climate change may be addressed simultaneously. This study investigates football spectators’ carbon footprint that is generated from traveling to the stadium. It also examines the effects of stadium travel and everyday pro-environmental behavior on spectators’ subjective well-being. The study uses data that were gathered from an online survey in Germany in 2021 (n = 1605). For a detailed carbon footprint assessment, spectators were allowed to indicate multiple transportation means if they switched them during their stadium journey. Seemingly unrelated regression models were calculated to examine the effect of transportation behavior (i.e., stadium travel) and everyday recycling, consumption, and energy-saving behavior on life satisfaction and happiness. Traveling to a home game caused an average carbon footprint of 7.79 kg CO2-e per spectator, or 190.4 tons CO2-e for all home game spectators. Regression results showed that sustainable consumption increased both well-being measures while recycling behavior only positively contributed to happiness. Stadium travel and energy-saving behavior showed no significant effect. These findings implicate that achieving both sustainable development goals can go hand in hand in some contexts of pro-environmental behavior, but not in all dimensions.
... Most studies carried out on the carbon footprint focus on sporting events and, to a lesser extent, on sporting teams. The perspective of active participants in sport was embraced by Wicker, 2019 [24], through a study on the heterogeneity of individual consumer behavior in Germany (6537 adults, 20 sports), and whether for regular training or competitions considering travel distances and transportation is meaningful. The author concluded that there is a greater relationship between environmental awareness and a smaller carbon footprint in favor of individual sports to the detriment of team sports. ...
... We live in a time when the PSO's digital communication channels are increasingly important in their relationship with their members. This research extends other studies and confirms that most members are unaware of the SI performed [7,24] and that their highest evaluation depends on their SI awareness. In this way, this study reinforces the importance of SI communication as well as the visibility of the topics covered. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study explores the importance of sustainable initiatives (SI) in sport for the stakeholders of a professional sports organization (PSO) after three months of absence of the public at the stadiums due to the pandemic situation. Two topics—diversity and inclusion (DIVIN) and the attraction and retention of human capital (ARHC)—were considered and analyzed. A third factor—the distance of residence of the members and the PSO—was considered as an element of the possible relationship between the awareness of the SI and the assessment of the topics in question. A total of 5694 PSO members took an online survey. Through the description of the data, the results show that being aware of the SI performed is a crucial factor for the success of the SI. Distance positively influences SI awareness. The topics considered are rated most positively by members with awareness of the SI, with a higher rating for the topic with the highest external visibility.
... McCullough, Orr, and Watanabe (2020) inspected the environmental impacts of sports and physical activities and established that it has a negative association with the environment, as these activities deploy natural resources which in turn produce emissions in the air. A few researchers examined the environmental degradation related to active sports members (Chard & Mallen, 2012;Dolf & Teehan, 2015) and snow-related sport (Wicker, 2019). Similarly, Dolf and Teehan (2015) analyse the carbon emissions of 10 university sports teams over two varsity seasons 2011-2012 and find a positive association. ...
... Former literature in the discipline of sports was two-folded. The first approach inspected different perspectives is the influence of sports on the environment (Dolf & Teehan, 2015;McCullough, Orr, & Kellison, 2020;Wicker, 2019), whereas the second one engrossed the effect of environmental variations in sports activities (Orr & Inoue, 2019). Within sport and physical activities, existing research has established a positive connection between environmental beliefs and pro-environmental behavioural intentions among sports fans. ...
Article
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Environmental-friendly behaviours are increasingly imperative in the current era to diminish the speed of environmental degradation and its damaging impacts. Increased sports and physical activities entail positive health outcomes, as well as having the potential to reduce vehicle-related carbon emissions. Therefore, the present study investigates the impact of sports and physical activities and public health spending on environmental performance in 50 U.S. states for the period 2010–2019. The system of the generalised method of moment (G.M.M.) and feasible generalised least squares (F.G.L.S.) are employed in the present analysis. The results reveal that sports and physical activities are significantly increases environmental performance in U.S. Similarly, health expenditures are negatively and significantly associated with air pollution and encourage overall environmental performance. However, economic growth contributes to higher emissions and therefore impede environmental performance. The interaction term of health expenditures and sports activities indicate that the combination of higher health expenditures with sports activities puts a profound effect on environmental quality. These findings signal the need to retrace health care spending programs and sports activities to accomplish zero-carbon targets and better environmental performance.
... Lee and Shin (2010) argued that consumers who are more aware of CSR on a regular basis may have a better understanding of CSR activities. Scholarship in sport management suggests that environmental consciousness influences pro-environment behaviors (Wicker, 2019). McCullough and Cunningham (2011) indicated that strategic and efficient adoption of environmental-oriented CSR in sports can lead to both economic and legitimacy benefits. ...
Article
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While the burgeoning research on corporate social responsibility (CSR) indicates the importance of tracking the interest of external stakeholders to obtain societal goals, insight into what types of CSR activities contribute to social outcomes remain scarce. As such, the purpose of this study was to identify the relevant dimensions of CSR that can enhance the social outcomes of one specific group of external stakeholders (i.e., sport fans). Data were collected from US sports fans (n = 312) over the course of two weeks. The present research indicates that fans gain more excitement and happiness as well as increased their social cohesion if sport organization CSR initiatives are concentrating on sport governance, environmental management and sustain-ability, and philanthropy issues. Assessing the impact of CSR from micro-level approach would be one way to strengthen the relationship between existing fans and sport organizations to make positive social impact
... Finally, sport is in a bi-directional relationship with the natural environment, as we noted earlier. Direct greenhouse gas emissions can be generated by sport participation, sport-related travel, and facility operations (Wicker, 2019), and indirect emissions occur through a reliance on other emissions-intensive industries (e.g., aviation, electricity generation, sporting goods manufacturing). At the same time, organized sport exhibits degrees of climate vulnerability at the organizational, team, athlete, and facility levels (Orr & Inoue, 2019). ...
Article
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The relationship between sport and the environment has been primarily examined to understand how sport impacts the natural environment. However, as the influence of climate change has become more apparent, there is a need to establish a systematic understanding of the impacts of climate change on the operations of sport. The aim of this review is to take stock of existing literature on climate change's impacts on organized competitive sport entities, with further attention paid to their adaptation efforts. A scoping review was conducted to identify relevant studies published between 1995 and 2021. After evaluating more than 2100 publications, we retained 57 articles and analyzed them to answer the research questions: (1) What evidence is available regarding the impacts of climate change on the operation of organized competitive sport entities? (2) What is known from the literature about the measures taken by organized competitive sport entities to adapt to the impacts of climate change? Our analysis yielded five major themes: (1) Heat impacts on athlete and spectator health; (2) heat impacts on athlete performance; (3) adaptive measures taken in sport; (4) suitability of various cities for event hosting; and (5) benchmarking and boundary conditions. This review reveals that there is evidence of some climate change impacts on sport, but the literature reflects only a small share of the global sport sector. Equally, much remains to be understood about the nature of adaptation. This article is categorized under: Assessing Impacts of Climate Change > Evaluating Future Impacts of Climate Change
... To begin with, a lineage of studies were developed to investigate the environmental effect produced by sport events, in terms of energy usage, the creation of waste, and the depletion of natural resources, as well as the production of various forms of pollution (Thibault, 2009). For instance, research examined the carbon footprint generated by spectators (e.g., Collins et al., 2007), teams (e.g., Chard & Mallen, 2012), and participants (e.g., Wicker, 2018aWicker, , 2018b traveling to and taking part in sport. Not only did these studies reveal the harmful environmental damage of sport consumption and participation activities, but they also pointed out that, in some cases, sport activities could be part of a vicious cycle causing further degradation to already fragile ecosystems (McCullough et al., 2016;Wicker, 2018b). ...
... Sport involve a great number of people who, as part of their sport activity, use resource-intensive facilities and travel, eat and consume in ways detrimental to the environment (McCullough et al. 2020, Wicker 2019. From populations of 5.8, 5.4 and 10.2 million respectively, Denmark has approximately 11500 sport clubs with 2500000 members (DIF 2022), Norway 9 500 clubs with 1900000 members (NIF 2021), and Sweden 18500 clubs with 335000 members (RF 2020). ...
... A second stream of scholarship focuses on how consumers and sport participants impact the sport environment (Collins et al. 2007;Triantafyllidis et al. 2018;Wicker 2018). For instance, Wicker (2019) estimated the carbon footprint of active sport participants in Germany, illustrating differences across sport types and based on participant characteristics. A third stream of scholarship has also emerged, as environmental scientists have investigated the association between climate change and activities in which people engage, including working outside or participating in sport (Evans 2019;Obradovich and Fowler 2017;Kjellstrom et al. 2016). ...
Article
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Climate change has impacted people, communities, and industries around the world, including sport and physical activity. Drawing from Stern’s (J Soc Issues 56(3):407–424, 2000) value-belief-norm theory, which focuses on identifying predictors of environmentally significant behavior, the purpose of this study was to explore the degree to which physical activity participation is associated with pro-environmental attitudes. The authors collected data at the county level in the USA (N = 3136), accessing publicly available data from a variety of sources. They also controlled for potential alternative explanations, including percent of the county population living in a rural setting, age 65 or older, that is female, that is non-Hispanic White, that has a college degree or greater, and that voted Democrat in the 2016 Presidential election. Results indicate that physical activity participation was positively associated with people’s belief that climate change personally affects them. These beliefs were, in turn, positively associated with the belief new policies are needed to address climate change. The authors discuss contributions to theory and practice.
... Rest districts are noted with occupancy rates ranging from 22 to 31 (Fig. 8). The occupancy rate in green tourist spots is positively associated with the potential for green tourism (Goffi et al., 2020;Wicker, 2019). Consequently, after classifying the occupancy rate (CR) into three groups (i.e., < 22, 22-31 and > 31), these groups are recoded with 1 (55.34% ...
Article
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Green tourism is an emerging sustainable approach that needs to be implemented to manage environmental pollution in a particular region. Although the Gangetic West Bengal (GWB) is full of green tourism potential, the green tourism potentiality in this region has not been revealed yet. Therefore, the present research is focused on the delineation of the green tourism potential zone of the GWB using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and weighted sum techniques. The whole methodology has been implemented here through a straightforward, concise, and multistep (5-steps) process, which removes the entanglement and intricacy of the traditional AHP technique. At the first step, nine thematic layers are prepared. In the second step, pair-wise comparison matrices are formed following the principle of eigenvector. All thematic layers are reclassified at the third stage, and priorities are assigned to each class. The weighted sum procedure is utilized in the fourth stage to get the green tourism potential map, and the consistency ratio is also checked. Finally, the green tourism potential map is classified into high, moderate, and low categories using natural breaks. About 23.753% area of the GWB is identified as the high green tourism potential zone. The 12.691% area is identified as the low green tourism potential zone, and the rest (63.555% area) are recognized as the moderate green tourism potential zone. Further, the green tourism potential map is validated using the correlation coefficient (R²) determined by the district-wise availability (percentage share) of green tourist spots and the concomitant pixel count (percentage share) of the green tourism potential zone. A high R² value (R² ~ 84.5%) is obtained here, and therefore, the green tourism potential map portrayed in this research can be utilized further without hesitation. The methodology used here is generous, logical, unique, and easy to implement in any region.
... fitness/gym with 228 kg) with a comparably small carbon footprint. The study found some nature sports, such as alpine skiing, to have a particularly high carbon footprint 31 . The environmental impact of these sports has also been pointed out by previous studies 32,33 . ...
Preprint
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The importance of the global climate crisis requires linking physical activity promotion and climate action. This article provides a first overview of interconnections between physical activity promotion and climate action, potential synergies and discrepancies, aiming to stimulate further discussion about this topic. The analysis is based on the World Health Organization’s Global Action Plan on Physical Activity 2018-2030 (GAPPA). The GAPPA covers five perspectives that are of particular relevance with respect to potential links with climate policy: (1) Infrastructures supporting active transport, (2) green spaces and recreational/exercise facilities, (3) exercise programs, (4) mass communication campaigns and mass participation events, and (5) training of professionals. Our analysis demonstrates a considerable alignment between strategies for physical activity promotion and efforts for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. However, in some of the areas, this alignment could still be improved. Additionally, more climate-conscious policies, research and surveillance need to be developed in the field of physical activity promotion.
... When air travel to matches is mentioned as a significant factor towards the environmental footprint of the event (Dolf & Teehan, 2015) it is evident this is a very different level of 'community sport' than witnessed by, for example, most of the 29,000 football clubs in England. Far more insightful for considering the impacts of these organisations would be the study by Wicker (2019b) of the travel arrangements of participants in community sports. ...
Article
The sport and environment literature is small, utilises a limited number of theoretical positions and ignores the work on social practice theory developed in other disciplines. The oversights in existing research are often compounded by reference to the broad term of sustainability and the use of case studies from the minority – elite, professional, organisations – in the sport sector. This commentary identifies the need for additional research on the mitigation of sport’s environmental impact using different interpretations of how we define, organise and play sport. Expanding the discussion would allow sport to play a more active role in the fundamental lifestyle changes necessitated by the environmental crisis.
... Nowadays, CF represents a very important research topic in almost all aspects of human life, and there is a number of recent references dealing with it in different branches of research: tourism (Rico et al., 2019), civil engineering (Fenner et al., 2018;Yu et al., 2017), sports (Wicker, 2019), wastewater treatment (Delre et al., 2018), agriculture (Xie et al., 2019), meat production (Ibidhi et al., 2017), manufacturing (He et al., 2018), viticulture (Rugani et al., 2013), the energy sector (Perry et al., 2008;Yan et al., 2019), etc. The current investigation considers as most interesting CF research in the maritime sector. ...
Article
Emissions produced by fuel oil combustion in marine engines contribute to marine environment pollution and have a negative impact on both human health and the environment. This impact is more pronounced for ships which mostly operate near ports and inhabited areas, such as ro-ro passenger ships. The relevant legislation prescribes a reduction of carbon dioxide on account of its contribution to the problem of global warming. This paper deals with the assessment of the carbon footprint of the Croatian ro-ro passenger fleet in the Adriatic Sea and the corresponding measures to reduce it. This paper analyses a total of 27 ferry lines along the Croatian coast that produce around 29,000 tons of carbon dioxide annually. The analysis distinguishes two lines, Valbiska-Lopar and Vis-Split, with a significantly higher relative contribution to total emissions. The potential to introduce measures to reduce the carbon footprint on these lines is discussed. By implementing these measures, the carbon footprint of the Valbiska-Lopar line can be reduced by almost 40%, while that of the Vis-Split line can be lowered by around 27%.
... The aim of this paper is to review and synthesise papers that cover the issue of CF within the sustainable development of the tourism industry, and in particular with regard to the development of sports tourism which is proved to be one the most prosperous types of tourism [5], [6]. To accomplish this, we define the following research questions: ...
... At the university level, the effects of transportation that football spectators produce on air quality were also studied [44]. As for the study of the carbon footprint of sport participants, there is the paradox that individuals with a greater environmental awareness (i.e., participants in sports in nature) are not the ones who most protect the environment due to the essence of their own activity [45]. ...
Article
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This study explores the importance of environmentally sustainable initiatives in sport (ESIS) for stakeholders in pandemic times. Three topics—climate changes and energy consumption, environmental impact of sports events, and health and well-being—were considered and analysed under three sustainability forms: organisational, community, and individual. A total of 5917 stakeholders (sponsors, employees, and members) of a sports organization realised one online survey. The data gathering process occurred during pandemic times, when every kind of collective sport event was suspended to the general public. The descriptive analysis of the results is provided, and the findings reveal that health and well-being is the most valorised topic by members and employees, in a sustainable individual form. On the other hand, sponsors manifest their interest mainly in a sustainability organisational and community forms.
... This trend is also reflected in the sport management literature, which currently calls for environmental impact studies of events (e.g. Dolf & Teehan, 2015;Wicker, 2018). In some countries, these aspects have been increasingly mentioned, for example in the context of leaving a legacy from mega sport events (e.g. ...
Book
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We present the main findings and implications from nine countries within the EU funded project “New Age of Sport Management Education in Europe” (NASME, 2017-2019). This final chapters considers results from a quantitative survey and qualitative interviews with sport management experts from organisations from the public sector, sport clubs, non-profit sector and private sector. Trends. Some 93 % of the respondents of the quantitative survey perceived digitalisation of sport to affect their working areas at present and in the future. Some 85 % of the survey participants also believe that commercialisation of sport will affect their working areas, and some 73 % suggest that internationalisation will have a similar impact. Digitalisation has crystallised as a key driver within all of the study participants’ working areas. According to the results of the qualitative data analysis, digitalisation means not only a social process, which facilitates the working processes in the current sport management labour market, but also a driving force in creating new jobs in sport organisations. Competencies. Future sport managers need to possess an increasingly diverse set of competencies, such as professional competencies, personal competencies, activity and action competencies and socio-communicative competencies. This finding holds for organisations in all four sectors. Core competencies include the ability to work autonomously, capacity to adapt to new situations, desire to succeed, oral communication, organisational skills, planning skills and teamwork. The high importance of generic competencies can be regarded as a key finding of the NASME project. In addition, sport management study programmes are called on to provide students opportunities to acquire digital competencies, such as digital marketing, use of virtual media and social media in work much more intensively than in the past. Implications. Based on the findings concerning trends to affect the sport organisations and the competency requirements for future sport managers working in these organisations, there are some educational and practical implications. The study gives twelve key recommendations for curriculum development of sport management study programmes at higher education institutions. Most importantly, there should be a generalist sport management education at Bachelor and Master level with aligned sector-specific electives. Teamwork resulted to be a top core competency in all partner countries. Therefore, sport management curricula need to consider teamwork to be developed through adjusted learning environments and assessment methods. In order to give students the opportunity to develop organisational skills, curricula need to include applied project management formats, in which students plan and organise own projects. The strong effect of digitalisation processes on the labour market necessitates particular action for curriculum development, such as integrating and strengthening subject-specific courses concerning (applied) digital marketing and social media management, and implementing and expanding the use of virtual media platforms in learning activities. The study participants highlighted the importance of work experience, for example gained in internships. Therefore, sport management curricula need to integrate (compulsory) internships at Bachelor and Master level. In addition to recommendations for curriculum development, the study gives seven recommendations for sport management practice. For example, ongoing dialogue and long-term partnerships between higher education institutions and the labour market concerning curriculum development can help contribute to a better fit between employer requirements and qualifications and competencies offered by sport management graduates. In addition, sport organisations are encouraged to offer reputable internship possibilities, so that students can apply their theoretical knowledge into practice and gain valuable work experience.
... In the literature, many podoscope systems have been introduced to quantify the plantar foot. [1][2][3][4][5][6] In Čuček L et al. [7] the methods of assessing the footprint are presented in four categories. These four categories are environmental footprints, social footprints, economic footprints and economic footprint. ...
Article
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In the literatures, some podoscope systems have been introduced to analyze the plantar footprint. However, there is an absence of a low complexity portable system with control capacity and trace ability of users and their results through a web application. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop of a portable system that allows the automation of the process; reducing the errors of human character and the times of accomplishment. The development methodology of the research is a cascade type that begins as an initial phase in analyzing of the requirements and restrictions of the system. Then the physical and circuit design of the platform are carried out. Once the first two stages of the methodology are complete, the algorithms of the portable system based on Android Studio, and the web application are developed under the Laravel framework. Finally, the performance of the proposed system and the analysis of the results will be presented. In this study, the footprint of 35 users and a total of 70 samples will be analyzed. The results show 74% accuracy compared to the manual method.
... Yet it also registers significant and measurable impacts on the environment, with scientific methods at the heart of its landscape management and economic activity throughout its organisation (Casper & Pfahl, 2015). Transport to sports venues cause challenges before a ball has been kicked or bowled (Wicker, 2019). Additionally, there are the effects caused by sport's demand for products supporting its operations, and the use of resources to create them. ...
Article
Rationale/Purpose The aim of this research was to identify the extent of, and barriers, to pro-environmental activity within community-based, association football clubs in England. Design/Methodology/Approach Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with volunteers at community football clubs in the FA county of “North Country”. Findings The ownership and management of football facilities provides for a low level of independent decision making by clubs and negates the encouragement of pro-environmental activity. Practical implications Strategies for increased environmental activity in football need to look beyond individual clubs and volunteers to the way the sport is organised. Research contribution This research adds to a football and environment literature in its infancy and expands consideration of the non-professional sector of the game in academic work.
... Many aspects of sport (infrastructure, events, team/player travel, sport tourism) are also highly carbon intensive (e.g. Barker et al., 2014;Formula 1, 2019;NHL, 2020;Triantafyllidis et al., 2018;Wicker, 2019;Wynes, 2021) and will be impacted by climate policies like national and sub-national carbon pricing and emission reductions targets (particularly for transportation and buildings) (Scott & Gossling, 2021). There remain significant knowledge gaps to understand the relationship between sport and climate change in order to advance pathways towards low carbon and climate-resilient sport that align with the Paris Climate Agreement. ...
Article
The International Olympic Committee recognizes the risks climate change pose to the Games and its responsibility to lead on climate action. Winter is changing at the past Olympic Winter Games (OWG) locations and an important perspective to understand climate change risk is that of the athletes who put themselves at risk during these mega-sport events. A survey of 339 elite athletes and coaches from 20 countries was used to define fair and safe conditions for snow sports competitions. The frequency of unfair-unsafe conditions has increased over the last 50 years across the 21 OWG host locations. The probability of unfair-unsafe conditions increases under all future climate change scenarios. In a low emission scenario aligned to the Paris Climate Agreement, the number of climate reliable hosts remains almost unchanged throughout the twenty-first century (nine in mid-century, eight in late century). The geography of the OWG changes radically if global emissions remain on the trajectory of the last two decades, leaving only one reliable host city by the end of the century. Athletes expressed trepidation over the future of their sport and the need for the sporting world to be a powerful force to inspire and accelerate climate action.
... The assessment does not include fans living within five miles who are unlikely to walk to the stadium and potentially rely on their private car or car service. Because we do not have accurate survey data on how the fans traveled, we cannot provide a more concise evaluation produced in previous studies (Triantafyllidis et al., 2018;Wicker, 2019). However, Cooper and McCullough (2021) argue that internal data, like ticket purchase data, can be used to estimate aspects of a sport event's environmental impact. ...
Article
Sport organizations are engaging in more advanced environmental sustainability efforts to reduce their environmental impacts. In particular, sport organizations and venues can align their environmental goals with the surrounding city’s environmental objectives. In this study, we examine the relationship between the city and the various sport venues given the city’s agenda to reduce pollution by encouraging the use of public transport. Through ticket purchase data and GIS analysis, we examine how the city capacity helps sport venues fulfill their environmental goals to reduce the environmental impact from fan transportation. We identified the geographical fragmentation of sport fans and found that most fans live beyond five miles of a light rail station. This distance decay from the station makes fans reliant on another form of transportation. Researchers and practitioners can use this approach to leverage internal data and GIS analyses to understand the influence of geographical segmentation of their fans and the influence of this distribution on the environmental impact of fans. This analysis also provides the foundation for future researchers to further examine transportation behaviors of sport fans and the effect of distance decay from transportation stations on sustainable transportation choices.
... Regarding CK, PE teachers should have a profound knowledge regarding the challenges and problems of SD in the sport context. This includes knowledge about relevant "inconvenient truths" [88] of globalized sport, e.g., the environmental impact of sport activities and events, climate effects of sport-related mobility, work conditions in the production and supply chain of sport equipment, infrastructure and events [89][90][91][92] and also knowledge about potential positive impacts of sport and physical activity on the individual and societal level, e.g., health benefits, sport for peace and development [43,93,94]. Teachers should thus be able to analyse the power and limitations of sport and physical activity as "an important enabler" [95] (para. ...
Article
Full-text available
In order to implement education for sustainable development (ESD), teachers from all subjects need to be equipped with ESD-specific professional action competence, including physical education (PE) teachers. However, the current state of research on approaches to defining ESD-specific teacher competence is complex and there is little debate on what competences PE teachers in particular need in order to implement ESD. The purpose of this study is to make a theoretical contribution to clarifying the central concepts of ESD-specific teacher competences and to link this discussion to the subject of PE. We conducted a systematic literature review following PRISMA guidelines with a focus on normative and theoretical work about ESD-specific teacher competences. Twenty-two articles from 2008 onwards met the inclusion criteria. Subsequently, we applied a qualitative content analysis based on theoretically derived main categories. The literature review revealed a more nuanced examination of the categories of ESD-specific professional knowledge and beliefs. The categories of motivational orientation and self-regulation were found to have received less attention in the analyzed papers. PE-specific aspects were not reflected in the reviewed literature. A refined model of ESD-specific professional action competence is suggested and it is demonstrated how this model might be applied to subject-specific discourses from the perspective of PE.
... Surfers in general have high environmental engagement, but statistics show their much higher carbon footprint than that of the general population (Butt, 2015). In both surfing and outdoor activities in general, there seems to be a gap between the participants' concern for the environment and pro-environmental behaviour (Stoddart, 2011;Butt, 2015;Evers, 2019;Wicker, 2019). ...
Article
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Surfers often see themselves as “green”. In this study we examine Norwegian surfers' attitudes and actions towards the environment. The article is based on a questionnaire ( n = 251) and six qualitative interviews. The results show that most surfers see themselves as environmentally conscious. Oppositely, the data also show that they also buy a lot of surf-related apparel and equipment and travel a lot, and thereby contribute with a lot of CO 2 -emissions. In the article we investigate the apparent attitude-action gap amongst surfers. Does the gap give rise to emotional conflicts? And, if so, to what degree and how do they cope with it. In the article we start out by analysing such potential conflicts by using the concept cognitive dissonance. Further, we analyse the phenomena from a cultural, Bourdieusian perspective where values within the surf-field is highlighted. On the one hand, surf culture highly values connexion to nature and “green” thinking, on the other hand it also values and gives recognition to surfers that travels to and explore exotic destinations. Hence, values within surf culture leads surfers to conflicting actions. We end the article by discussing if these conflicts could be framed as cultural dissonance.
... Therefore, golf depletes our environmental life-support system through biodiversity loss, freshwater use, ocean acidification, ozone depletion, and the consumption of fossil fuels, metal ores and nonmetallic minerals (Hiskes, 2010;Millington & Wilson, 2016;Tidåker et al., 2017;Wheeler & Nauright, 2006 [WHO, 2011]). Golfers also have the second highest carbon-footprint (behind diving) of all active sports participants in Germany because of the energy associated with travelling to and from facilities (Wicker, 2019). In the future, golf is likely to face more questions over equity, justice and access to land and resources (Cohen, 1995;Neo, 2009Neo, , 2010, more pressure to comply with regulations (Strandberg et al., 2012), and inertia in the expectations and behaviors of players (Hammond & Hudson, 2007;Minoli et al., 2018). ...
Article
Despite practical advances in many areas of sustainability, golf still faces a number of complex, interlinked challenges heading into the future. Using strong sustainability as a critical interpretive lens, this paper radically reimagines what golf is, what golf does, and what golf can be for current and future generations and identifies some possibilities to be found through the theory and practice of sustainable development. For the sake of current and future generations, golf must explore means of minimizing resource inputs, minimizing waste outputs, optimizing use of renewable energy and maximizing player participation and satisfaction. To do this, golf requires a paradigm shift from efficiency to sufficiency supported by big thinking, moral responsibility and radical renovations in its practices, technologies and values. Using the fundamental principles of sustainability, we begin to envision an overhaul of golf as part of broader societal transformations. In short, this paper poses a provocation for “thinking otherwise” about golf and sustainability and opens fertile ground for turfgrass practitioners and researchers to begin cultivating more resilient and sustainable fields of play.
Article
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The importance of the global climate crisis requires linking physical activity promotion and climate action. This article provides a first overview of interconnections between physical activity promotion and climate action, potential synergies and discrepancies, aiming to stimulate further discussion about this topic. The analysis is based on the World Health Organization’s Global Action Plan on Physical Activity 2018-2030 (GAPPA). The GAPPA covers five perspectives that are of particular relevance with respect to potential links with climate policy: (1) Infrastructures supporting active transport, (2) green spaces and recreational/exercise facilities, (3) exercise programs, (4) mass communication campaigns and mass participation events and (5) training of professionals. Our analysis demonstrates a considerable alignment between strategies for physical activity promotion and efforts for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. However, in some of the areas, this alignment could still be improved. Additionally, more climate-conscious policies, research and surveillance need to be developed in the field of physical activity promotion.
Conference Paper
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The need for measuring the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions generated by transportation practices in the sport industry has raised the attention of both practitioners and researchers (Trail & McCullough, 2019; Triantafyllidis & Kaplanidou, 2019). By understanding the willingness of spectators to offset their CO2 emissions generated and their behavioral intentions to use sustainable mobility, this research could provide crucial insights for sustainable planning and policy development of mobility in sport events, which could also apply to the urban development of growing cities (Triantafyllidis, 2018).
Article
Individuals’ mental health and subjective well-being have become increasingly important in public health policy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pro-environmental behavior in sport and clubs’ perceived environmental quality on the subjective well-being of sport club members in Germany. Data were collected using an online survey of club members in five team/racket sports (i.e., basketball, football, handball, ice hockey, and tennis; n = 3,038). The outcome of interest is subjective well-being which is measured with the WHO-5 scale. Pro-environmental behavior in sport is captured by the monthly carbon footprint resulting from traveling to training sessions and pro-environmental actions in sport. The results of regression analyses show that pro-environmental actions in sport have a positive effect on members’ well-being. Individuals producing a higher carbon footprint when traveling to training sessions report lower well-being, but the effect is overlapped by pro-environmental actions in sport. Members who perceived their clubs’ environmental quality as higher scored higher on well-being. The number of weekly sport hours had an inverse u-shaped effect on well-being, with the diminishing returns by additional sport hours being offset by pro-environmental actions. Collectively, these findings suggest that protecting the natural environment goes hand in hand with individuals’ well-being and public health goals in the field of mental health.
Article
According to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change experts, recent changes across the climate system are unprecedented, and the next decades are the most decisive in human history to drastically reduce global annual greenhouse gas emissions. This text argues that sport and exercise psychology, as a scientific discipline, needs to address anthropogenic climate change by helping athletes, sport students, psychologists, coaches, physical educators, youth, sport communities and stakeholders and all populations concerned by our field to adopt adaptation and mitigation behaviors and trigger social changes in their respective communities. We briefly present the bidirectional associations between physical activity, sport and climate change. Then, we highlight three key points about climate change: its effects on health, equity issues and behaviors change in line with currently needed climate efforts. Furthermore, we suggest a series of research questions for physical activity and sport psychology domains. Finally, we conclude by presenting a call to action.
Article
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The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals are grouped under three main titles; economic development, environmental sustainability, and improvement of social well-being. Environmental sustainability is one of the most important components of sustainable development goals because it is obvious that without a sustainable environment, economic and social development goals will be abandoned. While the unplanned use of the environment and natural resources threatens environmental sustainability, it can be said that one of the most important actors in this process is sports. Mass production and consumption, facility establishment, and increase in organizations in sports accelerate environmental and natural destruction. The sustainability of sports is directly proportional to environmental sustainability. Therefore, reduction of the sports-induced negative environmental impacts will make great contributions to environmental sustainability. In this way, it will be possible to transfer both the natural environment and sports to future generations. This study was limited to environmental sustainability, which is one of the three main titles set for sustainable development goals and the effects of sports on environmental sustainability were evaluated in the light of available literature. Again, regarding the existing literature, suggestions were developed to reduce the negative environmental impacts of sports.
Article
The purposes of this study were to estimate the carbon footprint caused by football fans travelling to Bundesliga matches (first division) in Germany in the 2018/19 season, to analyse determinants of seasonal carbon footprint, and to identify fan clusters based on travel behaviour. A nationwide online survey of football fans was conducted (n = 539) asking respondents to report their match-related travel behaviour. The average seasonal carbon footprint of a Bundesliga fan amounted 311.1 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions (CO2-e), with car travel accounting for 70% of the emissions. The aggregate carbon footprint of all fans for the whole Bundesliga season was 369,765.2 t CO2-e. Buying out of these carbon emissions would cost over €9.2 million in total. The regression results revealed that club membership and commitment to favourite club significantly increased fans’ carbon footprint. The choice of favourite Bundesliga club also predicted carbon footprint, with fans of FC Bayern Munich and RB Leipzig producing a significantly higher carbon footprint than fans of Borussia Dortmund. The segmentation of Bundesliga fans by their travel behaviour identified three distinct clusters: Devoted travellers (19%), home fans (30%) and casual visitors (51%). These clusters differed significantly in terms of emissions per kilometre travelled, car use versus public transport, club membership, fan commitment, environmental consciousness, education and age. The findings have practical implications for policy makers, Bundesliga officials and club authorities, and can serve as a basis for initiatives to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in professional team sports.
Book
The natural environment is a central issue in both academic and wider societal discourse. The global sport industry is not immune from this discussion and has to confront its responsibility to reduce its impact on the natural environment. This book goes further than any other in surveying both the challenges and the opportunities presented to the sports industry as it engages with the sustainability agenda, exploring the various ways in which sport scholars can integrate sustainability into their research. With a multi-disciplinary sweep, including management, sociology, law, events, and ethics, this is a ground-breaking book in the study of sport. Drawing on cutting edge research, it includes over thirty chapters covering all the most important themes in contemporary sport studies such as: - climate change, sustainability, and corporate social responsibility - ethics, governance, and the law - event management, tourism, and pollution - marketing, branding, and consumer behavior - the Olympics, urban development, and mega-event legacies. With contributions from world-leading researchers and practitioners from around the globe, this is the most comprehensive book ever published on sport and the environment.
Article
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Carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions related to spectator's transportation to collegiate football events is a significant consideration in the overall carbon footprint of collegiate sporting events. Transportation mode affects CO 2 emissions per spectator and stadium location, specifically on-and off-campus locations affect the transportation mode chosen by spectators. The quantity of CO 2 emissions generated from spectators' transportation to collegiate sporting events at an on-campus university stadium is compared to off-campus stadium. The transportation modes and miles traveled by spectators were modeled with GREET 2016 to estimate CO 2 emissions. Significant differences were found between the two stadium locations regarding the spectators' choice of transportation mode and distance traveled. Implications are presented for environmental sustainability and planning.
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Das Buch dient dazu, einen Einblick in den Stand und die Entwicklung des Umweltbewußtseins und Umweltverhaltens der deutschen Bevölkerung im Verlauf der 90er Jahre zu vermitteln. Empirische Datenbasis sind die in den Jahren 1991-1998 im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes und des Bundesumweltministeriums durchgeführten Bevölkerungsumfragen "Umweltbewußtsein in Deutschland".
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This paper pioneers the assessment of tourism's total global resource use, including its fossil fuel consumption, associated CO2 emissions, fresh water, land, and food use. As tourism is a dynamic growth system, characterized by rapidly increasing tourist numbers, understanding its past, current, and future contributions to global resource use is a central requirement for sustainable tourism assessments. The paper introduces the concept of resource use intensities (RUIs), which represent tourism's resource needs per unit of consumption (e.g. energy per guest night). Based on estimates of RUIs, a first assessment of tourism's global resource use and emissions is provided for the period 1900-2050, utilizing the Peeters Global Tourism Transport Model. Results indicate that the current (2010) global tourism system may require c.16,700 PJ of energy, 138 km3 of fresh water, 62,000 km2 of land, and 39.4 Mt of food, also causing emissions of 1.12 Gt CO2. Despite efforts to implement more sustainable forms of tourism, analysis indicates that tourism's overall resource consumption may grow by between 92% (water) and 189% (land use) in the period 2010-2050. To maintain the global tourism system consequently requires rapidly growing resource inputs, while the system is simultaneously becoming increasingly vulnerable to disruptions in resource flows.
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Three parallel lines of inquiry regarding individuals' support for the environment have developed within the environmental social sciences. These include individuals' concern for the environment, research on private sphere pro-environmental behaviour (PEB), i.e. household actions seeking to improve the environment (e.g. buying better light bulbs), and more recently, ecological and carbon footprints. Researchers have noted that the correlates of this third form of support for the environment are not necessarily the same as the predictors of the first two forms. Using Canadian survey data, this study examines the relationships among, and predictors of, all three forms. Evidence that there is not a link between private sphere PEB and household carbon footprints, and that measures of socio-economic status (education and income) have different effects on different types of support for the environment, invites a discussion of whether environmental social scientists are really counting what counts.
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In drawing from the theory of planned behaviour, the purpose of this research project was to examine factors that influence sport spectators| intentions to recycle plastic bottles. In Study 1 (n = 144 students), the authors developed and provided validity evidence for a questionnaire measuring recycling behaviour. In Study 2, data were collected from adult spectators (n = 129) who were attending a weekend-long youth baseball tournament. Results point to the importance of subjective norms and other spectators| recycling expectations. In all, the model explained 30% of the variance in recycling intentions. Implications for theory and policy development are discussed.
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Ecofeminism suggests that women are more active than men regarding environmental issues for a variety of social, cultural, and biological reasons. In support to these arguments, women predominate within the overall grassroots of the Environmental Justice movement. However, claims have been made that environmental education theory and research are overlooking gender differences in environmentalism. Although literature research reports that women show stronger environmental concern and attitudes than men and although there has been a growing awareness of the importance of gender in the willingness to act environmentally, we argue that there has been relatively little recognition of its potential in the context of environmentally responsible behavior. Finally, we suggest that by incorporating findings about gender differences in motivation, attitudes, and behaviors, Environmental Education would be in a position to inspire women from all race and class backgrounds to engage in effective ecological and political action.
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This study examined the values, beliefs, and norms of undergraduate sport management and recreation administration student’s related to environmental awareness and personal actions utilizing Stern’s (2000) value-belief-norm (VBN) framework. Students ( N = 341) in sport-related programs at two universities completed the survey. Structural equation modeling found the VBN framework explained both personal and organizational environmental behavior. Values were a significant predictor of environmental beliefs. Beliefs significantly explained personal norms, but not behavior. Personal norms were the strongest indicator for proenvironmental action and predicted personal and organizational conservation behavior equally. This study extends research related to environmental behavior and provides a departure point to improve understandings of the current foundational environmental perspectives held by future sport and recreation managers.
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The city of Montreal has taken recent initiatives to significantly reduce overall greenhouse (GHG) emissions from the transport sector and has made large investments in alternative transportation. In particular, the city has called upon the participation of all businesses and institutions to further these goals. In light of these recent plans, this study identifies with two objectives: first, to develop a methodology for estimating GHG emissions generated by commuters to McGill University’s downtown campus; and secondly, to better understand who, how, and when each commuter to McGill generates travel-related GHG. Mode split, travel distance, age, gender and job category were uncovered by a 2011 travel survey that we conducted across the University, from which daily individual GHG emissions are estimated. Details about these trips not only reveal who the largest polluters are and where they are coming from, but also the seasonality of their emissions. These associations are then used to narrate scenarios which present alternatives to the structure of individuals’ commutes by examining the outcomes of selected shifts in travel behavior on total GHG emissions.
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This paper suggests the need for a broader view of `gender and transport' by presenting a study of gender differences in car use for maintenance travel. Although many more women are now entering the labour force than a few decades ago, they still have to undertake the larger share of household-related work. The main objective of this paper is to assess the impact of these changing gender roles on travel patterns and in particular on car use for maintenance travel. We used the survey and trip diary data of 949 respondents living in two urban and two suburban neighbourhoods of the Cologne metropolitan area. The empirical findings suggest that labour market and maintenance activities influence car use in different directions. While parenthood reduces the odds of car use by women, it increases men's car use. Labour force participation on the other hand, especially when part-time, intensifies car use for both genders. In short, a levelling influence of paid work and a traditionalizing influence of parenthood regarding car use for maintenance travel was found.
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Does the association between household characteristics and household CO2 emissions differ for areas such as home energy, transport and indirect emissions? This question is policy relevant because distributional implications of mitigation policies may vary depending on the area of emissions that is targeted if specific types of households are likely to have higher emissions in some areas than in others. So far, this issue has not been examined in depth in the literature on household CO2 emissions. Using a representative UK expenditure survey, this paper compares how household characteristics like income, household size, education, gender, worklessness and rural or urban location differ in their association with all three areas as well as total emissions. We find that these associations vary considerably across emission domains. In particular, whilst all types of emissions rise with income, low income, workless and elderly households are more likely to have high emissions from home energy than from other domains, suggesting that they may be less affected by carbon taxes on transport or total emissions. This demonstrates that fairness implications related to mitigation policies need to be examined for separate emission domains.
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Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from motorised travel are hypothesised to be associated with individual, household, spatial and other environmental factors. Little robust evidence exists on who contributes most (and least) to travel CO2 and, in particular, the factors influencing commuting, business, shopping and social travel CO2. This paper examines whether and how demographic, socio-economic and other personal and environmental characteristics are associated with land-based passenger transport and associated CO2 emissions. Primary data were collected from 3474 adults using a newly developed survey instrument in the iConnect study in the UK. The participants reported their past-week travel activity and vehicle characteristics from which CO2 emissions were derived using an adapted travel emissions profiling method. Multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine what characteristics predicted higher CO2 emissions. CO2 emissions from motorised travel were distributed highly unequally, with the top fifth of participants producing more than two fifth of emissions. Car travel dominated overall CO2 emissions, making up 90% of the total. The strongest independent predictors of CO2 emissions were owning at least one car, being in full-time employment and having a home-work distance of more than 10 km. Income, education and tenure were also strong univariable predictors of CO2 emissions, but seemed to be further back on the causal pathway than having a car. Male gender, late-middle age, living in a rural area and having access to a bicycle also showed significant but weaker associations with emissions production. The findings may help inform the development of climate change mitigation policies for the transport sector. Targeting individuals and households with high car ownership, focussing on providing viable alternatives to commuting by car, and supporting planning and other policies that reduce commuting distances may provide an equitable and efficient approach to meeting carbon mitigation targets.
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This study was undertaken against the background of tourism as an active contributor to climate change, to explore how tourists and 'tourism experts' perceive climate change and forest carbon sinks as a means to offset carbon dioxide emissions. Three different surveys were undertaken in Australia and New Zealand that contained the same two questions: is climate change an issue for tourism, and would tourists be willing to participate in tree-planting to offset their greenhouse gas emissions. About half of all tourists questioned a link between climate change and tourism, but the willingness to plant a tree was surprisingly high among tourists (48%), who associated much broader benefits with trees than their function as carbon sinks. The study identified five groups of tourists that require different approaches for the development of educational campaigns. The degree to which cognitive or affective factors play a role for each group will be critical for the success of such campaigns. Tourism experts saw a changing climate as a potential threat for tourism, but did not necessarily see tourism's fossil fuel consumption and the resulting carbon dioxide emissions as a contributor to climate change.
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Recent meta-analytic reviews have documented that the sexes typically differ in a variety of social behaviors, including aggression, helping, nonverbal behavior, and various aspects of inter-action in task-oriented groups. In general, these findings are consistent with a social-role theory of sex differences, which emphasizes the causal impact of gender roles-that is, of people's beliefs about the behavior that is appropriate for each sex. To move beyond the demonstration of consistency between role expectations and social behavior, meta-analyses have examined the moderators and mediators specified by this theoretical model The outcomes of these moderator and mediator analyses are illustrated from several meta-analyses of gender and social behavior. These meta-analyses thus show that quantitative reviewing is not limited to the mere summarizing of research findings; the technique also allows reviewers to examine the plausibility of theories that are relevant to these findings.
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The term 'carbon footprint' has become tremendously popular over the last few years and is now in widespread use across the media – at least in the United Kingdom. With climate change high up on the political and corporate agenda, carbon footprint calculations are in demand. Numerous approaches have been proposed to provide estimates, ranging from basic online calculators to sophisticated life-cycle-analysis or input-output based methods and tools. Despite its ubiquitous use however, there is an apparent lack of academic definitions of what exactly a 'carbon footprint' is meant to be. The scientific literature is surprisingly void of clarifications, despite the fact that countless studies in energy and ecological economics that could have claimed to measure a 'carbon footprint' have been published over decades. This commentary explores the apparent discrepancy between public and academic use of the term 'carbon footprint' and suggests a scientific definition based on commonly accepted accounting principles and modelling approaches. It addresses methodological questions such as system boundaries, completeness, comprehensiveness, units, and robustness of the indicator.
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The low-cost hypothesis predicts that the strength of effects of environmental concern on environmental behavior diminishes with increasing behavioral costs. Thus, environmental concern influences environmental behavior primarily in situations and under conditions connected with low costs and little inconvenience for individual actors. In a first step, we develop and specify this hypothesis. Referring to two procedures, we then test it on the basis of an environmental survey of a random sample of 2307 respondents from the German population. The empirical evidence is positive. The low-cost hypothesis is not confined to the area of environmental research. It points to general limits of attitude-research (in high-cost situations) and to general limits of rational-choice theory (in low-cost situations), and suggests a strategy for integrating research in social psychology, sociology, and economics.
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Numerous theoretical frameworks have been developed to explain the gap between the possession of environmental knowledge and environmental awareness, and displaying pro-environmental behavior. Although many hundreds of studies have been undertaken, no definitive explanation has yet been found. Our article describes a few of the most influential and commonly used analytical frameworks: early US linear progression models; altruism, empathy and prosocial behavior models; and finally, sociological models. All of the models we discuss (and many of the ones we do not such as economic models, psychological models that look at behavior in general, social marketing models and that have become known as deliberative and inclusionary processes or procedures (DIPS)) have some validity in certain circumstances. This indicates that the question of what shapes pro-environmental behavior is such a complex one that it cannot be visualized through one single framework or diagram. We then analyze the factors that have been found to have some influence, positive or negative, on pro-environmental behavior such as demographic factors, external factors (e.g. institutional, economic, social and cultural) and internal factors (e.g. motivation, pro-environmental knowledge, awareness, values, attitudes, emotion, locus of control, responsibilities and priorities). Although we point out that developing a model that tries to incorporate all factors might neither be feasible nor useful, we feel that it can help illuminate this complex field. Accordingly, we propose our own model based on the work of Fliegenschnee and Schelakovsky (1998) who were influenced by Fietkau and Kessel (1981).
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Concerns related to the environment are evident in the increasingly ecologically conscious marketplace. Using various statistical analyses, investigats the demographic, psychological and behavioral profiles of consumers who are willing to pay more for environmentally friendly products. Finds that this segment of consumers were more likely to be females, married and with at least one child living at home. They reported that today’s ecological problems are severe, that corporations do not act responsibly toward the environment and that behaving in an ecologically favorable fashion is important and not inconvenient. They place a high importance on security and warm relationships with others, and they often consider ecological issues when making a purchase. Managerial implications for green marketers and suggestions for future research are discussed.
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Increasing greenhouse gaseous concentration in the atmosphere is perturbing the environment to cause grievous global warming and associated consequences. Following the rule that only measurable is manageable, mensuration of greenhouse gas intensiveness of different products, bodies, and processes is going on worldwide, expressed as their carbon footprints. The methodologies for carbon footprint calculations are still evolving and it is emerging as an important tool for greenhouse gas management. The concept of carbon footprinting has permeated and is being commercialized in all the areas of life and economy, but there is little coherence in definitions and calculations of carbon footprints among the studies. There are disagreements in the selection of gases, and the order of emissions to be covered in footprint calculations. Standards of greenhouse gas accounting are the common resources used in footprint calculations, although there is no mandatory provision of footprint verification. Carbon footprinting is intended to be a tool to guide the relevant emission cuts and verifications, its standardization at international level are therefore necessary. Present review describes the prevailing carbon footprinting methods and raises the related issues.
Article
This study examines the monetary value of nonmarket benefits to participants of an active sport tourism event, such as happiness and pride from participating in an event. Willingness to travel (WTT) greater distances for future events is assessed and converted into willingness to pay (WTP) estimates using travel costs. Using survey data from the 2014 and 2015 Blood Sweat Gears bike ride, the intended visitation models show that changes in travel cost have a significant negative effect. WTP to revisit the event was between $41 and $57. The likelihood of return visit decreases as travel costs increase, indicating that WTP estimates are internally valid. WTP estimates stemming from two years of data collection are stable, suggesting that they are also temporally reliable. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using stated preference WTT questions to assign a monetary value to nonmarket benefits of active sport tourists.
Book
The negative impacts of carbon emissions from human activities continue to dramatically reshape the environmental, political, and social landscape. These impacts coupled with cap and trade schemes iterate the importance and need to properly measure and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon Footprint Analysis: Concepts, Methods, Implementation, and Case Studies provides up-to-date technical information and practical guidance on measuring and reducing energy and GHG emissions. Presenting a comprehensive framework for carbon management, this book: Provides definitions, concepts, benefits, and background information regarding carbon footprint analyses Discusses the GHG accounting methods Outlines the general systems framework for conducting an audit Features four case studies in higher education, service, and manufacturing organizations The book includes detailed discussions of the concepts and explains how the different concepts fit together. It supplies the necessary background as well as systematic tools and procedures for organizations to measure and reduce their carbon footprints and begin to adapt to a carbon-constrained world.
Article
Recognizing the shared responsibility all entities with a vested interest in keeping the Earth habitable possess, this work proposes ways in which sport organizations can take action by incorporating ecocentric management principles within their organizational practices and thus become more ecologically just. First, by drawing upon the tenets of the systems thinking paradigm and the four levels of thinking model, the underlying beliefs and values guiding current practices within sport organizations are identified. Next, a series of propositions are offered to suggest that by adopting an equity-based perspective, recognizing the interdependent relationships between humans and the natural environment, and acknowledging the manner in which sport organizations hinder the opportunities of the natural environment to thrive, sport organizations can contribute to the health of the planet and all of its inhabitants through their own organizational practices. Additionally, sport organizations can also serve as ecologically just exemplar for organizations in other industries to emulate.
Article
This study estimated the annual carbon footprint of active sport tourists caused by snow-sport-related travel in the context of day trips, vacations, training courses, and competitions in 2015. Information about individual travel behaviour, sport profile, environmental consciousness, and socio-economic characteristics was collected using a nationwide online survey of adult skiers and boarders living in Germany (n = 523). The average annual carbon footprint of snow sport tourists was 431.6 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions in 2015. Boarders had a higher carbon footprint than skiers. Regression analyses revealed that income and number of snow days had a significant positive effect on annual carbon footprint, while environmental consciousness was insignificant. This finding can be explained with the value–action gap and the low-cost hypothesis, suggesting that environmental attitudes were not associated with pro-environmental behaviour in terms of a lower carbon footprint because snow-sport-related travel was perceived as a high-cost situation by respondents. Segmenting respondents by snow-sport-related travel behaviour yielded two clusters, frequent travellers (56% boarders) and occasional riders (43% skiers), which differed with regard to annual carbon footprint, club membership, number of snow days, and performance level. This study contributes to the literature on active sport tourism and carbon footprinting.
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which environmentally themed activities within an intercollegiate sport context impact fan engagement. A total of 557 fans responded to an online survey measuring fan connection to the athletic department, environmental values, expectations for environmental activities, event and at home environmental behaviors, perceptions of profile enhancement, and recall of environmental sponsors and major initiatives. Results found that fans expected athletic department environmental action and they help with favorable perceptions about the athletic program and university and influenced at event and home behaviors. Cluster analysis identified two clusters based on high pro-environmental and low pro-environmental perceptions. The high proenvironmental cluster was skewed female, had lower connection to the athletic program, and had higher recall of official environmental sponsors and athletic initiatives. The results provide a fundamental and foundational understanding of how environmental activities impact fan engagement and the value of such efforts.
Article
The purpose of this paper is to provide a conceptual framework surrounding the typology of environmental sustainability efforts made within the sport industry. We draw from multiple theoretical frameworks (i.e., institutional theory, diffusion of innovation) to understand the increased similarities of environmental sustainability efforts through organizational learning as environmental sustainability efforts become more purposeful and sophisticated across the sport industry. The paper uses examples from various sport organizations and leagues to classify the efforts of sport organizations into waves of sport environmental sustainability efforts and important implications arising from them.
Article
The relationship of sport to sustainability management is relatively unknown. Despite the increasing recognition of the growing role of athletics in regard to environmental sustainability, it remains unclear what role athletics departments have with regard to environmental action and what is currently being done now. The purpose of this study is to examine American intercollegiate athletics department personnel in relation to their organization's sustainability practices, organizational strategies, and personal perspectives at National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) universities. Athletics department members (N = 97) who were most responsible for sustainability initiatives responded to a survey designed to assess awareness levels and concern for environmental issues and the strategies and practices at work in their respective athletics departments. Findings based on prioritization, planning, decision-making, and use of initiatives using frequencies and means are reported. Differences, using t tests were also compared based on BCS or non-BCS standing. Results show that although environmental concern is high, there is disconnect between concern and action perhaps due to a lack of communication between the athletics department and the general university, cost concerns, and a lack of knowledge about sustainability initiatives. Implications related to the need for better communication between the athletics department/university and improved planning and prioritization is discussed.
Article
Despite the wealth of information which exists concerning environmental behavior, it is not known which variable or variables appear to be most influential in motivating individuals to take responsible environmental action. A meta-analysis of environmental behavior research was undertaken in an attempt to determine this. An exhaustive search of the empirically based environmental behavior research conducted over the past decade yielded a substantial number of studies representative of a broad academic base. The characteristics and findings of these studies served as the data for the meta-analysis. As a result of the meta-analysis, the following variables were found to be associated with responsible environmental behavior: knowledge of issues, knowledge of action strategies, locus of control, attitudes, verbal commitment, and an individual's sense of responsibility. A model of predictors of environmental behavior is proposed.
Article
Fossil fuels used in automobiles have generated over 15% of the carbon emissions worldwide (Nascimento et al., 2009) and driving represents the human activity contributing the most to air pollution (Barkenbus, 2009; Wiederkehr, 1995). As such, the purpose of this study was to generate understandings concerning the environmental impacts of ice hockey at the community level. Specifically, interviews with parents (n = 32) of minor "rep" ice hockey players on two teams (16 parents from "A" level and 16 parents from "AAA" level) in Ontario, Canada were conducted to elicit information on automobile usage for "away" game travel. Using this information, two carbon footprint calculators were employed (CarbonZero and PlanetAir) to ascertain the carbon footprint of these hockey players. The results of the investigation show that the teams journeyed 44,036 ("A" team) and 33,477 ("AAA" team) kilometres, respectively, for "away" games and the total environmental impact of this travel was approximately 20 tons of carbon dioxide (CO2). Organizational and individual behavioural initiatives, to mitigate impacts, are discussed as are future research initiatives about this important issue.
Article
Over the past two decades, a continuously expanding list of footprint-style indicators has been introduced to the scientific community with the aim of raising public awareness of how humanity exerts pressures on the environment. A deeper understanding of the connections and interactions between different footprints is required in an attempt to support policy makers in the measurement and choice of environmental impact mitigation strategies. Combining a selection of footprints that address different aspects of environmental issues into an integrated system is, therefore, a natural step. This paper starts with the idea of developing a footprint family from which most important footprints can be compared and integrated. On the basis of literature review in related fields, the ecological, energy, carbon, and water footprints are employed as selected indicators to define a footprint family. A brief survey is presented to provide background information on each of the footprints with an emphasis on their main characteristics in a comparative sense; that is, the footprints differ in many aspects more than just the impacts they are addressed. This allows the four footprints to be complementarily used in assessing environmental impacts associated with natural resource use and waste discharge. We evaluate the performance of the footprint family in terms of data availability, coverage complementarity, methodological consistency, and policy relevance and propose solutions and suggestions for further improvement. The key conclusions are that the footprint family, which captures a broad spectrum of sustainability issues, is able to offer a more complete picture of environmental complexity for policy makers and, in particular, in national-level studies. The research provides new insights into the distinction between environmental impact assessment and sustainability evaluation, properly serving as a reference for multidisciplinary efforts in estimating planetary boundaries for global sustainability.
Article
The carbon footprint of spectator and team travel was analyzed at small-scale varsity sports events held at the University of British Columbia. Sport management literature suggests a need for quantitative environmental impact studies of events, in particular to seek out transport footprint reduction opportunities. This study applies a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)-based approach to increase methodological rigour and transparency. We analyze travel patterns of spectators and teams and put forward several scenarios for impact reduction. Results show that UBC spectators had a smaller footprint than teams on a per person basis but a larger overall carbon footprint. Although only 4% of the spectators travelled by air, this constituted 52% of total spectator impact. We find the biggest opportunities for footprint reductions by spectators and teams alike are strategies that (a) reduce long-distance air travel, (b) increase vehicle occupancy rates, and (c) encourage low-emission travel mode choices.
Article
The article proposes a conceptual model of quality in event sport tourism wherein perceived quality of sport tourism (Sport Tourism Quality) is said to influence tourist satisfaction which, in turn, influences the tourist's intention to return to the place of the event and/or the event itself. Sport Tourism Quality is indicated by four primary dimensions each of which is defined by two or more subdimensions. The primary dimensions are (a) access quality (composed of access to destination, sport venue, hotel),(b) accommodation quality .... .
Article
This paper examines two related methods for estimating selected environmental effects of tourism consumption associated with major events. Monitoring and evaluation procedures for major events require that event promoters and managers understand how levered tourism consumption creates both economic and environmental effects. This process is however far from straightforward. The article focuses on the case of the UK stages of the 2007 Tour de France and describes two interrelated methods for examining environmental effects. The article shows that the methods adopted can be linked to more common economic impact assessments. With respect to the Tour de France event, the paper demonstrates that the approaches when combined provide useful information for policy makers, particularly in terms of how changes in travel behavior could significantly reduce the environmental consequences of major events.
Article
This article identifies several reasons for an interest in gender patterns in environmental concern and knowledge. It then describes the different responses to environmental issues among Year 10 boys and girls in Victorian secondary schools. Although higher environmental consciousness is associ ated with higher parental education, particularly among boys, girls exhibit greater environmental responsibility than boys from the same socio-economic levels. The literature does indicate that wilderness experience contributes to greater environmental concern but the current study suggests that it is mediated by, and is less significant than, gender and socio-economic factors. The current study also suggests that if environmentally responsible behaviour is to be increased, attention should be paid to matters of gender identity and environmental attitudes as well as environmental knowledge.
Article
Sport management should contribute to making sport accessible for people of all ages. Therefore, sport management research must analyse the impact of different managerial opportunities. A special focus lies on the effects of infrastructural conditions. In this paper, the impact of sport infrastructure on sport participation has been analysed using data from a population survey in the city of Stuttgart, which are related to infrastructural data. The results show that the availability of sport infrastructure, regardless of individual socio-economic conditions, influences patterns of sport activity significantly. However, the influence of certain types of sport infrastructure varies between age groups. For example, the availability of swimming pools is important during childhood and adolescence, whereas the availability of fitness centres, gymnasia and sports fields is of greater importance in young adulthood. These findings have significance for the ways in which sport managers can influence patterns of lifelong sports activity.
Article
Tourism requires environmental resources as core ingredients and compelling backdrops for the production of tourism experiences. Paradoxically it also depends on the protection of the ecological integrity of these features for sustained competitiveness. This ‘resource paradox’ has epitomized relationships between tourism and the environment for decades. However, unprecedented reportings of the frequency, severity and persistence of adverse weather conditions; climate change; natural disasters; disease outbreaks; and various forms of environmental pollution, cumulatively highlight the urgency for more systematically managing tourism's resource paradox. This paper characterizes the industry's environmental and sustainability performance, and suggests planning and management approaches that will be needed to move it towards a more sustainable future. It uses a case study of ‘sustainability-focused’ tourism destination planning to illustrate the type of collective actions that must occur if the industry is to successfully manage tourism's challenging environmental relationships. It is argued that more collective and vision-oriented approaches to tourism industry planning are needed to address broader and more pervasive environmental and sustainability challenges.
Article
This paper is concerned with debates over the implementation of sustainability objectives. In particular, it focuses on policies that address the ‘value‐action gap’ in environmental policy. Using evidence from the author's research connected with the UK Going for Green Sustainable Communities Project in Huntingdonshire, the paper highlights the tensions between national policies that are based on an ‘information deficit’ model of participation, and local research and experience that posits a more complex relationship between individuals and institutions. While this suggests the need to develop more differentiated policies based on the restructuring of socioeconomic and political institutions, the paper warns against knee‐jerk calls for more local, community or public participation which simply replace one set of generalised appeals with another. The paper concludes that greater emphasis must be placed on the negotiation of partnerships that are more sensitive to local diversity, and which involve a more equitable distribution of responsibility between different environmental stakeholders.
Article
This article develops a conceptual framework for advancing theories of environ- mentally significant individual behavior and reports on the attempts of the author's research group and others to develop such a theory. It discusses defini- tions of environmentally significant behavior; classifies the behaviors and their causes; assesses theories of environmentalism, focusing especially on value-belief-norm theory; evaluates the relationship between environmental concern and behavior; and summarizes evidence on the factors that determine environmentally significant behaviors and that can effectively alter them. The article concludes by presenting some major propositions supported by available research and some principles for guiding future research and informing the design of behavioral programs for environmental protection. Recent developments in theory and research give hope for building the under- standing needed to effectively alter human behaviors that contribute to environ- mental problems. This article develops a conceptual framework for the theory of environmentally significant individual behavior, reports on developments toward such a theory, and addresses five issues critical to building a theory that can inform efforts to promote proenvironmental behavior.
Article
Government support for major sporting events is usually predicated on their assumed economic benefits. Yet there has been little parallel consideration of their potential environmental costs, at a time when the same governments are citing the importance of sustainable development. Environmental performance of major sporting events has hitherto been judged, if at all, on qualitative, activity and procedural criteria, rather than by attempting to estimate the overall impact of an event on measurable externalities. This paper examines the UK round of the 2004 World Rally Championship, using environmental accounting techniques to estimate its economic and environmental impacts on its host region.
Article
The analysis of the economic determinants of participation in sports is considered to be a promising research topic in general. Although time is a constitutive part of sports consumption, there has been only limited empirical analysis of the determinants of time investments in recreational sports. This article focuses on revealing the determinants of sports consumers’ travel time spending behaviour in recreational sports. The study is based on survey data from two studies, one in Stuttgart and the second in Cologne. By applying a Heckit model, several socio-demographic (e.g., gender, age) and involvement (e.g., frequency a sport is practised) variables influencing the sports consumers’ travel time investments are detected. Practical implications with regard to sports facility management/planning (e.g., sports facility allocation as well as closure, relocation and renovation of existing sports facilities) are discussed.
Article
The notion that women are ‘closer to nature’, naturally caring for land, water, forests and other aspects of the environment, has held powerful sway in certain development circles since the 1980s. Along with the rise in global environmental concern, ‘women, environment and development’ (WED) perspectives gained ground among many donor agencies and NGOs, complementing and sharing core assumptions with earlier-established ‘women in development’ (WID) discourses. The materialist dimensions of WED were bolstered by fables about women's natural, cultural or ideological closeness to nature grounded in varieties of ecofeminist analysis. This proved a seductive mix for agencies wishing simultaneously to promote environmental protection and WID, as well as for certain forms of feminist activism and sisterhood-construction, such as those around the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. This contribution revisits these narratives and the politics of this strategic fix in the development of international environmentalism and explores the sustained critiques of these ecofeminist fables by feminist scholars and activists from the early 1990s onwards. It provides a critical review of the approach to gender and the environment in some current donor, NGO and other policy documents, which draw little from the feminist critiques of the 1990s. The author reflects on how, and for whom, women–nature links might have practical or strategic value today.
Article
This paper analyses the sport expenditures of people who are members of non-profit sports clubs (NÂ =Â 10,013) in Germany. Adult members, active in 21 sports, were asked about their sport expenditure relating to several defined categories. The results show that members spend an average of [euro]1610 per year on their chosen sport. Sport specific analyses reveal big differences in expenditure between sports, ranging from badminton ([euro]338) to equestrian ([euro]7902). According to sport-specific regression analyses, personal income, level of performance, and weekly time of participation are the main predictors of sport-specific expenditures. Compared to other studies, these results show that the financial status of members of non-profit sports clubs is very strong.
Article
The demand for air transport is largely determined by the spending capacity of customers. This paper aims to offer more insight into the determinants of price elasticities in the aviation sector. It seeks to identify both common and contrasting factors that influence the price elasticities, on the basis of a comparative analysis among a large number of empirical studies in this field. By means of meta-analytical methods, the relative importance of several driving forces such as distance, type of ticket and the nature of study is investigated.
Article
In two empirical studies, the impact of attitudes and environmental knowledge on driving distance, travel behaviour and acceptance of various traffic restrictions was investigated. The first study included the population in Lund, southern Sweden, and the second the politicians and civil servants responsible for transports and environment in the same city. Comparisons of the two samples revealed similar psychological processes, including environmental concern, hazard/efficacy perception and car affection, whereas environmental knowledge seemed to have a subordinate role. Preferences of restrictions differed somewhat between the public, and the politicians and civil servants. It is suggested that local implementation of new strategies to reduce private car driving might benefit from a better understanding of what will be accepted among the public. Further, in promoting pro-environmental travel behaviour it may be important to focus on basic attitudes, rather than to rely solely on factual information.
Article
A growing body of research in economics concerns self-reported happiness, or life satisfaction (LS), and its relationship to a wide range of other variables. The findings of this research tend to highlight the importance of non-income aspects of individuals' life conditions. These findings are strongly complementary to themes within the sustainable development discourse. Firstly, they suggest ways in which we might consume less without compromising on our current levels of LS. And secondly, they help demonstrate the immediate LS benefits that could be gained from higher levels of environmental quality (EQ). However, the empirical evidence for the link between EQ and LS is, to date, somewhat weak, due in part to a lack of EQ data at a level of detail to match the individual-by-individual resolution of LS measures. This small, exploratory study therefore seeks to assess how the use of EQ data at very high spatial resolution could advance the empirical literature examining connections between LS and EQ levels, focusing on air quality in particular. It collects original survey data for approximately 400 Londoners, and uses geographical information system (GIS) software to calculate pollutant concentrations in the immediate vicinity of their homes. It uses this data to estimate maximum likelihood regression models explaining LS ratings in terms of a range of individual, household and local variables. Both perceived and measured air pollution levels are significantly negatively associated with the LS of the survey respondents, even when controlling for a wide range of other effects. An increase of 10 μg/m3 in annual mean nitrogen dioxide concentration appears to correspond on average to a drop of nearly half a point of LS on an 11-point rating scale. These findings cannot yet be generalised with confidence. However, if they were confirmed by larger future studies, they would appear to strengthen and extend existing arguments in favour of policies to reduce urban air pollution, framed both in terms of conventional economic efficiency analyses, and in wider political and et