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Threats posed by Asian subterranean termites in the Fiji Islands and their potential controls: A review

Authors:

Abstract

Termites belong to the infraorder Isoptera, which contains almost 3,000 described species worldwide. These social insects cause substantial damage globally leading to billions of dollars of losses annually. Damage can occur to timber, wooden goods, paper, cotton, certain plastics, trees and many crops. Consequently, termite control and management is a major sector in the global pest-control industry. However, economic losses due to termite damage have not been quantified in the Fiji Islands to date. A review of published literature was conducted to assess the geographic range of Asian subterranean termites that occur in the Fiji Islands and to identify existing and potential control measures. The most common termite species that is known to cause millions of dollars of damage each year in the Fiji Islands is Coptotermes gestroi . This species is currently controlled primarily using the chemical fipronil but integrated termite management is the preferred long-term solution. Other possible control methods include physical, cultural, chemical and biological options.
129
Crop Pests 2
INTRODUCTION
Termites play important roles in the natural
functioning of the environment (Jembere et
al. 2017). ey improve the physiochemical
properties of soil by building mounds, which
enhance fertility (Jouquet et al. 2006; Jembere et
al. 2017; Lee 2017). However, of the 3000 termite
species known worldwide, 183 species (6.1%) are
considered to be ‘pests’ and 83 species (2.8%)
cause severe damage to wooden structures
(Edwards & Mill 1986; Rust & Su 2012).
According to Rust and Su (2012), the cost of
control and repairs associated with subterranean
termites was approximated at around US$ 32
billion worldwide in 2010. Approximately US$ 1
million of that occurs in the Fiji Islands annually
(Biosecurity Authority of Fiji 2017). e most
economically important and the most aggressive
of the subterranean termites belong to the genus
Coptotermes (Kuswanto et al. 2015).
e Asian subterranean termite, Coptotermes
gestroi mainly affects wooden construction
materials and is considered a structural and
building pest worldwide (Roszaini et al. 2009;
Evans et al. 2013; Harit et al. 2014; Ahmad et
al. 2015). Control of C. gestroi is difficult due to
underground nesting habits of this species, which
makes colonies difficult to locate (Nunes & Nobre
2001; Hassan et al. 2008). Optimal colony growth
has been largely attributed to food availability,
high humidity and warm temperatures (Harit et
al. 2016). For example, the wood consumption
rate of C. gestroi has been found to be higher at
35°C than at 15-30°C (Cao & Su 2016). Increase
in temperature (possibly as a result of climate
change) may allow C. gestroi to become more
widespread in the Pacic in the future. During
2009-2010, an El Niño event occurred that
reats posed by Asian subterranean termites in the
Fiji Islands and their potential controls: a review
Ravneel R. Chand1,*, Anjeela D. Jokhan2, Harshna Charan2, Kushaal Raj1 and Priyatma Singh1
1School of Science and Technology, University of Fiji, Lautoka, Fiji Islands.
2Faculty of Science, Technology and Environment, University of the South Pacic, Fiji Islands.
*Corresponding author: s11074077p@gmail.com
Abstract Termites belong to the infraorder Isoptera, which contains almost 3,000 described
species worldwide. ese social insects cause substantial damage globally leading to billions
of dollars of losses annually. Damage can occur to timber, wooden goods, paper, cotton,
certain plastics, trees and many crops. Consequently, termite control and management is a
major sector in the global pest-control industry. However, economic losses due to termite
damage have not been quantied in the Fiji Islands to date. A review of published literature
was conducted to assess the geographic range of Asian subterranean termites that occur in
the Fiji Islands and to identify existing and potential control measures. e most common
termite species that is known to cause millions of dollars of damage each year in the Fiji
Islands is Coptotermes gestroi. is species is currently controlled primarily using the
chemical pronil but integrated termite management is the preferred long-term solution.
Other possible control methods include physical, cultural, chemical and biological options.
Keywords Asian subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi, biology and status, management
practices, Fiji Islands.
New Zealand Plant Protection 71: 129-139 (2018) https://doi.org/10.30843/nzpp.2018.71.111
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Weir NEM, Poulton J, Zulhendri F, Feng R,
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(rips obscuratus) on apricots using ethyl
formate or pyrethrum-based treatments.
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130
Crop Pests 2
lights, and video monitors oen attract alates
inside, particularly when doors and unscreened
windows are le open (Scheffrahn & Su 2000).
e presence of large numbers of alates indoors
usually indicates infestation of the structure.
Generally, the alates that do enter buildings die
from desiccation as they are unlikely to nd
the moist wood/soil substrates necessary for
successful colonisation.
Coptotermes gestroi build their nests
underground. ey generate social colonies
that have a well organised caste system, which
includes reproductive, soldiers and workers (Tian
& Zhou 2014). e role of the reproductives is to
lay the eggs. ere is typically one pair of primary
reproductives per colony; the king and the queen
(Tian & Zhou 2014). A queen has an average life
span of about 20 years and can lay 1,000 eggs
a day. One termite colony can have between
60,000 and 1 million termites (e Terminix
International 2017).
Worker termites are milky or cream coloured
in appearance unlike the soldier caste. ey have
smaller, saw-toothed mandibles than the soldiers
(Fig. 1), which allows them to take small bites of
wood and to carry building materials (Scheffrahn
& Su 2000; Korb 2008). As their name suggests,
the workers do most of the work in the colony;
digging tunnels, gathering food and caring for
the young. ey also feed the king, queen and
soldiers, who are unable to feed themselves.
Workers and soldiers are sterile (Korb 2008).
Coptotermes gestroi, like all subterranean
termites, must have moisture to survive and C.
gestroi is specically limited to more tropical
localities (Scheffrahn & Su 2017), where there is
high humidity. Coptotermes gestroi like to live in
dark, damp and moist places they typically tunnel
through the soil, which provides an excellent
source of moisture.
ese termites can also survive on moisture
from leaks (roof and plumbing), air conditioning
condensation, and wall veneers that are installed
below grade (below ground level) (Staunton
2014).
Termites as pests of crops in the Fiji Islands
A wide range of crops such as sugarcane, rice,
cassava, yam, cottons, maize and coconuts in the
Fiji islands (as well as the other tropical countries)
are affected by termites due to their voracious
appetite for plant materials (cellulose) and even
for the non-cellulosic materials such as electric
cables (Rouland-Lefèvre 2011; Biosecurity
Authority of Fiji 2017). For instance, in several
South Pacic countries, Neotermes rainbowi
termites attack coconut palms, hollowing out
and establishing colonies in trunks, which oen
leads to the collapse of trees (Redford et al. 2013).
Agricultural damage has occurred both directly
by C. gestroi damaging the crops and reducing
yield, and indirectly, with termites interfering
with the farming infrastructures (buildings and
fencing) and destroying containers of shipping
products. Many farmers have raised concerns in
regards to the decrease in crop yields resulting
from termite infestation in Lautoka corridor,
Fiji Islands (Nasilasila 2014). However, there
has not been much work done in quantifying
the damages resulting from termite infestation
in agriculture especially in the Fiji Islands and
hence this may be an avenue for future research.
In addition, the use of chemicals has led
to many environmental issues and as a result,
few chemicals such as organochlorine and
organophosphate insecticides are now prohibited
in certain countries (Barlow et al. 2015). Non-
chemical approaches such as the application of
fertilisers, crop rotation, deep tillage and early
Figure 1 Coptotermes gestroi workers and soldiers
(Prasad 2013).
resulted in reduced rainfall in the Fiji Islands,
which may have provided favourable foraging
conditions for the termite colonies, and this could
be a reason that C. gestroi has become abundant
in the Fiji Islands since then. To support this,
Santos et al. (2010) reported that the foraging
activity of C. gestroi was negatively correlated
with relative humidity, soil moisture and rainfall.
is paper provides a review on the C. gestroi
(Asian subterranean termite), because they
are a serious pest of wooden structures, timber
products and other lignocellulosic materials in
most of the tropical regions (Sornnuwat 1996;
Husseneder 2010). We focus on the current C.
gestroi management practices in the Fiji Islands.
METHODS
A literature search using the terms ‘Asian
subterranean termites’ OR ‘termites as pests in
the Fiji Islands was undertaken in November
2017. A total of 39 relevant articles, 6 reports
and 21 other supporting documents (such as
book sections, news and conference papers) were
found and analysed.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Termite species In the Fiji Islands
Fourteen termite species are known to occur in
the Fiji Islands: Cryptotermes brevis, Cryptotermes
domesticus, Glyptotermes brevicornis,
Glyptotermes taveuniensis, Incisitermes repandus,
Procryptotermes sp., Neotermes gnathoferrum,
Neotermes papua, Neotermes samoanus,
Coptotermes acinaciformis, Prorhinotermes
inopinatus, Nasutitermes sp., Nasutitermes olidus,
and Coptotermes gestroi (Asian subterranean
termite). e rst 13 species in this list are
endemic” to the Fiji Islands. In contrast,
C. gestroi is exotic and is likely to have been
introduced from Asia or the United States 20-30
years ago, probably through infested shipping
pallets (Ministry of Information Fiji 2010).
is species is native to South East Asia and
has spread to Florida, USA (Scheffrahn 2013),
the Caribbean and Brazil (Su et al. 1997). e
Asian subterranean termite is the second most
destructive subterranean termite in the world;
the most destructive termite being Coptotermes
formosanus (Lee et al. 2009).
Status of C. gestroi in the Fiji Islands
e occurrence of C. gestroi was noted in the
Fiji Islands in 2009 when many homes in the
Western division of Viti Levu were infested. e
Fijian government contracted a Queensland
forestry entomologist to identity the species
of termite that was causing massive damage
to wooden houses and crops in Lautoka. e
species was identied as C. gestroi (Prasad 2013).
Millions of dollars of damage have been caused
by this termite (Biosecurity Authority of Fiji
2017). e Fijian Government spent about 3
million dollars to control C. gestroi from 2009 to
2011 (Biosecurity Authority of Fiji 2017). is
cost included the treatment of damage housing
structures, school building and vegetation,
re-treatment and rehabilitation of infested
structures and running awareness workshops
for the local community (Prasad 2013). As part
of the treatment plan, the Fijian Government
(through the Biosecurity Authority of Fiji (BAF))
undertook an intensive biosecurity operation
(Operation Kadivuka) that was launched in 2010
to eradicate Asian subterranean termites from
the country. e operation involved three phases:
Phase 1 included a survey and awareness in
termite infested area; Phase 2 involved containing
the spread of termite colonies through repair and
treatment of infested houses and trees; and Phase
3 focused on the control of termites through
monitoring and surveillance of affected areas and
applying preventive measures where necessary.
At the end of 2011, a total of 865 termite-infested
houses and around 20 termite-damaged schools
had been repaired by the Kadivuka operation
(Biosecurity Authority of Fiji 2017).
Biology of Asian subterranean termite
Dispersal ights or “swarms” of C. gestroi occur
at dusk or at night during which large numbers
of alates leave the colony. In the Fiji Islands,
termite swarming usually occurs towards the end
of the year, from October onwards (Biosecurity
Authority of Fiji 2017). Porch lights, indoor
131
Crop Pests 2
lights, and video monitors oen attract alates
inside, particularly when doors and unscreened
windows are le open (Scheffrahn & Su 2000).
e presence of large numbers of alates indoors
usually indicates infestation of the structure.
Generally, the alates that do enter buildings die
from desiccation as they are unlikely to nd
the moist wood/soil substrates necessary for
successful colonisation.
Coptotermes gestroi build their nests
underground. ey generate social colonies
that have a well organised caste system, which
includes reproductive, soldiers and workers (Tian
& Zhou 2014). e role of the reproductives is to
lay the eggs. ere is typically one pair of primary
reproductives per colony; the king and the queen
(Tian & Zhou 2014). A queen has an average life
span of about 20 years and can lay 1,000 eggs
a day. One termite colony can have between
60,000 and 1 million termites (e Terminix
International 2017).
Worker termites are milky or cream coloured
in appearance unlike the soldier caste. ey have
smaller, saw-toothed mandibles than the soldiers
(Fig. 1), which allows them to take small bites of
wood and to carry building materials (Scheffrahn
& Su 2000; Korb 2008). As their name suggests,
the workers do most of the work in the colony;
digging tunnels, gathering food and caring for
the young. ey also feed the king, queen and
soldiers, who are unable to feed themselves.
Workers and soldiers are sterile (Korb 2008).
Coptotermes gestroi, like all subterranean
termites, must have moisture to survive and C.
gestroi is specically limited to more tropical
localities (Scheffrahn & Su 2017), where there is
high humidity. Coptotermes gestroi like to live in
dark, damp and moist places they typically tunnel
through the soil, which provides an excellent
source of moisture.
ese termites can also survive on moisture
from leaks (roof and plumbing), air conditioning
condensation, and wall veneers that are installed
below grade (below ground level) (Staunton
2014).
Termites as pests of crops in the Fiji Islands
A wide range of crops such as sugarcane, rice,
cassava, yam, cottons, maize and coconuts in the
Fiji islands (as well as the other tropical countries)
are affected by termites due to their voracious
appetite for plant materials (cellulose) and even
for the non-cellulosic materials such as electric
cables (Rouland-Lefèvre 2011; Biosecurity
Authority of Fiji 2017). For instance, in several
South Pacic countries, Neotermes rainbowi
termites attack coconut palms, hollowing out
and establishing colonies in trunks, which oen
leads to the collapse of trees (Redford et al. 2013).
Agricultural damage has occurred both directly
by C. gestroi damaging the crops and reducing
yield, and indirectly, with termites interfering
with the farming infrastructures (buildings and
fencing) and destroying containers of shipping
products. Many farmers have raised concerns in
regards to the decrease in crop yields resulting
from termite infestation in Lautoka corridor,
Fiji Islands (Nasilasila 2014). However, there
has not been much work done in quantifying
the damages resulting from termite infestation
in agriculture especially in the Fiji Islands and
hence this may be an avenue for future research.
In addition, the use of chemicals has led
to many environmental issues and as a result,
few chemicals such as organochlorine and
organophosphate insecticides are now prohibited
in certain countries (Barlow et al. 2015). Non-
chemical approaches such as the application of
fertilisers, crop rotation, deep tillage and early
Figure 1 Coptotermes gestroi workers and soldiers
(Prasad 2013).
resulted in reduced rainfall in the Fiji Islands,
which may have provided favourable foraging
conditions for the termite colonies, and this could
be a reason that C. gestroi has become abundant
in the Fiji Islands since then. To support this,
Santos et al. (2010) reported that the foraging
activity of C. gestroi was negatively correlated
with relative humidity, soil moisture and rainfall.
is paper provides a review on the C. gestroi
(Asian subterranean termite), because they
are a serious pest of wooden structures, timber
products and other lignocellulosic materials in
most of the tropical regions (Sornnuwat 1996;
Husseneder 2010). We focus on the current C.
gestroi management practices in the Fiji Islands.
METHODS
A literature search using the terms ‘Asian
subterranean termites’ OR ‘termites as pests in
the Fiji Islands was undertaken in November
2017. A total of 39 relevant articles, 6 reports
and 21 other supporting documents (such as
book sections, news and conference papers) were
found and analysed.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Termite species In the Fiji Islands
Fourteen termite species are known to occur in
the Fiji Islands: Cryptotermes brevis, Cryptotermes
domesticus, Glyptotermes brevicornis,
Glyptotermes taveuniensis, Incisitermes repandus,
Procryptotermes sp., Neotermes gnathoferrum,
Neotermes papua, Neotermes samoanus,
Coptotermes acinaciformis, Prorhinotermes
inopinatus, Nasutitermes sp., Nasutitermes olidus,
and Coptotermes gestroi (Asian subterranean
termite). e rst 13 species in this list are
endemic” to the Fiji Islands. In contrast,
C. gestroi is exotic and is likely to have been
introduced from Asia or the United States 20-30
years ago, probably through infested shipping
pallets (Ministry of Information Fiji 2010).
is species is native to South East Asia and
has spread to Florida, USA (Scheffrahn 2013),
the Caribbean and Brazil (Su et al. 1997). e
Asian subterranean termite is the second most
destructive subterranean termite in the world;
the most destructive termite being Coptotermes
formosanus (Lee et al. 2009).
Status of C. gestroi in the Fiji Islands
e occurrence of C. gestroi was noted in the
Fiji Islands in 2009 when many homes in the
Western division of Viti Levu were infested. e
Fijian government contracted a Queensland
forestry entomologist to identity the species
of termite that was causing massive damage
to wooden houses and crops in Lautoka. e
species was identied as C. gestroi (Prasad 2013).
Millions of dollars of damage have been caused
by this termite (Biosecurity Authority of Fiji
2017). e Fijian Government spent about 3
million dollars to control C. gestroi from 2009 to
2011 (Biosecurity Authority of Fiji 2017). is
cost included the treatment of damage housing
structures, school building and vegetation,
re-treatment and rehabilitation of infested
structures and running awareness workshops
for the local community (Prasad 2013). As part
of the treatment plan, the Fijian Government
(through the Biosecurity Authority of Fiji (BAF))
undertook an intensive biosecurity operation
(Operation Kadivuka) that was launched in 2010
to eradicate Asian subterranean termites from
the country. e operation involved three phases:
Phase 1 included a survey and awareness in
termite infested area; Phase 2 involved containing
the spread of termite colonies through repair and
treatment of infested houses and trees; and Phase
3 focused on the control of termites through
monitoring and surveillance of affected areas and
applying preventive measures where necessary.
At the end of 2011, a total of 865 termite-infested
houses and around 20 termite-damaged schools
had been repaired by the Kadivuka operation
(Biosecurity Authority of Fiji 2017).
Biology of Asian subterranean termite
Dispersal ights or “swarms” of C. gestroi occur
at dusk or at night during which large numbers
of alates leave the colony. In the Fiji Islands,
termite swarming usually occurs towards the end
of the year, from October onwards (Biosecurity
Authority of Fiji 2017). Porch lights, indoor
132
Crop Pests 2
(2014), coarse material can also be combined
with chemical control by impregnating it with
an insecticide (such as deltamethrin and/or
bifenthrin) to create a combination of a toxic zone
and a physical barrier. Other physical methods
of termite control include; heat, electricity, cold,
freezing and microwaves (Doi et al. 1999; Tagbor
2009; Hansen et al. 2011). Passing high voltage
of electricity through infested wooden materials
can be used to electrocute any termites present
(Lewis & Haverty 2001). Similarly, the use of a
cold treatment that involves the pumping of
liquid nitrogen into infested areas and freezing it
to below -7oC is also effective. Such methods can
only be applied to a small area (Scheffrahn & Su).
Other methods of termite control include:
destruction of mounds, removal of the queen,
ooding mounds with water, use of hot ash and
pepper (Dufera & Fufa 2014). Infestations can
be prevented by adopting good construction
techniques, such as using water-proof materials
or barriers because C. gestroi breed best in wet
wood. Yates et al. (1997) recommended: “(1)
avoiding any contact between wood and the soil,
(2) keeping structural wood dry and controlling
moisture conditions beneath and around the
structure, and (3) ensuring that portions of the
structure that are prone to insect attack can be
readily inspected”. is could be a reason why the
prevalence of termites in the Fiji Islands mostly
occurred largely in rural and semi-rural areas
of the country where buildings did not meet
Occupational Health and Safety requirements
(Biosecurity Authority of Fiji 2017). In the Fiji
Islands, cultural control involves burning of
wood so that termites lose their wings and are
not able to y away to reproduce (Chaudhary
2011; Biosecurity Authority of Fiji 2017).
Biological Control
Biological control constitutes a more
environmental friendly approach to termite
management compared to chemical control
measures (Culliney & Grace 2000). Fungi,
nematodes, ants and Trojan termites as well as
natural products such as volatiles from seeds,
bark, leaves, fruit, roots, wood and resin have been
used for biological control (Mauldin & Beal 1989;
Epsky & Capinera 1998; Culliney & Grace 2000;
Verma et al. 2009). e fungus Isaria farinose
has been found to cause 95% termite mortality
under laboratory conditions (Lopes et al. 2017).
e entomophathogenic fungi Metarhizium
anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana are highly
effective against most species of termites,
especially C. gestroi, by resulting in complete
mortality (Lai 1977; LeBayon et al. 1999; Rath
2000; Engler & Gold 2004; Neves & Alves 2004).
Metarhizium anisopliae has been found to be
more effective than other fungi such as Beauveria
bassiana against termites in general (Rath 2000;
Lenz et al. 2005). Metarhizium anisopliae works
best when incorporated with baiting matrix and
has been commercially produced as BioblastTM
to control subterranean termites (Lenz et al.
2005). According to Maketon et al. (2007),
there was a 100% mortality of C. gestroi aer
one month when the conidial suspension spray
(3 x 108 condidia/mL) and baited method were
used. Microbial insecticides can be low cost if
virulent strains are available and these can be
germinated in vitro. Wooden stakes infested by
an unidentied basidiomycetous fungus were
repellent to C. gestroi under laboratory conditions
(Peralta et al. 2003). However, the application of
fungi to timber and dwellings for effective pest
management has yet to be studied.
Control of termites using entomopathogenic
fungi has proven unsuccessful in the Fiji Islands
(Prasad 2013; Biosecurity Authority of Fiji 2017)
possibly because of termite grooming, isolation
of infected colony members and difficulty in
obtaining pathogens due to their cryptic habitat
(Osbrink et al. 2001). Nematodes of families
Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae have
also been used for the biological of subterranean
termites (Trudeau 1989; Lenz et al. 2000).
However, control by nematodes in the Fiji Islands
is in its very early stages, and the nematode prole
of Fijian soil is not well known so information
still remains scarce. erefore, much research is
needed to further develop nematode control of
C. gestroi in the Fiji Islands. Coptotermes gestroi
has been controlled by Trojan termites where
harvesting may not offer assurance in terms of
protecting crops for a longer period (Rouland-
Lefèvre 2011). Beyond this, an integrated control
strategy may alleviate the many concerns raised
over the use of chemicals in the environment and
is possibly the most suitable strategy to be utilised
in management of termites (Su & Scheffrahn
2000; Rouland-Lefèvre 2011).
Common management practices for
Coptotermes gestroi
Chemical control
Chemical control of C. gestroi is associated
with infusing the wood with synthetic or
natural chemicals to kill or repel C. gestroi
(Ahmed et al. 2004; Bobbarala & Vadlapudi
2009). Bark powder extracts from Rhizophora
apiculate mixed with ethyl acetate have been
found to show a strong anti-termite activity
against C. gestroi (Abdul Khalil et al. 2009).
Various chemicals known to have insecticidal
activity such as, pyrethroids, bifenthrin,
permethrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin,
chlorfenapyr, imidacloprid, pronil and various
organophosphate compounds have been applied
to soil as a conventional technique to control
termite abundance (Scheffrahn et al. 1997;
Riekert & Van den Berg 2003). Treating substrates
with pyrethroid insecticides repels termites and
reduces penetration into wood. e mechanisms
of insecticidal activity vary among different
types of chemicals but a range of chemicals
provide an effective protection of structures
from subterranean termites when applied.
However, wood treated with cypermethrin
10 EC (retention of 0.166 kg/cubic m) was
found to display visible surface damage caused
by termites and did not lead to 100% termite
mortality within 4 weeks (Pongpattananurak
1997). In contrast, treatment of wood blocks
with a boron compound (retention of 3.28 kg/
cubic m) resulted in termites losing 8.77% body
mass and wood blocks treated with greater than
of 2.08 kg/cubic m resulted in 100% mortality
within 4 weeks (Pongpattananurak 1997). A
combination of permethrin (2.0%), alpha-
cypermethrin (0.3%), and bifenthrin (0.1%)
solutions has been found to be effective against
C. gestroi when mixed with soil (Sornnuwat et al.
1996; Roszaini et al. 2009). Long-term protection
(12 months) using Silauofen and Fenvalerate at
2% treatment of wood has also been found to be
effective (Sornnuwat et al. 1996; Roszaini et al.
2009). Polymerisation of wood with tributyltin
acrylate (TBTA) or modication by acetylation
improved resistance against C. gestroi to some
extent in laboratory testing (Ibach et al. 2000).
In the Fiji Islands, C. gestroi is widely
controlled by a product called Termidor (BASF,
Germany) that contains pronil (100 g/L) as
the active ingredient. It is applied by dusting or
in bait stations, and an average of 2−3 vials of
termiticide are used to treat a building (Prasad
2013; Biosecurity Authority of Fiji 2017).
Physical Control Methods
e use of physical barriers is gaining momentum
worldwide as a method of preventing attacks
from C. gestroi on structures (Grace 1996).
Physical controls in the form of stainless-steel
screens or mesh barriers (e.g. TERMI-MESH
1, TMA Corporation, Australia) have been
utilised because they protect against the foraging
activities of the Coptotermes genus of termites
(Grace & Yates 1999). However, if mesh is not
installed properly, then termites are able to
enter and forage (Ahmed 2000; Ahmed et al.
2004). Other commonly used physical barriers
include: crushed rock, high-grade stainless
steel (solid-sheet material), sand, glass, basalts
and aluminium. ese physical barriers act
as mechanical barriers that prevent termite
penetration and damage to buildings. e use of
graded materials (like sand, basalts, stainless steel
mesh) with a range of sizes is based on principle
that small particles or gaps hinder the passage of
termites to pass through. For instance, almost
half the particles in coarse sand are 1.4−1.8 mm
in diameter and almost another quarter are <1.4
mm, which makes this material an effective
barrier. Likewise, small mesh is difficult for
termites to bite through (Yates et al. 1997; Grace
& Yates 1999).
According to Specialist Termite Control
133
Crop Pests 2
(2014), coarse material can also be combined
with chemical control by impregnating it with
an insecticide (such as deltamethrin and/or
bifenthrin) to create a combination of a toxic zone
and a physical barrier. Other physical methods
of termite control include; heat, electricity, cold,
freezing and microwaves (Doi et al. 1999; Tagbor
2009; Hansen et al. 2011). Passing high voltage
of electricity through infested wooden materials
can be used to electrocute any termites present
(Lewis & Haverty 2001). Similarly, the use of a
cold treatment that involves the pumping of
liquid nitrogen into infested areas and freezing it
to below -7oC is also effective. Such methods can
only be applied to a small area (Scheffrahn & Su).
Other methods of termite control include:
destruction of mounds, removal of the queen,
ooding mounds with water, use of hot ash and
pepper (Dufera & Fufa 2014). Infestations can
be prevented by adopting good construction
techniques, such as using water-proof materials
or barriers because C. gestroi breed best in wet
wood. Yates et al. (1997) recommended: “(1)
avoiding any contact between wood and the soil,
(2) keeping structural wood dry and controlling
moisture conditions beneath and around the
structure, and (3) ensuring that portions of the
structure that are prone to insect attack can be
readily inspected”. is could be a reason why the
prevalence of termites in the Fiji Islands mostly
occurred largely in rural and semi-rural areas
of the country where buildings did not meet
Occupational Health and Safety requirements
(Biosecurity Authority of Fiji 2017). In the Fiji
Islands, cultural control involves burning of
wood so that termites lose their wings and are
not able to y away to reproduce (Chaudhary
2011; Biosecurity Authority of Fiji 2017).
Biological Control
Biological control constitutes a more
environmental friendly approach to termite
management compared to chemical control
measures (Culliney & Grace 2000). Fungi,
nematodes, ants and Trojan termites as well as
natural products such as volatiles from seeds,
bark, leaves, fruit, roots, wood and resin have been
used for biological control (Mauldin & Beal 1989;
Epsky & Capinera 1998; Culliney & Grace 2000;
Verma et al. 2009). e fungus Isaria farinose
has been found to cause 95% termite mortality
under laboratory conditions (Lopes et al. 2017).
e entomophathogenic fungi Metarhizium
anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana are highly
effective against most species of termites,
especially C. gestroi, by resulting in complete
mortality (Lai 1977; LeBayon et al. 1999; Rath
2000; Engler & Gold 2004; Neves & Alves 2004).
Metarhizium anisopliae has been found to be
more effective than other fungi such as Beauveria
bassiana against termites in general (Rath 2000;
Lenz et al. 2005). Metarhizium anisopliae works
best when incorporated with baiting matrix and
has been commercially produced as BioblastTM
to control subterranean termites (Lenz et al.
2005). According to Maketon et al. (2007),
there was a 100% mortality of C. gestroi aer
one month when the conidial suspension spray
(3 x 108 condidia/mL) and baited method were
used. Microbial insecticides can be low cost if
virulent strains are available and these can be
germinated in vitro. Wooden stakes infested by
an unidentied basidiomycetous fungus were
repellent to C. gestroi under laboratory conditions
(Peralta et al. 2003). However, the application of
fungi to timber and dwellings for effective pest
management has yet to be studied.
Control of termites using entomopathogenic
fungi has proven unsuccessful in the Fiji Islands
(Prasad 2013; Biosecurity Authority of Fiji 2017)
possibly because of termite grooming, isolation
of infected colony members and difficulty in
obtaining pathogens due to their cryptic habitat
(Osbrink et al. 2001). Nematodes of families
Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae have
also been used for the biological of subterranean
termites (Trudeau 1989; Lenz et al. 2000).
However, control by nematodes in the Fiji Islands
is in its very early stages, and the nematode prole
of Fijian soil is not well known so information
still remains scarce. erefore, much research is
needed to further develop nematode control of
C. gestroi in the Fiji Islands. Coptotermes gestroi
has been controlled by Trojan termites where
harvesting may not offer assurance in terms of
protecting crops for a longer period (Rouland-
Lefèvre 2011). Beyond this, an integrated control
strategy may alleviate the many concerns raised
over the use of chemicals in the environment and
is possibly the most suitable strategy to be utilised
in management of termites (Su & Scheffrahn
2000; Rouland-Lefèvre 2011).
Common management practices for
Coptotermes gestroi
Chemical control
Chemical control of C. gestroi is associated
with infusing the wood with synthetic or
natural chemicals to kill or repel C. gestroi
(Ahmed et al. 2004; Bobbarala & Vadlapudi
2009). Bark powder extracts from Rhizophora
apiculate mixed with ethyl acetate have been
found to show a strong anti-termite activity
against C. gestroi (Abdul Khalil et al. 2009).
Various chemicals known to have insecticidal
activity such as, pyrethroids, bifenthrin,
permethrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin,
chlorfenapyr, imidacloprid, pronil and various
organophosphate compounds have been applied
to soil as a conventional technique to control
termite abundance (Scheffrahn et al. 1997;
Riekert & Van den Berg 2003). Treating substrates
with pyrethroid insecticides repels termites and
reduces penetration into wood. e mechanisms
of insecticidal activity vary among different
types of chemicals but a range of chemicals
provide an effective protection of structures
from subterranean termites when applied.
However, wood treated with cypermethrin
10 EC (retention of 0.166 kg/cubic m) was
found to display visible surface damage caused
by termites and did not lead to 100% termite
mortality within 4 weeks (Pongpattananurak
1997). In contrast, treatment of wood blocks
with a boron compound (retention of 3.28 kg/
cubic m) resulted in termites losing 8.77% body
mass and wood blocks treated with greater than
of 2.08 kg/cubic m resulted in 100% mortality
within 4 weeks (Pongpattananurak 1997). A
combination of permethrin (2.0%), alpha-
cypermethrin (0.3%), and bifenthrin (0.1%)
solutions has been found to be effective against
C. gestroi when mixed with soil (Sornnuwat et al.
1996; Roszaini et al. 2009). Long-term protection
(12 months) using Silauofen and Fenvalerate at
2% treatment of wood has also been found to be
effective (Sornnuwat et al. 1996; Roszaini et al.
2009). Polymerisation of wood with tributyltin
acrylate (TBTA) or modication by acetylation
improved resistance against C. gestroi to some
extent in laboratory testing (Ibach et al. 2000).
In the Fiji Islands, C. gestroi is widely
controlled by a product called Termidor (BASF,
Germany) that contains pronil (100 g/L) as
the active ingredient. It is applied by dusting or
in bait stations, and an average of 2−3 vials of
termiticide are used to treat a building (Prasad
2013; Biosecurity Authority of Fiji 2017).
Physical Control Methods
e use of physical barriers is gaining momentum
worldwide as a method of preventing attacks
from C. gestroi on structures (Grace 1996).
Physical controls in the form of stainless-steel
screens or mesh barriers (e.g. TERMI-MESH
1, TMA Corporation, Australia) have been
utilised because they protect against the foraging
activities of the Coptotermes genus of termites
(Grace & Yates 1999). However, if mesh is not
installed properly, then termites are able to
enter and forage (Ahmed 2000; Ahmed et al.
2004). Other commonly used physical barriers
include: crushed rock, high-grade stainless
steel (solid-sheet material), sand, glass, basalts
and aluminium. ese physical barriers act
as mechanical barriers that prevent termite
penetration and damage to buildings. e use of
graded materials (like sand, basalts, stainless steel
mesh) with a range of sizes is based on principle
that small particles or gaps hinder the passage of
termites to pass through. For instance, almost
half the particles in coarse sand are 1.4−1.8 mm
in diameter and almost another quarter are <1.4
mm, which makes this material an effective
barrier. Likewise, small mesh is difficult for
termites to bite through (Yates et al. 1997; Grace
& Yates 1999).
According to Specialist Termite Control
134
Crop Pests 2
population control. Such ITM systems are not
fully implemented in the Fiji Islands however
the chemical formulation Termidor (active
termiticide ingredient pronil) is used in the
forms of baiting and dusting. e cost associated
with Termidor use and building repair in the Fiji
Islands is estimated up to $8,000 for some houses
(Prasad 2013). According to the International
Plant Protection Convention (2010), the BAF
has consolidated collaboration efforts with other
ministries to prevent the contamination outside
infested boundary. e BAF also believes that
ITM approach is the best long-term solution for
controlling Asian subterranean termites through
proper technical expertise and collaboration with
external and internal parties. Hence, the success
of ITM mainly depends on a holistic knowledge-
based systematic plan that is generated from
intense inspection/monitoring combined with
information on the bio-ecology of termites
(Mahapatro & Chatterjee 2018).
CONCLUSION
Termites are perhaps some of the most destructive
social insects worldwide. A range of control
strategies for subterranean termites have been
examined in a number of countries and generally
involves the use of physical, cultural, chemical,
biological and/or integrated termite management
methods. e Fiji Islands experienced an outbreak
of the Asian Subterranean termites Coptotermes
gestroi in late 2009 and early 2010 (mainly in
Lautoka) that resulted in massive losses costing
millions of dollars in structural damage to
affected homes and schools. Control of C. gestroi
is difficult because of its cryptic underground
nesting habits, which make colonies difficult to
locate. At present, control of C. gestroi in the Fiji
Islands is generally conducted by the BAF using
the commercial product Termidor; however,
Termidor is an expensive chemical imported
from Australia. e biological control of termites
with nematodes and fungi remain uncertain due
to limited information available on soil proles
(such as pH, temperature, moisture and ability
of compounds to be held by the soil particles).
Integrated termite management is considered the
best approach to controlling this pest species in
the future because it is a proactive option. It is
being used on a commercial scale in other parts
of the world but is yet to be utilised fully in the
Fiji Islands. e overall success of any control
method depends on early detection and proper
identication of termites as well as a general
awareness by (and support of) the public in
understanding the problem at hand. In the Fiji
Islands, physical barriers and baiting could
be incorporated together to prevent further
C. gestroi infestation even if ITM is not fully
implemented.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
e authors would like to acknowledge
the Biosecurity Authority of Fiji (BAF) for
their support in terms of providing relevant
information for the following review article.
REFERENCES
Abdul Khalil HPS, Kong NH, Ahmad MN, Bhat
AH, Jawaid M, Jumat S 2009. Selective solvent
extraction of the bark of Rhizophora apiculata
as an anti-termite agent against Coptotermes
gestroi. Journal of Wood Chemistry and
Technology 29(4): 286-304.
Ahmed BM 2000. e effects of boron-treated
timbers against Coptotermes species
in Australia, PhD. Unpublished thesis,
University of Melbourne, Victoria.
Ahmed B, French J, Vinden P 2004. Review of
remedial and preventative methods to protect
timber in service from attack by subterranean
termites in Australia. Sociobiology 44(2):
1-13.
Ahmad I, Kuswanto E, Dungani R 2015. reat
of subterranean termites attack in the asian
countries and their control: a review. Asian
Journal of Applied Sciences 8(4): 227-239.
Barlow SM, Sullivan FM, Miller RK 2015.
Occupational, industrial and environmental
agents. Drugs during pregnancy and lactation
(3rd edition). San Diego, Academic Press. Pp.
599-638.
Biosecurity Authority of Fiji 2017. Asian
Subterranean Termites. Retrieved 04/11/2017
infected termites are introduced to a colony
and the toxins are distributed throughout the
colonies due to colony aggression and grooming
behaviour (French 1991). is technique requires
termites such as Coptotermes lacteusTrojan
termite’ to be coated with arsenic trioxide and
then released to the locations of other termites
such as C. acinaciformis. Hence, there is an
aggressive behaviour between the two species
and spreading the toxins to the pest causing
mortality. However, this is a very costly method,
which would be difficult to adopt on a larger
scale and knowledge remains limited on this
technique for use on C. gestroi (French 1991).
Integrated Termite Management (ITM)
Integrated termite management has arisen
in order to develop a sustainable model by
improving communication between stakeholders,
developing sufficient biological information
about termite species, standardising inspection
of affected areas and implementing correct action
plans meticulously (Snyder 1927; Forschler 2011).
According to Ahmed et al. (2004), approaches to
termite control are increasingly adopting ITM
practices by using a number of strategies such
as chemical and physical barriers, combinations
of dust toxicants and baits, and treated timber
to ‘build out termites’ and ensure whole-house
protection.
e combined monitoring-baiting programme
proposed by Su and Scheffrahn (1998) could
possibly be employed as an ITM approach for
termite control in the Fiji Islands. Monitoring
stations to detect termites are placed in the soil
surrounding a structure. Once termites are found
in the stations, monitoring devices are replaced
with slow-acting baits such as the insect-growth
regulator, hexaumuron (which inhibits synthesis
of the chitin exoskeleton of termites). e slow-
acting nature of the toxicant allows for termites to
socialise with the colonies thereby infesting the
colony members and the non-repellent nature
does not deter the termites from ongoing feeding
(Kard 2003; Vreysen et al. 2007; Evans et al. 2013).
A combination of monitoring and baiting has
the advantage of requiring only small amounts
of termiticide as opposed to the soil technique
where termiticide is in the environment for a
longer period of time (Sornnuwat et al. 1996;
Scheffrahn et al. 1997). For instance, use of
a combined monitoring-baiting procedure
demonstrated that 4−1500 mg hexaumuron
(insect growth regulators) can potentially reduce
the foraging population of subterranean termites,
while a barrier treatment of a single house could
use 5−10 kg of Termidor (Su 1994). Hence, this
combined method is a cost-effective approach
to control termites. Bait is toxic, slow acting and
non-repellent; therefore, it can be considered an
effective approach, especially if combined with
another biological and/or chemical agent(s)
such as chlorpyrifos, permethrin, cypermethrin
and fenvalerate (Su & Scheffrahn 1998; Tsunoda
2005) and/or incorporates a data-management
system. For instance, ProlinxTM is a data-tracking
tool that can be used to dictate station placement,
improve monitoring efficiency and predict
baiting requirement or other optional control
tools for different environmental conditions.
Hence integrated programmes may become self-
improving and cost-effective systems through
the use of feedback from such tools.
Physical barriers may replace the use of liquid
insecticides for soil treatment in future and the
use of such barriers installed before building
construction can complement the monitoring
and baiting programme to reduce damage
caused by termites. e information obtained
from a data-management system can be used to
improve monitoring efficiency and predict bait
requirements or alternative control methods
based on environmental factors (Su & Scheffrahn
1998). Other methods such as chemical, physical
and biological control can be used in combination
to create an effective management technique (Su
& Scheffrahn 1998; Kard 2003). For instance,
Su and Scheffrahn (2000) highlighted that
the combination of soil barriers, monitoring/
baiting stations and localised treatments as an
effective ITM approach. e barrier treatment
aimed to exclude subterranean termites
from the structures while the monitoring
and baiting approach provided the termite
135
Crop Pests 2
population control. Such ITM systems are not
fully implemented in the Fiji Islands however
the chemical formulation Termidor (active
termiticide ingredient pronil) is used in the
forms of baiting and dusting. e cost associated
with Termidor use and building repair in the Fiji
Islands is estimated up to $8,000 for some houses
(Prasad 2013). According to the International
Plant Protection Convention (2010), the BAF
has consolidated collaboration efforts with other
ministries to prevent the contamination outside
infested boundary. e BAF also believes that
ITM approach is the best long-term solution for
controlling Asian subterranean termites through
proper technical expertise and collaboration with
external and internal parties. Hence, the success
of ITM mainly depends on a holistic knowledge-
based systematic plan that is generated from
intense inspection/monitoring combined with
information on the bio-ecology of termites
(Mahapatro & Chatterjee 2018).
CONCLUSION
Termites are perhaps some of the most destructive
social insects worldwide. A range of control
strategies for subterranean termites have been
examined in a number of countries and generally
involves the use of physical, cultural, chemical,
biological and/or integrated termite management
methods. e Fiji Islands experienced an outbreak
of the Asian Subterranean termites Coptotermes
gestroi in late 2009 and early 2010 (mainly in
Lautoka) that resulted in massive losses costing
millions of dollars in structural damage to
affected homes and schools. Control of C. gestroi
is difficult because of its cryptic underground
nesting habits, which make colonies difficult to
locate. At present, control of C. gestroi in the Fiji
Islands is generally conducted by the BAF using
the commercial product Termidor; however,
Termidor is an expensive chemical imported
from Australia. e biological control of termites
with nematodes and fungi remain uncertain due
to limited information available on soil proles
(such as pH, temperature, moisture and ability
of compounds to be held by the soil particles).
Integrated termite management is considered the
best approach to controlling this pest species in
the future because it is a proactive option. It is
being used on a commercial scale in other parts
of the world but is yet to be utilised fully in the
Fiji Islands. e overall success of any control
method depends on early detection and proper
identication of termites as well as a general
awareness by (and support of) the public in
understanding the problem at hand. In the Fiji
Islands, physical barriers and baiting could
be incorporated together to prevent further
C. gestroi infestation even if ITM is not fully
implemented.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
e authors would like to acknowledge
the Biosecurity Authority of Fiji (BAF) for
their support in terms of providing relevant
information for the following review article.
REFERENCES
Abdul Khalil HPS, Kong NH, Ahmad MN, Bhat
AH, Jawaid M, Jumat S 2009. Selective solvent
extraction of the bark of Rhizophora apiculata
as an anti-termite agent against Coptotermes
gestroi. Journal of Wood Chemistry and
Technology 29(4): 286-304.
Ahmed BM 2000. e effects of boron-treated
timbers against Coptotermes species
in Australia, PhD. Unpublished thesis,
University of Melbourne, Victoria.
Ahmed B, French J, Vinden P 2004. Review of
remedial and preventative methods to protect
timber in service from attack by subterranean
termites in Australia. Sociobiology 44(2):
1-13.
Ahmad I, Kuswanto E, Dungani R 2015. reat
of subterranean termites attack in the asian
countries and their control: a review. Asian
Journal of Applied Sciences 8(4): 227-239.
Barlow SM, Sullivan FM, Miller RK 2015.
Occupational, industrial and environmental
agents. Drugs during pregnancy and lactation
(3rd edition). San Diego, Academic Press. Pp.
599-638.
Biosecurity Authority of Fiji 2017. Asian
Subterranean Termites. Retrieved 04/11/2017
infected termites are introduced to a colony
and the toxins are distributed throughout the
colonies due to colony aggression and grooming
behaviour (French 1991). is technique requires
termites such as Coptotermes lacteusTrojan
termite’ to be coated with arsenic trioxide and
then released to the locations of other termites
such as C. acinaciformis. Hence, there is an
aggressive behaviour between the two species
and spreading the toxins to the pest causing
mortality. However, this is a very costly method,
which would be difficult to adopt on a larger
scale and knowledge remains limited on this
technique for use on C. gestroi (French 1991).
Integrated Termite Management (ITM)
Integrated termite management has arisen
in order to develop a sustainable model by
improving communication between stakeholders,
developing sufficient biological information
about termite species, standardising inspection
of affected areas and implementing correct action
plans meticulously (Snyder 1927; Forschler 2011).
According to Ahmed et al. (2004), approaches to
termite control are increasingly adopting ITM
practices by using a number of strategies such
as chemical and physical barriers, combinations
of dust toxicants and baits, and treated timber
to ‘build out termites’ and ensure whole-house
protection.
e combined monitoring-baiting programme
proposed by Su and Scheffrahn (1998) could
possibly be employed as an ITM approach for
termite control in the Fiji Islands. Monitoring
stations to detect termites are placed in the soil
surrounding a structure. Once termites are found
in the stations, monitoring devices are replaced
with slow-acting baits such as the insect-growth
regulator, hexaumuron (which inhibits synthesis
of the chitin exoskeleton of termites). e slow-
acting nature of the toxicant allows for termites to
socialise with the colonies thereby infesting the
colony members and the non-repellent nature
does not deter the termites from ongoing feeding
(Kard 2003; Vreysen et al. 2007; Evans et al. 2013).
A combination of monitoring and baiting has
the advantage of requiring only small amounts
of termiticide as opposed to the soil technique
where termiticide is in the environment for a
longer period of time (Sornnuwat et al. 1996;
Scheffrahn et al. 1997). For instance, use of
a combined monitoring-baiting procedure
demonstrated that 4−1500 mg hexaumuron
(insect growth regulators) can potentially reduce
the foraging population of subterranean termites,
while a barrier treatment of a single house could
use 5−10 kg of Termidor (Su 1994). Hence, this
combined method is a cost-effective approach
to control termites. Bait is toxic, slow acting and
non-repellent; therefore, it can be considered an
effective approach, especially if combined with
another biological and/or chemical agent(s)
such as chlorpyrifos, permethrin, cypermethrin
and fenvalerate (Su & Scheffrahn 1998; Tsunoda
2005) and/or incorporates a data-management
system. For instance, ProlinxTM is a data-tracking
tool that can be used to dictate station placement,
improve monitoring efficiency and predict
baiting requirement or other optional control
tools for different environmental conditions.
Hence integrated programmes may become self-
improving and cost-effective systems through
the use of feedback from such tools.
Physical barriers may replace the use of liquid
insecticides for soil treatment in future and the
use of such barriers installed before building
construction can complement the monitoring
and baiting programme to reduce damage
caused by termites. e information obtained
from a data-management system can be used to
improve monitoring efficiency and predict bait
requirements or alternative control methods
based on environmental factors (Su & Scheffrahn
1998). Other methods such as chemical, physical
and biological control can be used in combination
to create an effective management technique (Su
& Scheffrahn 1998; Kard 2003). For instance,
Su and Scheffrahn (2000) highlighted that
the combination of soil barriers, monitoring/
baiting stations and localised treatments as an
effective ITM approach. e barrier treatment
aimed to exclude subterranean termites
from the structures while the monitoring
and baiting approach provided the termite
136
Crop Pests 2
International Plant Protection Convention 2010.
Asian subterranean termite (Coptotermes
gestroi) incursion FJI-01/2. 1-5.
Jembere A, Berecha G, Tolossa AR 2017. Impacts
of termites on selected soil physicochemical
characteristics in the highlands of Southwest
Ethiopia. Archives of Agronomy and Soil
Science 63(12): 1676-1684.
Jouquet P, Dauber J, Lagerlof J, Lavelle P, Lepage
M 2006. Soil invertebrates as ecosystem
engineers: Intended and accidental effects on
soil and feedback loops. Applied Soil Ecology
32: 153-164.
Kard BM 2003. Integrated pest management of
subterranean termites (Isoptera). Journal of
Entomological Science 38(2): 200-224.
Korb J 2008. e ecology of social evolution in
termites. In: Korb J, Heinze J ed. Ecology of
Social Evolution. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer
Berlin Heidelberg. Pp. 151-174.
Kuswanto E, Ahmad I, Dungani R 2015. reat
of subterranean termites attack in the Asian
countries and their control: a review. Asian
Journal of Applied Sciences 8(4): 227-239.
Lai PY 1977. Biology and ecology of the
Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes
formosanus, and its susceptibility to the
entomogenous fungi, Beauveria bassiana and
Metarrhizium anisopliae, Ph.D. Unpublished
thesis, University of Hawaii, Honolulu,
Honolulu.
LeBayon I, Ansard D, Brunet C, Paulmier I,
Pruvost A 1999. Biocontrol of Reticulitermes
santonensis by entomopathogenic fungi.
International Research Group on Wood
Protection, IRG Secretariat, Stockolm. Pp.
1-9.
Lee KC, Sun J-Z, Zhu Y, Mallette EJ 2009. A
case study of the Formosan subterranean
termite, Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera:
Rhinotermitidae) transported with a non-
cellulosic commercial carrier in south
Mississippi. Sociobiology 53(3): 619-629.
Lee S-H 2017. Effects of tunnel slopes on
movement efficiency and behavior of
termites. Oriental Insects: 1-10.
Lenz M, Lee C, Robinson W 2005. Biological
control in termite management: the potential
of nematodes and fungal pathogens.
Proceedings of the Fih International
Conference on Urban Pests (ICPU), Suntec,
Singapore. July 10-13, 2005. Pp. 47-52.
Lenz M, Kamath M, Lal S, Senivasa E 2000.
Status of the tree-damaging Neotermes
sp. Fiji’s American mahogany plantation
and preliminary evaluation of the use of
entomopathogens for their control. ACIAR
Small Project No. FST/96/205, Project Report
(in part).
Lewis VR, Haverty MI 2001. Lethal effects of
electrical shock treatments to the western
drywood termite (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae)
and resulting damage to wooden test boards.
Sociobiology 37(1): 163-184.
Lopes RdS, Lima Gd, Correia MTdS, da Costa
AF, Lima EÁdLA, Lima VLdM 2017. e
potential of Isaria spp. as a bioinsecticide
for the biological control of Nasutitermes
corniger. Biocontrol Science and Technology
27(9): 1038-1048.
Mahapatro GK, Chatterjee D 2018. Integrated
termite management in the context of indoor
and outdoor pest situation. In: Khan MA,
Ahmad W eds. Termites and Sustainable
Management: Volume 2 - Economic
Losses and Management. Cham, Springer
International Publishing. Pp. 119-135.
Maketon M, Sawangwan P, Sawatwarakul W
2007. Laboratory study on the efficacy of
Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycota:
Hyphomycetes) in controlling Coptotermes
gestroi (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).
Entomologia Generalis 30(3): 203-218.
Mauldin JK, Beal RH 1989. Entomogenous
nematodes for control of subterranean
termites, Reticulitermes spp. (Isoptera:
Rhinotermitidae). Journal of Economic
Entomology 82: 1638-1642.
Ministry of Information Fiji 2010. Government
taskforce to counter termite outbreak. In:
Ministry of Communications ed. Fiji Islands,
e Fijian Government, http://www.ji.gov./
Media-Center/Press-Releases/Government-
taskforce-to-counter-termite-outbreak.aspx.
from www.baf.com./news/asian-
subterranean-termites.
Bobbarala V, Vadlapudi V 2009. Abrus precatorius
L. seed extracts antimicrobial properties
against clinically important bacteria.
International Journal of PharmTech Research
1: 1115-1118.
Cao R, Su N-Y 2016. Temperature preferences of
four subterranean termite species (Isoptera:
Rhinotermitidae) and temperature-dependent
survivorship and wood-consumption rate.
Ecology and Population Biology 109(1): 64-
71.
Chaudhary F 2011 (3 October). Termites hold up
traffic. e Fiji Times.
Culliney T, Grace J 2000. Prospects for the
biological control of subterranean termites
(Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), with special
reference to Coptotermes formosanus. Bulletin
of Entomological Research 90(1): 9-21.
Doi S, Kurimoto Y, Ohmura W, Ohara S,
Aoyama M, Yoshimura T 1999. Effects of heat
treatments of wood on the feeding behaviour
of two subterranean termites. Holzforschung
53(3): 225-229.
Dufera JT, Fufa TG 2014. Evaluation of chemical,
botanical and cultural managements
of termites control. Pakistan Journal of
Biological Sciences 17(2): 272-276.
Edwards R, Mill AE 1986. Termites in buildings.
eir biology and control. East Grinstead,
England, Rentokil Ltd.
Engler KM, Gold RE 2004. Effects of multiple
generations of Metarhizium anisopliae on
subterranean termite feeding and mortality.
National Conference on Urban Entomology.
Epsky ND, Capinera JL 1998. Efficacy of the
entomogenous nematode Steinernema feltiae
against a subterranean termite, Reticulitermes
tibialis (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Journal
of Economic Entomology 81: 1313-1317.
Evans TA, Forschler BT, Grace JK 2013. Biology
of invasive termites: a worldwide review.
Annual Review of Entomology 58: 455-74.
Forschler B 2011. Sustainable termite
management using an integrated pest
management approach. In: Dhang P ed.
Urban pest management: An environmental
perspective, Oxfordshire: CAB International.
Pp. 133–144.
French JRJ 1991. Baits and foraging behavior
of Australian species of Coptotermes.
Sociobiology 19: 171-186.
Grace JK 1996. Termite-resistant construction:
use of a stainless steel mesh to exclude
Coptotermes formosanus. Sociobiology 28(3):
365-372.
Grace JK, Yates JR 1999. Termite resistant
construction and building materials. In:
Robinson WH, Rettich F, Rambo GW ed. 3rd
International Conference on Urban Pests,
Czech University of Agriculture, Prague, 19-
22 July 1999. Pp. 399-406.
Hansen J, Johnson J, Winter D 2011. History
and use of heat in pest control: a review.
International Journal of Pest Management
57(4): 267-289.
Harit AK, Gajalakshmi S, Abbasi SA 2014.
Swarming of the termite Coptotermes gestroi
in North-Eastern Puducherry. Zoology and
Ecology 24(1): 62-69.
Harit AK, Gajalakshmi S, Abbasi SA 2016.
Studies on the development of captive termite
colonies. Zoology and Ecology 26(4): 301-
312.
Hassan A, Haz A, Rashid M 2008. Minimum
perimeter treatment against subterranean
termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) using
imidacloprid in Malaysia. 6th International
Conference on Urban Pests, Budapest,
Hungary, 13-16 July 2008. Pp. 373-378.
Husseneder C 2010. Symbiosis in subterranean
termites: a review of insights from molecular
studies. Environmental Entomology 39(2):
378-388.
Ibach RE, Hadi YS, Nandika D, Yusuf S, Indrayani
Y 2000. Termite and fungal resistance of in
situ polymerized tributyltin acrylate and
acetylated Indonesian and USA wood.e
International Research Group on Wood.
[Preservation. Section 3, Wood Protecting
Chemicals: 31st annual meeting, Kona,
Hawaii, USA, 14-19 May 2000. Stockholm,
Sweden : IRG Secretariat, 2000]. 13 p.
137
Crop Pests 2
International Plant Protection Convention 2010.
Asian subterranean termite (Coptotermes
gestroi) incursion FJI-01/2. 1-5.
Jembere A, Berecha G, Tolossa AR 2017. Impacts
of termites on selected soil physicochemical
characteristics in the highlands of Southwest
Ethiopia. Archives of Agronomy and Soil
Science 63(12): 1676-1684.
Jouquet P, Dauber J, Lagerlof J, Lavelle P, Lepage
M 2006. Soil invertebrates as ecosystem
engineers: Intended and accidental effects on
soil and feedback loops. Applied Soil Ecology
32: 153-164.
Kard BM 2003. Integrated pest management of
subterranean termites (Isoptera). Journal of
Entomological Science 38(2): 200-224.
Korb J 2008. e ecology of social evolution in
termites. In: Korb J, Heinze J ed. Ecology of
Social Evolution. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer
Berlin Heidelberg. Pp. 151-174.
Kuswanto E, Ahmad I, Dungani R 2015. reat
of subterranean termites attack in the Asian
countries and their control: a review. Asian
Journal of Applied Sciences 8(4): 227-239.
Lai PY 1977. Biology and ecology of the
Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes
formosanus, and its susceptibility to the
entomogenous fungi, Beauveria bassiana and
Metarrhizium anisopliae, Ph.D. Unpublished
thesis, University of Hawaii, Honolulu,
Honolulu.
LeBayon I, Ansard D, Brunet C, Paulmier I,
Pruvost A 1999. Biocontrol of Reticulitermes
santonensis by entomopathogenic fungi.
International Research Group on Wood
Protection, IRG Secretariat, Stockolm. Pp.
1-9.
Lee KC, Sun J-Z, Zhu Y, Mallette EJ 2009. A
case study of the Formosan subterranean
termite, Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera:
Rhinotermitidae) transported with a non-
cellulosic commercial carrier in south
Mississippi. Sociobiology 53(3): 619-629.
Lee S-H 2017. Effects of tunnel slopes on
movement efficiency and behavior of
termites. Oriental Insects: 1-10.
Lenz M, Lee C, Robinson W 2005. Biological
control in termite management: the potential
of nematodes and fungal pathogens.
Proceedings of the Fih International
Conference on Urban Pests (ICPU), Suntec,
Singapore. July 10-13, 2005. Pp. 47-52.
Lenz M, Kamath M, Lal S, Senivasa E 2000.
Status of the tree-damaging Neotermes
sp. Fiji’s American mahogany plantation
and preliminary evaluation of the use of
entomopathogens for their control. ACIAR
Small Project No. FST/96/205, Project Report
(in part).
Lewis VR, Haverty MI 2001. Lethal effects of
electrical shock treatments to the western
drywood termite (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae)
and resulting damage to wooden test boards.
Sociobiology 37(1): 163-184.
Lopes RdS, Lima Gd, Correia MTdS, da Costa
AF, Lima EÁdLA, Lima VLdM 2017. e
potential of Isaria spp. as a bioinsecticide
for the biological control of Nasutitermes
corniger. Biocontrol Science and Technology
27(9): 1038-1048.
Mahapatro GK, Chatterjee D 2018. Integrated
termite management in the context of indoor
and outdoor pest situation. In: Khan MA,
Ahmad W eds. Termites and Sustainable
Management: Volume 2 - Economic
Losses and Management. Cham, Springer
International Publishing. Pp. 119-135.
Maketon M, Sawangwan P, Sawatwarakul W
2007. Laboratory study on the efficacy of
Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycota:
Hyphomycetes) in controlling Coptotermes
gestroi (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).
Entomologia Generalis 30(3): 203-218.
Mauldin JK, Beal RH 1989. Entomogenous
nematodes for control of subterranean
termites, Reticulitermes spp. (Isoptera:
Rhinotermitidae). Journal of Economic
Entomology 82: 1638-1642.
Ministry of Information Fiji 2010. Government
taskforce to counter termite outbreak. In:
Ministry of Communications ed. Fiji Islands,
e Fijian Government, http://www.ji.gov./
Media-Center/Press-Releases/Government-
taskforce-to-counter-termite-outbreak.aspx.
from www.baf.com./news/asian-
subterranean-termites.
Bobbarala V, Vadlapudi V 2009. Abrus precatorius
L. seed extracts antimicrobial properties
against clinically important bacteria.
International Journal of PharmTech Research
1: 1115-1118.
Cao R, Su N-Y 2016. Temperature preferences of
four subterranean termite species (Isoptera:
Rhinotermitidae) and temperature-dependent
survivorship and wood-consumption rate.
Ecology and Population Biology 109(1): 64-
71.
Chaudhary F 2011 (3 October). Termites hold up
traffic. e Fiji Times.
Culliney T, Grace J 2000. Prospects for the
biological control of subterranean termites
(Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), with special
reference to Coptotermes formosanus. Bulletin
of Entomological Research 90(1): 9-21.
Doi S, Kurimoto Y, Ohmura W, Ohara S,
Aoyama M, Yoshimura T 1999. Effects of heat
treatments of wood on the feeding behaviour
of two subterranean termites. Holzforschung
53(3): 225-229.
Dufera JT, Fufa TG 2014. Evaluation of chemical,
botanical and cultural managements
of termites control. Pakistan Journal of
Biological Sciences 17(2): 272-276.
Edwards R, Mill AE 1986. Termites in buildings.
eir biology and control. East Grinstead,
England, Rentokil Ltd.
Engler KM, Gold RE 2004. Effects of multiple
generations of Metarhizium anisopliae on
subterranean termite feeding and mortality.
National Conference on Urban Entomology.
Epsky ND, Capinera JL 1998. Efficacy of the
entomogenous nematode Steinernema feltiae
against a subterranean termite, Reticulitermes
tibialis (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Journal
of Economic Entomology 81: 1313-1317.
Evans TA, Forschler BT, Grace JK 2013. Biology
of invasive termites: a worldwide review.
Annual Review of Entomology 58: 455-74.
Forschler B 2011. Sustainable termite
management using an integrated pest
management approach. In: Dhang P ed.
Urban pest management: An environmental
perspective, Oxfordshire: CAB International.
Pp. 133–144.
French JRJ 1991. Baits and foraging behavior
of Australian species of Coptotermes.
Sociobiology 19: 171-186.
Grace JK 1996. Termite-resistant construction:
use of a stainless steel mesh to exclude
Coptotermes formosanus. Sociobiology 28(3):
365-372.
Grace JK, Yates JR 1999. Termite resistant
construction and building materials. In:
Robinson WH, Rettich F, Rambo GW ed. 3rd
International Conference on Urban Pests,
Czech University of Agriculture, Prague, 19-
22 July 1999. Pp. 399-406.
Hansen J, Johnson J, Winter D 2011. History
and use of heat in pest control: a review.
International Journal of Pest Management
57(4): 267-289.
Harit AK, Gajalakshmi S, Abbasi SA 2014.
Swarming of the termite Coptotermes gestroi
in North-Eastern Puducherry. Zoology and
Ecology 24(1): 62-69.
Harit AK, Gajalakshmi S, Abbasi SA 2016.
Studies on the development of captive termite
colonies. Zoology and Ecology 26(4): 301-
312.
Hassan A, Haz A, Rashid M 2008. Minimum
perimeter treatment against subterranean
termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) using
imidacloprid in Malaysia. 6th International
Conference on Urban Pests, Budapest,
Hungary, 13-16 July 2008. Pp. 373-378.
Husseneder C 2010. Symbiosis in subterranean
termites: a review of insights from molecular
studies. Environmental Entomology 39(2):
378-388.
Ibach RE, Hadi YS, Nandika D, Yusuf S, Indrayani
Y 2000. Termite and fungal resistance of in
situ polymerized tributyltin acrylate and
acetylated Indonesian and USA wood.e
International Research Group on Wood.
[Preservation. Section 3, Wood Protecting
Chemicals: 31st annual meeting, Kona,
Hawaii, USA, 14-19 May 2000. Stockholm,
Sweden : IRG Secretariat, 2000]. 13 p.
138
Crop Pests 2
constructions caused by subterranean
termites and its control in ailand. Wood
research : bulletin of the Wood Research
Institute Kyoto University 83: 59-139.
Sornnuwat Y, Vongkaluang C, Takahashi M,
Yoshimura T, Tsunoda K 1996. Longevity
of soil termiticides weathered for 3-4 years
in ailand under in situ observation and
laboratory bioassay using Coptotermes gestroi
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Entomology 87(2): 389-397.
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139
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constructions caused by subterranean
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research : bulletin of the Wood Research
Institute Kyoto University 83: 59-139.
Sornnuwat Y, Vongkaluang C, Takahashi M,
Yoshimura T, Tsunoda K 1996. Longevity
of soil termiticides weathered for 3-4 years
in ailand under in situ observation and
laboratory bioassay using Coptotermes gestroi
Wasmann. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 42: 520-531.
Specialist Termite Control 2014. Phyisical
termite protection barriers, ST control,
Austrialia Retrieved 18/10/2017 http://www.
termitespecialist.com.au/information-for-
builders/physical-barriers/
Staunton I 2014. Urban pest management in
Australia. 5 ed. Sydney, UNSW Press. 358 p.
Su N-Y 1994. Field evaluation of a hexaumuron
bait for population suppression of
subterranean termites (Isoptera:
Rhinotermitidae). Journal of Economic
Entomology 87(2): 389-397.
Su N-Y, Scheffrahn RH 1998. A review of
subterranean termite control practices and
prospects for integrated pest management
programmes. Integrated Pest Management
Reviews 3(1): 1-13.
Su N-Y, Scheffrahn RH 2000. Termites as pests of
buildings. In: Abe T, Bignell DE, Higashi M
ed. Termites: evolution, sociality, symbioses,
ecology. Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands.
Pp. 437-453.
Su NY, Scheffrahn RH, Weissling T 1997. A
new introduction of a subterranean termite,
Coptotermes havilandi Holmgren (Isoptera:
Rhinotermitidae) in Miami, Florida. Florida
Entomologist 80: 408–411.
Tagbor TA 2009. e anti-termite properties and
basic phytochemicals of eight local plants
and the chemical characterisation of evetia
peruviana (pers) K. Schum in Ghana.
Unpublished thesis, Kwame Nkrumah
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... $ 1.5 billion (Staunton, 2012) China (Mainland) $ 1 billion (Lenz et al., 2003) Fiji Islands $ 1 million (Chand et al., 2018) France $ 0.5 billion (Lenz et al., 2003) India $ 35.12 million (Verma et al., 2009) Indonesia $ 1 billion (Hadi et al., 2016) Japan $ 0.8-1 billion (Tsunoda & Yoshumura, 2004) Malaysia $ 10-12 million (Yeoh & Lee, 2007) Philippine $ Hundreds million (Acda, 2013) ...
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Termites are the eusocial arthropod decomposers, and improve soil fertility, crop yield, and also are used by humanity for their benefits across the world. However, some species of termites are becoming a threat to the farming community as they are causing major losses to the agricultural system directly and indirectly. It is estimated that termites cost the global economy more than 40 billion USD annually, and considerable research has been done on its management. In this review, we present the available information related to sustainable and integrated termite management practices (ITM). Furthermore, we insisted that the better management of this menace can be possible through; (i) improving traditional methods to keep termite away from crops, (ii) improving agricultural practices to maintain plants more vigor and less susceptible to termite attack, and (iii) integration of available techniques to reduce termite infestation in crops and surroundings. The application of an effective combination of traditional practices with recently developed approaches is the best option for agricultural growers. Moreover, keeping in mind the beneficial nature of this pest, more innovative efforts for its management, particularly using rapidly emerging technology (e.g. RNA Interference), are needed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... These insects play a key role in the organic matter transformations, plant litter decomposition and soil fertilization (Rouland-Lefevre, 2010;Jouquet et al., 2011;Majeed et al., 2012). In spite of their great ecological importance, many termite species are destructive pests of agricultural and urban settings and cause significant damage worth billions of US dollars each year (Su and Scheffrahn, 2000;Ahmed et al., 2005;Rouland-Lefèvre, 2010;Chand et al., 2018). Subterranean termites attack on many of the agricultural and horticultural crops, forest plantations, orchard trees and wooden infrastructures (Rouland-Lefèvre, 2010). ...
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Different authors have tried in the past to develop captive colonies of termites in their laboratories, starting with capturing of alate pairs and confining them in Petri dishes or small boxes to facilitate mating, then transferring incipient colonies into progressively larger containers. Twenty-three termite species of the genera Coptotermes, Cortaritermes, Cryptotermes, Hodotermes, Macrotermes, Mastotermes, Microtermes, Odontotermes, Pseudacanthotermes, Reticulitermes, Trinervitermes, and Zootermopsis have been explored following this method in 33 reported studies. However, in most of the attempts, incipient colonies did not grow beyond the population of a few hundred insects and tended to die off in a few months. In this paper, we report the efforts made to develop colonies of Hypotermes obscuriceps, Macrotermes convulsionarius, Microcerotermes cameroni, Odontotermes brunneus, Pericapritermes sp., and Trinervitermes biformis found in the study area. Several strategies were attempted to develop termite colonies to maturity. However, none of these efforts resulted in any greater success than the previous attempts of other authors had been, albeit targeted at the development of different species. Although some useful information on termite biology was obtained in the course of the process, the studies performed indicate that termitaria are possibly based on too fine a tuning of food, architecture, humidity, and temperature to be amenable to simulation in laboratory conditions.
Chapter
This book presents experiences and successful case studies of integrated pest management (IPM) from developed and developing countries and from major international centres and programmes. It contains 39 chapters by many contributors addressing themes such as: emerging issues in IPM, including biotechnology, pesticide policies and socioeconomic considerations (8 chapters); country experiences from Africa, Asia, North and South America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand (20 chapters); and regional and international experiences, including those of FAO, USAID, ICIPE, CIRAD, the World Bank and CGIAR Systemwide IPM Program (9 chapters). This book will be of significant interest to those working in the areas of crop protection, entomology and pest management.
Book
The book is a new compendium in which leading termite scientists review the advances of the last 30 years in our understanding of phylogeny, fossil records, relationships with cockroaches, social evolution, nesting, behaviour, mutualisms with archaea, protists, bacteria and fungi, nutrition, energy metabolism,population and community ecology, soil conditioning, greenhouse gas production and pest status.
Chapter
With their well-known role indoor and outdoor, termites attract attention in plant protection. Herein, attempt is made to collect, compile and collate the information on termites, viz. categorization of termites as per feeding habit, role as outdoor pest particularly in agri-horticultural systems, their status as indoor pests, economic loss to buildings and constructions, suitable steps for sustainable management and various available options in indoor and outdoor scenario such as chemical, cultural, mound treatment and green management approach. Special emphasis is given on 3B technologies (borate, baiting and barrier) along with indigenous traditional knowledge (ITK) for termite management. We strongly advocate concerted need for formulating situation-specific package, judicious utilization of chemicals inclusive of frontier technologies and ITKs in adopting smart strategies under the aegis of integrated termite management (ITM).
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The termite Nasutitermes corniger is a serious pest infesting urban areas of Brazil and many other countries. Control largely depends on synthetic pesticides whose indiscriminate use can impact the environment and the health of humans and other animals. Alternative strategies against insect pests, such as biological control by entomopathogenic fungi, could be effective while minimising these deleterious effects. We analysed the actions of the entomopathogenic fungi Isaria farinosa, Isaria fumosorosea, and Isaria javanica against the insect N. corniger. Our results indicated that the fungi examined were pathogenic against N. corniger, with I. farinosa ESALQ1355 being the most efficacious strain, resulting in the death of 95% of the workers (LC50 6.66 × 10⁴ conidia/mL) and 85% of the soldiers (LC50 6.81 × 10⁴ conidia/mL). This is the first report of the pathogenicity of Isaria spp. on N. corniger. These in vitro results suggest that I. farinosa ESALQ1355 demonstrates a significant biological potential for controlling N. corniger.
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Subterranean termites create tunnels with ascending and descending slopes under the ground for foraging. In this study, I explored the effect of the tunnel slopes on the termite movement, which is helpful in understanding the foraging efficiency. To do so, I designed five-cm long artificial tunnels in arenas. The tunnels had different curvatures (D) and widths (W). To artificially make the slopes, I obliquely put the arena with an angle, A (= 20°, 40°, and 60°). I systematically investigated the slope effect in terms of the time required for a termite to pass half the distance of the tunnel (τu for the ascending section and τd for the descending section). When A = 20°, little effect of the slope was observed, while for A = 40°, the slope effect strongly appeared. On the other hand, for A = 60°, the slope effect disappeared, which was explained by the movement behaviour. The results showed that an appropriate slope of ascending and descending tunnel could positively contribute to the termite movement efficiency.
Article
Termites are reported to improve soil physico-chemical properties thereby enhance soil fertility of their mound and foraging areas. Empirical study pertaining to these effects is missing in South-West Ethiopia. For this study, soil samples affected by termite activities were collected at 1 meter interval within 0 to 3 meters distance from the base of six termite mounds on gently sloping and sloping land and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters. The result of the analysis depicted that soil bulk density (1.38 -1.15 g cm⁻³) and moisture content (21.1 - 9.9 %) decreased with increased distance from the mound base. While clay content decreased with increased distance from the mound base from72.0 % to 45.5 %, sand and silt contents increased from 8.0 % to 21.3 % and 19.3 % to 28.5 % respectively. pH (6.23), organic carbon (3.85%), total nitrogen (0.4 %), CEC (30.43 cmol kg⁻¹), exchangeable Ca (13.73 cmol kg⁻¹), Mg (3.15 cmol kg⁻¹), and PBS (56.8 %) were higher on termite mounds. While. electrical conductivity (0.03 dS m⁻¹ - 0.06 dS m⁻¹), exchangeable K (0.52 cmol kg⁻¹-0.93cmol kg⁻¹) and Na (0.02 cmol kg⁻¹ -0.03 cmol kg⁻¹) showed increasing trend with the distance from the mound base. Our results indicated that termite mounds are important sinks of organic matter and mineral nutrients, and hence contribute to the enhancement of soil fertility. Thus, for subsistent farmers the uses of termite mounds as a fertilizer present an opportunity to improve agricultural production.
Article
Longevities of several soil termiticides against chlorinated hydrocarbons were evaluated with field-exposure tests and laboratory bioassays of weathered termiticide-treated soils. Field-exposure tests were conducted at three test sites in Thailand with the ground stake test (GST) and the modified ground board test (MGBT). Residual anti-termite activity was assayed for tunneling activity according to the Japanese standardized method using the most economically important Thai termite species, Coptotermes gestroi Wasmann. Because of the reduced anti-termite activity in the soil treated with chlorpyrifos after short-term.
Book
Biology of Termites, a Modern Synthesis brings together the major advances in termite biology, phylogenetics, social evolution and biogeography made in the decade since Abe et al Termites: Evolution, Sociality, Symbioses, Ecology became the standard modern reference work on termite science. Building on the success of the Kluwer book, David Bignell, Yves Roisin and Nathan Lo have brought together in the new volume most of the world's leading experts on termite taxonomy, behaviour, genetics, caste differentiation, physiology, microbiology, mound architecture, distribution and control. Very strong evolutionary and developmental themes run through the individual chapters, fed by new data streams from molecular sequencing, and for the first time it is possible to compare the social organisation of termites with that of the social Hymenoptera, focusing on caste determination, population genetics, cooperative behaviour, nest hygiene and symbioses with microorganisms. New chapters have been added on termite pheromones, termites as pests of agriculture and on destructive invasive species, and new molecular and cladistic frameworks are presented for clarifying taxonomy, especially in the higher termites which dominate many tropical ecosystems. Applied entomologists, developmental and evolutionary biologists, microbial ecologists, sociobiologists and tropical agriculture specialists will all benefit from the new insights provided by this work. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011. All rights reserved.