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The genus Ischnocnema Reinhardt & Lütken, 1862 comprises 33 recognized species found in central and eastern Brazil and northern Argentina. Among them, Ischnocnema penaxavantinho Giaretta, Toffoli & Oliveira, 2007 is a small species endemic to the Cerrado biome, occurring in areas with “Vereda” physiognomy. This species is closely related to I. juipoca, however, it can be distinguished from it by the smaller size (SVL: adult males 14.9–18.7 mm; adult females 19.9–20.7 mm), and differences in the advertisement call, which has more pulses and higher pulse repetition rate. Currently, I. penaxavantinho is only known from four localities in the states of Minas Gerais and Goiás, and little is known about its natural history and population trends, being therefore classified as Data Deficient. Herein we provide a new record of I. penaxavantinho, expanding its known geographic distribution.
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The genus Ischnocnema    
comprises 33 recognized species found in central and
      
  Ischnocnema penaxavantinho 

      

This species is closely related to I. juipoca (Giaretta et

       
      
       
more pulses and higher pulse repetition rate (Giaretta et
I. penaxavantinho
from four localities in the states of Minas Gerais and
  
    

    
I. penaxavantinho

      
I. penaxavantinho     


      
  
Mauritia
flexuosa


       



New record of the Data Deficient frog Ischnocnema
penaxavantinho Giaretta, Toffoli and Oliveira, 2007
(Anura: Brachycephalidae) from Southeastern Brazil





Figure 1. Adult male of Ischnocnema penaxavantinho from
      
Oscillogram and audiospectrogram of the ad�ertisement call
O    
       (

et al.



       


        
call of I. penaxavantinho    
       
        
also analysed �ocalizations of I. juipoca  
localities and reanalysed the recording used by Sazima
        

     
     


  


     
       
 

Table 1. Acoustic measurements of I. penaxavantinho and I. juipoca ( range, mean and standard deviation).
CD=call duration, CI=call interval, CR=call rate, NC=notes per call, ND=notes duration, NI=notes interval,
NR=notes rate, PF=peak of frequency, MSR=municipality and state of recording, RL= recording location, s=
second, ms= millisecond. * Type A call cited in this work.
Data I. penaxavantinho I. juipoca
CD (s)
0.46–
0.84
(0.73±0.11)
n=13 calls
0.52–0.65 0.81–0.96 0.63–0.84
(0.79 ± 0.06)
0.38–
0.78
(0.53±0.12)
n=11 calls
0.21–
(0.30±0.06)
n=12 calls
0.37–
0.52
(0.45±0.05)
n=8 calls
CI (s)
10.0–97.7
(34.3±24.9)
n=12 intervalls
7–22 15.6–149.1
(45.0 ± 47.8)
6.1–90.3
(24.4±27.1)
n=9 intervalls
4.0–22.6
(8.5±6.1)
n=11 intervalls
5.1–13.0
(7.8±2.8)
n=6 intervalls
CR
call/m
in 1.3 6.6 3 2 2.9 9.6 9.5
NC
11–19
(17±
2.9)
n=13 calls
15–18 17–19 15–
18
(17.1 ± 1.3)
6–10
(7.7±1.5)
n=11 calls
5–8
(6.4±1.0)
n=12 calls
8–
10
(9.2±0.7)
n=8 calls
ND
(ms)
2.4–7.9
(5.5±1.2)
n=222 notes
2–
10
(last notes)
4.2–
4.6
(last two
notes)
0.014–0.032
(0.021 ± 0.008)
3.9–34.3
(11.0±6.2)
n=85 notes
3.8–27.1
(9.6±5.4)
n=77 notes
2.8–9.2
(5.4±1.5)
n=74 notes
NI
(ms)
33.0–
61.1
(39±4.1)
n=209 intervalls
40 50–70
50.2–95.3
(67.0±9.3)
n=74 intervalls
25.9–57.1
(45.4±6.0)
n=65 intervalls
36.0–63.9
(49.0±5.6)
n=67 intervalls
N
R
notes/s
22.6–24.2
(23.3±0.42)
n=13 calls
23–29 20
12.6–15.7
(14.6±1.1)
n=11 calls
18.9–22.9
(20.9±1.0)
n=12 calls
19.2–21.5
(20.4±0.8)
n=8 calls
PF (Hz)
2906.2–3609.4
(3171.6±167.4)
n=222 notes
3800 3500
3385–3564
(3455.83 ±
60.35)
2578.1–3468.8
(3121.3±229.1)
n=85 notes
140.6–3703.1
(2966.5±853.3)
n=77 notes
2531.2–3328.1
(2975.9±272.7)
n=74 notes
Freq.
5%
(Hz)
2484.4–3140.6
(2855.5±147
.3)
n=222 notes
2437.5–3281.2
(2899.6±219.5)
n=85 notes
46.9–3187.5
(1477.4±1237.5)
n=77 notes
2203.1–2906.2
(2602.2±180.1)
n=74 notes
Freq.
95%
(Hz)
3562.5–6375.0
(5538.0±631.7)
n=222 notes
2812.5–3703.1
(3426.8±218.7)
n=85 notes
3234.4–6234.4
(4110.3±637.8)
n=77 notes
2765.6–3703.1
(3321.7±266.5)
n=74 notes
MSR
Presidente
Olegário
Minas Gerais
Uberlândia
Minas
Gerais
Perdizes
Minas Gerais
Silvânia
Goiás
Poços de Caldas
Minas Gerais
Cunha
São Paulo
Campinas
São Paulo
RL Fazenda
Farroupilha
E. E. do
Panga
(type
locality)
Floresta
Nacional de
Silvânia
Morro do Ferro
Parque Estadual
da Serra do Mar
- Núcleo
Cunha/Indaiá
Souzas
(type locality)
File
code FNJV 0034637 FNJV 0011672 FNJV 0010214 FNJV 0011673
Ref. Present work Giaretta et al. 2007 Bastos et al.
2015* Present work Present work Present work
Table 1. Acoustic measurements of I. penaxavantinho and I. juipoca

               

The calls ha�e an ascendant amplitude modulation in the


      
amplitude modulation at the first third and descendant

the literature about I. penaxavantinho and I. juipoca

 
acoustic parameter is one of the most useful features
    

in this study as I. penaxavantinho
       
distribution of I. penaxavantinho    


  
      
        
      
 
I. penaxavantinho is possibly �ulnerable to these
        
      
the maintenance of the populations of this and other

Acknowledgements.      


I. juipoca
 I. juipoca and


References
        

of Ischnocnema penaxavantinho 
 

 
132
      

of Brazilian Atlantic rainforest frogs genus Ischnocnema
65
6

  Ischnocnema penaxavantinho
     
      
11



       

  
of Ischnocnema 
      1666

 Ischnocnema penaxavantinho 
       
   

      




 


 
4251
        
Eleutherodactylus     
38
        

Ischnocnema penaxavantinho from Brazil 
Figure 2. Geographic distribution of Ischnocnema
penaxavantinho      
         
 
     

Accepted by Clarissa Canedo
... 260 km northwards (Bastos et al., 2015), and in the municipalities of Presidente Olegário (ca. 230 km from the type-locality: Assis et al., 2018) and Paracatu (ca. 270 km from the type-locality; Del Prette et al., 2018), both in Minas Gerais State. ...
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The Brazilian Cerrado is one of the 25 most important biodiversity hotspots, considered the most threatened savanna on earth. Amphibians are especially vulnerable to habitat modifications due to behavioural and physiological traits. Herein, we list anuran species of a Cerrado area in the municipality of Sacramento, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, after 12 months of efforts between 2010 and 2011. Also, we provide information about habitat use and reproductive activity based on field surveys, where we registered habitat occupation and temporal distribution of the anurans at the study site. A total of 20 species belonging to seven families were recorded; two species are considered Data Deficient by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, two have unreported status, and one is considered Critically Endangered. Moreover, seven of the 20 species need status updating. We highlight that fragments in altered areas are crucial to maintain amphibian diversity, especially for species with restricted distributions, taxonomic uncertainties and/or that require more information on their conservation status.
Article
We describe a new species of Ischnocnema from the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna) of the Triângulo Mineiro region, state of Minas Gerais. Comparisons were made with those species historically thought to be closely related to I. juipoca. Topotype males (14.9-18.7 mm SVL) of the new species are smaller than those of Ischnocnema juipoca, I. octavioi, Eleutherodactylus heterodactylus, Pristimantis dundeei, and P. crepitans. Different from E. heterodactylus and P. crepitans, the new species does not have expanded discs on finger III and IV. The new species is different from P. dundeei by lacking finger/toe discs and nuptial pads. A marked sexual dimorphism in size is absent in P. crepitans and present in the new species. Different from the new species, I. verrucosa is coarsely tuberculate on dorsal surfaces. Ischnocnema verrucosa, I. octavioi, and P. dundeei are primarily forest dwellers while the new species is common in open areas. The advertisement call of the new species has more (1.5-2.5 times) pulses and higher (1.3-1.8 times) pulse repetition rate than that of I. juipoca.
Ischnocnema penaxavantinho. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
  • A A Giaretta
Giaretta. A.A. (2008): Ischnocnema penaxavantinho. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008. doi: 10.2305/IUCN. UK.2008.RLTS.T136108A4238205.en. Accessed on 03 May 2017.