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Bibliometrics is a powerful tool for analyzing knowledge domains and revealing their cognitive-epistemological structure. Different mathematical models and statistical techniques have been proposed and tested to carry out bibliometric analyses and demonstrate their effectiveness in uncovering how fields of research are intellectually structured. These include two hybrid techniques that allow clusters of related documents obtained from a co-citation analysis to be labeled using textual data. This paper reports on the findings of a bibliometric study in which these hybrid techniques are combined to: (1) build and visualize the network of publications shaping the intellectual structure of the smart city research field by considering the first two decades of literature dealing with this subject; (2) map the clusters of thematically-related publications; and (3) reveal the emerging development paths of smart cities that each thematic cluster represents and the strategic principles they embody. The five development paths which the analysis uncovers and the strategic principles each stands on are then compared by reviewing the most recent literature on smart cities. Overall, this bibliometric study offers a systematic review of the research on smart cities produced since 1992 and helps bridge the division affecting this research area, demonstrating that it is caused by the dichotomous nature of the development paths of smart cities that each thematic cluster relates to and the strategic principles they in turn support
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... 718). This way, labs realize the 'quadruple helix' idea, i.e., collaboration among public authorities, firms, research organizations, and people in a real-life context [38] (see also [39] (p. 65)), and provide various stakeholders with the opportunity to share experiences and to facilitate broader processes of policy learning and knowledge dissemination [37,40]. ...
... Moreover, while literature studies have emphasized that research on smart cities in general "[shares] the same notion of smart cities as being urban areas in which ICTs become a mean for supporting urban innovation and sustainable development," they have also revealed four predominant dichotomies in smart city-related publications [70], [39] (p. 64). ...
... 64). These pertain to whether to take an approach that is (a) techno-led or holistic, (b) top-down or bottom-up, (c) double or triple/quadruple-helix, or (d) mono-dimensional or integrated [39] (pp. [64][65]. ...
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Despite immense efforts to realize diverse visions of the 'smart city,' municipalities still face manifold uncertainties of how governance and the tools of governance can best support public and regional value creation for achieving urban sustainability. To this end, Urban Living Labs have become a known enabling mechanism. In this paper, we extend the lab idea and formulate the concept of Urban Experimentation Platform that focuses on developing urban innovation ecosystems for urban sustainability. We use action design research and participant observation across multiple case studies enacting Urban Experimentation Platforms in order to investigate how the tie-in between governance and the local lab's innovation process unfolds. Our analysis distills three facets that are instrumental in institutionalizing these platforms as resilient organizational models. With the help of the case studies, we illustrate the three facets, concerning issues of urban ecosystem governance, empowering co-creation, and qualifying local innovation. The facets reinforce the roles of digital instruments and digital capabilities for effective urban governance and platform management. We draw some conclusions for future research and formulate policy recommendations for implementing and operating Urban Experimentation Platforms.
... Correspondingly, this utopian, business-driven outlook towards smart cities was questioned by many, with and laying the foundation and opening up the concept to a progressive and wholesome vision, in which technological intervention works in tandem with social, human, cultural and governance considerations Angelidou 2014;Mora et al. 2019;Praharaj and Han 2019). Denoted as the 'soft domain' by Neirotti et al. (2014), a broad spectrum of research and definitions about smart cities stemmed from this school of thought in varying capacities. ...
... Apart from the technology-led vs. holistic angle in the smart city debate, other metaphors/dichotomies which end up increasing the knowledge gap have been discussed in literature by Mora et al. (2019). They address three more development paths in smart cities: "double or quadruple helix model of collaboration"; "top-down or bottom-up approach"; and "mono-dimensional or integrated intervention logic" (p. ...
... In case of the collaborative model to go with, the double helix model of collaboration between technology providers and the local governments works more in favour of corporations, and is therefore supported by them in research. As a counter-approach, many researchers criticize this closed model and call for a broader model of collaboration between industry, institutions, governments and citizens for efficient innovation and development (Mosannenzadeh and Vettorato 2014;Selada 2017;Mora et al. 2019). Meijer and Bolivar (2016, p. 398) in their own definition of smart cities also explained: "the smartness of a city refers to its ability to attract human capital and to mobilize this human capital in collaborations between the various (organized and individual) actors through the use of information and communication technologies". ...
... Because of this complexity, the smart city concept often appears nebulous and ambiguous (Shelton et al., 2015: 13) with practitioners attributing different meanings to it (Angelidou, 2014;Anthopoulos, 2017;Kitchin, 2015;Korachi & Bounabat, 2020;Lazaroiu & Roscia, 2012). These meanings range from a holistic interpretationwith a broad focus encompassing sustainability and civic participation issues -and to a more reductionist interpretationwith a narrow focus on technological deployment (Mora et al., 2019a). Nevertheless, despite its ambiguity, the smart city concept is increasingly dominating urban policy scripts through narratives that shape the strategic development of urban technologies (Lorquet et Pawels, 2020;Söderström, 2014;Visser, 2019). ...
... Nevertheless, despite their importance, regional smart city policy narratives have remained an under-explored area of investigation. So far, scholars have explored smart city narratives emerging from scientific publications (Mora et al., 2019a), corporate texts (Söderström et al., 2014), and the opinions of municipal policymakers operating within different local contexts (Desdemoustier et al., 2019b) but little attention has been paid to regional policy texts. Therefore, this paper contributes to fill such a knowledge gap with a comparative case study analysis guided by the following research question: how do regional governments operating within different socio-economic contexts develop different smart city policy narratives? ...
... It is ambiguous and practitioners often see it as fuzzy, thus attributing different meanings to it (Angelidou, 2014;Anthopoulos, 2017;Kitchin, 2015;Korachi & Bounabat, 2020;Lazaroiu & Roscia, 2012). Policymakers have therefore cultivated different interpretations of the smart city concept, ranging from a holistic viewwith a broad focus encompassing sustainability and civic participation issues -and to a more reductionist understandingwith a narrow focus on technological deployment (Mora et al., 2019a). Research by Desdemoustier et al. (2019b), for example, shows that a holistic view of smart cities prevails among policymakers operating in medium-and large-size Belgian municipalities. ...
Article
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Smart city initiatives are increasingly dominating urban policy scripts worldwide, and their diffusion is centered upon different regional strategies. Adopting the Narrative Policy Framework as methodological basis, this article examines the smart city strategies developed by the Wallonia and Brussels-capital regions during the 2014–2019 period. Moving away from corporate-led deterministic models of smart city development, it shows that there is no one-size-fit-all approach to smart urbanism. Regional governments attribute different meanings to urban innovation and formulate place-based strategies of smart city development in relation to their socio-economic contexts, seeking to advance technological solutions to what they perceive as the most pressing problems of their territories and populaces.
... However, urban studies paid little attention to the link between ICT and urban innovation until the late 1990s, when some influential works were published [21][22][23]. Since then, a great deal of research has explored this link [24]. Simultaneously, cities all over the world have begun to implement ICT to support urban innovation and sustainability by fostering innovation projects and initiatives [24]. ...
... Since then, a great deal of research has explored this link [24]. Simultaneously, cities all over the world have begun to implement ICT to support urban innovation and sustainability by fostering innovation projects and initiatives [24]. This movement has been favored by the proliferation of technological innovations in the ICT sector, which have opened up new possibilities to address cities' goals and challenges [25,26]. ...
... The holistic perspective recognizes the crucial role of ICT as a fundamental enabler for smart cities, but also emphasizes the process and outcomes of ICT-related innovations. The process of implementing ICT-related innovations is viewed as being grounded in participatory governance and open innovation, and should consider the unique characteristics of each city [24]. It is stressed that ICT-related innovations are designed to meet local development needs, be they of a social, economic or environmental nature [28]. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has induced a process of digital acceleration and has likely changed the attitudes of local public managers toward information and communication technology (ICT). While this attitude change has been reasonably argued, it has not been systematically measured. This study narrows this gap by measuring the attitudes of public managers before and after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Overall, this study finds that the pandemic has led public managers to be more confident in the capacity of ICT to help cities achieve their economic, social, and environmental goals and respond to challenges. Both explicit and implicit measures confirmed attitude changes. The explicit measures also indicated that the change in public managers’ attitude toward ICT was similar to their change in attitude toward scientific progress and greater than their change in attitude toward other issues that have played a major role during the pandemic, namely, climate change, citizen participation, and privacy.
... Lastly, Nahi (2016) highlights the importance of engagement of companies entering the base of the pyramid market into direct personal relationships between nonprofit workers and community leaders. Building upon the notion of level interconnectedness, SOI at other levels may encourage SOI at the individual level (Fig. 5), e.g., social innovation at the city level may empower citizens to collaborate in municipal projects (Mora et al., 2019a). ...
... The topic of OI for smart cities and sustainable urban development is discussed in several papers in the sample (e.g. Collier et al., 2016;Mora et al., 2019a). Mora et al., (2019a) conducted a systematic review of the research on smart cities which they followed with an empirical analysis of four European smart city-leaders, revealing how open collaborative environments may enhance the abilities of citizens (users) and local firms to actively participate in ICT-driven initiatives for co-creation, which in turn may lead to improvements and more sustainable urban innovation (Mora et al., 2019b). ...
... Collier et al., 2016;Mora et al., 2019a). Mora et al., (2019a) conducted a systematic review of the research on smart cities which they followed with an empirical analysis of four European smart city-leaders, revealing how open collaborative environments may enhance the abilities of citizens (users) and local firms to actively participate in ICT-driven initiatives for co-creation, which in turn may lead to improvements and more sustainable urban innovation (Mora et al., 2019b). While discussing the smart cities topic (Fig. 5), special attention is given to the role of social capital for greater trust and cooperation achieved through knowledge exchange among actors in OI structures (Errichiello and Micera, 2018). ...
Article
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The concepts of openness and sustainability have both enjoyed an increasing popularity in recent scientific literature. However, research has yet to fully utilize their combination and the potential carried toward developing strategies and policies toward solving complex sustainability issues. The primary objective of this paper is to identify and describe the theoretical connections between sustainability and open innovation. We investigate the structural and statistical aspects of recent open innovation literature in search of signs of sustainability using bibliometric metadata and perform a content analysis of articles relevant to Sustainable Open Innovation. Our findings indicate that despite a lack of institutionalized use of sustainability-related keywords, circa nine per cent of the sample articles materially discuss aspects of sustainability or societal concerns from various perspectives, but also lack a holistic and unified approach. As our primary contribution, we shift the level of inquiry in Sustainable Open Innovation research from an organizational-level toward a multi-level system understanding, situating our findings regarding open and sustainable forms of innovation present in the literature as a framework containing the individual, organizational, city, and regional levels and their interconnections.
... Consequently, municipalities formulate strategy and policy agendas to improve urban life and progress towards urban sustainability. Urban sustainability refers to a city's capability to respond to societal challenges on a continued basis at a local scale, and design the urban environment in view of future societal and environmental good, by addressing concurrent problems (Mora et al. 2019a;Miller et al. 2021). In this endeavour, urban experimentation (UX) is advocated as a means of tackling local challenges (UN 2018;Soe and Drechsler 2018), with initiatives like urban living labs engaging various stakeholders on innovation processes orienting towards locally fashioned solutions (Mukhtar Landgren et al., 2019). ...
... Extant research explicates that; a) multiple approaches to policy-making co-exist; b) urban governance must operate under conditions of increased openness and interaction with citizens and urban environments (Mora et al. 2019a;Gil-Garcia et al. 2016;Kornberger et al. 2017), and; c) urban experimentation is a potentially promising mode of governance (UN 2018). Scholars have thus called for investigating resilient organizational models and how to conceive and institutionalize these as a part of urban governance (Wachsmuth et al. 2016;Kornberger et al. 2017;Wirth et al. 2019;Maccani et al. 2020). ...
... widely operationalized means of establishing collaborative innovation are urban laboratories, such as Urban Living Labs(Mukhtar-Landgren et al., 2019). Labs realize the 'quadruple helix' notion, by enabling public authorities, businesses, research organizations and citizens to interact in open public physical or virtual spaces-in a real-life open innovation context(Mora et al. 2019a). Labs facilitate stakeholders to co-create, experiment and innovate. ...
Preprint
The growing challenges of urban population, congestion, consumption and pollution, prompt cities to respond with policies that progress towards Urban Sustainability. Increasingly, Urban Experimentation (UX) engaging diverse stakeholders for local innovations, is viewed an enabler of iterative progress. Yet, despite various 'smart city' initiatives, how to cope with the dynamics underlying local innovation processes for urban sustainability is unclear. In this paper, we consider Urban Experimentation Platforms (UXPs) as a tool for coping with such dynamics. Using case data from the UXP of 'OrganiCity', our research considers how this UXP interacts with the dynamics of urban experimentation. We present early insights from our problem analysis using System Dynamics and outline our next steps. We find UXPs as both a tool for policy implementation and for adaptive policymaking, with understanding and utilization of this latter aspect low. We conclude by discussing how IS research on UXPs contributes towards realizing the potential of digital infrastructures for societal good.
... Furthermore, local governments must encourage discoveries using a new approach, to utilise the considerable opportunities from knowledge production, to support sustainable growth and innovation in urban areas (Mora et al., 2019b). However, a smart city should not be considered only at the municipal level. ...
... Nevertheless, big data analysis can offer governments the scale of citizens' perceptions and offer them the tools to assess implemented policies (Mora et al., 2019b). According to Mainka et al. (2015), two sources for administration records are official statistics, and sensorbased data. ...
... Moreover, they increase energy transfers and automation, reducing energy losses, investing efficiently in replacing antiquated infrastructure, and reducing energy use via smart metres. The most important benefit comes from the efficient integration of new products and services, such as electric vehicles (Mora et al., 2019b). ...
Article
While policies and academic interest in smart cities gain momentum, there remain significant gaps in practice and academic conceptualisations explaining it as a new source of innovation. Moreover, there is a need to synthesise reporting behaviours and tools thereof, supporting communication and transparency for citizens along with their involvement in innovation processes. An Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) country analysis highlights gaps in transparency, reporting and communication of results, and the consequent allocation of resources in smart cities. Thus, this study identifies literature streams embracing the notion of smart cities and reporting. It employs a bibliometric and structured literature review analysis. Accordingly, this study proposes a framework comprising four macro-areas, several micro-elements, and the most appropriate implementation of technologies for sustainability challenges. Notably, it contributes to strengthening the smart city as an unconventional source of innovation, providing policymakers an opportunity to account for the smart city's weaknesses and identify areas for significant improvement efforts to be channelled.
... Correspondingly, this utopian, business-driven outlook towards smart cities was questioned by many, with and laying the foundation and opening up the concept to a progressive and wholesome vision, in which technological intervention works in tandem with social, human, cultural and governance considerations Angelidou 2014;Mora et al. 2019;Praharaj and Han 2019). Denoted as the 'soft domain' by Neirotti et al. (2014), a broad spectrum of research and definitions about smart cities stemmed from this school of thought in varying capacities. ...
... Apart from the technology-led vs. holistic angle in the smart city debate, other metaphors/dichotomies which end up increasing the knowledge gap have been discussed in literature by Mora et al. (2019). They address three more development paths in smart cities: "double or quadruple helix model of collaboration"; "top-down or bottom-up approach"; and "mono-dimensional or integrated intervention logic" (p. ...
... In case of the collaborative model to go with, the double helix model of collaboration between technology providers and the local governments works more in favour of corporations, and is therefore supported by them in research. As a counter-approach, many researchers criticize this closed model and call for a broader model of collaboration between industry, institutions, governments and citizens for efficient innovation and development (Mosannenzadeh and Vettorato 2014;Selada 2017;Mora et al. 2019). Meijer and Bolivar (2016, p. 398) in their own definition of smart cities also explained: "the smartness of a city refers to its ability to attract human capital and to mobilize this human capital in collaborations between the various (organized and individual) actors through the use of information and communication technologies". ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This study explores recent nationwide projects, including those related to smart cities, climate change, urban regeneration, and the K-New Deal, and in particular analyzes how the national smart city R&D project instills resilience in a smart city. This study analyzes a government-funded smart city R&D project in Daegu, South Korea with a focus on three main topics: the effects of the system, the main items that should be considered by planners and decision makers, and ways to ensure participation from diverse groups of citizens. Advanced smart city technologies and services are being adopted as part of the smart city R&D project, such as deep learning-based civil motion recognition, advanced technology for intelligent disaster prediction, and warning technologies for heatwaves, heavy rain, slope collapses, etc. Our analysis of the smart city R&D project according to the analytics framework shows that the Daegu smart city R&D project has sought to consider 15 indexes of resilience and include the three main topics mentioned above. The list of resilience indicators presented in this study can be used as an assessment toolkit that comprehensively considers various parts of the city, such as technology/services, planners/decision makers, and citizens, all of which make up a smart city. This checklist provides a means of evaluating various stages of smart city projects that aim to increase resilience.
... Correspondingly, this utopian, business-driven outlook towards smart cities was questioned by many, with and laying the foundation and opening up the concept to a progressive and wholesome vision, in which technological intervention works in tandem with social, human, cultural and governance considerations Angelidou 2014;Mora et al. 2019;Praharaj and Han 2019). Denoted as the 'soft domain' by Neirotti et al. (2014), a broad spectrum of research and definitions about smart cities stemmed from this school of thought in varying capacities. ...
... Apart from the technology-led vs. holistic angle in the smart city debate, other metaphors/dichotomies which end up increasing the knowledge gap have been discussed in literature by Mora et al. (2019). They address three more development paths in smart cities: "double or quadruple helix model of collaboration"; "top-down or bottom-up approach"; and "mono-dimensional or integrated intervention logic" (p. ...
... In case of the collaborative model to go with, the double helix model of collaboration between technology providers and the local governments works more in favour of corporations, and is therefore supported by them in research. As a counter-approach, many researchers criticize this closed model and call for a broader model of collaboration between industry, institutions, governments and citizens for efficient innovation and development (Mosannenzadeh and Vettorato 2014;Selada 2017;Mora et al. 2019). Meijer and Bolivar (2016, p. 398) in their own definition of smart cities also explained: "the smartness of a city refers to its ability to attract human capital and to mobilize this human capital in collaborations between the various (organized and individual) actors through the use of information and communication technologies". ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Cities worldwide are exposed to an expansive range of climate-related disasters, and thus, enhancing urban resilience is increasingly critical and has become a major goal of city authorities. With the rapid development of technology, the concept of a “smart city” is also becoming popular. A vast body of research has been published on urban resilience as well as smart city. There are also many tools and indicator sets for their assessment. However, there have been limited efforts to synchronously study these two concepts. Urban resilience and smart city have the potential to be merged, which is what this research calls “smart city resilience” and implies deploying “smart solutions” for urban resilience and sustainable city management. However, this trend is still in its infancy worldwide, and further exploration is needed. Additionally, assessment methods and approaches, such as a toolkit for assessing the current situation and making cross-city comparisons, also need to be developed. Hence, the purpose of this research was to investigate the indicators that should be included in an assessment toolkit. A panel of 13 experts participated in the Delphi survey, and the analytic hierarchy process was used to find the relative weight of each indicator. Finally, the opinions toward the assessment toolkit from the experts were discussed further. Results can inform future efforts toward developing toolkits for assessing smart city resilience.
... Correspondingly, this utopian, business-driven outlook towards smart cities was questioned by many, with and laying the foundation and opening up the concept to a progressive and wholesome vision, in which technological intervention works in tandem with social, human, cultural and governance considerations Angelidou 2014;Mora et al. 2019;Praharaj and Han 2019). Denoted as the 'soft domain' by Neirotti et al. (2014), a broad spectrum of research and definitions about smart cities stemmed from this school of thought in varying capacities. ...
... Apart from the technology-led vs. holistic angle in the smart city debate, other metaphors/dichotomies which end up increasing the knowledge gap have been discussed in literature by Mora et al. (2019). They address three more development paths in smart cities: "double or quadruple helix model of collaboration"; "top-down or bottom-up approach"; and "mono-dimensional or integrated intervention logic" (p. ...
... In case of the collaborative model to go with, the double helix model of collaboration between technology providers and the local governments works more in favour of corporations, and is therefore supported by them in research. As a counter-approach, many researchers criticize this closed model and call for a broader model of collaboration between industry, institutions, governments and citizens for efficient innovation and development (Mosannenzadeh and Vettorato 2014;Selada 2017;Mora et al. 2019). Meijer and Bolivar (2016, p. 398) in their own definition of smart cities also explained: "the smartness of a city refers to its ability to attract human capital and to mobilize this human capital in collaborations between the various (organized and individual) actors through the use of information and communication technologies". ...
Chapter
Full-text available
In the era of increasing risks and uncertainties induced by various stressors such as climate change and social and geopolitical conflicts, resilience is high on the agenda of planners, policy makers, and researchers. This is manifested in the increasing number of plans, programs, policies, and frameworks that are developed annually to enhance urban resilience. One potential impediment to the proper design and implementation of resilience plans, programs, policies, and frameworks is the incomplete understanding of the resilience concept itself. This issue becomes even more complicated when considering the fact that resilience is a contested notion and various definitions exist for it depending on the background, field, context, and objectives of the stakeholders. In an effort to better understand different conceptualizations of resilience in the context of urban planning, this chapter elaborates on the genealogy of the resilience concept and its underlying principles and characteristics. It is argued that resilience as a concept has an old history in fields such as physics and psychology but has been introduced to and used in urban studies only since a few decades ago. Urban scholars and practitioners have relied on the vast body of literature from other fields to conceptualize resilience depending on their specific purposes. Three dominant approaches that guide such conceptualizations are, namely, engineering, socio-ecological, and adaptive. The latter one has gained more momentum in the recent years considering the increasing recognition of the concept of living with risk and the need for continuous improvement and evolvement. This chapter concludes by elaborating on various underlying resilience characteristics such as Robustness, redundancy, flexibility, agility, adaptive capacity, modularity, resourcefulness, creativity, equity, foresight capacity, diversity, inclusiveness, connectivity, and efficiency. These characteristics are essential for developing more objective resilience plans, programs, policies, and frameworks. They could also contribute to making the resilience concept more tangible to various stakeholders.
... Correspondingly, this utopian, business-driven outlook towards smart cities was questioned by many, with and laying the foundation and opening up the concept to a progressive and wholesome vision, in which technological intervention works in tandem with social, human, cultural and governance considerations Angelidou 2014;Mora et al. 2019;Praharaj and Han 2019). Denoted as the 'soft domain' by Neirotti et al. (2014), a broad spectrum of research and definitions about smart cities stemmed from this school of thought in varying capacities. ...
... Apart from the technology-led vs. holistic angle in the smart city debate, other metaphors/dichotomies which end up increasing the knowledge gap have been discussed in literature by Mora et al. (2019). They address three more development paths in smart cities: "double or quadruple helix model of collaboration"; "top-down or bottom-up approach"; and "mono-dimensional or integrated intervention logic" (p. ...
... In case of the collaborative model to go with, the double helix model of collaboration between technology providers and the local governments works more in favour of corporations, and is therefore supported by them in research. As a counter-approach, many researchers criticize this closed model and call for a broader model of collaboration between industry, institutions, governments and citizens for efficient innovation and development (Mosannenzadeh and Vettorato 2014;Selada 2017;Mora et al. 2019). Meijer and Bolivar (2016, p. 398) in their own definition of smart cities also explained: "the smartness of a city refers to its ability to attract human capital and to mobilize this human capital in collaborations between the various (organized and individual) actors through the use of information and communication technologies". ...
... Correspondingly, this utopian, business-driven outlook towards smart cities was questioned by many, with and laying the foundation and opening up the concept to a progressive and wholesome vision, in which technological intervention works in tandem with social, human, cultural and governance considerations Angelidou 2014;Mora et al. 2019;Praharaj and Han 2019). Denoted as the 'soft domain' by Neirotti et al. (2014), a broad spectrum of research and definitions about smart cities stemmed from this school of thought in varying capacities. ...
... Apart from the technology-led vs. holistic angle in the smart city debate, other metaphors/dichotomies which end up increasing the knowledge gap have been discussed in literature by Mora et al. (2019). They address three more development paths in smart cities: "double or quadruple helix model of collaboration"; "top-down or bottom-up approach"; and "mono-dimensional or integrated intervention logic" (p. ...
... In case of the collaborative model to go with, the double helix model of collaboration between technology providers and the local governments works more in favour of corporations, and is therefore supported by them in research. As a counter-approach, many researchers criticize this closed model and call for a broader model of collaboration between industry, institutions, governments and citizens for efficient innovation and development (Mosannenzadeh and Vettorato 2014;Selada 2017;Mora et al. 2019). Meijer and Bolivar (2016, p. 398) in their own definition of smart cities also explained: "the smartness of a city refers to its ability to attract human capital and to mobilize this human capital in collaborations between the various (organized and individual) actors through the use of information and communication technologies". ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted daily lives and operations in many parts of the world. Being home to more than half of the world’s population, cities were particularly hit hard by the pandemic. Different socioeconomic, institutional, and technological measures and policies have been adopted by cities in their efforts to control the pandemic. This chapter is focused on those measures and policies enabled by smart technologies and solutions. COVID-19 was the first global pandemic that occurred after digital revolution. It was, therefore, no surprise that smart technologies and solutions have been deployed at a large scale to deal with it. It is argued that this has even accelerated adoption of such technologies and solutions. By focusing on the planning, absorption, recovery, and adaptation capacities, this chapter discusses how smart solutions and technologies have contributed to resilience against the pandemic. In terms of planning, it is discussed that planning and existence of smart city infrastructure have enhanced different resilience characteristics such as connectivity, innovation, and resourcefulness that have helped some cities be less affected by the pandemic. These characteristics and availability and deployment of smart infrastructure have also enabled cities to absorb the initial shocks through, among other things, better tracing and tracking. Smart solutions and technologies have also enhanced resilience characteristics such as connectivity, creativity, agility, flexibility, and inclusion, thereby helping cities to resume their functionalities in a more timely manner. This, for instance, has been achieved through teleworking, telemedicine, automatic operations, etc. Lastly, contributions to adaptation had fostered connectivity, learning capacity, and flexibility. It is expected that the use of technology will lead to positive behavioral changes that may last even after the pandemic. Despite all these positive contributions, there are concerns about privacy and digital divide that need to be duly considered and addressed for more effective uptake and implementation of smart city solutions and technologies.
... Correspondingly, this utopian, business-driven outlook towards smart cities was questioned by many, with and laying the foundation and opening up the concept to a progressive and wholesome vision, in which technological intervention works in tandem with social, human, cultural and governance considerations Angelidou 2014;Mora et al. 2019;Praharaj and Han 2019). Denoted as the 'soft domain' by Neirotti et al. (2014), a broad spectrum of research and definitions about smart cities stemmed from this school of thought in varying capacities. ...
... Apart from the technology-led vs. holistic angle in the smart city debate, other metaphors/dichotomies which end up increasing the knowledge gap have been discussed in literature by Mora et al. (2019). They address three more development paths in smart cities: "double or quadruple helix model of collaboration"; "top-down or bottom-up approach"; and "mono-dimensional or integrated intervention logic" (p. ...
... In case of the collaborative model to go with, the double helix model of collaboration between technology providers and the local governments works more in favour of corporations, and is therefore supported by them in research. As a counter-approach, many researchers criticize this closed model and call for a broader model of collaboration between industry, institutions, governments and citizens for efficient innovation and development (Mosannenzadeh and Vettorato 2014;Selada 2017;Mora et al. 2019). Meijer and Bolivar (2016, p. 398) in their own definition of smart cities also explained: "the smartness of a city refers to its ability to attract human capital and to mobilize this human capital in collaborations between the various (organized and individual) actors through the use of information and communication technologies". ...
... Furthermore, a lot of scientists analyzed the trends for academic debate and research. Mora et al. [10] revealed the five emerging development path of smart cities that each thematic cluster represents and the strategic principles such as: experimental (smart cities as testbeds for IoT solutions), ubiquitous (the Korean experience of ubiquitous cities), corporate (IBM and the corporate smart city model), European (smart city for a lowcarbon economy) and holistic (digital, intelligent, smart). Additionally, Perez et al. [11] explored the important research topics in the top journals, e.g., intelligent cities, sustainable cities, e-Government, digital transformation, knowledge-based city, ubiquitous city. ...
... Resources 2021,10,44 ...
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This paper presents the application of a Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) method for the ranking of smart cities. During the construction of the MCDM techniques, the importance of the decision-making approach for the linear ordering of 66 Polish cities with powiat status was presented. The Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) was used for evaluation. The method has been verified by applying it to measure urban smartness. The TOPSIS method allowed compilation for a final ranking, taking into account publicly available indicators of the smart cities concept. The work uses data from the Local Data Bank Polish Central Statistical Office (LDB). The author conducted a literature review of research papers related to smart cities and MCDM methods dated from 2010 to 2020. Based on calculations using the TOPSIS method, the results obtained that the city of Krakow has the highest value to become a smart city.
... First, with case studies dominating scholarship, many scholars have chosen atypical examples for analysis (Kitchin 2015). Moreover, with many studies based on accounts from a small number of cases, the subjective claims of scholars might not be generalisable and accurately reflecting broader trends (Mora et al. 2019). Addressing this limitation, several studies (Alizadeh 2017;Ruhlandt 2018;Joss 2019) have recently attempted to identify wider trends across large numbers of smart cities through literature reviews or macro-level analyses. ...
... Our approach builds on previous studies employing cooccurrence networks to analyse trends in the research and practices of smart cities and sustainability (Cheng 2018;Yarime and Karlsson 2018;Min et al. 2019;Mora et al. 2019). Our study, however, is novel in several regards. ...
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Smart cities continue to be conceived and implemented around the world as literature documenting these trends grows at a similar pace. Practices focused on narrow techno-economic objectives have met with sharp criticism as scholars have called for human-centred smart cities that explicitly address social issues and the needs of residents. Yet, literature has made few attempts to systematically compare a representative sample of smart city practices and discussions using objective methods that combine quantitative and qualitative approaches. This study thus focuses on Sweden and Japan as two nations particularly active in the implementation and discussion of smart cities. To compare the state of discussions and practices in each country, we examine a sample of almost 2,000 academic studies published since 2010. Using co-occurrence network analysis (a type of content analysis), we objectively identify the thematic foci of discourse and practices in each country. We then explore the themes characterising each country’s network with qualitative descriptions from the sampled literature. Our analysis reveals unique trends in both countries related to the conceptual framing of smart cities, participation of local government and citizens, and differing interpretations of vulnerability to hazards. Overall, combined findings from both countries reveal that technology-focused discussions are dominating over social topics, such as human capital, stakeholder participation, governance, social equity and so forth. The absence of socially oriented research is more pronounced, however, in Japan. These findings provide important cues for future smart city research, policy and practice.
... A few academic studies have attempted to offer an overall understanding of smart city transitions and their development process (see Appio et al., 2019;Ben Letaifa, 2015;Harrison et al., 2010;Ibrahim et al., 2018), but their overall theoretical contribution demonstrates that research in this knowledge area remains at a preliminary stage (Lee et al., 2014;Mora et al., 2019a). These research efforts have resulted in a number of conceptual frameworks that seek to explain how smart city transitions happen. ...
... Additionally, this approach relies upon a standardized formula (Paroutis et al., 2014) that separates actualization from geographical scales and time. Smart city transitions are conceived as an instantaneous, ready-to-implement technological upgrade (Mora et al., 2017), rather than an ongoing sociotechnical change process firmly anchored to spatial and temporal dimensions and existing sociotechnical arrangements (Kitchin, 2015;Mora et al., 2019a). ...
... Nevertheless, there is no consensus as to what a smart city is and what needs to be done in order to make a city smart (Hollands, 2008;Meijer and Rodriguez Bolívar, 2016;Mora et al., 2019a). Smart city views may be broadly divided into those that focus on technology and those that adopt a human-centric, people-driven, holistic perspective (Mora et al., 2019a). ...
... Nevertheless, there is no consensus as to what a smart city is and what needs to be done in order to make a city smart (Hollands, 2008;Meijer and Rodriguez Bolívar, 2016;Mora et al., 2019a). Smart city views may be broadly divided into those that focus on technology and those that adopt a human-centric, people-driven, holistic perspective (Mora et al., 2019a). Under the technological perspective, technology providers (e.g., IBM) play the role of protagonist. ...
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This research studied the effect of different combinations of government capabilities (innovation capability mix) on public value in smart city-framed innovation projects. The study drew on the public value theory, the collaborative public innovation approach and the dynamic capabilities theory to devise a conceptual framework that links government capabilities and public value. Insights from smart cities and literature on public innovation were also used to identify a range of intra-organizational and external collaboration capabilities of governments that should lead to valuable public sector innovation. These capabilities were combined inductively through factor analysis, which was applied to a sample of 143 innovation projects in Spanish municipalities, leading to four forms of innovation capability mix. A factor analysis regression was then estimated. Overall, the study found that ‘citizen-oriented management’ (i.e., outstanding innovation-oriented internal management coupled with strong collaboration with citizens) and ‘provider focus’ (i.e., outstanding collaboration with providers) seem to have a positive influence on three dimensions of public value (i.e., efficiency, effectiveness and societal challenges). By contrast, ‘citizen and expert focus’ (i.e., outstanding collaboration with experts and citizens) and ‘peer focus’ (i.e., outstanding collaboration with other governments) do not contribute to any of the three dimensions of public value. While project type was studied, it was found that its isolated effect was limited, although analyzing it provided some interesting findings.
... The former tends to adopt a technology-driven perspective influenced by the presence of ICT companies such as IBM and Cisco. The latter reflects a leaning towards a low-carbon economy, expressed in the aspirations of the European Union (Mora et al. 2019). ...
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This paper considers a host of definitions and labels attached to the concept of smart cities to identify four dimensions that ground a review of ethical concerns emerging from the current debate. These are: (1) network infrastructure, with the corresponding concerns of control, surveillance, and data privacy and ownership; (2) post-political governance, embodied in the tensions between public and private decision-making and cities as post-political entities; (3) social inclusion, expressed in the aspects of citizen participation and inclusion, and inequality and discrimination; and (4) sustainability, with a specific focus on the environment as an element to protect but also as a strategic element for the future. Given the persisting disagreements around the definition of a smart city, the article identifies in these four dimensions a more stable reference framework within which ethical concerns can be clustered and discussed. Identifying these dimensions makes possible a review of the ethical implications of smart cities that is transversal to their different types and resilient towards the unsettled debate over their definition.
... With only a small literature to review (16 published case studies) the authors utilised more standard systematic review techniques rather than CNA. A handful of systematic reviews utilising CNA have been published in the adjacent field of Smart Cities that have effectively characterised the divergent research paths that of the field (Mora et al., 2017(Mora et al., , 2019. ...
Article
Recent years have seen a renewed interest in the possibilities of digital technology to assist with urban planning, spurred by increased digitisation of planning work, and ever improving data availability and processing capabilities. Hidden behind recent developments is over thirty years of research and development by scholars in the field of Planning Support Systems (PSS), although to date there have been few attempts to systematically characterise their output or achievements. This paper reports on the results of a citation network analysis (CNA) on the planning support systems literature contained within the Scopus database, a systematic method to describe the overall structure of the field, mapping out of key research streams and how they change over time. The analysis reveals twenty-seven distinct research streams under four themes, split between technical and applied research. There is strong evidence of a field still clearly defined by its roots in comprehensive software systems used for scenario and land use planning although shifting over time from a focus on the development of modelling techniques to applied research and case studies in the use of applications. Research output has remained steady in the context of exponential growth in related literature including smart cities, urban science and urban analytics. These findings support calls for a refreshed approach to the field as planning support science and the map produced by this analysis provides a valuable framework to navigate past research efforts in order to inform a new era of digital planning efforts.
... Bibliometrics is a powerful tool for analysing knowledge domains and revealing their cognitive-epistemological structure (Mora, Deakin, and Reid 2019). It is an approach to researching the publication data within some scientific category or scientific community, in a country or region (Ivanović and Ho 2019) and is considered a quantitative analysis of scholarly communication and a reliable meta-analytical and scientometric approach that enables researchers to better realize the principal intellectual foundations within a field of study (Seyedghorban et al. 2020). ...
Article
As physical mobility finds itself impeded by the COVID-19 crisis, the world witnesses the potential of technology for connecting students who are physically distanced inside and cross-borders. In such scenarios, telecollaboration and virtual exchange have gained increased attention as powerful pedagogical strategies to allow for the continuity of intercultural exchanges and understanding the trends of this growing field can be of high significance to practitioners when planning future related initiatives. Although telecol-laboration and virtual exchange are not new phenomena, to the best of our knowledge, a thorough bibliometric study of the area, considering the characteristics of its publications and its scientific community, has not yet been developed. This study carried out a bibliometric analysis of the telecollaboration and virtual exchange research field using a set of 254 articles from the Web of Science and Scopus databases with the objective of characterising the area as well as identifying research tendencies. In particular, this study uses four analytical scientometric tools: co-citation, co-authorship, keywords co-occurrence analysis and identification of research trends. This study identified emerging and declining themes in the field of telecollaboration and virtual exchange, confirming that the practice is increasingly adopting diverse formats and cutting across different knowledge fields. In addition, results showed that international collaboration so far involves few countries and there is much space to widen co-authorship networks to enhance intercultural exchanges. The review also explores the benefits and drawbacks of the technological tools adopted in the studies from our sample database.
... that contain structured information and full text of scientific publications (such as Web of Science and SCOPUS) and patents (such as US Patent and Trademark Office and European Patent Office) provide "codified"(Hansen et al., 1999 P. 107) technical knowledgenon-tacit knowledge that is formally stored after a peer-review or examination process for robustness and novelty in scientific publications and patents( Khademi, 2019 P. 29)and are electronically available to researchers and innovation analysts.Such raw data provide ample opportunities for researchers and data analysts to extract insights using scientometrics and patentometricsanalytics techniques that are specific to the context of science and technology. Scientometric techniques have been employed for analyzing productivity(Toivanen and Suominen, 2014, Singh et al., 2020, Zhang et al., 2019, clustering(Mora et al., 2019, Singh et al., 2020, Mariani and Borghi, 2019, Pinheiro et al., 2014, Li et al., 2018, and analysis of content using text analytics(Ranaei et al., 2020, Zhang et al., 2019. ...
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Over the past two decades, there has been a significant growth in the popularity of the concept of ecosystem in the research and practice associated with management of technology and innovation. Managers in spatially bounded ecosystems (e.g., knowledge, innovation, and entrepreneurial ecosystems) seek opportunities to explore and exploit technical knowledge. Yet, ambiguities and challenges in discovering opportunities (e.g., lack of resources, cognitive and policy constraints) constrain the process, leading to loss of latent opportunities, which, in turn, culminate in financial and reputational damages. The scholarly research has investigated this problem by employing an exploratory approach and suggested practical solutions (e.g., open innovation practices) to attenuate the effects of those challenges within specific contexts (with respect to region and domain). However, little attention has been paid to the potential of analytical methods for systematically improving opportunity identification processes in ecosystems. The present PhD with publications dissertation, comprising four scholarly journal articles (the forth manuscript to be submitted soon), adopted an analytical approach (with ecosystem as unit of analysis), culminating in a methodological framework for systematically identifying opportunities in spatially bounded ecosystems (knowledge, entrepreneurial, innovation). The proposed framework utilizes data from scientific publications, patents, and domain-specific expert views as inputs, employs techniques from data science (particularly scientometrics, patent statistics and text mining techniques), and generates valuable insights and methodological approaches for all actors in these ecosystems as output. The current dissertation demonstrates an exemplary application of the proposed framework in the context of Nordic renewable energy ecosystem. This research has significant implications for practice, management, and policy by proposing a framework that assists with strategic planning (e.g., collaboration, investment, productivity monitoring), saving resources (e.g., time, budget), policy promulgation (supportive and regulatory policy instruments), and potentially stimulation of entrepreneurial activities (e.g., productization and servitization). Moreover, the present thesis contributes to the methods commonly employed to analyze ecosystems by combining extant and novel methods in scientometrics, patent statistics, and text analytics. This study extends the concept of ecosystem by synthesizing the literature related to value creation and capture in ecosystems and developing new constructs relating to ecosystems.
... There is yet another group of scholars who have combined some of these analysis techniques, e.g. ACA and co-word analysis (Zitt & Bassecoulard, 1996;Zitt et al., 2011) or co-citation and text-based analysis (Mora et al., 2019). ...
... With the development of statistics and information science, bibliometric techniques have evolved into a sophisticated method for analyzing data trends. Due to the remarkable intuitiveness and objectivity of bibliometric, it has been used extensively in various disciplinary directions, such as tourism management [13], manufacturing [7], smart cities [14], medicine [15], social psychology [16], ecological sustainability [17], economics [18], neuroscience [19], environmental pollution [20] and chemosphere [21]. It is the first paper to discuss the sustainability of service-oriented manufacturing using bibliometric analysis. ...
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To gain sustainable development, it is a trend that manufacturing companies are change the value chain from manufacturing-centric to service-centric. Therefore, the capability of the manufacturing service is as significant as the production ability of enterprises, which reflects the supply chain management (SCM), flexible production, production efficiency, and other indicators of the enterprises. It is the first paper to discuss the sustainability of service-oriented manufacturing using bibliometric analysis. It derives a detailed review and future outlook on the development of manufacturing servitization, indicating the research directions for future development, and provides a valuable reference for researchers in related directions. The bibliometric analysis discusses countries or regions, research areas, authors, keywords, institutions, and journals based on the literature data from the Web of Science (WoS). The results show that research on manufacturing services has gradually received attention since its inception and has become popular since 2008. The papers published from 2008 to 2021 account for 77.62%. The USA is the most studied country on this topic, followed by China and the UK. The International Journal of Production Research regarding the most quantity of articles, and Beihang University is the most influential institution in this field. The largest amount of articles published in the area of “business and economics”, amounting to 1565 articles. In recent years, the main research areas included “Industry 4.0”, “cloud manufacturing (CMfg)”, “Internet of Things (IoT)”, “big data” and “services innovation”. Finally, “digital and intelligent manufacturing” and “product-service systems” are potential research directions for the future.
... As an alternative to this technology-led and market-oriented vision, Mora et al. (2018) discerned what they termed a second 'The Holistic Path' which proposes: ...
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Over the last decade, the EU has promoted the use of Smart City initiatives (SCIs) to – amongst other goals – improve citizens’ quality of life (QoL). This paper examines whether literature in the public domain contains empirical evidence validating the causal relationship posited between SCIs and QoL, asking: Have European ‘smart city’ initiatives improved the quality of their citizens’ lives? A broadly based literature review was undertaken to discover whether those chronicling such initiatives report success – in terms of achieving the objectives/benefits they set themselves. The findings show that published evidence dealing with this causal relationship is scant. Existing literature is strong on upfront promotion of the need for SCIs but weak on what they have delivered on the ground. Like the meaning of QoL itself in SC initiatives, the ‘benefits’ delivered on this front are not unpacked. So, despite their decade long history, the performance of, and outcomes from European SC initiatives remain poorly understood – partly owing to the dearth of published evidence about these issues, compounded by the inadequate research designs adopted for such initiatives, with insufficient attention given to reporting on their implementation or to evaluations of what they have achieved in practice.
... As indicated previously, small and rural municipalities are significant to the national economy. It is important, as well, to consider municipal economy because it improves the standard of living of the citizens by unlocking opportunities such as high-quality infrastructure, new business opportunities, growing ecosystems and competitiveness, to name just a few [34,35]. A strong economy promotes digital innovation, development and the management of a smart city [9,36]. ...
Chapter
The term smart city is commonly used to describe the use of various types of digital infrastructure and technologies to collect data in order to provide information that can be used to manage resources efficiently and provide a better standard of living for citizens. Smart city technology could be also used to solve the education challenges of continuous urbanization, thereby facilitating the international sustainable development goal of quality education and lifelong learning opportunities for all communities (cf. https://sdgs.un.org/goals). Many cities have used information and communication technologies (ICTs) to enable smart city concepts. Most small and rural municipalities struggle to manage their resources, which results in service delivery problems. A smart city intervention may help small and rural municipalities to curb these problems, but there is slow implementation of this concept in these municipalities due to the lack of an integrated framework focusing on the assessment of small and rural municipalities’ readiness for smart city implementation. The aim of this research is to address this gap in information systems (IS) knowledge. A systematic literature review is employed to provide an in-depth and critical summary of existing research relevant to the research question. Various concepts are synthesized into a holistic, integrated conceptual framework to assess small and rural municipalities’ readiness towards smart city implementation. The framework can be used to assess small and rural municipalities to gauge their readiness level towards smart city implementation of a smart city initiative. In addition, municipal authorities can use this framework to identify the required components and key stakeholders for any smart city initiatives. This paper provides the foundation from which future empirical research can progress.
... Existen distintos motivos para incluir citas: contextualizar o ubicar el trabajo en una corriente teórica o conceptual específicas, reconocer la propiedad intelectual de los autores originales, mostrar respeto hacia trabajos previos, argumentar o sustentar una idea propia con una autoridad que afirme lo mismo e identificar los autores reconocidos en un campo o disciplina (Gastel & Day, 2016;Swales & Feak, 2012). Actualmente existen los fenómenos de autocitas y citas de trabajos de colegas, ambas con el fin de promover trabajos previos del propio autor o de los miembros de su equipo de investigación; ambos tipos de práctica son controversiales para los distintos autores, pues algunos de ellos consideran que existe un sesgo y se usan para visibilizarse como investigador (González-Sala et al., 2019;Pandita & Singh, 2017), mientras que otros aseguran que es una manera de insertar su trabajo en la disciplina y realizar un engranaje entre las distintas investigaciones del mismo autor o del mismo grupo de trabajo (Baccini et al., 2019;Gálvez, 2017;Levis et al., 2015;Mora et al., 2019). ...
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La innovación educativa se genera a partir de procesos de investigación que se dirigen al mejoramiento de las condiciones para la educación. Entre la generación de la innovación y la adopción e impacto de esta, hay un elemento sin el cual la conexión no sería posible: la comunicación científica. Esta se da cuando los investigadores entregan los hallazgos a través de distintas formas, entre las que destaca el texto escrito. En las últimas décadas, las dinámicas en torno a la escritura, publicación y difusión de la producción científica se han transformado. En primer lugar, las instituciones generan políticas, lineamientos o normas en torno a la producción académica, acordes con las necesidades de reconocimiento e impacto. En segundo lugar, la llegada de la ciencia abierta que propone nuevas formas de difusión y de medición del impacto. El presente estudio tiene por objetivo examinar los procesos de escritura, publicación y difusión del texto científico en comunidades de práctica de investigadores educativos y su relación con las nuevas dinámicas que estos procesos adoptan por las exigencias de las instituciones de investigación y la llegada de la ciencia abierta. Desde esta exploración se busca identificar aspectos para fortalecer la producción científica. A partir de un enfoque cualitativo etnográfico se aplican entrevistas y se realiza análisis documental, así como de políticas y/o lineamientos sobre producción académica de la institución a la que pertenecen. Los resultados del estudio piloto y del estudio principal revelan distintos elementos notables en el proceso de producción académica. Se encuentra que los procesos de escritura, publicación y difusión del conocimiento científico están influidos por factores institucionales como valores y normas que los dirigen. Se identifica que las comunidades de investigadores educativos están institucionalizadas, y es en función de esta institucionalización que ellos producen los textos científicos. De igual manera, los factores institucionales también son manifiestos en el reconocimiento a la trayectoria y la identidad de los investigadores. Finalmente, se analizan distintas formas en la que las instituciones pueden aportar para cultivar las comunidades de práctica de investigadores educativos. Por último, se concluye el trabajo identificando los aportes, las limitaciones y potenciales líneas para futuros estudios.
... By incorporating social and organizational aspects and allusions to community empowerment into the definition of smart cities, 'smart' is no longer uniquely viewed through the prism of technology, but more 'holistically' as sociotechnical systems where various urban matters of concern -notably economic growth, sustainability and quality of life -are linked to technological solutions [17]. This perspective thus views smart cities through a lens of desirable preconditions and expected positive outcomes across a wide range of parameters from governance to citizens' daily life. ...
... In addition, bibliometrics can be used to explore, organize, and quantitatively analyze large volumes of scientific literature [122]. It is often used in conjunction with methods such as cluster analysis [123] and statistical methods [68] to reveal the current state of research in the field of study. Statistical methods can also provide tools to support the elucidation of spatial technology trajectories and reveal future developments [92]. 1. Field of analysis. ...
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Technology forecasting (TF) is an important way to address technological innovation in fast-changing market environments and enhance the competitiveness of organizations in dynamic and complex environments. However, few studies have investigated the complex process problem of how to select the most appropriate forecasts for organizational characteristics. This paper attempts to fill this research gap by reviewing the TF literature based on a complex systems perspective. We first identify four contexts (technology opportunity identification, technology assessment, technology trend and evolutionary analysis, and others) involved in the systems of TF to indicate the research boundary of the system. Secondly, the four types of agents (field of analysis, object of analysis, data source, and approach) are explored to reveal the basic elements of the systems. Finally, the visualization of the interaction between multiple agents in full context and specific contexts is realized in the form of a network. The interaction relationship network illustrates how the subjects coordinate and cooperate to realize the TF context. Accordingly, we illustrate suggest five trends for future research: (1) refinement of the context; (2) optimization and expansion of the analysis field; (3) extension of the analysis object; (4) convergence and diversification of the data source; and (5) combination and optimization of the approach.
... The former tends to adopt a technology-led perspective promoted by the ICT companies such as IBM and Cisco. The latter reflects a tendency on a low-carbon economy, expressed in the aspirations of the European Union (Mora et al., 2019). ...
... Drawing on the urban citizenry and broader stakeholder networks in inclusive and participatory-based processes of policy and planning (Ratti & Claudel, 2016;Townsend, 2013), holistic pathways are more sensitive to context, mobilize local knowledge and experience, and generate smart solutions through community-led development processes, rather than imposing them from the top-down. The governance structure that overcomes the dichotomy between topdown and bottom-up approachesand vastly differential power relationspresents as a quadruple helix model (Mora et al., 2019a). This model engenders broad collaboration between a wide range of stakeholders (such as communities, civil society, universities, research organizations, businesses and government) in an attempt to be inclusive of all who influence and are affected by smart city development in a particular place (Ardito et al., 2019;Hollands, 2015;Rousseau et al., 2019). ...
Article
To accommodate the need for community engagement and place-based approaches in smart city agendas in Africa, we build on the literature on smart cities, southern urbanism and the urban commons to develop a conceptual framework for urban commoning in Africa. We argue that commoning, as an organizing process, establishes institutions for urban commons that account for different urban dwellers’ needs, perspectives and knowledges thereby strengthening inclusion and producing knowledge-intensive smart city development. We explain how the proposed conceptual framework is particularly suited to the African context, as it can mitigate the formal-informal divide and enable marginalized citizens to meaningfully express their right to the city. By enabling citizens’ voice in planning and distributing urban resources, commoning helps redefine local bureaucracies, rendering them more open and inclusive while limiting the enclosure and marketization of cities, which is often a source of contestation in the development of smart cities.
... In summary, the development paths in the original five cities show a clear citizenoriented, bottom-up, integrated multi-stakeholder orientation, as mentioned by [6,37]. There are Subtle differences in the five cities, e.g., the city of Olpe started first with the participation of the heads of office, whereas Menden began with a broad survey of the wishes of the population. ...
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The transformation of society into sustainable structures is one of the most important tasks for the future. That cities have a decisive role to play in this transformation process has been known at least since Rio 1992. They have enormous pressure to act for change: They are at the same time problem and solution for sustainable development. Currently there is another significant development for cities—the need and external pressure to be “smart”, often understood merely as applying the latest digital technologies to become more efficient. The Smart City and the Sustainable City can work hand in hand or hinder each other, depending on their interpretation. In this study we focus on five Smart Cities in Western Germany to get a closer look at how they shape their processes and whether the underlying motivation is to become a technologically Smart City, focus on sustainable development, or both. With the help of the innovation biography research method, we show how cities shape the dynamic process towards forming a Smart City, the role sustainable urban development plays in the process, who the actors involved are, and the important role improved knowledge management then plays for the diffusion of the Smart Sustainable City within the region. It becomes clear how important communication and narratives are both in the process within each City towards forming a Smart Sustainable City and for the first step of diffusion, the adaptation of other cities within the region. This study is intended to serve both as a basis for cross-regional consideration and dialogue for the transfer of successful processes.
... It has also helped to create a hybrid citationsemantic network map of a body of literature (Peris, Meijers et al. 2018). Moreover, it was used to analyze confusion around the scientific status of smart-city research (Mora, Bolici et al. 2017, Mora, Deakin et al. 2019, and to detect the developmental landscape of transport geography research (Liu and Gui 2016). ...
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The concept of smart public governance (SPG) is gaining attention among researchers, policymakers, and practitioners around the world, especially in response to the modernisation of public administration through emerging technologies in both local (smart city) and national (smart government) levels. Spurred by the noticeable lack of understanding of the SPG concept, the paper aims to comprehensively examine the SPG research by considering the characteristic differences between the smart city and smart government concepts. Bibliometric analysis is based on the Scopus database, containing 775 documents published in the last two decades and facilitated by several established and innovative bibliometric approaches. The results reveal the growth of SPG research over time. Despite the smart city concept being the dominant focus in the SPG research, the smart government concept has been becoming more relevant in recent years, as indicated by some prominent documents published in reputable journals like Government Information Quarterly. Moreover, Anglo-Saxon countries are chiefly engaged in SPG research. However, New Zealand and South Korea are identified as countries with a stronger focus on the smart government concept. The results show the smart city concept is connected with several smart-related initiatives (e.g., smart transportation, smart living, smart energy, etc.), while the smart government concept is primarily associated with smart (de)regulation and smart grid. The findings may add to the understanding of the future development of SPG research, on both local and national levels.
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This study starts by questioning what smart cities are and how they are being planned for the future of the population. Faced with a wide range of information, the coexistence of multiple definitions, and differences between the theoretical concept and what is being carried out in the real world, it is recognized that entrepreneurs and public managers require more clarity regarding the essential attributes that need to be considered in the initiatives of a city that aims to be classified as smart. This study strives to identify and synthesize essential information, helping managers to define and develop projects and initiatives within the context of smart cities. Through a literature review, six widely cited and commonly used groups of indicators are selected, and the most frequent themes, indicators, and keywords are identified. The results are the essential elements founded and synthesized in a single visual scheme. Although this study has a practical purpose, it is also necessary to promote new policies focused on incentives for local initiatives to support and complement them due to the new decentralized and anthropocentric approach to smart sustainable cities.
Article
Although entrepreneurship plays a critical in fostering economic development, erasing inequality, and generating more balanced societies, a gap concerning the course, nature, and state‐of‐the‐art of minority entrepreneurship scientific literature need to be fulfilled. A hybrid methodology, combining bibliometric methods and topic models (latent Drichlet allocation) is used to perform a thematic analysis of the minority entrepreneurship research stream. The analysis provides insight into the most relevant research themes as well as further research agenda.
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This paper aims to summarize the publishing trends, current status, research topics, and frontier evolution trends of health technology between 1990 and 2020 through various bibliometric analysis methods. In total, 6663 articles retrieved from the Web of Science core database were analyzed by Vosviewer and CiteSpace software. This paper found that: (1) The number of publications in the field of health technology increased exponentially; (2) there is no stable core group of authors in this research field, and the influence of the publishing institutions and journals in China is insufficient compared with those in Europe and the United States; (3) there are 21 core research topics in the field of health technology research, and these research topics can be divided into four classes: hot spots, potential hot spots, margin topics, and mature topics. C21 (COVID-19 prevention) and C10 (digital health technology) are currently two emerging research topics. (4) The number of research frontiers has increased in the past five years (2016–2020), and the research directions have become more diverse; rehabilitation, pregnancy, e-health, m-health, machine learning, and patient engagement are the six latest research frontiers.
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This article's research objective is to study the combinations of governance conditions under which smart city pilot projects scale-up to an entire city. This is highly relevant for delivering city-wide urban solutions to grand challenges. The combinations of conditions (factors) for scale-up remain understudied. This paper contextualizes its research within the theoretical literature of smart cities, innovation, knowledge management, and governance and compares 17 smart city pilot projects in North America, Europe, and Asia. The cases were selected according to the research objective and analyzed using fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). The findings show two paths of city-wide scale-up, which we term “bureaucratic tailoring” and “low-uncertainty partnering.” This article makes three important theoretical contributions. First, it is possible for smart city pilot projects to scale-up to an entire city through different paths. Second, differentiating the role and capabilities of the municipality in terms of these different paths and in relation to the other governance conditions is essential. Third, the social perception of technological uncertainty is not static but fluid, and is highly related to other governance conditions. Future-oriented policy makers might find the paths explained here useful for anticipating how projects might scale-up.
This book constitutes the proceedings of the 20th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2021, held in Granada, Spain, in September 2021, in conjunction with the IFIP WG 8.5 IFIP International Conference on Electronic Participation (ePart 2021) and the International Conference for E-Democracy and Open Government Conference (CeDEM 2021). The 23 full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 63 submissions. The papers are clustered under the following topical sections: digital transformation; digital services and open government; open data: social and technical perspectives; smart cities; and data analytics, decision making, and artificial intelligence. Chapters "Perceived and Actual Lock-in Effects Amongst Swedish Public Sector Organisations when Using a SaaS Solution" and "Ronda: Real-time Data Provision, Processing and Publication for Open Data" are available open access under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License via link.springer.com.
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Cities around the world are increasingly competing to upgrade their infrastructure and smartness levels to attract talent, become more effective and sustainable. However, assessing the progress of smart cities is often challenging due to the lack of theoretical foundation and consensus on an assessment methodology. These contradictions can pose major constraints on the development of the smart city concept and its implementation in practice. This paper analyzes a set of 164 articles published between 2010 and 2020 that deal with smart city assessment. The present study aims to identify the most influential research and key research themes, and suggests future research directions in the field of smart city assessment. A bibliometric analysis is used to reveal the most influential articles and their associations. Furthermore, a content analysis is performed to explore recent developments in the field of smart city assessment in terms of research hotspots and research themes. The analysis reveals the existence of 11 research themes and their timelines. The most influential research addresses (1) multiple-criteria decision-based performance measurement frameworks, (2) data connectivity challenges, (3) composite indexes for smart sustainable cities, (4) holistic performance evaluations of smart cities, and (5) the characteristics of indicator sets. Based on these results, current advances in smart city assessment are discussed, and future research directions in this field are suggested.
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With urbanization, cities around the world have experienced increasingly complex issues that are difficult to solve using traditional strategies. So, many local governments have started smart city initiatives in order to address community issues, improve quality of life, achieve sustainable development, and, overall, make their cities smarter. As a multidimensional concept, smart city contains different components. In addition, to successfully implement smart city initiatives, local governments need to take multiple factors into consideration. Based on a survey of local governments in the United States, this article identifies what factors affect smart city and community initiatives. Overall, the analysis shows that the level of economic development, the existence of a smart city office, the availability of local government funding, the skill level of local government staff, adopting a collaborative approach, and citizens’ current IT skills all have a significant positive impact on the extent that a local government invests in smart city projects. In addition, city governments invest in significantly more types of smart city projects than villages.
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The concept of open innovation has attracted considerable attention since Henry Chesbrough first coined it to capture the increasing reliance of firms on external sources of innovation. Although open innovation has flourished as a topic within innovation management research, it has also triggered debates about the coherence of the research endeavors pursued under this umbrella, including its theoretical foundations. In this paper, we aim to contribute to these debates through a bibliometric review of the first decade of open innovation research. We combine two techniques—bibliographic coupling and co-citation analysis—to (1) visualize the network of publications that explicitly use the label ‘open innovation’ and (2) to arrive at distinct clusters of thematically related publications. Our findings illustrate that open innovation research builds principally on four related streams of prior research, whilst the bibliographic network of open innovation research reveals that seven thematic clusters have been pursued persistently. While such persistence is undoubtedly useful to arrive at in-depth and robust insights, the observed patterns also signal the absence of new, emerging, themes. As such, ‘open innovation’ might benefit from applying its own ideas: sourcing concepts and models from a broader range of theoretical perspectives as well as pursuing a broader range of topics might introduce dynamics resulting in more impact and proliferation.
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The 21st century has been hailed as the urban century and one in which ICT-led transformations will shape urban responses to global environmental change. The Smart City encapsulates all the desires and prospects on the transformative and disruptive role technology will have in solving urban issues both in Global North and Global South cities. Critical scholarship has pointed out that private capital, with the blessing of technocratic elites, has found a techno-environmental fix to both reshuffle economic growth and prevent other alternative politico-ecological transitions to take root in urban systems. Against this bleak outlook, the paper argues that these technological assemblages might be compatible with alternative post-capitalist urban transformations aligned with Degrowth. Through a cross-reading of research on Smart Cities with theoretical perspectives drawn from the literature on Degrowth, I suggest that Degrowth should not refrain from engaging with urban technological imaginaries in a critical and selective way. As the paper shows through alternative uses of Smart technologies and digital open-source fabrication, the question is not so much around technology per se but around the wider politico-economic context into which these technological assemblages are embedded.
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The past decade has seen considerable debate over the relatively vague concept of the “smart city”. Nowadays, the smart city has crystallised into an image of a city permeated with top-down and centrally controlled technological infrastructures that promise to improve the urban environment in terms of efficiency, security and sustainability. However, many scholars have criticised this perception of networked technologies for not being able to meet the needs of city-dwellers, raising privacy issues, and leading to an increase of environmentally harmful consumption of ICTs. The aim of this article is to contribute to the ongoing dialogue by providing a taxonomy of the smart city, based on certain technology governance models. After theoretically discussing the socio-environmental costs of each model, I argue for a commons-oriented approach, which could democratise the means of making and offer more environmental benefits. © 2016, Unified Theory of Information Research Group. All rights reserved.
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Considering that modern science is conducted primarily through a network of collaborators who organize themselves around key researchers, this research develops and tests a characterization and assessment method that recognizes the particular endogenous, or self-organizing characteristics of research groups. Instead of establishing an ad-hoc unit of analysis and assuming an unspecified network structure, the proposed method uses knowledge footprints, based on backward citations, to measure and compare the performance/productivity of research groups. The method is demonstrated by ranking research groups in Physics, Applied Physics/Condensed Matter/Materials Science and Optics in the leading institutions in Mexico, the results show that the understanding of the scientific performance of an institution changes with a more careful account for the unit of analysis used in the assessment. Moreover, evaluations at the group level provide more accurate assessments since they allow for appropriate comparisons within subfields of science. The proposed method could be used to better understand the self-organizing mechanisms of research groups and have better assessment of their performance.