ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

VR technology is an emerging IT innovation that greatly affects consumer behaviour and consumer perception of products. The aim of this study is to examine how the virtual reality phenomenon can be used as a marketing communication tool and how its usage affects the reception of individual components of a marketing message. The research conducted examined the possible impact of virtual reality on message perception and attitude towards particular offers. Additionally the authors wanted to find out whether there was a relationship between the use of virtual reality and the acceptance of new technologies in marketing communication. To verify the stated hypotheses empirical research was conducted involving an experiment with 150 observations of respondents taking advantage of three different marketing communication tools including: VR presentation with Oculus Rift hardware, video and printed advertisements. The results obtained reveal that VR technology positively and significantly impacts the reception of the offer, the technology involved and the presentation itself.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Virtual reality in marketing communication – the impact
on the message, technology and oer perception –
empirical study1
Filip Grudzewski2, Marcin Awdziej2, Grzegorz Mazurek2,
Katarzyna Piotrowska3
Abstract : VR technology is an emerging IT innovation that greatly aects consumer
behaviour and consumer perception of products. e aim of this study is to examine
how the virtual reality phenomenon can be used as amarketing communication tool
and how its usage aects the reception of individual components of amarketing mes-
sage. e research conducted examined the possible impact of virtual reality on mes-
sage perception and attitude towards particular oers. Additionally the authors wanted
to nd out whether there was arelationship between the use of virtual reality and the
acceptance of new technologies in marketing communication. To verify the stated hy-
potheses empirical research was conducted involving an experiment with 150 obser-
vations of respondents taking advantage of three dierent marketing communication
tools including: VR presentation with Oculus Ri hardware, video and printed adver-
tisements. e results obtained reveal that VR technology positively and signicantly
impacts the reception of the oer, the technology involved and the presentation itself.
Keywords : virtual reality, VR, technology, marketing communication, advertising,
JEL codes : M31, M37.
Virtual Reality is acomputer based technology that makes it possible to simu-
late areal environment in which the user can experience the feeling of being
present (Serrano, Botella, Baños and Alcañiz, 2013). Virtual reality is oen
1 Article received 18 December 2017, accepted 24 April 2018.
2 Koźmiński University, Department of Marketing, ul. Jagiellońska 57/59, 03-301 Warsaw,
3 Koźmiński University, Department of Quantitative Methods & Information Technology,
ul. Jagiellońska 57/59, 03-301 Warsaw, Poland.
Economics and Business Review, Vol. 4 (18), No. 3, 2018: 36-50
DOI: 10.18559/ebr.2018.3.4
37F. Grudzewski, M. Awdziej, G. Mazurek, K. Piotrowska, Virtual reality in marketing
characterized as an environment created by acomputer or other media, an en-
vironment in which the user feels present (Biocca, 1992a, p. 5). Coates (1992)
explains that Virtual Reality involves electronic simulations of environments
experienced through head mounted eye goggles and wired clothing enabling
the end user to interact in realistic three-dimensional situations. e number
of VR users may increase rapidly with possibly up to 171 million active users
in 2018, including 28 million users willing to pay for the content oered (e
Farm 51, 2015, p.11). is is all possible because of amassive growth in the
popularity of VR products, which let people escape from the physical reality
and dive deep into avirtual one, along with the high applicability of VR sys-
tems in such industries as: video entertainment, live events, education, retail,
real estate, military, healthcare and engineering (Beneeld, Rutherford, &Allen,
2012; Hassouneh & Brengman, 2015). It is expected that this trend will spread
faster than was the case with the Internet and smartphones, especially since in
order to consume basic VR content consumers do not need to invest in very
expensive hardware they just have to add accessories that will change their
smartphones into VR devices (Barnes, 2016).
e consumer drive towards new technologies “(...) allows them to see the
surrounding world in another dimension and to experience things that are not
accessible in real life or even not yet created” (Mazuryk & Gervautz, 1996).
Technology has become apackage that makes it possible to deliver information
to the end user (Kaplan & Mazurek, 2018). e amount of existing soware is
expanding rapidly as are the opportunities for companies to enter this lucra-
tive market and to use new solutions as great marketing tools to communicate
their advertising to users (Scatena, Russo, & Riva, 2016, p. 212).
Virtual reality provides agateway for marketeers to reach consumers in new
ways (Van Kerrebroeck, Brengman, & Willems, 2017a). A company that takes
advantage of VR technology can benet from major improvements in their
marketing communication as well as in the level of their customers’ knowl-
edge of the products on oer (Huang, Backman, K.F., Backman, S.J., & Chang,
2015; Van Kerrebroeck et al., 2017a). Moreover consumers gain value from VR
technology, which enhances their lives, and so businesses and advertisers need
to reach them by these means in order to identify new opportunities of pro-
viding consumers with even more value (Jung, Dieck, Lee, & Chung, 2016).
e research aim was to investigate whether the type of promotion material
inuenced the perception of agiven oer among the target audience. Secondly
the authors also wished to nd out whether the type of the promotion ma-
terial involved inuenced the reception of the technology and the message
communicated itself. e paper is divided into four sections. e rst sec-
tion explains the theoretical background. e second outlines the methodol-
ogy applied. e third section presents the results and discussion. e paper
ends with conclusions.
38 Economics and Business Review, Vol. 4 (18), No. 3, 2018
1. Virtual reality – the concept
e concept of virtual reality is abit of aconundrum (Steuer, 1992), oering
many equivalent denitions (e.g. virtual environments, synthetic experience,
virtual worlds, articial worlds, articial reality). Virtual reality is amedium
composed of interactive computer simulations that sense the participant’s po-
sition and actions and replace or augment the feedback to one or more senses,
oering the participant afeeling of being mentally immersed or present in the
simulation (avirtual world) (Sherman, 2003, p. 13). Virtual reality induces tar-
geted behaviour by using articial sensory stimulation, while the organism has
little or no awareness of the interference (La Valle, 2017, p. 1). Mazuryk and
Gervautz (1996) describe VR as “an interactive and immersive (…) experience
in asimulated (…) world”. e highlight the fact that given the greater interest
in computer graphics the boundary between 3D computer graphics and vir-
tual reality is blending and thus it is very important to determine appropriate
denitions of VR technology components. Two terms that are very important
in the VR dictionary are also mentioned. e rst of them is telepresence, de-
ned as the experience of presence in an environment by means of acommu-
nication medium (Steuer, 1992, p. 79). It happens when an operator manipu-
lates the user remotely from adistance (operator’s room) and at the same time
receives asensory feedback that lets them feel just as if they are in the place
where the action occurs. Telepresence is considered an important construct
in virtual reality research where two main perspectives dominate: apsycho-
logical and atechnological (Yin, Cicchirillo, & Drumwright, 2012). Various
studies have found that presence inuences the perceived product knowledge,
brand attributes (Grigorovici & Constantin, 2004; Hopkins, Raymond, & Mitra,
2004), recall and recognition (Keng & Lin, 2006), attitudes towards advertise-
ments (Hopkins et al., 2004) and purchase intentions. Generating asense of
presence depends on the media involved, user characteristics (perceptions of
interactivity and vividness) and individual attention to media stimuli (Lessiter,
Freeman, Keogh, & Davido, 2001).
Mazuryk and Gervautz (1996) have also pointed out how VR experience
is actually delivered to the user. In theory acomputer should generate multi-
ple-sensory impressions that aect all of the user’s senses on various levels so
that they can experience afull immersion in arealistically responsive virtual
reality. Based on the level of immersion the authors name three types of VR
systems. e rst is Desktop VR, also referred to as aWindow on the World,
which lets users only watch the content oered using regularly displayed im-
ages. Fish Tank VR is an evolution of Desktop VR. It takes advantage of the
motion parallax eect to enhance the VR impressions because it supports
head tracking; however there is no sensory feedback for the user and the im-
age is still displayed on the screen. e third level is based on immersive sys-
tems. is technology is implemented in the most advanced VR devices and
39F. Grudzewski, M. Awdziej, G. Mazurek, K. Piotrowska, Virtual reality in marketing
includes head-mounted display (HMD) to provide the best possible view to
the user – arst-person perspective and reacts to changes in his position or
orientation. e whole simulation can be also enhanced further by sound or
haptic and sensory stimuli.
e specicity of the VR technology is that in combining hardware and
soware together it can create areality where people can nd various types of
possibilities. From creating awhole new entertainment segment (such as mov-
ies, games, free time apps), improving whole navigation processes (virtual 360°
maps of routes and places – such as public spaces, buildings, subway stations,
guides), through medical application (virtual surgery training or a3D image
of the inner body shown to explain medical cases), cultural and science ap-
plication (museum exhibitions, virtual learning) ending with the segment for
children (bedtime stories, discovering the world apps), etc.
2. Virtual Reality in marketing communication
Digitalization of communications is an increasing phenomenon, reected in the
way of planning and executing marketing communication (Mazurek, 2011a).
Ecient utilization of marketing communications requires not only a very
good knowledge of social phenomena and market processes but also famili-
arity with the instruments and technologies of information communication.
Both marketing theoreticians and practitioners agree that the key condition
for marketing communications to be eective is integration of all the means
thereof. All the undertaken communication activities need to be consistent in
terms of their content and coordinated in time and space. Companies utilis-
ing the methods and tools of modern marketing communications are able to
interact quickly with consumers (Hajduk, 2016).
Virtual reality is arelatively new medium that oers new opportunities for
content communication. e qualities of virtual reality make it able to manip-
ulate the sense of time and space, to be interactive, and make the user ‘con-
trol’ their experience. According to Biocca (1992b), there are many research
implications of VR on communications, including studies on: the diusion
of virtual reality technology, communication design and cognition or inter-
personal communication and cooperative work. All this oers an incredible
opportunity to establish adynamic relationship between the audience and the
medium where interactivity and responsivity play acrucial part (Mazurek,
2011b). An ideal situation is one that involves the creation of ahigh-quality
interface – based on platforms connecting devices, or rather whole realities
– so that the user does not see the dierence between their own and the vir-
tual world (Barnes, 2016).
Before the era of the growth of the introduction of new technologies and vir-
tualization processes (Mazurek, 2012) it was quite easy to predict the tools and
40 Economics and Business Review, Vol. 4 (18), No. 3, 2018
media needed to communicate with several groups of stakeholders eectively
(i.e. to increase brand awareness, communicate sales promotion and proceed
with personal selling for business-to-business markets). With time technol-
ogy (progression in the advancement and spread of the Internet) has made it
possible to reach certain customers directly faster and more straightforwardly
than ever which has brought about substantial changes in the style and nature
of marketing communication.
Virtual Reality (VR) is considered to be one of the most promising techno-
logical innovations in business (Gartner, 2016). As it has become more acces-
sible to consumers at aordable prices it has caught the attention of marketeers
as anew way to advertise products and brands (Adams, 2016). Virtual Reality
is applied in tourism industry (making it possible to visit various destinations),
experience marketing (allowing the experience of lifestyles associated with
particular brands) and various product tests (e.g. test drives of cars) (Scott,
2016; Mandelbaum, 2015). Despite the growing interest in the application of
Virtual Reality in real estate marketing there are not many studies that have
investigated the eectiveness of this medium in this specic context. However
astudy conducted by Beneeld et al. (2012) indicated that increasing the vis-
ibility of aproperty through amix of media, such as open houses and virtual
tours, generated higher selling prices.
Retailers such as Carrefour and Alibaba explore opportunities for VR in
online shopping and product inspections (Zheng, 2016). Over the last years
advertising has evolved along with technology, embracing such innovations as
3D product presentations and 360° rotation. Compared with the traditional
media these allow higher levels of interactivity and vividness resulting in visual
richness (Choi and Taylor, 2014; Van Kerrebroeck et al., 2017b). Vividness, or
imagery richness, is considered to be an important factor in marketing com-
munications translating into more realistic product presentations. Cheng,
M.H.Chieng, and W.H. Chieng (2014) suggest that imagery richness can be
aected by sound or animations. Various studies in marketing literature dem-
onstrate that more vivid imagery results in more positive attitudes among con-
sumers (Van Kerrebroeck et al., 2017b). Existing studies point consistently to
the benets of application of VR technology to informational marketing com-
munications – that is, to presentation of functional, objective product attributes
(Choi and Taylor, 2014). When it comes to emotional, i.e. hedonic benets as-
sociated with products or brands literature is almost non-existent, with anota-
ble exception of astudy by Van Kerrebroeck et al. (2017b). ese authors found
that VR generates higher perceptions of vividness and presence compared to
aregular, two-dimensional video (Van Kerrebroeck et al., 2017b). e vivid-
ness of VR presentation positively aects consumers’ attitudes towards adver-
tisements and brands and stimulates purchase intentions. VR technology im-
proves the communication process and, at the same time, oers abetter per-
ception of the marketing message as well as of the advertised products. us:
41F. Grudzewski, M. Awdziej, G. Mazurek, K. Piotrowska, Virtual reality in marketing
H1: e form of the oer’s presentation inuences its perception.
As the product presentation perception is not aunidimensional experience
it was decided to investigate the relationship between the form of the presen-
tation and the three aspects of the presentation’s perception.
H1a: e form of the presentation inuences the perceived attractiveness of
the oer presented (in this case: an apartment).
H1b: e form of the presentation itself inuences its reception.
H1c: e form of the presentation inuences the attitudes towards the use of
in-house technology.
3. Methodology
Respondents were recruited from agroup of clients of coee houses where the
experiment was conducted. A total number of 150 usable responses was col-
lected from 75 men and 75 women with amean age of 36.41 (SD = 8.86). e
participants were randomly assigned to three groups (picture, video, and vir-
tual reality space – 50 persons each (25 females and 25 males in each group)).
It was decided to control the study for gender, as there are gender dierences
in visual perceptions and attitudes towards technology. (Schroeder, 2010; Sax,
2006). erefore in each of the groups the number of males and females was
equal (i.e. 25).
e experiment was conducted out of peak hours, before noon, to ensure
that the respondents would be least distracted by their surroundings. e re-
spondents were approached by the researchers and asked to participate in the
experiment. Once agreed the subject and the purpose of the study were ex-
plained to them and all the required details provided. en the respondents
drew lots from anon-transparent bag which included 150 cards (50 containing
adescription of an apartment with apicture, 50 with adescription and a video
and 50 with adescription and aVirtual Reality presentation in Oculus).4 e
draw was made without returning the cards into the bag. e respondents
were presented the apartment promotional materials in pictures, in avideo,
or as aVirtual Reality presentation in which they had an opportunity to “walk
4 Photos: 5 photos, resolution 1928 × 1092, printed on A4 size paper sheets, presenting
the apartment from simulation. ey were presented as marketing material (aleaet). Video:
MPEG-4, 1280 × 720, length 1 : 20, ordinary video displayed on a15.4-inch laptop. It was the
material obtained from the company, it was not a360 degree video because it was desired to
maintain an atmosphere of an ordinary advertising video (the simulation was in 360 degree, so,
the overlap was not necessary). Oculus presentation: Simulation was created by TRUSENSE as
one of their projects. It was afully interactive simulation of the apartment, the user could move
around the apartment in two ways – for alonger distance, there was ateleportation, and for
ashort distance, the user could move around on foot (an Oculus camera tracks movement of
the user enabling movement in the simulation).
42 Economics and Business Review, Vol. 4 (18), No. 3, 2018
around the place” using VR goggles on their eyes (Oculus Ri). e length of
exposure to the promotional material in any form was estimated at around 1
minute 20 seconds – as long as the length of the video. It was to ensure the
same time exposure to each kind of material without repeating it. Also, in the
case of the video and the Oculus presentation, the sound was turned o as the
focus of the study was on the visual aspect of presentation.
Aer the presentation of the material each respondent lled in aquestion-
naire which consisted of 18 closed questions related to their perception of the
apartment presented, an evaluation of the presentation itself and the attitude
towards the new technologies featured in the apartment featured5. e re-
spondents answered every question using ascale from 1 to 10, where 1 meant
“Denitely not, which was the scale’s minimum, and 10 meant “denitely yes”.
To see whether the questions designed to measure the three aspects of the oer
could be grouped into composite indexes, the most commonly used measure
of the scale’s internal reliability was Cronbach’s alpha and mean inter-item cor-
relations were also calculated (Cortina 1993; George & Mallery 2003; Allameh,
Esfahani, & Nikbakht, 2017). e Cronbach’s alpha for each of the scales was
above 0.75 (as for the apartment’s attractiveness, it was 0.871, 0.954 for the pres-
entation assessment scale, and 0.891 for the scale measuring the attitude to-
wards the featured technology)6, and the average inter-item correlation ranged
from 0.529 (for the apartment’s attractiveness scale) to 0.786 (for the presenta-
tion assessment scale). e high values of the scales’ internal reliability made it
possible to calculate the composite indices for every group of questions.7 For
each of the scales, 1 meant the lowest score, and 10 – the highest.
As the participants were randomly assigned to groups (picture, video,
Oculus) an analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to explore the rela-
tionship between the variables with the F-test calculated to test for the signi-
cance of dierences between the groups (Saunders, Lewis, & ornhill, 2009;
Kirk, 2013). However due to the fact that the distribution of the dependent
variable could not be considered close to normal in every group (i.e. the abso-
lute values of skewness and kurtosis in several cases were higher than 1 (Hair,
Black, Babin, & Anderson, 2010), the Kruskal-Wallis rank test (Conover &
Iman, 1981) was applied as well to check whether the ANOVA results were
not caused by data distribution anomalies. To assess the eect size, an eta
squared (η2) estimate for Kruskal-Wallis H-test was calculated (Tomczak, M.
& TomczakE., 2014) and to test for the signicance of the dierences for eve-
ry pair of the groups compared (i.e. picture-video, video-oculus, oculus-pic-
ture), anon-parametric post hoc test (the Dunns post hoc test adjusted by the
5 Additional visual materials may be obtainable from the authors upon request.
6 Detailed information regarding the items included in the scales is presented in Appendix1.
7 In order to obtain composite indices, the arithmetical means of the answers included in
each of the scales were calculated.
43F. Grudzewski, M. Awdziej, G. Mazurek, K. Piotrowska, Virtual reality in marketing
Bonferroni correction for multiple tests)8 was used. All the statistical analyses
were carried out using SPSS 24.0 soware.
4. Results and discussion
As shown in Table 1 the F tests as well as the H tests for all three dependent
variables were statistically signicant which means that all the formulated hy-
potheses (H1, H2 and H3) are conrmed.
Considering all the composite indices the means and medians are the lowest
for the PICTURE exposition, higher in the case of the VIDEO and the high-
est in the case of the OCULUS VR system usage and the dierences between
groups are the largest for the presentation perception (Table 1 and Figure 1).
e Eta squared estimates show that the variance of the apartment percep-
tion is explained by the type of means in 36%, presentation perception in 72%,
and technology perception in 49%. is means that the eect was large in every
case (Cohen 1988)9 and that the dependency between the type of the presen-
tation material and the respondents’ evaluation was the strongest in terms of
the perception of the presentation itself.
e perception of the relationship between the applied technology and the
means of presentation is also quite high (between apartment and presentation).
It is similar to the occurrence of the halo eect that inuenced the positive
8 is is the only non-parametric post hoc test available in SPSS soware.
9 According to Cohen (1988), large eects start from eta squared = 0.14 for the analysis of
Figure 1. Median values of the dependent variables in the groups compared
(error bars show the interquartile ranges)
Source: own research.
Apartment perception Presentation perception Technology perception
Picture Video Oculus
44 Economics and Business Review, Vol. 4 (18), No. 3, 2018
Table 1. Results of the ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis tests, eect size estimates, and the descriptive statistics for the three dependent
variables in three compared groups
Picture Video Oculus VR F F Sig. Kruskal
Wallis H H Sig.
η2 estimate
for the
Mean 6.02 7.04 7.55 38.53 < 0.001 55.11 < 0.001 0.36
SD 0.88 0.67 1.07
Median 6.08 7.17 7.67
Skewness –0.28 –1.45 –0.66
Kurtosis –0.16 2.10 0.75
Mean 5.28 7.33 8.58 153.45 < 0.001 108.499 < 0.001 0.72
SD 1.23 0.64 0.89
Median 5.50 7.50 8.83
Skewness –0.57 –1.36 –1.48
Kurtosis –0.26 2.59 3.29
Mean 6.30 7.20 8.13 67.55 < 0.001 74.75 < 0.001 0.49
SD 0.63 0.79 0.91
Median 6.33 7.33 8.17
Skewness 0.04 –0.96 –0.68
Kurtosis –0.96 0.69 0.23
Source: own research.
45F. Grudzewski, M. Awdziej, G. Mazurek, K. Piotrowska, Virtual reality in marketing
perception of the technology because of the usage of another new technology
(Oculus VR system used to present the oer).
Table 2. Results of multiple pairwise comparisons (Mann-Whitney U adjusted by
the Bonferroni correction for multiple tests)
Apartment perception Presentation
Picture-Video –42.22 < 0.001 –48.97 < 0.001 –39.58 < 0.001
Picture-Oculus –63.20 < 0.001 –90.32 < 0.001 –74.96 < 0.001
Video-Oculus –20.98 0.047 –41.35 < 0.001 –35.38 < 0.001
Source: own research.
e pairwise comparisons (Table 2) showed that in each of the three pairs
(Picture-Video, Video-Oculus, Oculus-Picture) the dierences in the evaluation
were statistically signicant for each of the dependent variables. In all cases,
apart from the Video-Oculus comparison for apartment perception (p<0.05),
the test was signicant at α = 0.001 level.
e results of the research show that new technologies enhance marketing
communication to asignicant extent, translating into a better reception of
marketing messages among potential customers. VR technology improves the
communication process and, at the same time, oers abetter perception of the
marketing message as well as of the advertised products. e study has proven
that VR technology is ahead of the current means of marketing communication.
H1: e form of the oer’s presentation inuences its perception.
e research has conrmed that there is asignicant relationship between
the means of presentation and the presentation’s perception among the re-
spondents. As shown by the comparison between the most traditional means
(pictures) and the most modern solution (Oculus VR system).
H1a: e form of the presentation inuences the perceived attractiveness of
the presented oer (in this case: an apartment).
e apartments presented were highest evaluated by the respondents who
were shown the oer through the Oculus VR tool. e video presentation did
alittle worse and the worst result was obtained in the case of communication
through pictures. It means that Oculus oers abetter user experience and in-
creases the attractiveness of the oer presented.
H1b: e form of the presentation itself inuences its reception.
Here Oculus did best as well, pictures ended last with the video presenta-
tion in between. It shows how the presentation of some products can be im-
proved by specic technology.
46 Economics and Business Review, Vol. 4 (18), No. 3, 2018
H1c: e form of the presentation inuences the attitudes towards the use of
in-house technology.
e results obtained prove that VR technology facilitates the adoption of
another technology.
VR technology is an emerging innovation that aects consumer behaviour
and their perception of the products to which they are exposed to agreat ex-
tent. Virtual Reality has been examined previously and found to have aposi-
tive impact on brand perceptions and purchase intentions thanks to an im-
mersive brand experience (Van Kerrebroeck et al., 2017a). Virtual represen-
tations can give consumers an opportunity to better examine product items
such as clothing through the applied technology (Verhagen, Vonkeman, & van
Dolen, 2016). e research, focused on the perception of marketing commu-
nication materials, brings some insights into how to conduct such activities in
the era of modern technologies. It has also conrmed that VR technology can
signicantly facilitate presentation of certain market oers in the real estate
business. e method applied in the research may become acommon practice
in this type of business industry in the future. It is possible imagine that one
day, every oer on Gumtree or OLX – apart from the pictures of the apart-
ment – will contain aVR presentation where the potential buyers / tenants
are able to walk around the place in virtual reality just as they do now in the
real world. e positive role of disruptive innovations in the context of mar-
keting communication may result in an increase in companies’ willingness to
invest more in popularizing their oers through various forms of cooperation
with VR soware creators. Technological innovations have laid the grounds
for acompletely new eld of communication and content delivery and an in-
novative approach to them can make the ow of information between dier-
ent market entities much easier.
Marketing specialists can benet from this research as well because it clearly
shows that traditional paper advertising is the weakest channel of communi-
cating an oer in comparison to more advanced methods (such as video or VR
presentations), which proves the great importance of marketing virtualization.
Marketing managers should pay more attention to the process of selection of
technologies that are to be used in communicating marketing messages. As in-
dicated in the research the use of modern technologies such as video and VR
has avery positive impact on the perception of marketing message and trans-
lates into amuch better reception of the message among potential custom-
ers, which means that these technologies can signicantly support marketing
strategies and sales – especially of equipment and solutions based precisely
on such modern technologies. Further research should focus on conducting
47F. Grudzewski, M. Awdziej, G. Mazurek, K. Piotrowska, Virtual reality in marketing
similar experiments for various types of product categories, the relationships
between the reception of technology, the message, and the oer, and the pur-
chase decisions along with the managerial implications of virtual reality usage
in marketing communication strategies and tactics.
Appendix 1. Questionnaire10
Adams, R. L. (2016, October 17). Five ways virtual reality will change the world. Forbes.
Retrieved from
Allameh, S. M., Esfahani, S. L., & Nikbakht, M. (2017). Evaluating the eect of mar-
keting innovation on green marketing strategies. International Journal of Scientic
Management & Development, 5(10), 464-473.
Barnes, S. (2016, November 3). Understanding virtual reality in marketing: nature, im-
plications and potential. doi:
10 Items 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16 (A) relate to perception of the presented apartment; items 2, 5, 8,
11, 14, 17 (B) relate to appraisal of the form of presentation; items 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 (C) relate to
attitude towards innovative technology in the presented apartment.
1) Is the presented apartment spacious? A
definitely no 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 definitely yes
2) Did you like presented offer? B
definitely no 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 definitely yes
3) Has implementation of inteligent light system Busch-p riOn® enabling to change
intensity and colour of the light in every room affects the functionality of the
apartment? C
definitely no 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 definitely yes
4) Is the presented apartment nice? A
definitely no 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 definitely yes
5) During the presentation, did you feel like you were visiting this apartment?? B
definitely no 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 definitely yes
6) Is the Busch-Comfort central control panel, which provides automatic control of
blinds or music, improves the functionality of the apartment? C
definitely no 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 definitely yes
7) Is the presented apartment attractive? A
definitely no 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 definitely yes
8) Was the presentation of the apartment clear to you? B
definitely no 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 definitely yes
9) Is the use of the intelligent Home Center 2 home management system,
coordinating among others heating, lighting or alarm and provides control over
them from anywhere on Earth, increases the attractiveness of the apartment? C
definitely no 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 definitely yes
10) Would you be able to rest in the presented apartment? A
definitely no 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 definitely yes
11) How realistically the presentation presented the apartment? B
definitely not realistic 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 definitely realistic
12) Does the application of APA Vision BMS modern monitoring, allowing the
preview of cameras from any device anywhere in the world, increases the security
of housing? C
definitely no 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 definitely yes
13) Is the presented apartment cozy? A
definitely no 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 definitely yes
14) Has the way of presenting the apartment underlined its qualities? B
definitely no 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 definitely yes
15) Does the installation of the automatically locking blueMatic EAV lock in the
entrance door, opened by a key, a chip in the key ring or a fingerprint reader,
increases the security of the flat? C
definitely no 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 definitely yes
16) According to you what is the standard of the apartment presented? A
definitely low 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 defini tely high
17) To what extent presentation of the offer was pleasant for you? B
definitely not pleasant 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 definitely pleasant
18) Does the use of new technologies increase the attractiveness of the flat? C
definitely no 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 definitely yes
Age: Sex: W / M
48 Economics and Business Review, Vol. 4 (18), No. 3, 2018
Beneeld, J. D., Rutherford, R. C., & Allen, M. T. (2012). e eects of estate sales of
residential real estate on price and marketing time. Journal of Real Estate Finance
and Economics, 45(4), 965–981.
Biocca, F. (1992a). Virtual reality technology: atutorial. Journal of Communication,
42(4), 23-72.
Biocca, F. (1992b). Communication within Virtual Reality: creating aspace for research.
Journal of Communication, Autumn, 42(4), 5-22.
Cheng, L. K., Chieng, M. H., & Chieng, W. H. (2014). Measuring virtual experience in
athree-dimensional virtual reality interactive simulator environment: astructural
equation modelling approach. Virtual Reality, 18, 173-188.
Choi, Y. K., & Taylor, C. R. (2014). How do 3-dimensional images promote products
on the Internet?. Journal of Business Research, 67, 2164-2170.
Coates, G. (1992). Program from invisible site — avirtual shop, amultimedia perfor-
mance. San Francisco, CA: Performance Works.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale,
NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Conover, W. J., & Iman, R. L. (1981). Rank transformations as abridge between par-
ametric and nonparametric statistics. e American Statistician, 35(3), 124-129.
Cortina, J. M. (1993). What is coecient alpha? An examination of theory and appli-
cations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(1), 98-104.
Gartner. (2016). Gartner’s 2016 hype cycle for emerging technologies identies three key
trends that organizations must track to gain competitive advantage. Retrieved from
George, D., & Mallery, P. (2003). SPSS for Windows step by step: asimple guide and ref-
erence 11.0 update (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Grigorovici, D. M. & Constantin, C. D. (2004). Experiencing interactive advertising be-
yond rich media: impacts of ad type and presence on brand eectiveness in 3D gam-
ing immersive virtual environments. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 5(1), 22-36.
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis:
aglobal perspective (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson-Hall International.
Hajduk, G. (2016). Challenges for marketing communications in the digital age. In
G.Mazurek & J. Tkaczyk (Eds.), e impact of the digital world on management
and marketing (pp. 183-195). Warszawa: Poltext.
Hassouneh, D., & Brengman, M. (2015). Retailing in social virtual worlds: developing
atypology of virtual store atmospherics. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research
16, 218-241.
Hopkins, C. D., Raymond, M. A., & Mitra, A. (2004). Consumer responses to perceived
telepresence in the online advertising environment: the moderating role of involve-
ment. Marketing eory, 4(1–2), 137-162.
Huang, Y. C., Backman, K. F., Backman, S. J., & Chang, L. L. (2015). Exploring the im-
plications of virtual reality technology in tourism marketing: an integrated research
framework. International Journal of Tourism Research, 18(2), 116-128.
Jung, T., Dieck, M. C., Lee, H., & Chung, N. (2016). Eects of virtual reality and aug-
mented reality on visitor experiences in museum. In A. Inversini, & R. Schegg
(Eds.), Infor mation and Communication Technologies in Tourism [E-Reader Version].
49F. Grudzewski, M. Awdziej, G. Mazurek, K. Piotrowska, Virtual reality in marketing
Retrieved from
Kaplan, A. & Mazurek, G. (2018). Social media: state of the art and research agenda.
In B. Mierzejewska, J. Jung, & A., Albarran, (Ed.), 2nd handbook of media manage-
ment and economics. London, United Kingdom: Routledge.
Keng, C., & Lin, H. (2006). Impact of telepresence levels on Internet advertising ef-
fects. Cyberpsychology and Behavior, 9(1), 82-94.
Kirk, R. E. (2013). Experimental design: procedures for the behavioural sciences (4th
ed.). London: Sage Publications.
La Valle, S. M. (2017). Virtual Reality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lessiter, J., Freeman, J., Keogh, E., & Davido, J. (2001). A cross-media presence ques-
tionnaire: the ITC-sense of presence inventory. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual
Environments, 10(3), 282-297.
Mandelbaum, A. (2015, August 17). How companies are marketing with virtual re-
ality [Web log post]. Retrieved from
Mazurek, G. (2011a). Informacja wwirtualnym środowisku arozwój społeczeństwa in-
formacyjnego. Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Szczecińskiego. Ekonomiczne Problemy
Usług, 186-194.
Mazurek, G. (2011b). Virtualization of marketing – conceptual model. In C. Wang
(Ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Marketing Studies (pp. 109-113).
Academy of Taiwan, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Mazurek, G. (2012). Virtualization of marketing. Contemporary Management Research,
8(3), 195-204.
Mazuryk, T., & Gervautz, M. (1996). Virtual Reality: history, applications, technol-
ogy and future, technical report. Vienna: Institute of Computer Graphics, Vienna
University of Technology.
Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & ornhill, A. (2009). Research method for business students
(5th ed.). Prentice Hall, London: Pitman.
Sax, L. (2006). Why gender matters: what parents and teachers need to know about the
emerging science of sex dierences. Westminster, MD: Broadway Books.
Scatena, S., Russo, G.N., Riva, G. (2016). Virtual Reality vs television vs web exposure:
the impact on brand experience. A preliminary study. Annual Review of Cybertherapy
and Telemedicine, 14, 211-214.
Schroeder, J. A. (2010). Sex and gender in sensation and perception. In J. C. Chrisler,
D. R. McCreary (Eds.), Handbook of gender research in psychology. Vol. 1: Gender
research in general and experimental psychology (pp. 235-258). Boston: Springer.
Scott, J. (2016). Virtual Reality: content marketing’s next big trend [Web log post].
Retrieved from
Serrano, B., Botella, C., Baños, R. M., & Alcañiz, M. (2013). Using virtual reality and
mood-induction procedures to test products with consumers of ceramic tiles.
Computers in Human Behavior, 29(3), 648-653.
Sherman, W. R. (2003). Understanding Virtual Reality. Burlington, MA: Morgan
Kaufman Publishers.
50 Economics and Business Review, Vol. 4 (18), No. 3, 2018
Steuer, J. (1992). Dening Virtual Reality: dimensions determining telepresence. Journal
of Communication, 42(4), 73-93.
e Farm 51. (2015). VR market report. Retrieved from
Tomczak M., & Tomczak, E. (2014). e need to report eect size estimates revis-
ited. An overview of some recommended measures of eect size. Trends in Sport
Sciences, 1(21), 19-25.
Van Kerrebroeck, H., Brengman, M., & Willems, K. (2017a). Escaping the crowd: an
experimental study on the impact of aVirtual Reality experience in ashopping
mall. Computers in Human Behavior, 77, 437-450.
Van Kerrebroeck, H., Brengman, M., & Willems, K. (2017b). When brands come to
life: experimental research on the vividness eect of Virtual Reality in transforma-
tional marketing communications. Virtual Reality, 21(4), 177-191.
Verhagen, T., Vonkeman, C., & van Dolen, W. (2016). Making online products
more tangible: the eect of product presentation formats on product evaluations.
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 19(7), 460-464.
Yin, M., Cicchirillo, V., & Drumwright, M. (2012). e impact of stereoscopic three-
dimensional (3-D) advertising. e role of presence in enhancing advertising ef-
fectiveness. Journal of Advertising, 41, 113-128.
Zheng, L. (2016, March 18). Alibaba spreads its wings into VR sector [Web log post].
Retrieved from
... A VR plays an important role in customer service (Van Kerrebroeck, Brengman, & Willems, 2017), changing the shoppers, brands and retailers' behavior and attracts the interest of many researchers (Grudzewski et al., 2018;Hoffman, & Novak, 2018). Factually, VR enables consumers interaction with various service channels (Cummings & Bailenson, 2016;Farah, Ramadan, & Harb, 2019;Helmefalk & Hultén, 2017). ...
Full-text available
The rapid growth of virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) services in various industries has stimulated innovation. This study proposes a research framework and theoretical model based on self-determination theory (SDT) to examine consumers’ purchase intentions for VR and AR service technologies. The research scope includes fashion brands that use VR and AR service technologies. The study employs in-depth interviews to identify the key drivers of VR and AR technologies for fashion brands. The research design uses an online survey of 675 fashion brand consumers to collect questionnaire data employing structural equation modeling (SEM) and fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to test the research hypotheses and answer the research questions. This study contributes to understanding consumer technology and psychological perceptions about implementing fashion brands with VR and AR service technologies for future service design and marketing. The research findings show that perceived value, perceived enjoyment, perceived informativeness, presence, and consumer experience affect purchase intention positively when using AR/VR service technologies. Further, the results highlight that perceived value, enjoyment, and informativeness affect consumer experience. The results of the FsQCA show that the causal conditions of perceived value, perceived enjoyment, perceived informativeness, presence, and consumer experience are sufficient and necessary for higher purchase intention for consumers in the fashion brand context.
... Being undergoing a dynamic transformation, marketing benefits from successive technologies, which enable companies/brands to be even more efficient in the process of maximizing widely understood benefits. The marketing efficiency of the future will play a significant role, the timeliness of appropriate reaction will be the cornerstone of modern marketing, while demonstrating an integrated combination capability of data, technology, creativity, managerial efficiency, as well as ethics and security (Mazurek, 2018 Chatbots. Forbes. ...
... The first is hardware, meaning a VR system composed of several components: goggles with a head-mounted display, motion controllers and additional peripheral devices that extend the capabilities of the VR system. The second element is software that provides a virtual simulation environment (Grudzewski et al., 2018). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The article aims to analyze the possibility of using virtual reality (VR) technology as an experience marketing tool, enabling the building of ties between the brand and the consumer, based on deep emotions, trans­lating into an increased liking for the company and attachment to its com­mercial offer. The analysis was based on a literature study on social com­munication, marketing communication and VR, as well as a case study of the Nissan Sakura electric car brand in the VRChat application, which was launched in May 2022, simultaneously on the Japanese market and in the Metaverse. The analysis of VR technology, carried out on the example of the VR experience „NISSAN SAKURA Driving Island” in the VRChat application shows that VR meets in practice the assumptions of experience marketing and can potentially be an effective tool for shaping attitudes and behaviors influencing the purchasing decisions of consumers on the automotive mar­ket. Nevertheless, due to the innovative nature of the tool, it does not cur­rently provide the possibility of reaching a mass audience with the market­ing message. The application nature of the work is related to the indication of the conditions, benefits and limitations of the use of VR technology in ac­tivities aimed at shaping attitudes and behaviors, influencing the purchas­ing decisions of consumers in the automotive market. Contrary to the liter­ature in the field of social and marketing communication and the automo­tive market, which is very wide, issues related to VR technology are the area of interest of only a small group of researchers. Given the growing popular­ity of VR technology, knowledge of the possibility of using it to shape atti­tudes and behaviors that influence consumer purchasing decisions in the automotive market may turn out to be valuable both for theoreticians and marketing practitioners.
... In 2017, $167 million was spent on VR and AR advertising alone, and this figure is expected to grow to 2.6 billion in 2022. This growth is in part driven by recent findings that show that VR and AR ads have higher engagement and click through rate than traditional advertising methods (Grudzewski et al. 2018;Van Kerrebroeck et al. 2017). For example, Hackl and Wolfe (2017) mention that marketing campaigns that use AR have an average dwell time of 75 s, compared to an average dwell time of just 2.5 s for traditional radio and TV ads, and that 71% of shoppers would shop at a retailer more often if they used AR. ...
Full-text available
Eye tracking is becoming increasingly available in head-mounted virtual reality displays with various headsets with integrated eye trackers already commercially available. The applications of eye tracking in virtual reality are highly diversified and span multiple disciplines. As a result, the number of peer-reviewed publications that study eye tracking applications has surged in recent years. We performed a broad review to comprehensively search academic literature databases with the aim of assessing the extent of published research dealing with applications of eye tracking in virtual reality, and highlighting challenges, limitations and areas for future research.
... Thanks to VR tools, it has become possible and easy for companies to receive feedback from customers, measure the recognition of the products offered to the market, and obtain information about the satisfaction levels of the products. The fact that VR tools also provide value to consumers (entertainment) has made it possible for marketers to reach customers, get to know customers, and learn about customer requests and expectations (Grudzewski, et al., 2018). The main reasons why virtual reality technologies have started to be used in practice in such a short time and so quickly in the field of marketing are given in this section. ...
... The ability to replicate multisensory stimuli, higher capability for interactions in multiple stages of product development and usage and the contextualisation of product experiences make VR the type of media to have the most impact when compared to others [29], [31], [35]. Applied to the real state sector, a study [14] within the scope of understanding the impact of VR on marketing communication exposed 150 random participants (75 men and 75 women) to three different presentations (photo, video, and VR) and the results have revealed that the VR scenario experiment outperformed the other two technologies, suggesting the potential to offer a better experience than other technologies. ...
Full-text available
ABSTARCT This study examines how VR and AR technology affect consumer involvement across industries. The study analyzes literature and conducts empirical tests to determine the pros and cons of using VR and AR in marketing efforts. VR and AR technologies are introduced in the research. Next, it discusses digital customer engagement. The literature review covers VR and AR applications in retail, tourism, entertainment, and education. Immersive technology has changed consumer behavior, brand impression, and purchasing intentions. This study uses quantitative surveys and qualitative interviews to collect data. The poll measures customers' attitudes, opinions, and preferences toward VR and AR experiences and how they affect engagement and buying behavior. The interviews provide VR and AR users' subjective experiences, feelings, and motives. This study illuminates how VR and AR improve consumer engagement. The findings help marketers and practitioners plan, implement, and optimize VR and AR experiences to boost customer engagement and commercial results. The study also outlines technological and consumer constraints that must be overcome to successfully adopt and integrate VR and AR into marketing efforts
Full-text available
Virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) have recently emerged as potent technologies that provide immersive experiences and make it possible for marketers to engage customers in novel ways. When it comes to digital marketing, the advantages of virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) include their capacity to deliver highly immersive experiences, establish emotional connections with users, and supply valuable data and insights. The attention of users is captured by these technologies, which also make it possible to tell interactive stories and enable personalized marketing campaigns based on users' actions. When analyzing the applications of virtual reality and augmented reality in digital marketing, several challenges and factors need to be taken into consideration. These include the availability and use of virtual reality and augmented reality technologies, the financial and time investments necessary for development, as well as the measurement and evaluation of the effectiveness of marketing campaigns. Marketers can make educated decisions about whether or not to include virtual reality and augmented reality in their digital strategies if they have a thorough understanding of the specific advantages and drawbacks of these two technologies. Marketers can take advantage of the potential of virtual reality and augmented reality to create memorable brand experiences, increase customer engagement, and accomplish their marketing goals by giving careful consideration to their target audience, The Feasibility of Lean Polyclinics: Critical Analysis of Echs Section A-Research paper 797 Eur. Chem. Bull. 2023, 12 (S6), 796-805 conducting cost-benefit analyses, and defining relevant key performance indicators (KPIs). The purpose of this research is to conduct an analysis of the applications of virtual and augmented reality in digital marketing in order to gain insights into how these technologies can be leveraged to improve customer engagement and brand experiences. Marketers can strategically integrate virtual reality and augmented reality technologies into their digital marketing strategies if they have a thorough understanding of the benefits and challenges associated with these technologies. This will, in the end, result in improved campaign outcomes and customer relationships. The purpose of this study is to investigate the various aspects of incorporating virtual reality and augmented reality into digital marketing strategies, including the potential benefits, potential challenges, and potential considerations.
Full-text available
Expressed as a set of tools and techniques that create an emotional and psychological experience for users, virtual reality technology depends on the principle that users can feel themselves in the presented universe and as a part of the presented scenario. The concept called "presence" in the literature is accepted as one of the key elements that make virtual reality technology unique and become the focus of virtual reality-based studies. In this study, it is aimed to examine whether the level of sense of presence felt by users in virtual reality environments differs according to the demographic characteristics of individuals. In this direction, the virtual holiday experiment, designed using the Unity program, has been experienced by 50 participants between the ages of 18-55, selected through quota sampling, and the data obtained as a result of the experiments were analyzed via the SPSS 21.0 program. As a result of the study, all null hypotheses were supported, and it was determined that there was no significant relationship or difference between the demographic characteristics of the participants and their sense of presence in virtual reality environments. Keywords: Virtual Reality, Sence of Presence, Experiment Method, Virtual Reality Experience JEL Codes: C91, M31
Full-text available
This chapter reviews the current and the prospective research on social media, which refers to a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content. The phenomenon of social media directly impacts the private, the professional, and the academic world. In the chapter, we present a brief history of social media, classification of social media applications including: collaborative projects, (micro)blogs, content communities, social networking sites, virtual game worlds and virtual social worlds. Finally, the thematic and the macro-level discussion of the social media research covered will lead to a research agenda with regard to the next couple of years.
Full-text available
The article discusses the challenges in marketing communications conducted in dynamically changing market conditions. A special attention has been drawn to the progress of in the area of information technology, and to the growth of the number of the available forms and tools of communication resulting therefrom. Increasing demands of recipients, their evolving communication habits and preferences, and the activities pursued by market competitors force enterprises to draw on to “digital era” solutions. These include tools that enable effective exchange of information with the market, which is a precondition for building a strategic position of every company and brand on the market. Considering high outlay for employee skills advancement, the use of external marketing communications professionals services has been suggested. A compilation of advantages and disadvantages of marketing communications has shown that it poses both an opportunity and a challenge to modern enterprises. Working with carefully selected service providers ‘from outside’ can produce excellent outcomes. Access to external specialists and to their potential is becoming increasingly easier thanks to the technological progress in the scope of exchange of information. Adoption of new information technologies and taking advantage of the new possibilities to work with experienced external professionals offers great opportunities to increase the efficiency of marketing communications, and, as a result, in business in effect.
Full-text available
Crowding is largely associated with negative consumer outcomes such as shopping irritation and lower levels of shopping pleasure, less positive attitudes and less satisfaction toward the crowded store or mall. While previous research demonstrated the alleviating effect of slow music and greenery on this negative impact of high perceived crowding, this study examines the potential of a relaxing Virtual Reality (VR) experience in a shopping mall. As Virtual Reality immerses users in a computer-generated environment, and as such allows them to escape the hectic mall environment, its use is expected to result in a more positive consumer experience. In a quasi-experimental 2x2 between-subjects design, the levels of attitude toward the mall, approach behaviour, mall satisfaction, and loyalty intentions were measured as well as perceived crowding. Participants in the experimental condition were exposed to a relaxing Virtual Reality experience in the mall, whereas participants in the control condition did not get such a treatment. Overall, consumers reported more positive responses on all measured outcome variables after being exposed to the Virtual Reality experience. In addition, the effect on mall attitudes, satisfaction and loyalty is more pronounced when crowding is perceived to be high.
Full-text available
Mobile Virtual Reality provides a gateway for marketers to innovatively reach consumers. This study examines the impact of Virtual Reality in the context of transformational brand experience appeals, focussing specifically on the determining role of vividness. A three-dimensional conceptual framework is presented, offering a systematic review of the literature on vividness effects in marketing communications, revealing the major gap that most available studies only focus on informational messages. We conducted an experiment to address this gap and demonstrate in the context of a transformational ad that Virtual Reality generates higher perceptions of vividness and presence than a regular two-dimensional video, with vividness positively affecting attitude toward the ad, both directly and indirectly via presence. Our study also reveals that vividness in turn elicits a positive effect on brand attitudes which stimulates consumers’ purchase intentions. As such, the strategic potential of Virtual Reality for marketing communications is highlighted.
Full-text available
For the last two decades, virtualization processes have been considered developing phenomena in management studies, particularly within the context of the creation of inter- and intra-organizational networks, establishing strong relationships with customers and the appreciation of intangible assets in companies. The purpose of this paper is to define the concept of virtualization from a marketing perspective, identify the main directions of marketing virtualization, and to propose a multidimensional conceptual solution for virtualization within the marketing processes. The proposed analyses help to understand the multifaceted impact of the virtual environment on company’s marketing and can support the quantitative empirical studies on the marketing virtualization. Keywords: Virtual Organization, Virtualization, Marketing, Internet Marketing
Although several studies have looked at the effects of online product presentations on consumer decision making, no study thus far has considered a potential key factor in online product evaluations: tangibility. The present study aims at filling this gap by developing and testing a model that relates different online product presentation formats to the three-dimensional concept of product tangibility. We test how the three tangibility dimensions influence perceived diagnosticity and, eventually, online purchase intentions. A between-subjects lab experiment (n = 366) was used to test the hypothesized effects of three common online product presentation formats (pictures vs. 360 spin rotation vs. virtual mirror). The results showed that out of these formats, virtual mirrors were superior in providing a sense of product tangibility, followed by the 360-spin rotation format and static pictures. Furthermore, in terms of predictive validity, two of the three tangibility dimensions significantly increased perceived diagnosticity, which, in turn, positively and strongly affected purchase intentions. Overall, our results add to previous works studying the relationships between online product presentation formats and consumer decision making. Also, they hold value for online practitioners by highlighting the potential benefits of applying technologically advanced product presentation formats such as the virtual mirror.