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Abstract

Maintaining low concentrations of nitrogen compounds in aquaculture water is a key requirement for a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS), due to the potential detrimental effects of ammonia or nitrate on fish growth and metabolic activities. Herein, a microbial fuel cell (MFC) was investigated to accomplish the removal of either nitrate or ammonia from real RAS water (with simulated daily nitrate/ammonium accumulation) while generating electricity, via aerobic nitrification in the cathode, electricity/concentration driven transport across anion exchange membrane, and subsequent heterotrophic denitrification in the anode chamber. The experiment went through two stages, nitrate removal (Stage I) and ammonia removal (Stage II). In Stage I when daily nitrate addition was performed to mimic nitrate accumulation (0.050 kg NO3−-N m−3 NCC d−1, NCC: net cathodic chamber volume) in the MFC cathode, a stable current density of 12.48 A m−3 could be achieved with a 73.3% nitrate removal and 91.3% COD removal at the end of day 15. To better mimic ammonium accumulation in the RAS effluent without a biofilter, daily ammonium addition (0.050 kg NH4+-N m−3 NCC d−1) was performed in the cathode in Stage II. The MFC system achieved a total inorganic nitrogen removal rate of 0.051 kg N m−3 NCC d−1, and a COD removal efficiency of 91.8% with a current density of 74.00 A m−3. A preliminary analysis of energy balance indicated that the proposed MFC could potentially achieve energy-positive RAS water treatment with a net energy production of 7.50 × 10−3 kWh m−3 treated RAS water or 0.145 ± 0.031 kWh kg−1 removed nitrogen. The results of this study indicate that MFCs have a potential to treat RAS water with simultaneous energy recovery.

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... According to the results mentioned above, the research groups on BESs for groundwater remediation can be divided into two classes according to the research themes: (1) The research originating from microorganisms in groundwater/aquifer sediments that can obtain energy for growth by electron transport [96], as well as further related research including sulfate/dissimilatory Fe(III) reducing bacteria [94,99,[134][135][136][137]; the bioremediation of radioactive contaminants such as uranium, strontium, and technetium [80,123,125,138]; extracellular electron transfer [139,140]; microbial biocathodes [141,142]; microbial community and geochemical conditions [113,143]. The representative researchers are clustered into groups as shown in Table 2 and are numbered 1, 2, 3 and 5. (2) The research originating from the microorganisms that can generate electrical energy during growth [144], as well as further related research focused on the design and application of microbial electric systems/devices for groundwater remediation, including microbial fuel cells [43,76,128,145,146] and microbial electrolysis cells [48,57], and the typical research groups are numbered with 4, 6 and 7 in Table 2. ...
... The complexity of hydrogeological conditions in reality is a dominating factor that influences remedial performance. Natural groundwater is normally neutral with little or no organic matter [57], while the experiments of BESs have shown a relatively fluctuant pH around the electrodes, with the pH of the catholyte maintaining a level between 9 and 9.5 [146], occasionally even raising to 11.7 at the cathode zone [115]. Thus, pH adjustment is necessary to sustain and enhance the biological activity in BESs [165]. ...
... However, the microbial reduction experimental study conducted by Xie et al. [170] indicated that the presence of nitrate slowed the reduction of perchlorate at the inoculated cathode, increasing concentration of nitrate would resulted in a noticeable inhibitory effect on perchlorate reduction; similar results were found by Feleke and Sakakibara [155], such that increasing pesticide loading would inhibit the reduction of nitrate in a bio-electrochemical reactor experiment. Considering variable groundwater pollution issues related to industrial (heavy metals [171,172], petrol hydrocarbons [173,174], etc.), agricultural (pesticide [154,175,176], nitrate [57,139,156], etc.) and human activities (nitrogen [3,146,177], antibiotics [31], etc.), inhibition effects due to the combination of different pollutants should be taken into consideration for further study. Moreover, there are factors directly affecting the performance of BESs such as microbial diversity and competition as well as energy consumption and recovery that researchers have to face and which demand an increase of unremitting efforts in the future. ...
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: Due to the deficiency of fresh water resources and the deterioration of groundwater quality worldwide, groundwater remedial technologies are especially crucial for preventing groundwater pollution and protecting the precious groundwater resource. Among the remedial alternatives, bioelectrochemical systems have unique advantages on both economic and technological aspects. However, it is rare to see a deep study focused on the information mining and visualization of the publications in this field, and research that can reveal and visualize the development trajectory and trends is scarce. Therefore, this study summarizes the published information in this field from the Web of Science Core Collection of the last two decades (1999–2018) and uses Citespace to quantitatively visualize the relationship of authors, published countries, organizations, funding sources, and journals and detect the research front by analyzing keywords and burst terms. The results indicate that the studies focused on bioelectrochemical systems for groundwater remediation have had a significant increase during the last two decades, especially in China, Germany and Italy. The national research institutes and universities of the USA and the countries mentioned above dominate the research. Environmental Science & Technology, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, and Water Research are the most published journals in this field. The network maps of the keywords and burst terms suggest that reductive microbial diversity, electron transfer, microbial fuel cell, etc., are the research hotspots in recent years, and studies focused on microbial enrichment culture, energy supply/recovery, combined pollution remediation, etc., should be enhanced in future.
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While performing in situ water quality remediation of aquaculture water using sediment microbial fuel cell, the present study provides effect of operating pH, distance between electrodes, and external resistance on organic matter and nitrogen removal as well as on power generation. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was observed to be directly proportional to the distance between electrodes and inversely proportional to the influent pH as well as external resistance. However, total nitrogen (TN) removal increased with increase in pH and distance between electrodes; whereas it decreased with increase in external resistance. Power production reduced with decrease in pH, but increased with decrease in external resistance and distance between electrodes. Two factor and three factor interactions were observed to be less significant for COD, TN removal and power density. From the statistical correlation among these parameters, feed pH of 7.6-8.5, distance between electrode of 90-100 cm and external resistance of 0-52 Ω were found to be optimum for achieving optimal COD removal, TN removal and power density. Validation of model predictions for treatment of aquaculture water conceded that the SMFC exhibited acceptable COD and TN removal efficiencies which in turn facilitate its use for in situ aquaculture water remediation effectively.
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Piaractus mesopotamicus juveniles (total length 12 ± 0.5 mm) were exposed to different concentrations of ammonia-N (un-ionized plus ionized ammonia as nitrogen), using the static renewal method at different temperature levels (15, 20 and 25°C) at pH 7. The 24, 48, 72, 96 h LC50 values of ammonia-N in P. mesopotamicus juveniles were 5.32, 4.19, 3.79 and 2.85 mg L−1 at 15°C; 4.81, 3.97, 3.25 and 2.50 mg L−1 at 20°C; and 4.16, 3.79, 2.58 and 1.97 mg L−1 at 25°C respectively. The 24, 48, 72, 96 h LC50 values of NH3-N (un-ionized ammonia as nitrogen) were 0.018, 0.014, 0.013, 0.009 mg L−1 at 15°C temperature; 0.023, 0.019, 0.016 and 0.012 mg L−1 at 20°C; 0.029, 0.026, 0.018 and 0.014 mg L−1 at 25°C. The temperature increase from 15 to 25°C caused an increase of ammonia-N susceptibility by 21.80%, 9.55%, 31.92% and 30.87%, after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h exposure respectively. Furthermore, we found that exposure of fish to ammonia-N caused an elevation in total haemoglobin and blood glucose with an increase of 2 mg L−1 concentration. Ammonia levels tolerated, especially in different temperatures levels, have important implications for the management of aquaculture.
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Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) are operated as outdoor or indoor systems. Due to the intensive mode of fish production in many of these systems, waste treatment within the recirculating loop as well as in the effluents of these systems is of primary concern. In outdoor RAS, such treatment is often achieved within the recirculating loop. In these systems, extractive organisms, such as phototrophic organisms and detritivores, are cultured in relatively large treatment compartments whereby a considerable part of the waste produced by the primary organisms is converted in biomass. In indoor systems, capture of solid waste and conversion of ammonia to nitrate by nitrification are usually the main treatment steps within the recirculating loop. Waste reduction (as opposed to capture and conversion) is accomplished in some freshwater and marine indoor RAS by incorporation of denitrification and sludge digestion. In many RAS, whether operated as indoor or outdoor systems, effluent is treated before final discharge. Such effluent treatment may comprise devices for sludge thickening, sludge digestion as well as those for inorganic phosphate and nitrogen removal. Whereas waste disposed from freshwater RAS may be treated in regional waste treatment facilities or may be used for agricultural purposes in the form of fertilizer or compost, treatment options for waste disposed from marine RAS are more limited. In the present review, estimations of waste production as well as methods for waste reduction in the recirculating loop and effluents of freshwater and marine RAS are presented. Emphasis is placed on those processes leading to waste reduction rather than those used for waste capture and conversion.
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Chronic toxicity of nitrate (NO3−) has not been well documented in the culture of penaeid shrimp. To interpret this problem, lab-scale research was conducted in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) to determine the long-term impacts of nitrate on shrimp growth, survival, total mass of shrimp per system (shrimp biomass), antennae length, and tissue pathology. The first experiment, Trial (A), was performed over a six week period at 11 (ppt) salinity and consisted of a Control A (35ppm nitrate-N), Treatment A1 (220ppm nitrate-N), Treatment A2 (435ppm nitrate-N), and Treatment A3 (910ppm nitrate-N). No differences were observed between control A and treatment A1 in terms of shrimp survival, growth, shrimp biomass, and antennae length. Treatment A2 exhibited no significant differences compared to Control A in terms of survival and growth, but did exhibit significant negative impacts (P
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Aquaculture effluents may contain a variety of constituents that could cause negative impacts when released into the environment. The constituents include dissolved or particulate organics, nutrients, and specific organic or inorganic compounds. Their impact on the environment depends on the total amount or concentration released and the assimilative capacity of the environment for the particular constituent. In this paper, the different types of constituents will be reviewed as they relate to a current trend in the aquaculture industry: intensification of production and recirculation systems.Although most water treatment methods used in intensive or recirculating aquaculture systems result in a relocation of nutrients and organic matter and not in an overall reduction in discharges, this relocation makes it possible to reduce potential environmental impacts by facilitating effluent treatment. For example, solids removal operations produce a stream with high concentration of solids (the sludge removed from the flow) that is also rich in nutrients and organic matter, while reducing the concentrations of these parameters in the culture water. The stream with a high concentration of solids could be treated prior to disposal using techniques appropriate for high strength wastes and sludge.The fate of constituents will be examined for a variety of water treatment operations. The impacts of a number of treatment methods on these constituents will be discussed from the standpoint of overall mass discharges and concentration of the constituents in the discharge flow.
Article
A considerable increase in nitrate concentration in groundwater has become a serious concern worldwide. We developed a novel submerged microbial desalination-denitrification cell (SMDDC) to in situ remove nitrate from groundwater, produce electric energy, and potentially treat wastewater. The SMDDC, which was composed of an anode and a cathode chamber, can be easily applied to subsurface environments. When current was produced by bacteria on the anode, NO3- and Na+ were transferred into the anode and cathode through anion and cation exchange membrane, respectively; the anode effluent was directed to the cathode where NO3- was reduced to N2 through autotrophic denitrification. For proof-of-concept, the SMDDC was fed with synthetic wastewater as fuel and submerged into a glass reactor filled with synthetic groundwater. The SMDDC produced 3.4 A/m2 of current density, while removing 90.5% of nitrate from groundwater with 12 h wastewater hydraulic retention time (HRT) and 10 Ω of external resistance. The nitrate concentration and ionic strength of groundwater were the main limiting factors to the system performance. Besides, the external resistance and HRT were also affecting the system performance. Furthermore, the SMDDC showed improved performance with high ionic strength of groundwater (2200 μS/cm) and was able to reduce groundwater salinity as well. External nitrification was beneficial to the current generation and nitrate removal rate, but was not affecting total nitrogen removal. Results clearly indicate that this system holds a great potential for efficient and cost-effective treatment of nitrate-containing groundwater and energy recovery.
Article
A novel anaerobic treatment system, the anaerobic migrating blanket reactor (AMBR), was developed after completing a parallel study with upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) processes. Using sucrose as the main component of a synthetic wastewater, the AMBR achieved a maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading rate of 30 g.l−1.day−1 at a 12-h hydraulic retention time (HRT). This resulted in a standard methane production rate (SMPR) of 6.5 l.l−1.day−1 and an average methane-based COD (MCOD) removal efficiency of 62.2%. A key element in granular biomass formation was migration of the biomass blanket through the reactor. Although a carbohydrate-rich wastewater was used, no separate pre-acidification was required for the AMBR, because of high mixing intensities and wash out of acidogenic bacteria. In contrast, the absence of pre-acidification created “bulking” problems (caused by abundant acidogenic bacteria at the surface of granules) in a UASB reactor, operated under conditions similar to that of the AMBR. As a result, a maximum COD loading rate and SMPR of 21 g.l−1.day−1 and 4.9 l.l−1.day−1 were achieved, respectively, for the UASB reactor at a 12-h HRT. These values were 18 g.l−1.day−1 and 3.7 l.l−1.day−1, respectively, for an ASBR at a 12-h HRT. Hence, the performance of the AMBR in treating a carbohydrate-rich wastewater was found to be superior in terms of maximum loading rate and SMPR.
Article
Reduced fishery harvests and increased consumer demand for seafood have precipitated an increase in intensive fish farming, predominantly in coastal and open ocean net-pens. However, as currently practiced, aquaculture is widely viewed as detrimental to the environment and typical operations are vulnerable to environmental influences, including pollution and endemic diseases. Here we report the development of a land-based, marine recirculating aquaculture system that is fully contained, with virtually no environmental impact as a result of highly efficient biological waste treatment and water recycling. Over 99% of the water volume was recycled daily by integrating aerobic nitrification to eliminate toxic ammonia and, for the first time, simultaneous, anaerobic denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation, to convert ammonia and nitrate to nitrogen gas. Hydrogen sulfide generated by the separated endogenous organic solids was used as an electron source for nitrate reduction via autotrophic denitrification and the remaining organic solids were converted to methane and carbon dioxide. System viability was validated by growing gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) from 61 g to 412 g for a total of 1.7 tons in a record 131 days with 99% fish survival. Ammonia nitrite and nitrate did not exceed an average daily concentration of 0.8 mg/l, 0.2 mg/l and 150 mg/l, respectively. Food conversion values were 16% lower than recorded levels for net-pen aquaculture and saltwater usage of less than 16 l/every kg of fish produced. The system is site-independent, biosecure, devoid of environmental contaminants and is not restricted to a single species.
Article
Intensive aquaculture in recirculating systems is rapidly developing, and with it arises the need for reliable treatment systems. To enable reuse of water in these systems, biological treatment is considered the most economically feasible approach. In this review the advantages and disadvantages of some of the most commonly used biological treatment systems are examined. Using as a comparator the main biological processes in extensive static fish ponds, it is explained how most treatment facilities in recirculating systems achieve only partial water purification as sludge and nitrate are produced. Methods for reducing the accumulation of these materials are discussed. It is concluded that incorporation of such methods would result in more stable water quality conditions within the culture units, and also in a considerable reduction of pollution.
Article
Profitability of recirculating systems depends in part on the ability to manage nutrient wastes. Nitrogenous wastes in these systems can be eliminated through nitrifying and denitrifying biofilters. While nitrifying filters are incorporated in most recirculating systems according to well-established protocols, denitrifying filters are still under development. By means of denitrification, oxidized inorganic nitrogen compounds, such as nitrite and nitrate are reduced to elemental nitrogen (N2). The process is conducted by facultative anaerobic microorganisms with electron donors derived from either organic (heterotrophic denitrification) or inorganic sources (autotrophic denitrification). In recirculating systems and traditional wastewater treatment plants, heterotrophic denitrification often is applied using external electron and carbon donors (e.g. carbohydrates, organic alcohols) or endogenous organic donors originating from the waste. In addition to nitrate removal, denitrifying organisms are associated with other processes relevant to water quality control in aquaculture systems. Denitrification raises the alkalinity and, hence, replenishes some of the inorganic carbon lost through nitrification. Organic carbon discharge from recirculating systems is reduced when endogenous carbon sources originating from the fish waste are used to fuel denitrification. In addition to the carbon cycle, denitrifiers also are associated with sulfur and phosphorus cycles in recirculating systems. Orthophosphate uptake by some denitrifiers takes place in excess of their metabolic requirements and may result in a considerable reduction of orthophosphate from the culture water. Finally, autotrophic denitrifiers may prevent the accumulation of toxic sulfide resulting from sulfate reduction in marine recirculating systems. Information on nitrate removal in recirculating systems is limited to studies with small-scale experimental systems. Packed bed reactors supplemented with external carbon sources are used most widely for nitrate removal in these systems. Although studies on the application of denitrification in freshwater and marine recirculating systems were initiated some thirty years ago, a unifying concept for the design and operation of denitrifying biofilters in recirculating systems is lacking.
Article
Aerobic biological filtration systems employing nitrifying bacteria to remediate excess ammonia and nitrite concentrations are common components of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). However, significant water exchange may still be necessary to reduce nitrate concentrations to acceptable levels unless denitrification systems are included in the RAS design. This study evaluated the design of a full scale denitrification reactor in a commercial culture RAS application. Four carbon sources were evaluated including methanol, acetic acid, molasses and Cerelose™, a hydrolyzed starch, to determine their applicability under commercial culture conditions and to determine if any of these carbon sources encouraged the production of two common “off-flavor” compounds, 2-methyisoborneol (MIB) or geosmin. The denitrification design consisted of a 1.89 m3 covered conical bottom polyethylene tank containing 1.0 m3 media through which water up-flowed at a rate of 10 lpm. A commercial aquaculture system housing 6 metric tonnes of Siberian sturgeon was used to generate nitrate through nitrification in a moving bed biological filter. All four carbon sources were able to effectively reduce nitrate to near zero concentrations from influent concentrations ranging from 11 to 57 mg/l NO3–N, and the maximum daily denitrification rate was 670–680 g nitrogen removed/m3 media/day, regardless of the carbon source. Although nitrite production was not a problem once the reactors achieved a constant effluent nitrate, ammonia production was a significant problem for units fed molasses and to a less extent Cerelose™. Maximum measured ammonia concentrations in the reactor effluents for methanol, vinegar, Cerelose™ and molasses were 1.62 ± 0.10, 2.83 ± 0.17, 4.55 ± 0.45 and 5.25 ± 1.26 mg/l NH3–N, respectively. Turbidity production was significantly increased in reactors fed molasses and to a less extent Cerelose™. Concentrations of geosmin and MIB were not significantly increased in any of the denitrification reactors, regardless of carbon source. Because of its very low cost compared to the other sources tested, molasses may be an attractive carbon source for denitrification if issues of ammonia production, turbidity and foaming can be resolved.
Article
An intensified biofilm-electrode reactor (IBER) combining heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrification was developed for treatment of nitrate contaminated groundwater. The reactor was evaluated with synthetic groundwater (NO(3)(-)-N50 mg L(-1)) under different hydraulic retention times (HRTs), carbon to nitrogen ratios (C/N) and electric currents (I). The experimental results demonstrate that high nitrate and nitrite removal efficiency (100%) were achieved at C/N = 1, HRT = 8h, and I = 10 mA. C/N ratios were reduced from 1 to 0.5 and the applied electric current was changed from 10 to 100 mA, showing that the optimum running condition was C/N = 0.75 and I = 40 mA, under which over 97% of NO(3)(-)-N was removed and organic carbon (methanol) was completely consumed in treated water. Simultaneously, the denitrification mechanism in this system was analyzed through pH variation in effluent. The CO(2) produced from the anode acted as a good pH buffer, automatically controlling pH in the reaction zone. The intensified biofilm-electrode reactor developed in the study was effective for the treatment of groundwater polluted by nitrate.
Article
Anaerobic membrane bioreactors have potential for energy-efficient treatment of domestic and other wastewaters, membrane fouling being a major hurdle to application. It was found that fouling can be controlled if membranes are placed directly in contact with the granular activated carbon (GAC) in an anaerobic fluidized bed bioreactor (AFMBR) used here for post-treatment of effluent from another anaerobic reactor treating dilute wastewater. A 120-d continuous-feed evaluation was conducted using this two-stage anaerobic treatment system operated at 35 °C and fed a synthetic wastewater with chemical oxygen demand (COD) averaging 513 mg/L. The first-stage was a similar fluidized-bed bioreactor without membranes (AFBR), operated at 2.0-2.8 h hydraulic retention time (HRT), and was followed by the above AFMBR, operating at 2.2 h HRT. Successful membrane cleaning was practiced twice. After the second cleaning and membrane flux set at 10 L/m(2)/h, transmembrane pressure increased linearly from 0.075 to only 0.1 bar during the final 40 d of operation. COD removals were 88% and 87% in the respective reactors and 99% overall, with permeate COD of 7 ± 4 mg/L. Total energy required for fluidization for both reactors combined was 0.058 kWh/m(3), which could be satisfied by using only 30% of the gaseous methane energy produced. That of the AFMBR alone was 0.028 kWh/m(3), which is significantly less than reported for other submerged membrane bioreactors with gas sparging for fouling control.
Article
Flat electrodes are useful in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) as close electrode spacing improves power generation. Carbon cloth and carbon paper materials typically used in hydrogen fuel cells, however, are prohibitively expensive for use in MFCs. An inexpensive carbon mesh material was examined here as a substantially less expensive alternative to these materials for the anode in an MFC. Pretreatment of the carbon mesh was needed to ensure adequate MFC performance. Heating the carbon mesh in a muffle furnace (450 degrees C for 30 min) resulted in a maximum power density of 922 mW/m2 (46 W/m3) with this heat-treated anode, which was 3% more power than that produced using a mesh anode cleaned with acetone (893 mW/ m2; 45 W/m3). This power density with heating was only 7% less than that achieved with carbon cloth treated by a high temperature ammonia gas process (988 mW/m2; 49 W/m3). When the carbon mesh was treated by the ammonia gas process, power increased to 1015 mW/m2(51 W/m3). Analysis of the cleaned or heated surfaces showed these processes decreased atomic O/C ratio, indicating removal of contaminants that interfered with charge transfer. Ammonia gas treatment also increased the atomic N/C ratio, suggesting that this process produced nitrogen related functional groups that facilitated electron transfer. These results show that low cost heat-treated carbon mesh materials can be used as the anode in an MFC, providing good performance and even exceeding performance of carbon cloth anodes.
Article
Biotreatment of aquaculture water for recirculation purposes is a sensible mean to support the further growth of aquaculture industry without excessive water demands that are environmentally unsustainable. This study evaluates the efficacy of biofilter treatment of an eel (Anguilla japonica) culture pond water using different filter media and flow scheme arrangements. The experimental results demonstrate that biofilter systems packed with suitable filter media are capable of improving the quality of effluents for recirculation applications. The characteristics of the filter media appear to be more critical than biofilter flow scheme arrangements in affecting the efficacy of the biofilter treatment. Filter media with surface and structural characteristics are conducive to the development of biofilms and the capture of organic suspended matter are desirable to ensure good and consistent biofilter performance. Under such circumstances the bacterial "consortia" in the biofilter are capable of utilizing the captured organic suspended matter as an alternative substrate to support their metabolic activities when the concentration of the primary substrate (i.e., BOD) is low. For the eel pond water, a biofilter packed with filter media having cross-link structures and a high bed porosity, followed by another biofilter packed with a type of filter media having rough surfaces, produced the best results under the conditions tested. Moreover, a preliminary cost-benefit analysis confirms its cost advantages.
Article
The feasibility of the direct denitrification treatment of copper metal pickling wastewater by using a bio-electrochemical reactor process was investigated experimentally. Carbon electrodes were installed in the reactor as the anode and cathode and denitrifying microorganisms were fixed on the surface of the cathode. The reactor was continuously operated by applying an electric current and feeding acetate. In this reactor, copper ion removal and denitrification proceeded simultaneously and the pH value of the treated water was increased almost to neutral. The electric current that passed through the cathode contributed to the removal of the copper ion and the generation of hydrogen gas. The generated hydrogen gas as well as the added acetate was effectively utilized for denitrification. A theoretical evaluation of pH in the effluent suggested that the pH increase was mainly caused by the generation of hydroxyl ion during denitrification. In addition, the inorganic carbon species generated during denitrification with acetate and by the electrochemical oxidation of anodic carbon acted as a buffer to minimize a further increase of pH at higher nitrate removal efficiencies. These results demonstrated that copper ion removal, denitrification and neutralization could be achieved simultaneously by using a single bioelectrochemical reactor.
Article
Laboratory toxicity tests were performed to obtain more data on the toxicity of ammonia to saltwater organisms. The standards for in-stream ammonia limits in marine environments presently are based on toxicity tests involving both freshwater and saltwater organisms. Acute tests (48 and 96 h) were performed at 20 degrees C, and chronic tests (7 days) were performed at 25 degrees C. Synthetic seawater and natural seawater from the Chesapeake Bay were used and compared. Included among the organisms tested were sheepshead minnow (14 days old), summer flounder (2 months old), Atlantic silverside (14 days old), mysid shrimp (less than 2 days old), ghost shrimp (10 days old), and quahog clam (9 months old). Based on these results, it seems the chronic criterion for ammonia in marine environments could be increased from 0.035 to 0.081 mg/L un-ionized ammonia, which would, of course, increase the chronic limit for total ammonia under typical saltwater conditions by a factor of 2.31. No difference was observed in the toxicity of ammonia in natural water compared to synthetic water for both the summer flounder and Atlantic silverside. Furthermore, the Atlantic silverside became more sensitive to ammonia as the salinity was increased from 14 to 22 ppt, but exhibited no change in toxicity response from 22 to 30 ppt.
Article
Nitrates in different water and wastewater streams raised concerns due to severe impacts on human and animal health. Diverse methods are reported to remove nitrate from water streams which almost fail to entirely treat nitrate, except biological denitrification which is capable of reducing inorganic nitrate compounds to harmless nitrogen gas. Review of numerous studies in biological denitrification of nitrate containing water resources, aquaculture wastewaters and industrial wastewater confirmed the potential of this method and its flexibility towards the remediation of different concentrations of nitrate. The denitrifiers could be fed with organic and inorganic substrates which have different performances and subsequent advantages or disadvantages. Review of heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrifications with different food and energy sources concluded that autotrophic denitrifiers are more effective in denitrification. Autotrophs utilize carbon dioxide and hydrogen as the source of carbon substrate and electron donors, respectively. The application of this method in bio-electro reactors (BERs) has many advantages and is promising. However, this method is not so well established and documented. BERs provide proper environment for simultaneous hydrogen production on cathodes and appropriate consumption by immobilized autotrophs on these cathodes. This survey covers various designs and aspects of BERs and their performances.
Article
A combined bioelectrochemical and sulfur autotrophic denitrification system (CBSAD) was evaluated to treat a groundwater with nitrate contamination (20.9-22.0mgNO(3)(-)-N/L). The reactor was operated continuously for several months with groundwater to maximize treatment efficiency under different hydraulic retention times (HRT) and electric currents. The denitrification rate of sulfur autotrophic part followed a half-order kinetics model. Moreover, the removal efficiency of bioelectrochemical part depended on the electric current. The reactor could be operated efficiently at the HRT ranged from 4.2 to 2.1h (corresponding nitrogen volume-loading rates varied from 0.12 to 0.24 kg N/m(3)d; and optimum current ranged from 30 to 1000 mA), and the NO(3)(-)-N removal rate ranged from 95% to 100% without NO(3)(-)-N accumulation. The pH of effluent was satisfactorily adjusted by bioelectrochemical part, and the sulfate concentration of effluent was lower than 250 mg/L, meeting the drinking water standard of China EPA.