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A very short multidimensional scale consisting of 18 items has been developed for measuring the job satisfaction of customer-facing employees, so that its length would not be deterrent for practical applications. Using a sample of 632 customer-facing employees working with organised retail stores in the Delhi-National Capital Region (Delhi-NCR), India, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) has been conducted with a subsample of 200 respondents and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) has been conducted with a subsample of 432 respondents. A series of EFA and CFA have resulted in 18 items categorised under five factors namely - working conditions; interpersonal relationships with co-workers and supervisor/manager; compensation; career advancement and growth opportunities; and training and development. The stability of the factor structure was assessed by again conducting CFA on a validation sample of 329 respondents. The overall measure has demonstrated construct validity and each of the five subscales has exhibited high internal consistency.
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nt. J. Environment, Workplace and Employmen
t
, Vol. 4, No. 4, 2018
Copyright © 2018 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.
Measuring job satisfaction of customer-facing
employees: scale development and validation in the
context of organised retail sector
Kriti Priya Gupta*
Symbiosis Centre for Management Studies, Noida,
[Constituent of Symbiosis International (Deemed University]),
Block A, Plot No. 47 and 48, Sector 62,
Noida 201301, India
Email: kriti.gupta@scmsnoida.ac.in
*Corresponding author
Sweta Saurabh
Symbiosis Law School, Noida
[Constituent of Symbiosis International (Deemed University)],
Noida 201301, India
Email: sweta@symlaw.edu.in
Preeti Bhaskar
ICFAI Business School,
ICFAI University, Dehradun,
Dehradun, Uttarakhand 248197, India
Email: preeti.bhaskar52@gmail.com
Abstract: A very short multidimensional scale consisting of 18 items has been
developed for measuring the job satisfaction of customer-facing employees,
so that its length would not be deterrent for practical applications. Using a
sample of 632 customer-facing employees working with organised retail stores
in the Delhi-National Capital Region (Delhi-NCR), India, exploratory factor
analysis (EFA) has been conducted with a subsample of 200 respondents and
confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) has been conducted with a subsample of
432 respondents. A series of EFA and CFA have resulted in 18 items
categorised under five factors namely – working conditions; interpersonal
relationships with co-workers and supervisor/manager; compensation; career
advancement and growth opportunities; and training and development. The
stability of the factor structure was assessed by again conducting CFA on a
validation sample of 329 respondents. The overall measure has demonstrated
construct validity and each of the five subscales has exhibited high internal
consistency.
Keywords: job satisfaction; customer-facing employees; measurement scale;
organised retail sector; India.
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easuring job satisfaction of custome
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Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Gupta, K.P., Saurabh, S.
and Bhaskar, P. (2018) ‘Measuring job satisfaction of customer-facing
employees: scale development and validation in the context of organised retail
sector’, Int. J. Environment, Workplace and Employment, Vol. 4, No. 4,
pp.314–346.
Biographical notes: Kriti Priya Gupta received her MSc in Industrial
Mathematics and Computer Applications and Ph. D degree in Mathematics
from Dr. B.R. Ambedkar University, Agra, India. Currently, she is working
as a Professor with Symbiosis Centre for Management Studies NOIDA
[Constituent of Symbiosis International (Deemed University), Pune, India].
She has several research publications in various reputed journals, to her credit.
She has also presented research papers in over 20 national and international
conferences. Her research interests include statistical modelling, decision
making and general management. She has worked on several research projects
and has conducted faculty development programs and corporate training
programs.
Sweta Saurabh is working as an Assistant Professor with Symbiosis Law
School, NOIDA [Constituent of Symbiosis International (Deemed University),
Pune, India]. She is also pursuing her PhD on Communication Satisfaction and
its impact on Job Performance from Symbiosis International (Deemed
University). Her keen interests include Organisational Behaviour, Human
Resources, Business Communication and Entrepreneurship.
Preeti Bhaskar possesses seven years of teaching experience. Currently, she is
working as an Assistant Professor at ICFAI Business School, Dehradun. She
has done her MBA with dual specialisation in Human Resource Management
and Marketing Management from ICFAI Business School. Her research interest
includes e-government, job performance, technology adoption, job satisfaction
and e-learning. She has published research papers in reputed journals
and presented many research papers at various national and international
conferences. She has been a co-investigator in Minor Research Projects on
“Citizens Perceptions of E-government Services Offered by New Delhi
Municipal Council”. She has also authored a book on ‘Business Management’
and published case study on ‘Favouritism or Organization Politics’ in Case
Centre, UK.
1 Introduction
A competent workforce is an essential requirement for retail companies to be successful
in the twenty-first century (Rhoads et al., 2002). Because of the manpower-intensive
nature of this sector, effective human resource systems are required for its sustainable
growth. The shortage of experienced human capital across all levels in the sector, leads to
poaching problems and the gap between supply and demand results in high attrition rates
(Singh et al., 2008). Retention of the employees especially the frontline or customer-
facing employees, who constitute 85% of a retailer’s workforce, is becoming a growing
concern these days (Singh et al., 2008). Hence it is important for the retailers to examine
different strategies to increase the job satisfaction levels of their employees so that their
morale can be boosted. To decrease the costs associated with recruitment and training,
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and to reduce employee turnover, retailers must maintain proper levels of employee job
satisfaction (Booth and Hamer, 2006).
Customer-facing employees are the major link between the employer and the
customers in the retailing industry. They play an important role in developing and
maintaining business relationships with customers (Palmatier et al., 2007; Vorhies and
Morgan, 2005). The behaviour of customer facing employees is important to create long-
term profits for service organisations (Sergeant and Frenkel, 2000). Job satisfaction of
customer facing employees plays a significant role in influencing their behaviour with
customers (Hoffman and Ingram, 1991). Job satisfaction is a direct determinant of
employees’ behavioural intentions (Judge et al., 2001). It is an important predictor of
employee turnover and also impacts the organisation’s performance to a great extent
(Laschinger et al., 2004).
Several scales have been proposed by researchers to measure job satisfaction through
global measures (Brayfield and Rothe, 1951; Judge et al., 2001) or multifaceted scales
(Smith et al., 1968; Spector, 1985). However, few researchers have criticised the global
measures of job satisfaction because of their failure to provide an accurate assessment of
individual facets of job satisfaction (Churchill et al., 1974).Attempts have been made in
the past to measure job satisfaction in service industry in general however, little attention
has been paid to this phenomenon in organised retail sector (Chung et al., 2012). The
present study attempts to develop a short multidimensional scale for measuring job
satisfaction of customer-facing retail employees. Development of such scale is
worthwhile for two reasons. First, the characteristics of job satisfaction for retail
employees may differ compared to those in other sectors. Second, the existing
multifaceted job satisfaction scales are too lengthy which may lead to survey fatigue of
the respondents (Stanton et al., 2001).
2 Literature survey
2.1 Job satisfaction
Hoppok and Spielgler (1938) has defined job satisfaction as ‘the integrated set of
psychological, physiological and environmental conditions that encourage employees to
admit that they are satisfied or happy with their jobs’. According to Vroom (1964), job
satisfaction is “an orientation of emotions that employees possess towards role they are
performing at the work place”. Locke (1976) has defined job satisfaction as ‘a
pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job’. It can be associated
with a personal feeling of achievement. Cranny et al. (1992) explain job satisfaction as
‘an affective (emotional) reaction to one’s job’. Most definitions in the literature focus on
the affective component of job satisfaction. However, several researchers put a greater
emphasis on its cognitive aspect also (Fisher, 2000; Weiss, 2002). Fritzsche and Parrish
(2005) argue that although job satisfaction is an emotional state, but it emerges from a
cognitive appraisal of job experiences. In their review of the job satisfaction literature,
Hulin and Judge (2003) define job satisfaction as being “…multidimensional
psychological responses to one's job. These responses have cognitive (evaluative),
affective (emotional), and behavioural components. Job satisfactions refer to internal
cognitive and affective states …” (pp.255–256).
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2.2 Measures of job satisfaction
Job satisfaction research has been carried out for more than 50 years and several types of
measures have been developed including global measures, multidimensional measures,
multi-item or single-item instruments, instruments designed for jobs in general or for a
specific workforce have been developed by researchers.
Several researchers consider job satisfaction as a multidimensional concept that
comprises of various facets. The most common multifaceted scale of job satisfaction is
the Job Description Index (JDI) developed by Smith et al. (1969), which consists of five
facets of job satisfaction, i.e., satisfaction with work, pay, promotions, supervision, and
coworkers. Few other facets have been added by Locke (1976), i.e., recognition, working
conditions, and company and management. Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ;
Weiss et al., 1967) and Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS; Spector, 1985) are other job
satisfaction measures focusing on facets approach. The 20 facets included in MSQ
(Weiss et al., 1967) are ability utilisation, co-workers, moral values, achievement,
creativity, recognition, activity, independence, responsibility, advancement, security,
supervision human relations, authority, social service, supervision-technical, company
policies, social status, variety, compensation, and working conditions. The JSS (Spector,
1985) assesses nine facets of job satisfaction: Pay, Promotion, Supervision, Fringe
Benefits, Contingent Rewards, Operating Procedures, Coworkers, Nature of Work, and
Communication. The Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS; Hackman and Oldham, 1975)
measures both overall and specific facets of job satisfaction. It includes three dimensions
of overall job satisfaction, i.e., general satisfaction, internal work motivation and growth
satisfaction, which are combined into a single measure. The facets include security,
compensation, co-workers and supervision.
The Job in General Scale (JIG; Ironson et al., 1989) is the most frequently used
measure of global job satisfaction. This scale consists of 18-items and is designed for use
along with the JDI, so as to serve as global measure. As for Overall Job Satisfaction
(OJS), Cammann et al. (1983) have proposed a three-item measure that describes an
employee’s subjective response to working in the specific job and organisation. Brayfield
and Rothe’s (1951) job satisfaction scale is also used as a measure of overall job
satisfaction. Judge and Watanabe (1994) and Judge et al. (2001) have proposed a three-
item and a five-item version of this scale, respectively.
2.3 Psychometric properties of job satisfaction scales
Although all the measures discussed above have been widely used in the organisational
research to measure job satisfaction in various contexts, there are certain limitations and
issues with these scales. These measures have been associated with mixed outcomes
regarding the internal consistency and factor structure, thus raising questions about their
validity. For instance, the original MSQ consisting of 100 items is too lengthy and can
lead to respondent fatigue. Although it exhibits a good internal consistency (0.81)
(Hirschfeld, 2000), its shorter version consisting of 20 items results in lower construct
validity (Arvey et al., 1978; Spector, 1997). Schriesheim et al. (1993) have also
questioned the content adequacy of the shorter version of MSQ. Martins and Proença
(2012) assessed the factor structure of the 20-item version of MSQ using exploratory and
confirmatory factor analyses. Their results indicated two factors namely ‘satisfaction with
task enrichment’ and ‘satisfaction with leadership and empowerment’, which exhibited
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internal consistencies of 0.78 and 0.87 respectively. The two factors accounted for a total
of 61.18% variance.
Although the internal consistency reliabilities for JDI facets are in the acceptable
range (>0.8), and mean test-retest reliability coefficients across multiple studies range
between 0.56 and 0.67 across the facets (Pratiwi and Welly, 2014), the scale may require
additional facets to be suitable for other sectors such as retail. Kinicki et al. (2002)
investigated the construct validity of JDI using meta-analysis. The authors concluded that
the JDI’s mixture of evaluative and descriptive items raises theoretical concerns about the
content validity. The authors also raised a concern related to the length of the JDI: it has a
large number of items (72) relative to its number of dimensions (five).
The psychometric properties for the JSS are strong and have been well-established
(Mahmoud, 2012; Astrauskaité et al., 2011). The scale has strong test-retest reliability,
long term reliability, and validity (Spector, 1985; 1997). Internal consistency reliabilities
reported for the facets of JSS range from 0.60 (Coworkers) to 0.82 (Supervision), with a
value of 0.91 for the total score and 18-month test-retest coefficients, ranging between
0.37 and 0.71 (Spector, 1985). Akbaritabar et al. (2013) examined the psychometric
properties of JSS. Though the original JSS has 9 facets, Akbaritabar et al. (2013)
identified 6 factors namely pay, promotion, supervision, coworkers, nature of work, and
communication, which could explain 65.44% of the total variance altogether.
As for overall job satisfaction scales, mixed results have been observed for the
internal consistencies of such measures. The internal consistency of JIG has been found
to be 0.91 (Ironson et al., 1989) whereas that of OJS has been found to be 0.77
(Cammann et al., 1983). Several researchers have argued that single-item scales are
unreliable and hence should not be used. Wanous et al. (1997) have concluded that the
reliability of single-item job satisfaction measures is 0.67 which is lower than most
multiple-item job satisfaction measures. For instance, the three-item scale of overall job
satisfaction developed by Judge and Watanabe (1994) exhibits an internal consistency of
α
= 0.85, and the internal consistency of the five-item overall job satisfaction scale
developed by Judge et al. (2001) is
α
= 0.80.
2.4 Review of studies on job satisfaction
Table 1 depicts various dimensions of job satisfaction identified by the researchers in
different contexts. As can be noticed from the table, a fair degree of consensus exists
among researchers regarding the major dimensions of job satisfaction i.e.,
pay/compensation; promotion/growth; relationships with coworkers and supervisors.
However, the importance of these characteristics may differ with the type of organisation.
Yuzuk (1961) describes ‘working conditions’ and ‘relationships with fellow
employees and supervisor’ as important dimensions of job satisfaction among the
employees in banking sector. In addition to these characteristics, Nazir (1998) suggest
that ‘promotion and advancement opportunities’ are also important for job satisfaction of
bank employees whereas Kumudha and Abraham (2008) advocate that employees
working with banks consider ‘retirement programs’ to be an important dimension for job
satisfaction. Khaleque and Rahman (1987) opine that alongwith ‘inter-personal
relationships’ and ‘working conditions’, ‘autonomy of work’, ‘security’ and ‘recognition
in the job’ also contribute towards the job satisfaction of employees working with
research and development companies. Ellickson and Logsdon (2002) conclude that apart
from ‘pay satisfaction’ and ‘promotion satisfaction’, satisfaction with ‘fringe benefits’
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and ‘performance management systems’ are also important for job satisfaction among
public sector employees. In their study on job satisfaction among teachers, Kumar and
Patnik (2002) conclude that ‘social satisfaction’ is one of the important dimensions of job
satisfaction among teachers. Masroor and Fakir (2009) in their study suggest that ‘job
variety’ and ‘management policies’ are significant indicators of job satisfaction among
nurses in Malaysia.
Table 1 Dimensions/characteristics of job satisfaction
Author (s)
Sector/Organisation/
Sample Country Dimensions/Characteristics
Yuzuk (1961) Banking USA Communication; Hours of Work;
Fellow employees; Recognition; Work
conditions; Supervisor; Other
evaluation and descriptive factors
Khaleque and
Rahman
(1987)
Research and
Development
Companies
Banglades
h
Coworkers; Hours; Work environment
Recognition; Security; Desired job;
Autonomy; Benefits; Promotion;
Supervision
Nazir (1998) Banking India Duration of work; Nature of work;
Relation with co-workers; Recognition
for good performance; Comfortable
working conditions; Adequate earnings;
Work climate; Responsibility; Job
security; Ability utilisation;
Opportunity for advancement;
Promotion opportunities and
Management policy
Ellickson and
Logsdon
(2002)
Municipal
Government
employees
USA Pay; Promotional opportunities;
Relationships with supervisors;
Employees’ performance management
systems and Fringe benefits
Kumar and
Patnik (2002)
Education India Pay; Security, Social satisfaction,
Supervisors, and Growth satisfaction.
Kumudha and
Abraham
(2008)
Banking India Programs related to self-development;
Opportunities to learn new skills and
Retirement preparation programs
Rutherford et
al (2009)
Salespersons USA Overall job; Coworkers; Supervision;
Company policy and support; Pay,
Promotion and Advancement
Masroor and
Fakir (2009)
Nurses Malaysia Satisfaction with supervisor; Job
variety; Compensation; Co-workers and
Management polices
Orisatoki and
Oguntibeju
(2010)
Supermarket workers West
Indies
Relationship with supervisors;
Knowledge about work place; Working
conditions; Expectations of employers;
Relationship with colleagues;
Recognition, Sense of belonging; Rate
of promotion and Salary level
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Table 1 Dimensions/characteristics of job satisfaction (continued)
Author (s)
Sector/Organisation/
Sample Country Dimensions/Characteristics
Borkar and
Paul (2013)
Retail (Front Line
employees)
India Work environment; Employer -
employee relationship; Training and
development; Compensation
Mo and
Buavaraporn
(2014)
Retail (Front Line
employees)
Thailand Satisfaction with Co-workers;
Satisfaction with Supervision;
Satisfaction with Promotion;
Satisfaction with Pay
Ghayas and
Hussain
(2015)
Information
Technology
Pakistan Pay; Promotion; Supervision; Fringe
Benefits; Contingent Rewards;
Operating Procedures; Coworkers;
Nature of Work; and Communication
Huang and
Gamble
(2015)
Retail (Front Line
employees)
China Pay; Training; Working hours;
Workload
Rutherford et al. (2009) in their study find that ‘company policy and support’ and
‘promotion and advancement opportunities’ significantly influence the job satisfaction
levels of salespersons. In their study on supermarket workers in West Indies, Orisatoki
and Oguntibeju (2010) highlight that although supermarket workers deem ‘pay’,
‘promotion’ and ‘relationships with colleagues and supervisor’ as important to be
satisfied with their jobs, they are more satisfied if their working conditions are good and
the expectations from their employers are not very high. Borkar and Paul (2013) assess
the job satisfaction of frontline retail employees in India with four factors i.e., ‘work
environment’, ‘employer – employee relationship’, ‘training and development
opportunities’ and ‘compensation’. Mo and Buavaraporn (2014) have studied the job
satisfaction characteristics of frontline retail employees working in Thailand. The authors
conclude that ‘pay satisfaction’ is the most significant indicator of job satisfaction among
the frontline retail workers. Huang and Gamble (2015) highlight that apart from ‘pay’,
the frontline retail employees in China consider ‘training’, ‘working hours’ and
‘workload’ as important characteristics of their job satisfaction.
On the basis of the above review, it is noticeable that there is a dearth in the literature
on examining the characteristics of job satisfaction of customer-facing employees
working in organised retail sector in India. Also, as their issues related to job satisfaction
may differ from employees working at different levels or in different sectors, it is
imperative to examine those characteristics of jobs that are important to them and address
their job satisfaction aspects.
Although the previous literature has contributed significantly to understanding the job
satisfaction of employees working in different industry sectors globally, however, many
of the job characteristics for customer-facing retail employees working with Indian retail
organisations are different. For instance, many of the existing job satisfaction scales (e.g.,
JDI, and JSS) do not include ‘training and development’, which can be perceived as an
important characteristic that employees may look forward to, especially in the context of
retail sector of emerging economies which is facing talent crunch because neither the
talent required for the sector is available nor there are sufficient training infrastructure
facilities for them (Singh et al., 2008). Therefore, a separate examination of the
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characteristics of job satisfaction of customer-facing retail employees is deemed to be
necessary. Further, many of the existing job satisfaction scales have a very large number
of items, which take too much time to complete. Rogelberg and Luong (1998) has
concluded that many respondents feel that they are ‘over-surveyed’ because of filling
lengthy survey instruments and these feelings may increase the possibility of
nonresponse. Also, in organisational research, job satisfaction is generally measured in
conjunction with numerous other constructs which makes the survey instrument even
lengthier and leads to survey fatigue of the respondents (Stanton et al., 2001). This could
be far too long for customer-facing retail employees who are quite busy with their jobs.
Hence, we attempt to develop a brief instrument constituting those characteristics of job
satisfaction which are important and relevant for the customer-facing employees working
with organised retail sector.
3 Conceptual framework
On the basis of the review of literature on job satisfaction presented above and discussion
with few retail employees, academicians and researchers, the following six dimensions
have been found to address major facets of job satisfaction of customer-facing employees
of organised retail sector in India: working conditions; relationship with co-workers;
relationship with supervisor/manager; compensation; career advancement and growth
opportunities; and training and development opportunities. All these characteristics are
discussed in the subsequent sub-sections. Certain characteristics such as job security,
work autonomy etc. have not been considered important in determining job satisfaction
of customer-facing retail employees as these employees work at very low salaries and are
not fearful of losing their jobs. With growing number of domestic and international retail
players in India, there is no dearth of jobs in this sector, especially at customer-facing
positions which are easily available because of low salaries. Moreover, customer-facing
employees are required to do repetitive tasks which lack creativity and decision making;
hence these employees do not expect much autonomy in their jobs.
3.1 Working conditions
Working conditions refer to ‘the conditions under which a job is performed’ (Bakotić and
Tomislav, 2013). Chakrabarty et al. (2008) opine that job satisfaction depends upon work
conditions which are defined by the employee’s work place, the work itself, the rules of
the organisation and their policies. Raziq and Maulabakhsh (2015) have analysed the
impact of working conditions on job satisfaction of employees working in educational
institutes, banking sector and telecommunication industry in Pakistan. The authors
conclude that such working environments where employees are provided with flexible
working hours and less work load have positive impact on the performance of employees,
which in turn leads to high job satisfaction. According to Mishra and Gupta (2009),
working conditions is one of the most significant predictors of sales employees’
satisfaction in Indian retail sector. In the present study, we define working conditions of
the customer-facing employees by working hours; physical work environment; workload;
and organisational rules and regulations.
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3.1.1 Working hours
Hours of work have a significant negative effect on overall job satisfaction of employees
(Clark, 1997). Long hours of work can have negative implications on employee job
satisfaction and turnover (Demerouti et al., 2000). Bent and Freathy (1997), in their study
on UK retail sector reveal a pattern of increasing job satisfaction with decreasing number
of working hours.
In Indian organised retail stores, customer-facing employees often have irregular
working hours including Saturdays, Sundays, late evenings, or very early mornings
(which is common at discount stores in order to receive goods). As per Delhi Shops and
Establishment Act, a salesman is required to work for only 48 h a week (or 8 h a day) and
not more than 8 h on any day. Also, if work exceeds 8 h, workers are entitled to overtime
wages which is twice their ordinary wages. But practically, customer-facing employees,
work for 8–12 h a day when sales are on, and they do not receive regular overtime
payments also, which is a major cause of dissatisfaction. According to a survey carried
out by Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (ASSOCHAM), retail
sector is one of the top ten segments where the menace of stress and mental fatigue is
increasing (Tribune News Service 2007). The working pattern of retail industry involves
long and unsocial hours of work which generally cause fatigue and lower motivation
among employees (Singh et al., 2008). Therefore working hours is one of the issues
which affect the job satisfaction of customer-facing retail employees.
3.1.2 Physical work environment
Several studies have been done to examine the effect of physical work on workers’
employee’s health, performance and job satisfaction (Finkleman and Glass, 1970; Fine
and Kabrick, 1978; Barnaby, 1980; McCormic and Sanders, 1982).
In organised retail sector, frontline sales employees are faced with issues like
‘physical activities’, ‘work rhythm imposition’, ‘monotonous job’, ‘physically taxing job’
and ‘body posture in the job’, which are major causes of botheration for them (Borkar
and Paul, 2013). Constant engagement with customers and continuous shelf management
often make customer-facing employees stand for long hours. Also, uncomfortable body
postures due to repetitive movements cause continuous pain in their arms, shoulders and
legs. Moreover, customer-facing employees are often deprived of proper sitting
arrangements, which results into high level of dissatisfaction. Retail stores rarely provide
any seating facility for their retail staff as they think that it is “respectful” to stand in front
of customers. The frontline retail employees are often concerned and dissatisfied with the
physical aspects of their working environment (Borkar and Paul, 2013).
3.1.3 Work load
Workload refers to “the total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a
department, or other group of workers in a period of time” (Beehr and Newman, 1978).
An increase in the workload of the employees results in a decrease in job satisfaction
(Dua 1996; Sahin and Şahingoz, 2013).
In the organised retail sector of India, there is increasing work pressure in terms of
workload, unreasonable targets, time pressures, and deadlines (Singh et al., 2008).
Shanthi (2016) has identified that too much of workload is one of the major problems of
employees working in organised retails sector of India.
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3.1.4 Organisational rules and regulations
Hatch (1997) argues that rules and procedures of an organisation are directly related to
job satisfaction of its employees. Kakabadse and Worrall (1978) opine that too many
rules and regulations for the employees can negatively influence their satisfaction levels.
Kanwal and Tariq (2016), in their study on the impact of organisational environment on
job satisfaction of teachers in Pakistan conclude that strict rules and regulations can
create stress in employees which can increase the dissatisfaction in employees. If the
organisation randomly changes its rules, regulations, opening and closing timings, then
the dissatisfaction among the employees increases which results into high turnovers
(Kanwal and Tariq, 2016).
Retail workers in India are subjected to strict rules that are even worse than that of
schools. When the employees enter the stores/malls, they are checked from head to toe,
their phones are taken away and the details of what they have on their bodies are noted
down. Often, employees are held responsible for shrinkage or wastage, which includes
merchandise that goes missing (Rao, 2015).
3.2 Relationship with co-workers
Coworker support can be defined as ‘the extent that individuals view other workers at
their organisation as being helpful and supportive of them’ (Liao et al., 2004). It can
include caring for fellow coworkers and/or providing them with required information
(Ducharme and Martin, 2000; Parris, 2003). Prior studies show that co-worker support is
significantly related to overall satisfaction with the job (Seers et al., 1983; Beehr, 1986;
Pollock et al., 2000). In a work environment where co-worker support is high, employees
can openly and honestly discuss ideas with each other which results in high job
satisfaction (Fass et al., 2007).
In retail industry, the customer-facing employees are in contact with their co-workers
on a day to day basis, as they generally work in teams. Hence, co-worker support is very
important for them. Coworkers can be an important source of information for employees
seeking advice or help when they are confused. Co-worker support can be an effective
source of support when an employee is emotionally exhausted (Albar-Marin and Garcia-
Ramirez, 2005). Sometimes, working in retailing can be psychologically stressful. For
example, the frontline employees may come across with verbally abusive customers;
which can give unnecessary stress. Talking to coworkers can enable them to cope with
such situations. Also, good interactions with coworkers contribute to a positive
atmosphere among employees.
3.3 Relationship with supervisor
Employees often view their supervisors (managers) as organisational agents, and they
consider supervisor actions as equivalent to organisational actions (Eisenberger et al.,
2002). The relationship between the employee and supervisor (manager) is essential to
employee’s satisfaction in the workplace (Pincus, 1986). Prior studies show that the
employees who receive support and clear communication from their supervisors are more
satisfied with their jobs than the employees whose supervisors do not provide information
(Jablin, 1979; Wheeless et al., 1983; Pincus, 1986; Shih, 2000). According to Hussami
(2008), employees want supervisors who trust them, understand them and show fairness.
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Previous studies have shown that perceptions of supervisor support have a greater impact
on employee outcomes compared to coworker support (Rousseau and Aubé, 2010).
Williams (2004) argue that supervisors play such an important role in jobs that it would
not be exaggerating to say that employees leave their bosses, not their jobs. Kang et al.
(2015) explore the relationships among supervisory support and career satisfaction of
frontline employees in the hospitality industry. Their findings indicate that supervisory
support has a positive effect on employees’ career satisfaction. Choo and Aizzat (2016) in
their study on frontline employees of Malaysian hospitality industry, conclude that
supervisor support positively influences employee work engagement.
A good working relationship with the supervisor (store manager) is essential for a
customer-facing retail employee since the he provides professional inputs, constructive
criticism, and general understanding to the employee at various stages of job. Also, a
supportive relationship with the store manager not only increases employee’s efficiency
but also helps him in performing a better job.
3.4 Compensation
Compensation can be described as the amount of reward that an employee expects from
his/her job. Compensation is a fundamental component of human resource management
which includes financial reward in the form of salaries and benefits, indirect
compensation or supplementary pay (Ojo, 1998). Compensation or pay satisfaction is
related to all those positive or negative feelings which an employee has towards his
pay/salary (Vandenberghe et al., 2008). The employees who are satisfied with their pay
feel motivated to improve their work performance (Ghazanfar et al., 2011; Carraher,
2011). Also, the employees who have high pay satisfaction are more committed and loyal
to their organisations (Vandenberghe et al., 2008).
Huddleston and Good (1999) have revealed that pay is one of the most important
motivators for Russian and Polish sales employees. Dubinsky et al. (1993) have also
found that American sales employees rank pay as the most important factor for their job
satisfaction. Mishra and Gupta (2009) have empirically examined the job motivators used
by Indian retail firms for front line sales personnel and their effectiveness in terms of
employees' satisfaction. Their findings suggest that compensation is the most significant
predictor of employees’ satisfaction. Bustamam et al. (2014) in their study on frontline
employees of Malaysian hotel industry have found that job satisfaction is positively
correlated with both financial rewards and non- financial rewards. However, the authors
conclude that financial rewards provide greatest impact on job satisfaction. Since
frontline employees’ work is repetitive and involve little creativity, therefore they focus
more on financial rewards as compared to non-financial rewards (Galanou et al., 2010).
Mo and Buavaraporn (2014) have investigated the relationship between pay satisfaction
and job satisfaction in the front-line employees who work in department stores of
retailing business in Bangkok, Thailand. They also conclude that all four dimensions of
pay satisfaction viz. pay level satisfaction, pay raises satisfaction, benefits satisfaction
and pay administration satisfaction exhibit significant positive relationships with job
satisfaction.
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India’s retail workers face poor salary packages and some salespersons are paid
even less than the minimum wages, sometimes without a formal contract or a salary
slip to prove their employment(Rao, 2015). Thus, compensation is an important
and critical element which determines customer-facing employees’ level of job
satisfaction.
3.5 Career advancement and growth opportunities
Career advancement refers to the extent to which employees perceive that they have
bright career prospects within the organisation (Delery and Doty, 1996). Such
perceptions of clear growth opportunities contribute to job satisfaction and hence
motivate employees to become more dedicated to the organisation. Employees perform
best when the organisational environment is conducive to growth. When there are
abundant growth opportunities in the organisation, employees work with considerably
more vigour and are more satisfied with their jobs. Researchers have found a positive
significant relationship between growth/promotion opportunities and job satisfaction
(Danish and Usman, 2010; Mustapha and Zakaria, 2013). Employees typically desire to
work for companies that provide them with the opportunities to move up within the
company and/or have other career opportunities. Gaertner and Nollen (1992) have
demonstrated that employees who feel capable of advancing their careers are more
satisfied with their organisations than those who do not. Wan et al. (2012) argue that
employees that perceive promotion decisions as fair in their organisations perform better
and experience career satisfaction. Such employees are more likely to be committed to
the organisation and subsequently have a lower intention to leave the organisation
(Wan et al., 2012).
One likely cause of high turnover among customer-facing employees is that they
perceive their jobs as dead-ends with little opportunities for growth and advancement.
People working as frontline employees in retail organisations often feel that they are
unable to advance higher in the company. According to Mr. Lalit Kar, former Head-HR,
Reliance Digital, “The growth prospects for frontline workers in retail organisations are
limited. Many retail frontline jobs have a limited career path. Therefore, retail needs to
offer its employees a career to stop losing them” (Saha, 2015). According to KPMG
report (2006), retailing is a high staff turnover industry globally with yearly attrition
rates ranging between 40–60%. In Indian organised retail sector, front-end staff attrition
rate is supposed to vary between 25–50%; the reason being large number of
inexperienced and part-time staffs at these positions who do not see career opportunities
for their future.
3.6 Training and development opportunities
According to Landy (1985), training and development refers to ‘the set of planned
activities on the part of an organisation to increase the job knowledge and skills of its
employees in a manner consistent with the goals of organisation’. Training and
development enables the employees in broadening their knowledge and capacities for
more well-organised teamwork (Jun et al., 2006). Training and development help
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employees in acquiring the skills and knowledge required for performing their jobs. The
employees who receive self-growth training, develop individual competencies and exhibit
high levels of job satisfaction (Martensen and Gronholdt, 2001; Bartlett, 2001). Masood
et al. (2014) in their study on factors influencing employee satisfaction of private sector
organisations in Pakistan, conclude that training is a useful tool which helps employees in
performing their jobs according to the set required standards of the organisation.
They further claim that periodic training sessions may help in better job performance of
the employees which gives a feeling of satisfaction to them. Babakus et al. (1996) in their
research on sales employees in an international services sales environment have found
that training has a direct relationship with their intrinsic motivation and job satisfaction.
Jones et al. (1995) suggest that training is positively associated with employee job
satisfaction, which in turn is positively related with most measures of performance.
Training not only improves the abilities and skills of the employees but also enables them
to cope better with their jobs’ demands, and thereby raise their self-confidence.
Employees may also perceive training and development activities as a sign of their
organisation’s willingness to enter into a social exchange with them, and thereby result in
higher levels of job satisfaction (Newman and Sheikh, 2012).
The organised retail sector in India is facing talent crunch because neither the talent
required for the sector is available nor there are sufficient training infrastructure facilities
for them (Singh et al., 2008). As there is lack of formal vocational institutes, where
students can be trained for entry-level retail positions, most retailers in India depend on
in-house training (Singh et al., 2008). In organised retail sector, performance of
customer-facing employees is greatly dependent on various skills such as selling skills,
time management, leadership skills, product training and customer management.
According to NSDC (2022), for selling the products, only 7% of the product knowledge
is used whereas 93% of the process requires soft selling skills. Therefore, constant
training and development activities may lead to job satisfaction of customer-facing
employees as these activities help them in meeting their job requirements and performing
well.
4 Research method
4.1 Sample
‘Survey’ method was employed to collect the data with the help of a structured
questionnaire. The modern retail outlets located in Delhi-NCR, which had been
operational since 2010 were selected to conduct the survey. The customer-facing
employees, who had been working with these modern retail outlets for at least one year,
were chosen as the target respondents for the survey using convenience sampling. Two
different samples were used in the study. The data in sample 1 was used for developing
the scale, and data in sample 2 was used to cross validate the results. For sample 1,
approximately 600–650 retail employees were targeted. From 800 distributed
questionnaires, 661 responses were received, indicating a response rate of 82.6%. After
removing unviable responses (incomplete responses, selection of more than one answer,
unanswered), we chose 632 usable responses as the sample 1. For sample 2, out of 500
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distributed questionnaires, 329 valid questionnaires were obtained. As for the sample
characteristics, there were 65.4% females in sample 1 and 67.5% females in sample 2.
The average age of the respondents was 26 years in sample 1 and 24 years in sample 2.
To avoid the common source problem (Hinkin et al., 1997), the respondents in both the
samples were chosen from different retail outlets of Delhi-NCR.
4.2 Procedure
The present study involves a multiphase process to develop a short multidimensional
scale for job satisfaction (Hinkin et al., 1997). In the first phase, a review of relevant
theory and previous job satisfaction measures was carried out to generate initial pool of
job satisfaction items. The resulting pool was purified by removing/modifying
ambiguously worded items. Then in the second phase, the factor structure was examined
using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and the internal consistency of factors was
measured using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. In the third phase, confirmatory factor
analysis (CFA) was done to confirm the factor structure, and reliability and validity of the
factors were also evaluated. In the fourth phase, the stability of the factor structure was
assessed by again conducting CFA on a new dataset.
The sample 1 consisting of 632 respondents, was randomly divided into
two subsamples using a cross validation approach (Murphy, 1983; Murphy, 1984):
subsample 1 and subsample 2. The subsample 1 consisting of 200 responses (treated as
derivation sample) was used for the scale’s design and refinement by conducting
EFA and reliability analysis. The subsample 2 (treated as calibration sample) consisting
of 432 cases was used for conducting CFA. Then sample 2 (treated as validation sample)
was used to cross validate the results (Cudeck and Browne, 1983).
4.2.1 Phase 1: item generation and content adequacy assessment
First, the initial pool of content related items related to the five proposed dimensions of
job satisfaction were generated deductively, on the basis of the review of relevant
literature (Schwab, 1980; Getty and Thompson, 1994). This resulted into an initial pool
of 35 items of 6 job satisfaction dimensions (i.e., working conditions; relationship with
co-workers; relationship with supervisor; compensation; career advancement and growth
opportunities; training and development opportunities). Then the experts in the field of
organised retail sector were consulted to review the items for problematic structural
concerns, if any (DeVellis, 2003; Hinkin, 1995). With the help of focus group discussions
and in-depth interviews with different retail employees, regarding the characteristics of
jobs that were important for customer-facing staff, few items were removed/modified/
added in the initial pool. This resulted into a pool of 22 items.
The initial questionnaire consisting of these 22 items was pilot tested on a sample of
10 respondents in the real survey settings i.e., at select modern retail stores in Delhi-NCR
to assess the content adequacy (Nunnally, 1978). During pre-testing, items that appeared
to be problematic were reworded and refined. 4 items that appeared to be ambiguous
were dropped.
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The final questionnaire consisted of 18 items related to the proposed dimensions of
job satisfaction and one item on overall job satisfaction. A single-item measure was used
for measuring overall job satisfaction because of the limited space on the questionnaire
(Wanous et al., 1997). The respondents were asked to rate these 19 items indicating their
satisfaction levels on a five-point Likert scale (from 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly
agree).
Table 2 describes the items included in the questionnaire.
Table 2 Items for measuring job satisfaction
Characteristic Items Referred to
Working
conditions
(WC)
Items adapted from previous research
I am satisfied with the working conditions on my
job
(e.g., toilet facilities, sitting arrangements, air
conditioning/heating system, lighting, ventilation,
etc.).
I am satisfied with the rules and procedures of my
company
I am satisfied with the way my company treats its
employees*
I am satisfied with the transfer policies of my
company*
Proposed Items
I am satisfied with my working hours
My company provides me with flexible working
hours*
I am satisfied with my workload
My job requires too much of physical work
Weiss et al. (1967)
and Schmidt (2007)
Relationship
with co-workers
(RL-C)
I am satisfied with the friendliness of my coworkers
My coworkers help each other out when someone
falls behind or gets in a tight spot
Weiss et al. (1967),
Chung et al. (2012),
Mishra et al. (2014),
Köseoglu et al. (2015)
and Mo and
Buavaraporn (2014)
Relationship
with
Supervisors
(RL-S)
My supervisor/manager helps me to deal more
effectively in my job
Proposed Item
I am satisfied with the way my supervisor/manager
treats me
Compensation
(COMP)
Items adapted from previous research
I am satisfied with my pay and the amount of work
I do
The amount of my current salary meets the market
pay standards
I am satisfied with my benefit package
I am satisfied with the consistency of my
organisation's pay policies*
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Table 2 Items for measuring job satisfaction (continued)
Characteristic Items Referred to
Career
Advancement
and Growth
Opportunities
(CAGO)
I am satisfied with the opportunities for
advancement on my job
I am satisfied with the promotion policies of my
organisation
My job provides a secure future for me
Training and
Development
Opportunities
(TDO)
My organisation/company provides sufficient
training opportunities
My organisation/company provides me the
opportunity to improve my skills
Training provided by the organisation/company
meets my job requirements
Schmidt (2007)
Martensen and
Gronholdt (2001)
Overall job
satisfaction
Overall, I am satisfied with my present job Scarpello and
Campbell (1983) and
Yousef (2000)
*Item was dropped after pilot testing.
4.2.2 Phase 2: exploratory factor analysis (EFA)
The EFA was conducted on the derivation sample (subsample 1) consisting of 200
respondents. The Bartlett’s test of sphericity and the measure of sampling adequacy
(MSA) were used to test the presence of correlations among the 18 variables of job
satisfaction and to assess the overall significance of the correlation matrix. The Bartlett’s
test was found to be significant (chi-square = 4722.575.68, p < 0.01) and the Kaiser-
Meyer-Olkin MSA was 0.784, both indicating the adequacy of conducting the EFA (Hair
et al., 2006). Principal components analysis was used as the extraction method and direct
oblimin rotation method was used to allow correlations between the factors (Flora and
Flake, 2017). Parallel Analysis (PA) was used to decide the number of factors to be
retained, as it is the best technique among others such as Scree test or the Kaiser’s
eigenvalue-greater-than-one rule for determining the number of components or factors.
(Horn, 1965; Velicer et al., 2000; Zwick and Velicer, 1986). PA involves comparison of
actual eigen values of factors extracted from the original dataset with the expected eigen
values of factors extracted from the simulated random datasets. According to PA, a factor
is retained if the observed eigenvalue for each factor is bigger than the average or 95th
percentile of the distribution of each corresponding expected eigenvalue obtained from
the simulated datasets. Given that PA has a slight tendency to overfactor, Glorfeld (1995)
and Harshman and Reddon (1983) have suggested that using the 95th percentile of
eigenvalues generated from the random data is more conservative than the average eigen
values.
In the present study, PA was conducted using the programs given by O’Connor
(2000). Table 3 shows the actual eigen values drawn from the derivation subsample of
200 cases, as well as the average and 95th percentile eigen values drawn from simulated
random data.
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Examination of the results in Table 3 indicates that the first 5 actual eigenvalues are
greater than those generated by PA (for both the average and 95th percentile criteria) and
thus would be retained.
Table 3 Actual and random eigen values
Actual eigen value Average eigen value 95th percentile eigen value
4.787 1.564199 1.664669
3.351 1.450604 1.529991
3.096 1.364727 1.438785
2.351 1.290003 1.347861
1.526 1.223680 1.277205
0.459 1.162723 1.211484
0.382 1.105879 1.150002
0.357 1.051280 1.093414
0.286 0.999783 1.044132
0.265 0.949346 0.990822
0.220 0.900179 0.939473
0.199 0.853747 0.895924
0.173 0.805194 0.847220
0.153 0.757784 0.799634
0.142 0.709816 0.752533
0.102 0.660802 0.705488
0.085 0.606107 0.650640
0.066 0.544146 0.598982
The factor loadings of the 18 variables (C1 to C18) on the retained five factors are
exhibited in Table 4. Only those variables with a factor loading of ±0.50 or higher
(ignoring signs) are considered significant (Hair et al., 2005). The factor loadings of all
variables are above 0.70 which indicates their high correlation with their corresponding
factors.
As can be seen from Table 4, all the items loaded properly on their expected factors
except for RL-C and RL-S. Items C12, C13, C14 and C15 loaded together thereby
combining the two factors RL-C and RL-S into one factor. As all these four items (C12,
C13, C14 and C15) are related with the relationships with co-workers and supervisor;
therefore we name this factor as ‘Interpersonal Relationships’.
At this stage of the research, the reliability of all the 5 job satisfaction characteristics
obtained in the factor structure, was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha. As can be noticed
from Table 5, all Cronbach’s alphas values exceed the threshold value of 0.70,
recommended by Nunnally and Bernstein (1994).
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Table 4 Factor loadings
Factor
Item
code Item Description
Factor
WC CG CO
IRL
(RL-C
and
RL-S) TD
Working
Conditions
(WC)
C1 I am satisfied with the
working conditions on
my job (e.g., toilet
facilities, sitting
arrangements, air
conditioning/heating
system, lighting,
ventilation, etc.)
0.864
C2 I am satisfied with the
rules and procedures of
my company
0.906
C3 I am satisfied with my
working hours
0.901
C4 I am satisfied with my
workload
0.904
C5 My job requires too
much of physical work
0.888
Career
Advancement
and Growth
Opportunities
(CAGO)
C6 I am satisfied with the
opportunities for
advancement on my job
0.951
C7 I am satisfied with the
promotion policies of
my organisation
0.917
C8 My job provides a
secure future for me
0.935
Compensation
(COMP)
C9 I am satisfied with my
pay and the amount of
work I do
0.973
C10 The amount of my
current salary meets the
market pay standards
0.909
C11 I am satisfied with my
benefit package
0.984
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Table 4 Factor loadings (continued)
Factor
Item
code Item Description
Factor
WC CG CO
IRL
(RL-C
and
RL-S) TD
Interpersonal
Relationships
(Relationships
with co-
workers and
Relationship
with
Supervisor)
(IRL)
C12 I am satisfied with the
friendliness of my
coworkers
0.894
C13 My coworkers help
each other out when
someone falls behind or
gets in a tight spot
0.960
C14 My supervisor/manager
helps me to deal more
effectively in my job
0.929
C15 I am satisfied with the
way my
supervisor/manager
treats me
0.886
Training and
Development
Opportunities
(TDO)
C16 My organisation/
company provides
sufficient training
opportunities
0.782
C17 I am satisfied with the
way my Supervisor/
manager provides
training
0.963
C18 Training provided by
the organisation/
company meets my job
requirements
0.892
Extraction method: Principal Component Analysis; Rotation Method: Oblimin with
Kaiser Normalisation; Rotation converged in 5 iterations.
Table 5 Reliability analysis
Factor No. of items Cronbach’s alpha
Working conditions (WC) 5 0.934
Compensation (COMP) 3 0.945
Career advancement and growth opportunities (CAGO) 3 0.921
Interpersonal relationships (IRL) 4 0.933
Training and development opportunities (TDO) 3 0.868
Overall Cronbach’s Alpha 18 0.831
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4.2.3 Phase 3: confirmatory factor analysis (CFA)
To verify the dimensionality of job satisfaction, we applied CFA using the calibration
sample (subsample 2) consisting of 432 cases. A measurement model consisting of 5
dimensions of job satisfaction of customer-facing retail employees resulted in the EFA
was validated through CFA using AMOS 21.0. The assessment of model fit was done by
using the criteria recommended by Hair et al. (2006), Hu and Bentler (1999), and
Schumacker and Lomax (2010). The fit criteria against each index and the model
estimated values are shown in Table 6. As can be noticed, some of these indices were not
able to reach their threshold value (i.e., GFI, AGFI, NFI, RMSEA) (Hair et al., 2010),
and the value of X2 was significant (X2 = 557.764, df = 125, p = 0.000), therefore further
purifications were done to improve the model fitness (Anderson and Gerbing, 1988;
Bagozzi and Yi, 1988; Byrne, 2010). As suggested by various researchers, a refinement
process for model improvement follows a number of criteria including inspection of
standardised regression weights, modification indices, and standardised covariance
matrix (Byrne, 2010; Black et al., 2006). By inspecting the modification indices, it was
found that the modification index values in two pairs of residual covariances (i.e., C3
with C4; and C3 with C5) were very high. Therefore the model was refitted by adding
these two covariances. By doing so, the CFA was applied again and as expected, the
fitness of the model was improved. Table 6 presents the model fit indices of the initial
measurement model as well as the final measurement model. It is clear from the table that
all fit indices of the final measurement model were in the recommended range except for
the fact that the chi-square was significant (X2=384.847, df = 123, p = 0.000). Regression
weights between items and factors are exhibited in Table 7.
Table 6 Goodness of fit indices for calibration sample
Goodness of fit indices
Fit
criteria
Model estimated values
Initial model Final model
χ2/df (Normed Chi-square) <=5 4.462 3.129
Goodness-of-fit index (GFI) >=0.90 0.883 0.913
Adjusted goodness-of-fit index (AGFI) >=0.90 0.840 0.879
Comparative fit index (CFI) >=0.90 0.935 0.961
Normed fit index (NFI) >=0.95 0.919 0.954
Root mean square residuals (RMR) <=0.10 0.053 0.053
Root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) <=0.08 0.090 0.070
4.2.4 Reliability and validity
The model was further evaluated for construct reliability and validity in order to analyse
the psychometric quality. As suggested by Hair et al. (2010), construct reliability, can be
assessed by using composite reliability index (CRI), and average variance extracted
(AVE). As shown in Table 8, the CRI values of all constructs range from 0.95 to 0.99
exceeding the recommended cut-off value 0.70 (Nunnally and Bernstein, 1994; Hair et
al., 2010), which supports construct reliability. Moreover, the AVE values of all the
constructs range from 0.66 to 0.86 which are above the cut-off value of 0.50 as
recommended by Hair et al. (2010) (see Table 8).
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Table 7 Unstandardised and standardised weights for the calibration sample
Variable Item
Unstandardised
B
Standardised
β
SE R2
Standardised
error variances
WC C1 1 0.822 0.675 0.433
C2 1.017 0.847 0.048 0.717 0.367
C3 1.074 0.889 0.047 0.791 0.274
C4 1.159 0.883 0.051 0.779 0.343
C5 1.029 0.859 0.048 0.738 0.338
CAGO C6 1 0.948 0.899 0.111
C7 0.984 0.875 0.035 0.766 0.294
C8 0.968 0.875 0.034 0.765 0.286
COMP C9 1.000 0.953 0.908 0.096
C10 1.018 0.857 0.031 0.735 0.352
C11 1.025 0.970 0.022 0.942 0.061
IRL C12 1 0.865 0.748 0.423
C13 1.065 0.967 0.035 0.936 0.098
C14 0.916 0.872 0.037 0.760 0.334
C15 0.884 0.793 0.042 0.628 0.581
TDO C16 1.000 0.834 0.696 0.299
C17 0.850 0.705 0.053 0.497 0.501
C18 1.192 0.902 0.055 0.813 0.223
All unstandardised parameter estimates and error variances are statistically significant
(p < 0.01). Critical ratios (CR) can be calculated by dividing unstandardised estimates by
standard errors. CR > 1.96 and are significant at p = 0.01.
Table 8 Constructs reliability
Construct
Calibration Sample Validation Sample
Composite
reliability
index (CRI)
Average
variance
extracted (AVE)
Composite
reliability
index (CRI)
Average variance
extracted (AVE)
WC 0.934 0.740 0.934 0.741
IRL 0.929 0.768 0.932 0.776
COMP 0.948 0.861 0.949 0.860
CAGO 0.927 0.809 0.922 0.799
TDO 0.857 0.668 0.849 0.654
To measure the construct validity, both convergent and discriminant validities were
inspected. The statistical findings indicated that all the items had significant standardised
regression weights with their latent constructs with p values less than 0.0001 (Anderson
and Gerbing, 1988; Hair et al., 2010). All the items had a factor loading greater than 0.70
which was above the cut-off point of 0.50 (Hair et al., 2010). This ensured the convergent
validity. Also, the Pearson’s correlation coefficient between the overall job satisfaction
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item and the mean score of all the other 18 items of the scale was found to be 0.817
(p < 0.01), which further indicated convergent validity.
The discriminant validity was inspected by investigating the correlation estimates
among the latent constructs. All the inter-correlation estimates were less than 0.85 (Kline,
2005). Also, as can be observed from Table 9, all latent constructs had the squared root of
AVE higher than their inter-correlation estimates with other corresponding constructs
which indicates that the constructs illustrate sufficient discriminant validity.
Table 9 Discriminant validity
Calibration sample Validation sample
WC IRL COMP CAGO TDO WC IRL COMP CAGO TDO
WC 0.860 0.860
IRL 0.175 0.876 0.181 0.880
COMP 0.147 0.125 0.928 0.124 0.097 0.927
CAGO 0.131 0.039 0.150 0.900 0.140 0.078 0.164 0.893
TDO 0.069 0.079 0.458 0.218 0.817 0.011 0.033 0.449 0.193 0.809
Factor correlation matrix with squared roots of AVE on the diagonal impact of job
satisfaction.
4.2.5 Phase 4: cross validation
To further assess the stability of the factor structure (Cudeck and Browne, 1983), we
collected additional data from 329 customer-facing retail employees (sample 2 –
validation sample). We conducted CFA again on the validation sample, and compared the
fit indices and parameter estimates with those derived from the calibration sample. The
estimated values of the fit indices obtained from the validation model were found to be as
follows: X2/df = 2.557, GFI = 0.906, AGFI = 0.869, CFI = 0.962, NFI = 0.939,
RMR = 0.052 and RMSEA = 0.069. It can be noticed that all fit indices of the validation
model were in the recommended range. Table 10 exhibits the regression weights between
items and factors. The constructs reliability and validity were also evaluated by using the
validation sample. Table 8 indicates the CRI and AVE values for all the model
constructs. It can be noted that all the CRI and AVE values were in the recommended
range (Nunnally and Bernstein, 1994; Hair et al., 2010) Further, all the factor loadings
were greater than 0.70 (Hair et al., 2010) ensuring convergent validity. Also, the
Pearson’s correlation coefficient between the overall job satisfaction item and the mean
score of all the other 18 items of the scale was found to be 0.772 (p < 0.01), which further
indicated convergent validity. Moreover, as reported in Table 9, the inter-correlation
estimates between various constructs were less than 0.85 (Kline, 2005) and all the
constructs had the squared root of AVE higher than their inter-correlation estimates with
other corresponding constructs indicating sufficient discriminant validity. It is worth
noting that the values of fit indices and parameter estimates were quite similar for the
validation and calibration samples, which indicates that the model was satisfactorily cross
validated thereby ensuring the factorial validity.
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Table 10 Unstandardised and standardised weights for the validation sample
Variable Item
Unstandardised
B
Standardised
β
SE R2
Standardised
error variances
WC C1 1 0.805 0.647 0.42
C2 1.108 0.86 0.061 0.739 0.334
C3 1.172 0.895 0.061 0.8 0.264
C4 1.214 0.881 0.064 0.776 0.329
C5 1.071 0.859 0.059 0.737 0.316
CAGO C6 1 0.944 0.892 0.11
C7 0.99 0.875 0.041 0.765 0.273
C8 0.959 0.86 0.041 0.74 0.292
COMP C9 1 0.942 0.888 0.11
C10 1.042 0.862 0.037 0.743 0.328
C11 1.04 0.975 0.027 0.95 0.049
IRL C12 1 0.871 0.759 0.393
C13 1.067 0.971 0.039 0.943 0.084
C14 0.931 0.878 0.041 0.77 0.319
C15 0.876 0.794 0.047 0.631 0.556
TDO C16 1 0.817 0.668 0.301
C17 0.884 0.697 0.066 0.486 0.501
C18 1.234 0.9 0.07 0.81 0.217
All unstandardised parameter estimates and error variances are statistically significant
(p < 0.01). Critical ratios (CR) can be calculated by dividing unstandardised estimates by
standard errors. CR > 1.96 and are significant at p = 0.01.
5 Discussion
The paper presents a study designed to develop and validate a short measure of job
satisfaction of customer-facing retail employees. The construct validity of the scale’s
internal structure has been established by EFA and CFA. EFA has been used to explore
the factor structure and to determine the internal consistency of factors using Cronbach’s
alpha coefficient. Then CFA has been conducted on a calibration sample to confirm the
factor structure, and evaluate the reliability and validity of the factors. To further confirm
the scale’s properties and validity, the model has been cross-validated by conducting
CFA on a separate validation sample.
The EFA was applied on 18 items of 6 dimensions of job satisfaction namely:
working conditions, relationship with co-workers, relationship with supervisor,
compensation, career advancement and growth opportunities, and training and
development opportunities. As per the results of EFA, all the items loaded on their
expected factors except for the items of relationship with co-workers and relationship
with supervisor, which loaded together. Hence, these two factors have been combined
into one namely interpersonal relationships.
M
easuring job satisfaction of custome
r
-facing employees 337
The measurement model consisting of 5 dimensions of job satisfaction resulted in the
EFA was validated through CFA first using a calibration sample and then using a
validation sample. The statistical findings indicate that all the items have significant
standardised regression weights with their latent constructs (p < 0.0001). All the items
have a factor loading > 0.70 in both the calibration sample and validation sample, which
ensures the convergent validity. Also, the correlation coefficient between the overall job
satisfaction and the mean score of all the 18 scale items is 0.817 (p < 0.01), for the
calibration sample and 0.772 (p < 0.01) for the validation sample, which further indicates
convergent validity. This value of correlation coefficient is close to the one found
between JDI facets and overall job satisfaction i.e., 0.871 (Judge and Klinger, 2008,
p.397). In both the samples, all the inter-correlation estimates are less than 0.85 and all
latent constructs have the squared root of AVE higher than their inter-correlation
estimates with other corresponding constructs which indicate that the constructs illustrate
sufficient discriminant validity.
The results of reliability analysis indicate that the scale demonstrates adequate
internal consistency (cronbach’s alpha = 0.831 for the total scale and cronbach’s alphas
ranging between 0.868-0.931 for the 5 constructs). The composite reliability values of all
the constructs range from 0.95 to 0.99 indicating adequate reliability of the scale.
The values of fit indices and parameter estimates have been found quite similar for
the validation and calibration samples, which indicates that the model was satisfactorily
cross validated thereby ensuring the factorial validity.
Retail organisations can use the proposed scale of job satisfaction to measure the job
satisfaction levels of their customer-facing employees and can take necessary measures to
increase their job satisfaction.
6 Limitations and future directions
The study has few limitations. The reliability of the scale developed in the study has been
measured through internal consistency only; future research should assess the test-retest
reliability of the scale. Also, the scale has not been compared with any established
measure of job satisfaction. Future research could test the convergent validity of the scale
by examining correlations among established measures and the proposed scale. We have
used non random sampling method in this study to select the respondents, which make
the findings of this study probabilistic. Future research needs to use more diversified
random samples in order to check the generalisability of research findings. Future
research should also investigate the dimensions other than those examined in the present
study to assess the job satisfaction level of customer-facing employees in organised retail
sector.
Though the present research is limited to developing a scale for measuring job
satisfaction of retail employees, future research can focus on identifying the antecedents
and consequences of job satisfaction and finding its position within the nomological
network. The impact of various antecedents viz. workplace events, job characteristics, job
opportunities, organisational communication and communication satisfaction, etc. on
various dimensions of proposed job satisfaction scale can be explored in the retail
context. Likewise, the relationship of proposed dimensions with a variety of relevant
workplace behaviours including job performance, employee turnover, organisational
commitment and perceived organisational support (Judge et al., 2001; Eisenberger et al.,
338
K
.P. Gupta et al.
2002) etc. can also be explored in subsequent studies. Since retail employees are involved
in a boundary-spanning role, they are likely candidates for role stress (Boles and Babin,
1996). Future studies should examine the impact of various role stressors such as role
conflict, role ambiguity (Dubinsky and Skinner, 1984), work-family conflict (Boles and
Babin, 1996; Boles et al., 1997; Netemeyer et al., 2004) and emotional exhaustion on job
satisfaction, in the retail context.
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