Article

Generative HBIM modelling to embody complexity (LOD, LOG, LOA, LOI): surveying, preservation, site intervention—the Basilica di Collemaggio (L’Aquila)

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Abstract

In December 2012, EniServizi (the Italian multinational energy company), after the Earthquake that occurred at L’Aquila in April 2009, decided to undertake the project “Re-start from Collemaggio”, funding around 14 million Euro to restore the Basilica di Collemaggio. EniServizi, aware of the BIM potential role in the complex building and infrastructure domain in the world, required an advanced HBIM based on laser scanner and photogrammetric surveying to address decision-making processes among the different actors involved in the preservation process. The Basilica of Collemaggio has been re-opened to the public on December 2017. This paper tries to make a synthesis of the different lessons learnt, in relation to both positive and critical aspects relating HBIM feasibility, sustainability and usefulness to the challenging restoration and preservation field. The theoretical and practical HBIM approach here tackled overcomes the current BIM logic based on the sequential process adopted by the AIA and NBS Level of Development (LOD), characterized by a simple-to-complex-detailing process, working in the new construction domain and generally following the conceptualizing phase, the preliminary design, the executive design, the construction phase till to the facility management. A complex-mixed LOD approach, able to entail the richness, unicity and multiplicity of each component and to get the maximum degree of knowledge, has been experimented in order to derive informed decisions in terms of preservation, restoration and management since the starting phases of the architectural design. To this aim, a Level of Geometry (LOG) coherent to the Level of Accuracy gained by the high-resolution surveys has been adapted to the specificity of the restoration process of a historic monument and is here proposed through different Grade of Generation (GOG) protocols developed in the object modelling to support the preliminary and definitive design proposal of the conservation plan of the Basilica. Particularly, a NURBS-based parametric generative modelling process (GOG9-10) is here proposed in order to get models “BIM abled” to describe the complex geometry and to match the related information. Specific Level of Information (LOI) has been introduced to support the preservation process, to document the as-built and the management of the building after the intervention, moving HBIM toward multi-actor domain. Given the effort required by such approach, obtaining a cost-effective HBIM modelling embodying the complexity of each damaged element as acquired by the surveys (i.e. walls, pillars, vaults, beams) represents a challenging issue. The result of the overall process aims to contribute in lowering the initial HBIM modelling costs by deploying a sustainable complexity delivering protocols and specification and by boosting at the same time an interoperable cooperative HBIM habit among multi-actors across all the phases, spreading its usability after the restoration process. On the lesson learnt, the process of updating the current Codification criteria (UNI11337-2009) has been started with a draft proposal stimulating the debate for the future of HBIM adoption in the case of restoration, preservation and maintenance (UNI11337-2017): in the conviction that transferring the HBIM richness into the Life Cycle Management process will allow multi-actors to take in account the knowledge and information gained during the restoration, integrating the as-built updating and keeping updated the monument monitoring during the time being.

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... Among them, the oldest case was a 7 th century vault (Banfi, 2020), the study of which dealt with heritage knowledge at the building element scale. Various papers have pointed out that when using polysurfaces as solid geometries, as with volumes made with NURBS surfaces, the accurate geometric representation of the object is quite achievable; this has been studied in the geometric modelling field, for example in finite element analysis for structural analysis (Banfi, 2019;Banfi et al., 2022;Barazzetti, 2016;Brumana et al., 2017Brumana et al., , 2018. ...
... Significant efforts have been made to import BIM terms and their practical significances into HBIM. For instance, the term LOD (level of development) is discussed by several researchers (Banfi, Fai, & Brumana, 2017;Brumana et al., 2018;Castellano-Román & Pinto-Puerto, 2019). Although the LOD in BIM illustrates the information modelling stages which concern a building's lifespan from its design to maintenance, Castellano-Román & Pinto-Puerto (2019) have argued that chronological LOD implementation cannot be conducted for HBIM since heritage artefacts are "past" time-related assets, and have introduced the term Level of Knowledge (LOK). ...
... There is an increasing interest in developments which expand the capabilities of HBIM, such as element modelling (Barazzetti, Banfi, Brumana, & Previtali, 2015), HBIM element library experiments (Baik, Alitany, Boehm, & Robson, 2014), information mapping (Chiabrando, Lo Turco, & Rinaudo, 2017), mixed-reality applications (Banfi, 2021), the development of generative modelling methodology (Brumana et al., 2018), and even the illustration of a road map for holistic conservation practices (Brumana et al., 2020) and building archaeology (Banfi et al., 2022). Despite these significant attempts, using HBIM for data-driven conservation actions remains an open field of study. ...
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Article
Highlights:  This paper illustrates the potential of scan-to-HBIM notion for heritage sites by employing an innovative data-driven approach to conservation actions.  This research offers an HBIM workflow for the sophisticated representation of heterogenic archaeological datasets.  This study creates a digital twin of the archaeological building remains and offers a method tailored for future monitoring and conservation. Abstract: Digital surveying tools provide a highly accurate geometric representation of cultural heritage sites in the form of point cloud data. With the recent advances in interoperability between point cloud data and Building Information Modelling (BIM), digital heritage researchers have introduced the Heritage/Historic Information Modelling (HBIM) notion to the field. As heritage data require safeguarding strategies to ensure their sustainability, the process is closely tied to conservation actions in the architectural conservation field. Focusing on the intersection of the ongoing trends in HBIM research and the global needs for heritage conservation actions, this paper tackles methodological pipelines for the data-driven management of archaeological heritage places. It illustrates how HBIM discourse could be beneficial for easing value-based decision-making in the conservation process. It introduces digital data-driven conservation actions by implementing a novel methodology for ancient building remains in Erythrae archaeological site (Turkey). The research ranges from a) surveying the in-situ remains and surrounding stones of the Heroon remains with digital photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning to b) designing a database system for building archaeology. The workflow offers high geometric fidelity and management of non-geometric heritage data by testing out the suitability and feasibility for the study of material culture and the physical assessment of archaeological building remains. This methodology is a fully data-enriched NURBS-based (non-uniform rational basis spline) three-dimensional (3D) model-which is integrated and operational in the BIM environment-for the holistic conservation process. Using a state-of-the-art digital heritage approach can be applied from raw data (initial stages) to decision-making about an archaeological heritage site (final stages). In conclusion, the paper offers a method for data-driven conservation actions, and given its methodological framework, it lends itself particularly well to HBIM-related solutions for building archaeology. Keywords: building archaeology; digital archaeology 3D heritage database; conservation decisions; Historic Building Information Modelling (HBIM); NURBS (non-uniform rational basis splines); scan-to-HBIM Resumen: Las herramientas topográficas digitales proporcionan una representación geométrica muy exacta de sitios patrimoniales en forma de datos (nubes de puntos). Con los avances recientes de interoperabilidad entre nubes de puntos y modelado de información de la construcción (BIM), los investigadores en patrimonio digital han introducido la noción de modelado de información de la construcción patrimonial/histórica (HBIM) en este campo. Como los datos patrimoniales requieren estrategias de salvaguardia que garanticen su sostenibilibidad, el proceso está íntimamente ligado a acciones de conservación en el campo de la conservación arquitectónica. Teniendo en cuenta las últimas tendencias en investigación HBIM y las necesidades globales de las acciones de conservación patrimonial, este artículo afronta el flujo metodológico de la gestión basada en datos de sitios patrimoniales arqueológicos. Se introducen acciones de conservación basadas en datos que implementan una metodología novedosa en los restos edificados del sitio arqueológico de Erythrae (Turquía). La investigación aborda tanto la fase desde a) el topografiado in situ de los restos y las piedras circundantes de los restos de Heroon con fotogrametría digital y escaneado láser terrestre, hasta b) la fase del diseño del sistema de bases de datos en arqueología de la arquitectura. El flujo de trabajo ofrece alta fidelidad geométrica y de gestión de datos patrimoniales no geométricos; también prueba la idoneidad y viabilidad de cara al DATA-DRIVEN CONSERVATION ACTIONS OF HERITAGE PLACES CURATED WITH HBIM Virtual Archaeology Review, 13(27): 17-32, 2022 18 estudio de la cultura material y a la evaluación física de los restos de edificios arqueológicos. El modelo tridimensional (3D) enriquecido con datos basados en NURBS ('non-uniform rational B-splines'), se demuestra que es operativo en el proceso de conservación integral; este trata desde los datos sin procesar hasta la toma de decisiones sobre un sitio arqueológico-patrimonial, utilizando un procedimiento digital puntero. En conclusión, el artículo presenta un método orientado a acciones de conservación basadas en datos y, dado su marco metodológico, se presta particularmente bien a soluciones relacionadas con HBIM en arqueología de la arquitectura. Palabras clave: arqueología de la arquitectura; bases de datos patrimoniales 3D; decisiones de conservación; modelado de información de la construcción histórica (HBIM); NURBS (B-splines racionales no uniformes); escaneado-a-HBIM
... Construction productivity/Manufacturing [32,33] Educational buildings [19,20,26,29,30,[34][35][36][37][38][39] Generic [11,[16][17][18][21][22][23][24][25]27,28, Historic monuments/buildings [62] Hospitals/Clinics [63][64][65][66][67][68] Infrastructures [69][70][71][72][73][74][75] Institutional buildings [14,76] Museums [77] Public urban space [78][79][80][81] The data highlight that, apart from research developed on the educational buildings category or the infrastructure one, most of the studies refer to BIM-FM implementation in the Public Administration (PA) field in general. There are also publications for which the "public" is not addressed as the main focus, but this issue can directly influence it. ...
... The other relevant research objective when discussing BIM-FM implementation is related to information. For example, Kim et al. [17] highlight the relevance and also the efforts of defining an Asset Information Model (AIM) and concentrate on analysing the handover process, extracting data and populating the models with O&M documents; then, Dejaco et al. [42] and Di Giuda et al. [35] propose information frameworks and protocols for FM, AIM and Organizational Information Requirements (OIR); another contribution toward information through BIM within the built environment field is that of Brumana et al. [62] discussing heritage BIM. Concerning data security, another topic is that of blockchain application to AEC information management systems [46]. ...
... People [25,54,56,60,72] Process [11,14,[16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][26][27][28][29][30][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][47][48][49][50][51][52][53]55,[57][58][59][61][62][63][64][65][66][67][68][69][70][71][73][74][75][76][77][78][79][80][81] Technology [46] As the first category, people represent studies dealing with frameworks, methodologies and models for BIM-FM implementation in the public environment. The second one, process, refers to papers discussing the learning shift from 2D to digital twin models or publications focused primarily on the change management subject in overcoming people resistance. ...
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Article
Building Information Modelling (BIM) has been extensively studied and applied within the AEC sector, particularly in design and construction. In recent years, Facility Management (FM) processes are becoming more digitalised, thus requiring effective BIM-FM integration. BIM adoption in many countries, such as the UK, Italy and Brazil, has been publicly driven. Generally, adoption was targeted at design and construction implementation, with little effort in framing public action for FM implementation. The lack of an integrated approach for BIM-FM implementation resulted in numerous bespoken implementation approaches that mimic the private sector and hinder knowledge exchange. Therefore, there is a need for assessing and amalgamating knowledge about BIM-FM for public organisations. This research aims to leverage knowledge about BIM-FM in the public domain by analysing and classifying articles published between 2010–2021. The research was carried out through a systematic review and comparative thematic analysis investigating the use of BIM for different public buildings (e.g., schools and hospitals) and the implementation for FM purposes. Research results outline prevalent trends and areas of research from three perspectives: people, process and technology. Results show an increasing number of publications about BIM-FM. However, the divide between BIM-FM for public and private organisations is unequal. BIM-FM research for public organisations is still limited and lacks standardisation. This state-of-the-art review makes an incremental contribution to knowledge by identifying progress, gaps and new industry directions on the subject matter.
... Research in the HBIM field has mainly focused on modelling elements with extremely high 'as-is' level of geometric detail, supported by accurate survey techniques as photogrammetry (PG) or terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) [4]- [7]. With the purpose of documentation for preventive conservation, the same approach has been applied to damage modelling [5]. To this end, a common solution has been to reproduce, in a 3D BIM environment, 2D decay maps, by creating entities overlaying on the element surface, as attached colourmaps or imported as rendering materials [5], [7]- [9]. ...
... With the purpose of documentation for preventive conservation, the same approach has been applied to damage modelling [5]. To this end, a common solution has been to reproduce, in a 3D BIM environment, 2D decay maps, by creating entities overlaying on the element surface, as attached colourmaps or imported as rendering materials [5], [7]- [9]. Simplifying tools have been implemented to allow the definition of such maps in a 2D environment and then to project them onto the 3D surfaces [10]. ...
... A feasible framework should not require that the stakeholders, excluding the BIM modeller, are expert in the field of BIM and be independent of specific software or tools, as the TLS, which is only one possible source of data, to minimise economic investment and holding licenses [14]. Moreover, while accurate surveys and inspections are, commonly, driven by single intervention impulses [15], providing a detailed documentation to support diagnostic analysis and restoration projects (e.g. in [5]), preventive conservation needs systematic management, consecutive inspections and a consequent continuous information storage and exchange among the stakeholders (e.g. ...
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Article
Building Information Modelling (BIM) methodology is becoming widespread with many potential uses, such as facility and asset management for new buildings. Recently, it has also been applied for the maintenance of built heritage, within the so-called Historical BIM (HBIM) field. A BIM model, empowered by detailed embedded information, is an excellent tool to monitor and infer on the behaviour, performance and deterioration of heritage buildings, collecting and classifying diverse data that can co-exist in an asset model. However, three main issues must be tackled: lack of standardization, insufficient interoperability and inherent complexity of the information. It is essential to balance model’s geometrical and non-geometrical features, such as the level of detail accuracy and the quantity of linked information, to make the methodology cost-effective and hence more attractive for end-users. The present work focuses on the development of easy-to-implement strategy to report and monitor damage evolution over time. Standardization and simplification of the procedures are pursued by using Product Data Templates (PDTs) and focusing on interoperability of information through specific provisions of export/import definitions for Industry Foundation Classes (IFC). The developed methodology is tested on the Ducal Palace in Guimarães, Portugal, one of the most prominent monuments of the country.
... This can be done directly on BIM platforms, e.g. by importing the point cloud into Autodesk Revit [5], [19], [38], [39] or, in the case of elements with more complex geometry, by first moving to free-form modelling software. In the latter situation, non-uniform rational basis splines (NURBS) [39]- [41] or mesh models [17], [42] are created externally and imported into a BIM environment at a later stage. The use of mesh within BIM platforms, however, involves a significant increase in file size and is less compatible with the principles of BIM parametric modelling [38]- [39], which is why this contribution focuses on modelling using NURBS. ...
... Referring again to the diagram in Figure 1, the current treatment of survey data, which includes segmentation and classification of the point cloud, is not yet standardised and may involve more or less automatic construction processes starting from the dense point cloud. In any case, once the model has been reconstructed, it can be enriched with qualitative information pertaining to the knowledge and study of the asset, which can be directly associated with 3D geometries [41]. ...
... 3D modelling for cultural heritage and scan-to-BIM modelling techniques in particular require the application of multidisciplinary knowledge for classifying, managing and sharing information [41], [43]. ...
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Article
The digitization of Cultural Heritage paves the way for new approaches to surveying and restitution of historical sites. With a view to the management of integrated programs of documentation and conservation, the research is now focusing on the creation of information systems where to link the digital representation of a building to semantic knowledge. With reference to the emblematic case study of the Calci Charterhouse, also known as Pisa Charterhouse, this contribution illustrates an approach to be followed in the transition from 3D survey information, derived from laser scanner and photogrammetric techniques, to the creation of semantically enriched 3D models. The proposed approach is based on the recognition -segmentation and classification- of elements on the original raw point cloud, and on the manual mapping of NURBS elements on it. For this shape recognition process, reference to architectural treatises and vocabularies of classical architecture is a key step. The created building components are finally imported in a H-BIM environment, where they are enriched with semantic information related to historical knowledge, documentary sources and restoration activities.
... Different scales can be thus adopted in the same HBIM design project following the lesson learnt from the Basilica di Collemaggio in L'Aquila (Brumana et al. 2018a) adopting a global 1:50 GOA scale for the wall objects, and a GOA scale 1:20 for the most damaged South Wall with the Holy door without of plumb ranging from 10 ÷ 20 cm after the earthquake. ...
... In Italy, UNI 11337:2017 has been addressed to integrating specifications dealing with the preservation process, including the analysis of the state of the art, the diagnostic and monitoring phases that are on course of definition (UNI 11337-3-2017). It is a crucial step toward the Heritage HBIM specifications (Brumana et al. 2018a). However, the integration of the scanto-BIM model process within the whole process is still lacking and the proposal to insert the GOA concept in the modeling scales needs to be defined and discussed. ...
... They have shown how the generation of an HBIM model can be useful for different types of analysis such as finite element analysis (Korumaz et al. 2017;Barazzetti et al. 2018), energy analysis (Lewis et al. 2015) construction system information modeling, restoration, construction site management (CoSiM) (Trani et al. 2015), and facility management (Pishdad-Bozorgi et al. 2018). In the HBIM of the Collemaggio Basilica (L'Aquila), material and decay analysis were studied with full enable HBIM objects taking into account the complexity of the façade with its stratigraphic units (Brumana et al. 2018a), together with BIM-to-FEA analysis and EE BIM purposes implemented through local heating and the design development of the new covering system in substitution of the crashed one under the earthquake. In this study, NURBS-based BIM objects, which correspond to the material and decay polygons, have been developed in order to connect specific information to each decay areas. ...
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Article
The paper focuses on new opportunities of knowledge sharing, and comparison, thanks to the circulation and re-use of heritage HBIM models by means of Object Libraries within a Common Data Environment (CDE) and remotely-accessible Geospatial Virtual Hubs (GVH). HBIM requires a transparent controlled quality process in the model generation and its management to avoid misuses of such models once available in the cloud, freeing themselves from object libraries oriented to new buildings. The model concept in the BIM construction process is intended to be progressively enriched with details defined by the Level of Geometry (LOG) while crossing the different phases of development (LOD), from the pre-design to the scheduled maintenance during the long life cycle of buildings and management (LLCM). In this context, the digitization process—from the data acquisition until the informative models (scan-to-HBIM method)—requires adapting the definition of LOGs to the different phases characterizing the heritage preservation and management, reversing the new construction logic based on simple-to-complex informative models. Accordingly, a deeper understanding of the geometry and state of the art (as-found) should take into account the complexity and uniqueness of the elements composing the architectural heritage since the starting phases of the analysis, adopting coherent object modeling that can be simplified for different purposes as in the construction site and management over time. For those reasons, the study intends (i) to apply the well-known concept of scale to the object model generation, defining different Grades of Accuracy (GOA) related to the scales (ii) to start fixing sustainable roles to guarantee a free choice by the operators in the generation of object models, and (iii) to validate the model generative process with a transparent communication of indicators to describe the richness in terms of precision and accuracy of the geometric content here declined for masonry walls and vaults, and (iv) to identifies requirements for reliable Object Libraries.
... There are two main scan-to-BIM modeling techniques: one is to use drawings and scan data for parametric modeling, and the other is 3D modelling of complex surfaces based on NURBS. NURBS represents the integration of surface and point cloud algorithms to improve the degree of automation [35]. Research on Chinese wooden architecture includes the method of automatic parametric modeling of bucket arches based on point clouds [36], the automatic creation of a column network system [37], and identifying roof decoration components to set up the model library [38]. ...
... Although the scan-to-BIM method GOG9-10 [56] has been studied through the direct transformation of NURB, it is complex and time-consuming, and it is not suitable for the shape and structure study of combined Xiegong. In addition, the pattern, engraving, and other information can be linked by character, so the traditional GOG1-8 method [35] is adopted to create the model of HBIM, and the reusable component library is made based on constructive knowledge of Xiegong. ...
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Article
Xiegong is a unique element of Chinese historic buildings that could date the heritage dynasty. It is more complicated than the Dougong and represents a high level of artistic and structural achievement. Archaeological research on Xiegong is urgent due to the fast rate of erosion rate and the official record of only Dougong without Xiegong. With 3D survey technology, researchers can use 3D digital replicas to record and survey heritage buildings. However, the methodology of applying digital reproductions to facilitate archaeological research is unclear. A comprehensive approach to merging the digital twin into the chronology of forms was proposed based on a literature review of archaeological theory. This multi-methodological approach, including laser scanning, oblique photogrammetry, and BIM, was adopted to develop Xiegong’s architectural archaeology dating research. Using Xuanluo Hall, Sichuan, China, as an example, the site study verified the approach to ensure consistency between 2D and 3D expressions with geometry and semantics. The results indicate that, on the one hand, the digital twin process can help archaeologists recognize historical information. On the other hand, the results of their discrimination can be effectively recorded and easily queried, avoiding the shortcomings of traditional methods of information loss and dispersion.
... In addition, it defines the reliability level (LoD) of the digital object (LoG) as the arithmetic mean of the two previous ones (LoA-LoI). By indicating seven classes (from A to G), the Italian law allows all those involved in the design and production pipeline to intervene with a degree of detail consistent with the information reliability of the general coordination model [17]. For each single component, however, it is possible to introduce and process in-depth data (NBIMS 2015). ...
... Examining the values in percentage terms, in order to verify the accuracy of the model related to the thresholds set in the literature [17], about 63% of the points of the specimen observed were within the standard deviation of 2 mm: a high precision value, also verified with respect to the other references. In fact, the precision of a model, according to Brumana et al. is considered: ...
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Article
Protecting and enhancing inherited assets is a duty of every age; ours requires disclosure through the services of the interconnected network, the only one, to date, capable of reaching a wide audience and with it attracting adequate economic resources for the implementation of programs. In keeping with the international definition of "Cultural Heritage", the paper describes the methodology that guided the construction in 3D of the monumental building sculpted in the iconographies between 52 and 62 AD on the marble slab now preserved at the archaeological museum of Perugia. An informative workflow on what has been collected is proposed to then discuss the potential of its uses. The focus lies in particular on the possibility of the model to act as an interoperable collector to compare the reconstructive hypotheses.The final objective looks at the opportunity to create multimedia, multimodal and cross modal collaboration spaces to remedy aspects that, by affecting a wider audience of users, encourage socio-economic policies.
... In addition, it defines the reliability level (LoD) of the digital object (LoG) as the arithmetic mean of the two previous ones (LoA-LoI). By indicating seven classes (from A to G), the Italian law allows all those involved in the design and production pipeline to intervene with a degree of detail consistent with the information reliability of the general coordination model [17]. For each single component, however, it is possible to introduce and process in-depth data (NBIMS 2015). ...
... Examining the values in percentage terms, in order to verify the accuracy of the model related to the thresholds set in the literature [17], about 63% of the points of the specimen observed were within the standard deviation of 2 mm: a high precision value, also verified with respect to the other references. In fact, the precision of a model, according to Brumana et al. is considered: ...
Chapter
The Solimene factory is a work by the architect Paolo Soleri built in 1955, considered one of the best expressions of the Italian “Organic” movement and today protected under the Italian Code of Cultural Heritage and Landscape. For educational purposes, the advocated restoration intervention, it attracted renewed interest upon the demise of its designer. Based on TLS data acquisition and Building Information Modeling, this study investigates the opportunity to implement interventions on modern architectures with interoperable processes and data integration. The present paper aims to reconcile two fundamental but opposite aspects of information modeling of historical buildings (H-BIM): the formal accuracy and the identification of standard properties for component parameterization, by presenting the creation of exclusive oriented objects.
... The continuous enhancement of surveying and modelling technologies has been the focal point of the research concerning the relationship between geomatics and restoration over the past few years (Brumana et al., 2018;Banfi, Fai, & Brumana, 2017;Castagnetti et al., 2017;Tommasi, Achille, & Fassi 2016). However, in order for the H-BIM methodology to further improve its efficacy as a tool to support conservation activities, it seems opportune to start focusing also on the informative apparatus to be associated with the 3D model (Bruno & Roncella, 2019). ...
... The first step in the definition of the informative tool of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence, has been the setting up of a simplified 3D model, based on consistent geometrical regularization (Fig. 4). In fact, the difficulties connected to the modelling of complex shapes are widely acknowledged and constitutes one of the main challenges in the application of BIM methodology to historic heritage (Brumana et al., 2018;Banfi, Fai, & Brumana, 2017;Tommasi, Achille, & Fassi 2016). ...
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Conference Paper
Proceeding under the assumption that restorers need to become more involved in the definition of the most advanced management tools for historic buildings, this paper aims to offer a contribution to the “informative” feature of the H-BIM methodology. Indeed, over the past few years, the issues addressed by scholars mostly concerned surveying and modelling techniques, whereas the organization of external data within the virtual model has rarely been considered. The necessity of defining a new operative tool for the maintenance of the wooden chain encircling the dome of Santa Maria del Fiore represented an occasion to develop an informative model that attempts to confer centrality to the knowledge processas a whole. Attention was thus focused on the articulation of the informative apparatus to be associated to the 3D model, as well as to its practical implications in terms of conservation.
... The added value of these methods was the integration of survey tools capable of improving the three-dimensional representation of digital models moving from simple points to accurate informative models. Thanks to in-depth analysis and study of application cases that have obtained tangible feedbacks (Brumana et al., 2018;Cabrelles, Blanco-Pons, Carrión-Ruiz, & Lerma, 2018;Tucci et al., 2019), it emerged that the correct creation of complex models mainly depended on four factors: 1) accurate digital surveys based on the most modern 3D survey tools and historical documentation (data collection); 2) an appropriate three-dimensional representation of the buildings surveyed (model generation -scan-to-BIM process); 3) information mapping and parameter definition of BIM objects; 4) sharing of information previously mapped in the BIM models. ...
... In recent years, interesting studies proposed digital workflows able to manage the richness of heritage buildings through very detailed HBIM projects. Unlike digital representations of newly built buildings, HBIM was useful for investigating new types of analyses such as material analyzes (Brumana et al., 2018), construction site conservation projects (Fai, & Rafeiro, 2014), work breakdown structures (WBS) (Putra Lim, & Latief, 2020), mixed reality and archaeological sites (Banfi, 2020), infrastructures (Boykov, Skvortsov, & Gurev, 2020), and finite element analysis (FEA) (Fabozzi et al., 2020). In this context, thanks to specific exchange formats have been possible to transform geometric entities such as solids, surfaces, and primitives for different types of BIM-based analyses. ...
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Conference Paper
In recent years we have witnessed how technology applied to built heritage has exponentially changed the daily practices of the various experts involved in the life cycle of buildings. The techniques of representation of historical architecture have been able to make use of new 3D survey tools as well as research methods capable of managing a large amount of data while improving the level of information (LOI) and accuracy of the surveyed artefacts. On the other hand, professionals still have to make use of a large number of exchange formats in order to share their digital representations (3D, 2D) and analysis. For this reason, this paper describes the research approach followed to obtain “standard” architectural representations of a heritage building in the Cultural Heritage domain. The word “standard” is used in its original meaning: “something established by authority, custom, or general consent as a model or example” (Collins Dictionary). In this context, 3D models have a primary role in the workflow because its position is in-between the 3D survey techniques that come first and the restoration/maintenance activities. The authors’ thought is that the workflow should be as smooth and sustainable as possible to have an effective standardization and collaboration among disciplines, sectors and technicians working in the different study areas.
... The principal foundation of the generation of a BIM digital model, is the modeling process itself, which is based on the use of parametric objects [1]. In the context of modeling buildings of historic value with particular architectural configurations, the rigorous representation of all building components and ornaments, both in their geometric aspects and physical properties associated with the materials applied, have been considered important topics in relation to the most recent area of BIM, namely, heritage building information modeling (HBIM) [2][3][4]. The HBIM concept is a current topic of investigation and application in real cases oriented towards the preservation or refurbishing of old buildings with a historic or heritage value, based on the BIM methodology. ...
... HBIM modeling involved the generation of all components created as a composition of parts, associated with distinct materials and presenting different states of degradation and historical phases. Furthermore, in L'Aquila, as reported by Brumana et al. [4], after the earthquake that occurred in 2009 the different actors involved in the preservation process worked through an HBIM environment, and as a first step, laser-scanner and photogrammetric surveying was performed in order to make decisions about alternative solutions. The case study "Nasif Historical House", which lacked previous engineering data, is another good example in which a building's main body was modeled based on combinations of laser scans generating a 3D point cloud [23]. ...
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Article
The methodology and technology associated with building information modeling (BIM) provide architects, engineers, and historians with concepts and tools that support the development of heritage projects. However, this specific form of BIM orientated towards buildings of patrimonial value—known as historic building information modeling (HBIM)—requires a distinct and additional view, accounting for aspects which are normally not attended to on projects involving new buildings. In an HBIM context, the parametric modeling process, the basis of any BIM procedure, involves the study of shapes, patterns, or standards for the establishment of particular collections of parametric objects, as well as the record of the available technology used to capture digital geometric data. In addition, all the information collected and generated through an HBIM process must be adequately managed, maintained, and archived. In the present study, we intend to list the most recent features of HBIM, based on a bibliographic review, encompassing distinct building situations (preservation, restoration, rehabilitation, and structural assessment); different technical equipment (drones, scanners, and photogrammetry); as well as diverse forms of geometric characterization (patterns, geometric rules, or curve generation) and ways of archiving data (stratigraphy, old drawings folders, or as-built models). With the aim of identifying, as an overview, we have presented the principal modeling strategies, technologic devices, and archive procedures, as a contribution to systematizing and organizing the dispersed practical and theorical studies related with HBIM.
... Some researchers conducting Scan-to-BIM case studies already mention deviation analysis of the assembled BIM against the used point cloud as a part of their methodology [9,10]. If such an analysis is executed, it is often done with the use of commercial BIM plugins to get an idea of the general deviations of certain selected surfaces by using a gradient colour map. ...
Chapter
The reusability of informative content throughout the building life cycle is a current issue in the AEC sector. One of the cornerstones of BIM is to guarantee the availability and portability of data which, against a greater initial investment for the construction of the model, will offer a multidisciplinary and integrated tool to support all possible operations on the building. The issue becomes even more complicated in the case of cultural heritage or existing structures where the information process starts directly from the operation stage (management and maintenance phases) and provides, through reverse engineering methodology, an Asset Information Model. It is therefore essential to keep track of the levels of accuracy of this content, in relation to the geometric and informative attributes of all the objects that make up the model. Starting from a careful analysis of the state of the art related to these issues, this paper proposes a possible approach to the statistical treatment of uncertainties related to geometric attributes in case of Historic or Existing BIM, differentiating between the products of the survey and those of the subsequent parametric modelling. KeywordsDetected accuracyModelled accuracyScan-to-BIM
... BIM objects are also defined not only by geometric characters but also by the informative ones, referred as Level of Information (LOI). In Italy, the norm ISO 19650-1 of 2018 replaced the Levels of Information (LOI) with the Level of Information Need (LOIN), which is further calculated by combining geometric requirements (LOG, Level of Geometry), and non-geometric ones(LOI, Level of Information) [24]. ...
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The paper aims at investigating modelling strategies in HBIM context to identify at what extent the final use of the model might affects, or should affect, the modelling approach itself. Moreover, the discussion wants to shed light on the possibility of connecting in just one digital environment several instances connected to the building. These aims will be discussed presenting and evaluating two different modelling approaches: the “black box” modelling and the “white box” model-ling. The two terms are partially borrowed from computer science to explain two types of testing. The “black box” testing is performed without any preliminary knowledge about the system functionality and internal components; on the contrary, the “white box” testing, implies a full knowledge of the system. These two approaches will be compared to two ways of conceiving a building information model. In conclusion, the paper will investigate the possibility to integrate in just one model, the grey box model, the two ones previously discussed.
... In a 2018 work [20], the authors introduced the concept of GoG (Grade of Generation) protocols to describe different Levels of Geometry (LOG) in function of the geometry resulting from the laser scans, in the line of traditional Level of Detail (LOD) to the case of architectural heritage restoration. This reflection is upgraded and validated by the already mentioned UNI's definition. ...
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Article
Digitization of Cultural and Museum Heritage represents one of the most engaging challenges that would ensure a sustainable and ethical approach for next generations; digital technology’s pervasiveness imposes a comprehensive management of architectural heritage by producing facsimiles of buildings and artworks and by testing robust methodologies, with the final result of providing effective multipurpose models. In this context, the main goal of the present paper is to develop a semantically aware HBIM model that includes an intelligent objects parametrization, leveraging Extended Reality (XR) technologies and digital curation of contents to pursue the preservation of Cultural Heritage (CH) as a whole. This research is implemented in the case study of the Ducal Palace of Urbino that houses the National Gallery of Marche. It was chosen as a remarkable example of a museum located in an architectural complex with a relevant historical background and fine detail of shapes and mouldings. In Italy, as in other European scenarios, museums and their collections need suitable dissemination and management systems that take advantage of the recent digital paradigms. The challenging approach is to exploit existing platforms and software and to adopt a cognitive modelling process, able to develop tools supporting managers and museum curators while enabling user experiences using immersive and interactive features. In order to stress the workflow, this work proposes the use of families with high Level of Detail (LOD) and high Level of Information (LOI). The present article provides, as well, an accurate data enrichment process specifically designed for a gallery’s artworks such as paintings and sculptures, in line with the national and international policies. The study presents a robust and reproducible methodology for digital musealization and management, focusing, as future overall objectives, towards a greater merging between the HBIM approach and XR technologies, also facilitated by training new professional figures with more in-depth digital skills.
... The long term dynamic monitoring of the Santa Maria di Collemaggio basilica, shown in Fig.1, revealed astonishing evidence: the first natural frequencies are decreasing between years since the first recordings in 2018. Different from other case studies, the monitoring system is installed after an important intervention following the 2009 earthquake in L'Aquila Aloisio et al. 2020aAntonacci et al. 2020, ;Brumana et al. 2018;Longarini et al. 2018;Zucca et al. 2018). Likely, the system monitors the response of a partially new structure, where the short-term effects due to the stabilization of the boundary conditions and the structural materials may be detectable. ...
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Chapter
The long term dynamic monitoring of the Santa Maria di Collemaggio basilica revealed an unexpected trend of the first natural frequencies decreasing from their initial values estimated in 2018. The decrement of the natural frequency could originate from several factors. The structural system derives from the arrangement of four building materials: masonry (predominant), reinforced concrete (RC), timber and steel. Masonry is unlikely to suffer rapid decaying of their mechanical properties. Reinforced concrete (RC) and the embedded steel should not present decaying phenomena in the first years after built. Likewise, the steel plates which connect the Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) panels should not manifest a significant progression of corrosion in an indoor environment. Conversely, timber’s physical and mechanical properties, such as swelling and shrinkage, density, modulus of elasticity, strength have a time-dependent response, even in the long-term. Likely, the decaying of the natural frequencies depends on the CLT roof’s time-dependent behaviour due to the potential modification of its mechanical properties and boundary conditions (interaction with the steel plates, e.g.). This paper presents selected results from the basilica’s three-years continuous dynamic monitoring and discusses an elementary mechanical model representative of the dynamics transverse to the nave walls. The mechanical model described by a limited set of parameters drives the assessment of the CLT roof’s possible role in causing the detected decrement of the natural frequencies.
... een followed, in order to: i) optimise/topologize the unstructured primary data (point clouds/polygonal model) and to ii) generate 3D surfaces and volumes suitable for information hosting with the aim to structure a digital archive containing the analysis and the results of the carried out diagnostic investigations, in a HBIM-oriented perspective. (Brumana et. al. 2018) Different strategies have been followed. On one side, complex surfaces (e.g. double-curved concrete surfaces as the Hall C pillars) have been modelled by means of profiles extrusion using advanced modelling tools implemented in the well-known 3D modelling platform Rhinoceros (loft, sweep, patch, etc.,). The profiles have been extracted ...
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Article
The digitisation projects of architectural heritage are a field of research continuously evolving and updating in parallel to technological innovations that allow to progressively boost the challenges and requirements of geometric and semantic richness of the related digital configuration of results. Among the arduous tasks under observation, there is the increasing need to harmonize and make the spatial and heterogenous information aspects cooperating. This paper focuses on the procedures for structuring an information system based on the as-built modelling strategy applied on a particularly relevant example of reinforced concrete architecture, which presents the bearing structure of the structural elements featured by complex geometries and roofing conceived as ferrocement wavy elements and therefore equally unusual as a construction system. The entire project refers to a conservation plan that involves structural non-destructive investigations that inquiry the state of health of the structures and their seismic performance. The purpose is to structure a parametric system, based on HBIM technology, which enables the archiving of investigations and results in order to strengthen direct spatial reference between geometric elements and structural analysis results, based also on image and range-based surface analyses, in the direction of a digital twin of the architectural complex.
... The uses of TLS and photogrammetry, however, often capture highly dense data in the form of 3D point clouds and 2D images. Some studies have been devoted to the scan-to-BIM process and its level of detail (LoD) in the past decade [39,40]. In the geometric translation process from point clouds to BIM objects, the loss of geometric accuracy is difficult to avoid, and high labour intensity is required. ...
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Article
Following the development of digital measurement technology in recent years, the information contained in the measurement outcomes have become increasingly rich. However, the traditional graphical representation method based on vector graph needs to be updated. In this study, we use the Beamless Hall of Linggu Temple as an example. Measurements are conducted by using digital techniques, including three-dimensional (3D) laser scanning, close-range photogrammetry, and infrared thermal imaging. The pseudocolours that express spatial information and moisture distribution are calculated and generated through point clouds, which are used to express the land subsidence, wall deformation, moisture distribution, and other effects of the Beamless Hall. Furthermore, combining it with two-dimensional (2D) graphical representation, such as the plan, elevation, and section, damage-related information can be expressed intuitively and efficiently. This method can combine the advantages of graphics and images to provide a comprehensive and intuitive representation of the digital measurement results of brick architecture heritage. It can also provide a reference for surveying similar monuments and buildings of our architectural heritage.
... In recent years, the method of algorithm modeling (or generative modeling) with visual programming tools is developing increasingly [22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31]. This technique provides traceable solutions which document the whole modeling procedure, including input parameters, process algorithms, and resulting models. ...
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Article
Historic building information modeling (HBIM) provides an index frame for digital documentation of the cultural heritage, as a continuous process of reverse engineering. The index frame should be a regular model, with a clear comprehension of each component; consequently, associated knowledge could be live-updated with the investigation progress. Therefore, the method of data registration stresses its importance. The axis is fundamental for Chinese traditional architecture as the basis for positioning all components in wooden structures. However, displacement often happens. To correct the displacement while modeling, the hypothetical axis should be determined first. This paper thus proposes a method of generating the regular axis from irregular column grids and aims to develop an automatic solution that is repeatable and transplantable. The finite element modeling (FEM) abstracts the actual problem to enable numerical calculation. Starting from a candidate solution, the genetic algorithm calculates a solution closest to the expectation from the possible solutions in several minutes. The standard deviation is used to measure the amount of displacement based on the hypothetical axis, which is expected to be minimum. This method is compatible with most kinds of input data, e.g., point cloud, excel data, 2D drawing, mesh model, etc., and applied to a World Heritage Site in Qufu (Shandong, China). The results show the displacement of columns with visual expression and numerical analysis and prove that the proposed method is repeatable and traceable and can easily be applied to different projects by changing input parameters.
... Extended reality and informative models have been created for architectural heritage from scans, building information modeling (BIM), virtual reality (VR), and AR, among others [12]. Heritage-related BIM provides complexity in both surveying and preserving [13]. ...
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Article
Building heritage contributes to the historical context and industrial history of a city. Brick warehouses, which comprise a systematic interface between components, demand an interactive manipulation of inspected parts to interpret their construction complexity. The documentation of brick details in augmented reality (AR) can be challenging when the relative location needs to be defined in 3D. This study aimed to compare brick details in AR, and to reconstruct the interacted result in the correct relative location. We applied photogrammetry modeling and smartphone AR for the first and secondary 3D reconstruction of brick warehouse details and compared the results. In total, 146 3D AR database models were created. The AR-based virtual reconstruction process applied multiple imagery resources from video conferencing and broadcast of models on the Augment® platform through a smartphone. Tests verified the virtual reconstruction in AR, and concluded the deviation between the final secondary reconstructed 3D model and the first reconstructed model had a standard deviation of less than 1 cm. AR enabled the study and documentation of cross-referenced results in comparison with the simplified reconstruction process, with structural detail and visual detail suitable for 3D color prints.
... These point clouds must be previously managed in ReCap [60,74] to eliminate unnecessary zones, adjust the point density according to the intended use or, if the file is very large, divide the cloud into zones to improve the performance of the programme (Figure 1c). This was done for cleaning noise points and to obtain a lighter cloud of points before it was used in 3D modelling using Revit [82] to model buildings and trees (Figure 1), considering the high-density of the 3D point cloud and geo-referenced data on urban green infrastructure in urban planning environments. ...
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Article
In green urban areas, the allergenic factor is important when selecting trees to improve the quality of life of the population. An application of laser imaging detection and ranging (LiDAR) in building information modelling (BIM) is the capture of geo-referenced geometric information of the environment. This study presents the process of digitalisation of a green infrastructure inventory based on the geolocation and bioparameters of the cypress species. The aerobiological index (IUGZA) was estimated by developing green infrastructure BIM models at different detail levels and with a new BIM dimension (6D) for the urban environment. The novelty of the study is the modelling of urban information for evaluating the potential environmental impact related to the allergenicity of the urban green infrastructure using LiDAR through BIM. The measurements of cypress trees based on bioparameters and distances were applied to the IUGZA. This innovation for describing the current 3D environments and designing new scenarios in 6D may prevent future problems in urban areas during construction projects.
... In recent years, interesting studies tried to go beyond simple 3D representation and orient the modelling of SUs to support the archaeologic excavation for archaeology research management (ARM), heterogeneous datasets in HBIM of decorated surfaces and information modelling for the communication of historical phases subtraction process (Heesom et al., 2021;Lerma et al., 2010;Reina et al., 2019, Stanga et al., 2017Valente et al., 2017). Furthermore, different HBIM based approaches enabled objects to manage the material mapping when belonging to 3D complex objects has been proposed and applied to the Basilica di Collemaggio (Brumana et al., 2018;Kivilcim & Duran, 2021;Nieto et al., 2021;Valinejadshoubi et al., 2018). In this context, this study intends to exploit and improve those aspects toward the specificity of the building archaeology application with HBIM (Section 4). ...
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Article
This paper describes the case study of the damaged church of St. Francesco in the hamlet of Arquata del Tronto (Italy) that was struck by the earthquake in 2016. The municipality commissioned the research to support the preliminary design of the preservation plan. The first digitisation level has been started from the richness of surveying data acquired from static and dynamic terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), and photogrammetry, overcoming challenging constraints due to the scaffolding covering the surfaces. The geometric survey allowed authors to acquire massively geometric and material information supporting the three-dimensional (3D) volume stratigraphic and the creation of the Heritage Building Information Modelling (HBIM). The paper proposes a shift from the Geographic Information System (GIS)-based analysis of the materials toward spatial HBIM management. Building Archaeology is turned into HBIM 3D volume stratigraphy, overcoming the bidimensional (2D) surface mapping, in favour of a 3D understanding of direct and indirect sources. Material mapping is added to HBIM 3D volume stratigraphy, and each stratigraphic unit (SU) has its proprieties. The 3D volume stratigraphic database has been designed to collect the data on the unit detection at three levels (direct sources data collection, indirect data documentation, the relation among the BIM object elements). A common data environment (CDE) has been set up to share the 3D volume informative models that can be accessed, and all the information gathered. The knowledge transfer using the eXtended reality (XR) has been devoted to the citizen and tourist fruition, enhancing the comprehension of difficult concepts like the SUs to support a better critical 3D reconstruction. It includes the phases of construction across time-lapse documentation that validates related information within the building archaeology informative models leaving spaces to the uncertainty and documenting the relationship established so far thanks to the direct and indirect sources. The result obtained is a live digital twin that can be continuously updated, which justifies the costs and time demanding of HBIM despite 2D drawings.Highlights: • 3D survey and scan-to-HBIM process for the creation of a digital twin were oriented to the preliminary design of the preservation plan of the church of St. Francesco in Arquata del Tronto (Italy). • Stratigraphy is investigated and oriented towards a digitisation process to share different levels of knowledge through new forms of digital-sharing such as Common Data Environment (CDE) and cloud-based BIM platform. • eXtended reality (XR) is the final tool to reach new levels of communication and a wider audience characterised by experts in the construction sector and virtual and non-expert tourists.
... The long term dynamic monitoring of the Santa Maria di Collemaggio basilica, shown in Fig.1, revealed astonishing evidence: the first natural frequencies are decreasing between years since the first recordings in 2018. Different from other case studies, the monitoring system is installed after an important intervention following the 2009 earthquake in L'Aquila Aloisio et al. 2020aAntonacci et al. 2020, ;Brumana et al. 2018;Longarini et al. 2018;Zucca et al. 2018). Likely, the system monitors the response of a partially new structure, where the short-term effects due to the stabilization of the boundary conditions and the structural materials may be detectable. ...
Article
The long term dynamic monitoring of the Santa Maria di Collemaggio basilica revealed an unexpected trend of the first natural frequencies decreasing from their initial values estimated in 2018. The decrement of the natural frequency could originate from several factors. The structural system derives from the arrangement of four building materials: masonry (predominant), reinforced concrete (RC), timber and steel. Masonry is unlikely to suffer rapid decaying of its mechanical properties. Reinforced concrete (RC) and embedded steel should not present decaying phenomena in the first years after built. Likewise, the steel plates which connect the Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) panels should not manifest a significant progression of corrosion in an indoor environment. Conversely, timber's physical and mechanical properties, such as swelling and shrinkage, density, modulus of elasticity, strength have a time-dependent response, even in the long term. Likely, the decaying of the natural frequencies depends on the CLT roof's time-dependent behaviour due to the potential modification of its mechanical properties and boundary conditions (interaction with the steel plates, e.g.). This paper presents selected results from the basilica's three-year continuous dynamic monitoring and discusses an elementary mechanical model representative of the dynamics transverse to the nave walls. The mechanical model described by a limited set of parameters drives the assessment of the CLT roof's possible role in causing the detected decrement of the natural frequencies.
... Foremost, the 3D scanning and photogrammetry technology, which is the foundation of HBIM, was developed in the West. Hence, the scope of relevant studies has primarily focused on stone architectures [2][3][4][5][6][7][8]. Some HBIMs for wooden structures exist, and the structural analysis aspect is strong with respect to wooden truss analysis, HBIM workflow [9], and storage of life-cycle data about extant timber structures [10]. ...
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Article
Historic building information modelling (HBIM) is a technology that documents and analyses 3D model information for reverse engineering using laser scan and image survey data of buildings having heritage value. In the case of traditional Korean wooden architectures, especially the bracket-sets of buildings, there is a limit to accuracy, owing to non-visible seams. Thus, in this study, mesh modelling is conducted using point-cloud data of the entire Seoikheon building of Jeonju Pungpajigwan, which is a national cultural property of Korea. After dismantling the building, scanning the members and cross-checking the cloud data, it was possible to create a realistic Rhino 3D model that includes joints of the bracket set. Hence, it is possible to implement a 3D model in Revit that reflects the unique shapes and characteristics of traditional wooden architectures. The resultant model not only provides a platform of various historic building information, but it can also be used as a digital twin to understand deformation and damage to wooden joints.
... Figures 10 and 11 summarize the process applied to the damaged umbrella vault of the Basilica of Collemaggio. Furthermore, based on the development and appropriate use of various exchange formats, it was possible to increase the use of BIM for finite element analysis (FEA) [88], CoSIM [89] and decay analysis [90]. Based on the assumption that historical constructions made of specific structural elements such as irregular walls, arches and vaults are appropriately represented by 3D objects in clustered BIM databases, a generative process that could create specific and accurate 3D historical elements such as decayed areas, wall stratigraphic information and structural failure was also investigated ( Figure 12). ...
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Article
Today, a building is not just a “body” or a “machine” as defined by modern architecture, but rather an immaterial entity immersed in a digital world where not only its components but also the information associated with it are accounted for. In recent decades, building information modelling (BIM) has made it possible to move from 2D CAD drawings to 3D models capable of supporting different processes and interacting with different disciplines in the AEC industry for storing, documenting and sharing heterogeneous content. It has thus become possible to direct these techniques towards built heritage to investigate new forms of communication and share heritage building information modelling (HBIM) models. This research investigates this evolution in both generative terms (scan-to-BIM process) and cultural and historical terms in order to orient BIM uses towards novel forms of interactivity and immersion between users and models. The author proposes the use of a digital process and the development of VR and AR environments based on a visual programming language (VPL) to improve access to a deeper knowledge of HBIM models and the artefacts and information contained therein.
... The BIM methodology applied to historical buildings should consider the information variables [42], although establishing a Level of Detail (LoD) for historical buildings is not easy [25] as BIM should be related to the documentation process. The HBIM approach of the LoD is characterized by the level of detail as it is a simple or complex example within the construction domain [43]. Thus, the Levels of Development (LOD) where the agents of the process interoperate should be established in the BIM modelling process. ...
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Article
Maintaining the structure and ornaments of historical buildings is essential to preserve cultural heritage in any society. Thus, dating the state and the evolution of the elements requires a special treatment, including the application of both advanced numerical analysis and non-invasive data acquisition techniques. In the latter, making digital copies of geometries through 3D reconstruction models is of great interest to compare and analyse structural evolutionary data accurately. For this purpose, appropriate software with containers of information correlated to the parametric elements in a BIM environment should be used. However, it is imperative to advance from static to dynamic models to collect the structural transformations caused by both the pass of time and other factors. The methodology followed in this paper is based on the experimentation by creating digital twins. The portico of a courtyard in a historical building from the 18th century was used as test bed. Based on the bibliographical recommendations, the terrestrial laser scanner is applied as a technique to acquire accurate data. The point cloud is used as a referential auxiliary to survey the model in the BIM platform with the Revit software. To assess the quality of the model built and to analyse the structural deviations between the parametric model and the actual geometry, the Dynamo script is used. To validate the experimentation, structural deviations are measured using both the parametric model and the point cloud with CloudCompare, a software for data treatment. The results were very positive because the deviation between the data obtained by Dynamo© and CloudCompare in the most unfavourable construction unit was between 0.5 and 1.17 cm, so these techniques are highly appropriate to review visual records and to analyse structural deviations. This new approach presents a new gap in the 3D reconstruction to date and control architectural structures, particularly in historical buildings.
... Creation of a BIM collaborative platform, with two main functions: design work management (collaborative workspace for BIM data, by discipline) and project work management (costs, procurement, workflows, etc.) [88] 2 F How to combine multiple BIM files? ...
Chapter
BIM interoperability has been recognized as a strong brake to BIM collaboration and is a very active research field. This paper systematically reviews 80 applicative articles about BIM collaboration and interoperability recently published, in order to analyze the different trends and to create an understandable map of the subject for researchers. The subject is analysed in three analytical frameworks: (1) the AEC context in which collaboration and interoperability issues are raised, (2) the collaborative goal of BIM interoperability, and (3) BIM collaboration and interoperability suggested solutions. The main findings of this paper are three research gaps: (1) BIM collaboration and interoperability are not often conjointly addressed; (2) solving approaches rarely consider the problem though the trivial angle of data querying and retrieval; (3) interoperability for geometrically complex BIM models could receive more attention. Research perspectives are consequently deducted.
... Complexity is related to several issues which need to be taken into account with an overall approach: methods of surveying and digitisation require to be addressed within a holistic framework, where models are related to information. Despite the BIM limitations when applied to the HBIM, the world of Heritage Building Information Modelling could help orient 3D quality models (Brumana, Banfi, Cantini, Previtali, & Della Torre, 2019;Brumana et al., 2018). ...
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Conference Paper
Following the action plan implementation of the Virtual Multimodal Museum (ViMM) project, which finished in March 2019, the European Commission issued a Declaration on Cooperation on Advancing Digitisation of Cultural Heritage during the Digital Day in April 2019. One year later, in April 2020, the European Commission (EC) launched a call for tenders to develop a Study on quality in 3D digitisation of tangible cultural heritage (the Study), thus responding to the increasing demand for internationally recognised standards for the holistic 3D documentation of Europe’s rich cultural heritage (CH). To address this lack of standards, the Study aims to map parameters, formats, standards, benchmarks, methodologies and guidelines, relating to 3D digitisation of tangible cultural heritage, to the different potential purposes or uses, by type of tangible cultural heritage, and by degree of complexity of tangible cultural heritage. A team of researchers at the Cyprus University of Technology (CUT) is leading a consortium of partners from industry and academia across Europe to conduct this unique Study. This work in progress paper introduces the objectives and methodology of the Study, as well as presenting some of its first results.
... Levels of details and accuracy: Regarding the reconstructed 3D models of buildings, levels of detail (LODs) and levels of accuracy (LOAs) [251] are an essential indicator showing the quality, complexity, and applicability of the modelling [252]. The LODs and LOAs of a building model, indicating how detail and how accurate a model is, are usually set according to various concerns, including data acquisition cost, labor expense, and target applications [253]. ...
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Article
Nowadays, point clouds acquired through laser scanning and stereo matching have deemed to be one of the best sources for mapping urban scenes. Spatial coordinates of 3D points directly reflect the geometry of object surfaces, which significantly streamlining the 3D reconstruction and modeling of objects. The construction industry has utilized point clouds in various tasks, including but not limited to, building reconstruction, field inspection, and construction progress tracking. However, it is mandatory to generate a high-level (i.e., geometrically accurate, semantically rich, and simply described) representation of 3D objects from those 3D measurements (i.e., points), so that the acquired information can be fully utilized. The reconstruction of 3D objects in a scene of man-made infrastructure and buildings is one of the core tasks using point clouds, which involves both the 3D data acquisition and processing. There are few systematic reviews summarizing the ways of acquiring 3D points and the techniques for reconstructing 3D objects from point clouds for application scenarios in a built environment or construction site. This paper therefore intends to provide a thorough review of the state-of-the-art acquisition and processing techniques for building reconstruction using point clouds. It places particular focus on data acquisition and on the strengths and weaknesses of key processing techniques. This review work will discuss the limitations of current data acquisition and processing techniques, as well as the current research gap, ultimately providing recommendations on future research directions in order to fulfill the pressing needs of the intended construction applications in the foreseeable future.
... Moreover, extended reality and informative models have been created for architectural heritage from scans to building information modeling (BIM), virtual reality (VR), and AR [15]. Heritage building information modeling (HBIM) embodies complexity in surveying and preservation [16]. Geological view of relics and landscapes enhances the social awareness of culture and the protection of heritage [17]. ...
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Article
Zoning conflicts have transformed Old Street fabrics in terms of architectural style and construction material in Lukang, Taiwan. This transformation should be assessed as a contribution to digital cultural sustainability. The objective of this study was to compare the evolved façades resultant from the changes made by the development of architectural history and urban planning. A combination of 3D scan technology and a smartphone augmented reality (AR) app, Augment®, was applied to the situated comparison with direct interaction on-site. The AR application compared 20 façades in the laboratory and 18 façades in four different sites using a flexible interface. The comparisons identified the correlation of evolved façades in real sites in terms of building volumes and components, pedestrian arcades on store fronts, and previous installations. The situated comparisons were facilitated in a field study with real-time adjustments to 3D models and analyses of correlations across details and components. The application of AR was demonstrated to be effective in reinstalling scenes and differentiating diversified compositions of vocabulary in a remote site.
... This relation could be understood as the LoI of the object, demanding the proper definition of materials or degradation processes among others. For example, Brumana et al. [19] uses custom properties in the objects to map the damages presented in the building, increasing the objects' LoI by adding historical information. Quattrini et al. [20] proposes the use of shared parameters to establish the same LoI for different HBIM elements. ...
Article
This work presents an approach for the preventive conservation of historical constructions by means of Historical Building Information Modelling (HBIM) strategies. To this end, the methodology exploits the latest advances in inspection protocols, digitalization tools -by means of the novel back-pack mapping systems- as well as wireless monitoring networks. All this information is integrated in the HBIM environment by using ad-hoc families and interoperable communication protocols that allow obtaining a complete knowledge of the conservation status of the site. Additionally, the approach uses key performance indicators in order to evaluate the environmental conditions of the different assets presented in the site. All these features have been validated in one of the most representative heritage buildings in Spain: The General Historical Library of the University of Salamanca.
... The University of L'Aquila began the study of the dynamics of the Santa Maria di Collemaggio basilica in 1989. Dozens of scholars studied the basilica from historical [13], archaeological [14], architectural [15][16][17][18], structural [19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28], geotechnical [29,30] and even energetic [31] perspectives. The dynamics of the Basilica was investigated by the University of L'Aquila [32][33][34][35][36][37]. ...
Article
The Santa Maria di Collemaggio basilica is a 13th-century masonry masterpiece. The restoration works following the 2009 earthquake in L'Aquila included the installation of a permanent monitoring system. Crack gauges monitor a few significant cracks that appeared during the 2009 earthquake. Force-Balance accelerometers record the dynamic response of the entire structure. The dynamic response to ambient excitation leads to the estimation of the modal parameters. The current paper reports the outcomes of two years of static and dynamic monitoring from 1/1/2018 to 31/12/2019. The authors correlated the outdoor temperature and relative humidity to both the amplitude of the cracks and the modal parameters. The temperature deeply affects the static and dynamic response of the basilica. However, the linear correlations between the temperature and the structural response are diverse. There are cracks which stretch when the temperature rises and cracks which act oppositely. Natural frequencies lower when the temperature rises, while the same modes exhibit modal interaction phenomena. Furthermore, the natural frequencies of the basilica are not stationary but are moderately declining across the years. The basilica is a complex structure, where the different constitutive behaviour of three different materials, masonry, steel and timber may yield a varied structural response. The authors attempt to provide a qualitative interpretation of the observed behaviour, namely the detected correlations to the outdoor temperature, the lowering of the natural frequencies across the years and mode interaction phenomena.
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Article
In the framework of built heritage monitoring techniques, a prominent position is occupied by thermography, which represents an efficient and non-invasive solution for these kinds of investigations, allowing the identification of phenomena detectable only in the non-visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum. This is of extreme interest, especially considering the possibility of integrating the radiometric information with the 3D models achievable from laser scanning or pho-togrammetric techniques, characterised by a high spatial resolution. This paper aims to illustrate how combining different geomatics techniques (in particular, by merging thermal images, laser scanning point clouds, and traditional visible colour photogrammetric data) can efficiently support historical analyses for studying heritage buildings. Additionally, a strategy for generating HBIM models starting from the integration of 3D thermal investigations and historical sources is proposed, concerning both the multi-temporal modification of the volumes of the building and the individual architectural elements. The case study analysed for the current research was the Palacio de Co-lomina in Valencia, Spain, a noble palace-now the headquarters of a university-that, during the last few centuries, has been subjected to considerable transformations in terms of rehabilitation works and modification of its volume.
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The year 2022 marks the 50th anniversary of the signing of the Convention Concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage. Heritage building information modeling (HBIM), which is a digital method of conserving architectural heritage, has recently received a great deal of attention from researchers, planners, and policy-makers in related fields around the world. However, there is not yet a complete analysis of the hot spots and trends in this area of research, nor has a complete workflow based on the practical application of HBIM been developed. In this article, we analyzed the research progress, hot spots, and trends in HBIM since 2010. We used the CiteSpace scientometric analysis tool to analyze 372 documents with high relevance to HBIM from the Web of Science core database using literature co-citation analysis, keyword co-occurrence analysis, cluster analysis, and keyword emergence detection. The findings show that research in the field of HBIM was still in the conceptualization stage during 2010–2017, and with the continuous development of various technologies, attention to HBIM has gradually accelerated since 2017 by expanding its uses to multidisciplinary fields such as artificial intelligence. In the cluster analysis of literature co-citations, 14 clusters were generated, and four clusters, semiautomatic 3D modeling, heritage information system, pilot study, and virtual reality, which have high rates of citation, are discussed in this paper. These clusters reflect the hot spots and frontiers of research in HBIM to a certain extent. In the “Discussion” section, a systematic and complete workflow of HBIM application to heritage architecture is proposed for three levels: modeling, data exchange, and auxiliary management. On this basis, the development of the field of heritage building conservation and sustainable development is analyzed to provide valuable theoretical and practical references to propose future research directions.
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Historic Building Information Modeling (HBIM) and BIM Collaboration Format (BCF) offer new possibilities for recording damage and pathologies, since semantic data can be associated with a BIM model. This study investigates the potential of HBIM for the diagnostic documentation of modern cultural heritage via a case study carried out in the E1 Building, at the University of São Paulo, Brazil. Aiming at a Diagnostic Model, this study investigates the use of BCF rather than a Damage Map produced in two-dimensional representation systems. A BCF platform was chosen to evaluate the available resources and their limitations. The main contribution of this research consists in showing that BIM use is feasible to develop diagnostic documentation. Although not all expected functionalities were identified in the selected platform, we confirmed that BCF is an open data format with the potential to semantically enrich an HBIM model. For future research projects, guidelines are suggested for developing specific HBIM software for the diagnostic documentation of cultural heritage.
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This paper aims at developing a Historical Building Information Modelling methodology for supporting the diagnosis phase in historical constructions. To this end, the work evaluates the capacity of HBIM for integrating all the data generated during the pre-diagnosis and previous tests, including the data coming from point cloud clustering methods. According to this, we propose different families with low Level of Detail (LoD) and high Level of Information (LoI), including strategies for integrating the data of point cloud clustering methods. This proposal is applied to a case study in the Fortress of Almeida (Portugal), demonstrating the viability of the approach for the diagnosis of historical constructions. Future works will be focused on improving the integration of the 3D point clouds features by using convex-hull methods as well as integrating the results of clustering approaches based on artificial intelligence.
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A restoration and conservation project for a building with heritage values requires an increasingly efficient and sustainable methodology. Based on a collaborative ‘Teamwork’ HBIM (Historic Building Information Modelling) project, this paper aims to describe the technical processes applied to a 16th-century historic building to support an open and interoperable workflow between the participating agents. The process is transparent and controllable by operators and disciplines, ensuring direct and continuous access to project data. The study focuses on implementing effective procedures for the identification and classification of heritage architecture. The first stage comprises the analysis of the geometry and materiality of the existing architecture, using data acquisition technologies such as Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) and Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry. The information modelling of the historic building begins with a medium level of knowledge, based on the metric survey and enriched by the materiality of the textures deriving from the point cloud. This enables a modelling approach that fits building components to the real geometry of the historic building, considering the deformations and irregularities that occur over time. In the next phase, the BIM project is developed through the analysis of the construction characteristics, materials, and architectural structuring in the historical evolution of the building. The difference between intervening in architectural heritage and new construction lies in the search for the transposition of construction techniques in walls with a long history, thus requiring classification and sectorisation of the various systems used. It is then required to segment the construction systems based on a semantic study of the walls that make up the envelope of the historic architecture. Programming objects in Python within the BIM platform enables the automated identification processes. The method is applied in the identification of the integrating elements of a larger construction entity, such as the stone ashlars of the masonry wall, and the classification by their construction-temporal dating. The main novelty of this research is the use of the object-oriented programming language (OOP), which automates operations based on an open-source structure and allows the operability of cataloguing, classification, and reuse characteristics.
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Conservation and valorisation practices of built heritage can greatly benefit from Heritage Building Information Modelling (HBIM) workflows. The use of HBIM as an information management process is not fully established yet, also due to the focus on industrialised architecture typical of the most common BIM tools. Capitalising on the benefits of the BIM process in the field of built heritage requires pursuing a continuous trade-off between geometric accuracy, semantic richness and parametric behaviour. This research aims to present an HBIM workflow that, as compared to other, more specific pipelines, is general in scope to support the planning and implementation of maintenance and conservation activities of built heritage, emphasising the representation of the building construction systems. The workflow is structured in five phases (model planning, data collection, geometric survey, breakdown structure and HBIM modelling), recursive and flexible to influence one another and to adjust to the information available and the development of the work over time. Each phase of the workflow is presented with a general outline and a methodological insight to help operators in developing the HBIM process most suitable for specific cases. The results of the application of this methodology on a complex and massive historical building (The National Archaeological Museum of Naples – MANN) show that the workflow is both versatile and sufficiently flexible to accommodate a heterogeneous range of objectives while guiding experts to select and document the most appropriate course of action.
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Um dos mais importantes documentos para a avaliação do estado de conservação do patrimônio cultural construído é o Mapa de Danos, cuja função é apresentar de forma sintética e precisa as informações referentes às anomalias identificadas nessas construções, assim como suas ações corretivas. No entanto, esse documento é usualmente produzido em sistemas de representação bidimensional, que não favorecem uma estruturação consistente dessas informações, tampouco a interoperabilidade. A Modelagem da Informação da Construção Histórica (HBIM) oferece novas possibilidades para o registro dos danos, uma vez que toda a documentação poderia ser associada a um banco de dados e atualizada ao longo do ciclo de vida das construções históricas. Portanto, essa pesquisa tem como objetivo principal apresentar os resultados qualitativos de uma Revisão Sistemática da Literatura (RSL), desenvolvida com a finalidade de identificar o estado-da-arte de pesquisas relevantes que correlacionam os conceitos de HBIM e Documentação de Danos do Patrimônio Construído. A pesquisa foi realizada em seis etapas: (1) Definição da Questão; (2) Estratégia de Busca; (3) Triagem e Elegibilidade; (4) Avaliação da Qualidade; (5) Síntese dos Resultados e (6) Apresentação do Estudo. Foram constatadas distintas finalidades para a documentação diagnóstica utilizando a metodologia HBIM, como avaliação estrutural e gestão de obras de restauro e conservação. Entretanto, foram ressaltadas dificuldades de interoperabilidade entre as ferramentas, que precisam ser aprimoradas de forma a possibilitar a comunicação e gestão das informações relacionadas ao Patrimônio Cultural Construído.
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Post-disaster reconstruction (PDR) is a dynamic, complex system that is chaotic in nature, and represents many challenges and issues. Recently, building information modelling (BIM) has been commonly utilized in the construction industry to solve complex and dynamic challenges. However, BIM has not been thoroughly considered for managing PDR, and there is a lack of comprehensive scientometric analyses that objectively examine the trends in BIM applications in PDR. A literature search was performed considering studies published from 2010 to March 2021 using the Scopus database. A total of 75 relevant studies were found to meet the inclusion criteria. The collected literature was analyzed using VOSviewer through scientific journals, authors, keywords, citations, and countries. This is the first study in its vital significance and originality that aims to investigate the current states of research on BIM applications in PDR and provide suggestions for potential research directions. The findings showed that “Reconstruction” and “Safety Management” have emerged as mainstream research themes in this field and recently attracted scholars’ interest, which could represent the directions of future research. Five major research domains associated with BIM were identified based on the most frequently used keywords, namely “Disasters”, “Earthquakes”, “HBIM”, “Damage Detection”, and “Life Cycle”. Moreover, a proposed conceptual framework of BIM adoption for PDR is provided. Accordingly, the outcomes of this study will help scholars and practitioners gain clear ideas of the present status and identify the directions of future research.
Thesis
Cultural heritage artifacts foster versatile data and information. Today, recording heritage data is conducted via digital acquisition tools and methods. Despite the digital practice in heritage digitization, final representations are still limited to two-dimensional drawings, especially in conservation actions. As a result of the conventional implementation habits, conservation actions remain not fully integrated in the digital workflow and thus integrity issues remain an open research question. To remedy the gap, this study offers a methodology for sustainable management of heritage information bridging the technological advances and the practical needs of typical conservation actions. To tackle the research problem, the remains in the Erythrae archaeological site in Turkey, the in-situ remains of the Heroon, and the scattered stones around it offered as the case. By revisiting the conservation process, this study established a new data-driven conservation action process to offer a fully functional heritage information representation and management process. These actions are as follows: (i) data acquisition, (ii) data processing, (iii) information management, and (iv) curation. The study conducted digital context capturing methods, image-based (photogrammetry) and range-based (terrestrial laser scanning) techniques, for the data acquisition step. Next, the researchers analyzed the material culture of the remains in the data processing phase. Rendering the synthesis and intervention decisions is the third step for the conservation actions process. In the last phase, the workflow utilized the heritage building information modeling (HBIM) platform for the curation process. Consequently, this study offers a state-of-the-art management workflow of multi-dimensional heritage information modeling and a novel integration method into the conservation process paradigm. The offered method is open to adjustments and calibration for other cultural heritage artifacts and intended to be as comprehensive as possible for benefiting different heritage applications at large.
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This communication sets out the map of the proposed process for the professional management framework for the intervention projects of heritage buildings in Costa Rica, which guides the technical direction of this kind of projects. To achieve the objective of designing said model, it was proposed to diagnose the status of the management of heritage projects in the country; the processes of the model and the management tools were formulated, considering the diagnosis, the guide of the Project Management Institute and the suggested by the HBIM protocols. The Costa Rican State owns approximately 80% of the historical buildings, but it does not have institutional protocols about intervention processes so that the country does not have standards minimums that guarantee the use of the resources invested in these projects. Therefore, the model intends to standardize the processes of heritage interventions in Costa Rica and offers new professional management tools for the star-up and planning phases, witch present particularities compared to those used in the management of new construction. In addition, this article presents the new research project of the School of Architecture and Urbanism of the Costa Rica Institute of Technology, as a continuation of the work here exposed.
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Building Information Modelling (BIM) is a process used for new buildings but has been used in existing and heritage buildings since 2008. Historic BIM (HBIM) offers historians, architects, engineers, managers the opportunity to collaborate. Thus, it makes the realization of stages such as conservation, project design and management of heritage buildings systematic and easy. Missing data, documents, and archiving problems are typical issues encountered when protecting heritage buildings. Researchers aim to develop HBIM to resolve these issues, and thus intelligently document, interpret, and manage complex and culturally significant heritage buildings. In this paper, a systematic literature review is conducted on studies published between 2009 and 2020 on the HBIM concept and process. In total, 194 primary studies have been determined on the HBIM process and stages. By examining these studies, an up-to-date workflow was created for the usage areas and process of HBIM. The tools, methods, and software that may be required during HBIM implementation and possible difficulties that may be encountered are explained. Also, it is foreseen that HBIM will replace the traditional survey and restoration process in the near future.
Chapter
The latest developments in the field of generative modeling and building information modeling for heritage building (HBIM) have allowed the authors to increase the level of transmissibility of information through the most modern techniques of virtual and augmented reality (VR-AR). This chapter summarises the last years of applied research in the field of three-dimensional modeling oriented to digitise and correctly represent the built heritage thanks to the integration of the most modern three-dimensional survey techniques with a scan-to-BIM process based on new grades of generation (GOG) and accuracy (GOA). The new paradigm of the complexity of the built heritage, its tangible and intangible values, have been shared through new immersive ways able to increase the information contents and the knowledge accumulated in the last years of one of the most representative and unique buildings of the Lombard architecture: the Cà Granda in Milan.
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The paper intends to define the different levels of quality models achieved to assess architectural heritage in fragile contexts as the earth quaked territories, proposing to reverse the BIM logic ‘simple-to-complex’ in favor of a complex-to-simplex one targeted to HBIM. In order to perform a preservation plan, given the complexity of a damaged heritage, the simplification can’t be the starting point, but the synthesis of the detailed levels of understanding obtained: the case study of St. Francesco church, damaged by the earthquake occurred in 2016, is presented to highlight the deliverables submitted as part of the support to the preliminary preservation design project and decision-making process carried out by the research group of the Politecnico di Milano for the Municipality of Arquata del Tronto. The high level of geometry description acquired by the surveying (TLS, MMS, Photogrammetry) has been finalized to analyze the out-of-plumbs and structural behavior, enriched by the diagnostic analysis detecting the materials and construction techniques, supported the recognition of the stratigraphic volume units and construction phases to better understand the transformations across the centuries integrating the direct data sources with the indirect ones (documents, archives). While in the traditional BIM logic the level of enrichment progressively crosses the Level of Development phases (LOD100-500) by adopting a progressive parallel Level of Geometry (LOG100-500), the paper proposes scales model definition (GOA100-50-20-10) and LOG specifications adapted to the LOD (Design Development, Preservation Plan) reversing the logic and introducing a synthesis model that collects the different analysis, a wrap-up model, to be used together with the detailed high scale models (LOG200-300-400-100), for BIM-to-FEA or BIM energetic analysis, and within LOD600 VR.
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The repair of historical masonry columns damaged by earthquakes is a complex engineering procedure. In most cases, these elements support important vertical loads, and, for this reason, the repairing interventions (such as block replacement) could generate critical modifications of the stress pattern and eventually lead to local failures of the masonry material. In order to prevent critical situations, the repair work should account a complete unloading-reloading process of the column. However, at this time, no specific indications are provided by technical codes and guidelines. In the present paper, the unloading-reloading process developed for the stone masonry columns of the Basilica di Collemaggio in L’Aquila (Italy) is presented. Particularly, two specific unloading systems were designed and verified with advanced finite element analyses. A three-dimensional finite element model of the colonnade and supported nave wall was implemented to check if the unloading-reloading process would significantly change the state of stress in the masonry, causing local failures. The geometry of the structure was reconstructed from a complete laser scanner survey of the church, by considering all the intrinsic irregularities of heritage constructions. Finally, a comparison between the numerical results and the corresponding values measured during the worksite intervention was carried out.
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3D point cloud data from data acquisition techniques such as terrestrial photogrammetry, close range photogrammetry (CRP) and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) play a major role in heritage because of the large amount of information they provide. This data includes the metric accuracy of the objects surface, reflectivity information and materials texture. The point clouds can be exported to Building Information Models (BIM) to simplify the 3D modelling processes, thus becoming part of the restoration and reconstruction project. Currently, most scientific works in the field implement insertion procedures of point clouds into BIM, whose interoperability should be analysed in order to reveal its usefulness in heritage buildings modelling. This paper reviews the scientific literature on the integration of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) and Structure-from-Motion/Multi-View Stereo (SfM/MVS) data into HBIM. Despite having been investigated, this field lacks a methodological structure regarding the integration of point cloud data into HBIM.
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This paper presents and analyses two distinct Building Information Models (BIM) developed for the same heritage building, the Chalet of the Countess of Edla, located in Sintra, Portugal. This building, incorporated in 1995 in the UNESCO’s World Heritage List within the Cultural Landscape of Sintra, was severely damaged by fire in 1999, and two distinct BIM-based solutions were developed afterwards, in 2009 and 2020. The instances followed two approaches, the first being a rehabilitation-oriented digital representation, while the second is a centralized resource for building maintenance. In this study the distinct features and characteristics of both models are discussed, highlighting the importance of information transfer from the model set up during the reconstruction to the later, which was surveyed to document the “as-built” construction. An example of this is the complementarity between the two models, which allowed the incorporation of building features, including non-visible constructive elements, from the first model into the management-oriented BIM.
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The benefits of Building Information Modelling (BIM) accrue from the needs of the interoperability of applied technologies. This scope is strongly related to heritage buildings. Protection plans encompassing phases of heritage conservation, interpretation, intervention and dissemination could lead to a sustainable model through a TeamWork-HBIM project. This work develops a step by step semantically enriched 3D model, from accurate data acquisition to the creation of a container of artistic assets. TeamWork-HBIM acts as a database for movable assets, i.e., parametric objects (GDL) with graphical and semantic information, which are valid for recording, inventory and cataloguing processes. Thus, heritage properties were created and used to create recording and inventory sheets related to movable assets. Consequently, a parametric object was edited in the HBIM project, so a new category called “Heritage Furniture” was available. Data from the monitoring of the artistic asset were included in that category. In addition, the specialist technicians from the TeamWork-HBIM team catalogued a dataset related to artistic, historical and conservation properties. Another advantage of the system was the reliability of the structure of the HBIM project, which was based on the actual geometry of the building provided by the point clouds. The information was valid for both modelling works and specialists in virtual monitoring. Moreover, the reliability of metadata was collected in a common data environment (CDE), which was available for everyone. As a result, the Teamwork-HBIM-CDE project meets the needs of private institutions, such as the Foundation of the Church of the Company of Jesus in Quito, related to the sustainability of the historic site. This sustainability is shown by the implementation of a methodology that strengthens the interdisciplinary information flow by including all disciplines of historical heritage.
Chapter
Nowadays, the availability of fast data acquisition systems based on mobile and handheld laser scanning platform are increasing in popularity due to their rapidity in data acquisition of large areas. BIM and HBIM based modelling can primary benefit of this new acquisition methods speeding up the so called “Scan-to-BIM” procedure. However, point clouds derived from Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) compared to traditional static laser scanning acquisition presents some disadvantages: (i) point clouds are more noisy, (ii) generally less dense and (iii) some drift effects can be presents inside the data due to data registration. For those reason, in order to obtain a point cloud to be effectively used for modelling purposes a careful planning of the acquisition has to be taken into account. This paper, presents a methodology for optimal MMS path design according to some predefined target in terms of point density and point cloud completeness. In order to optimize the scanning path a simulation is carried out to define the best scanning configuration. In this paper the developed methodology is tested on a real case study: the outdoor of the main pavilion of the Politecnico di Milano – Polo Territoriale di Lecco.
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The paper presents the results of an experimental and numerical investigation on Azzone Visconti bridge, a XIV century arch bridge in Lecco (northern Italy). Starting from the historical data and from an extensive mechanical characterization of both the soil constituting the riverbed and of the masonry constituting the piers, the aim of the study is to investigate the bearing capacity of the bridge. A testing loading scheme defined according to the current Italian Code is adopted to check the structural behaviour. A simplified finite element structural model was conceived and calibrated as a control tool to safely perform the experimental tests. Post-test nonlinear finite element analyses have allowed the prediction of the bridge bearing capacity and the definition of the bridge class according to the Italian regulations.
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The new paradigm of the complexity of modern and historic structures, which are characterised by complex forms, morphological and typological variables, is one of the greatest challenges for building information modelling (BIM). Generation of complex parametric models needs new scientific knowledge concerning new digital technologies. These elements are helpful to store a vast quantity of information during the life cycle of buildings (LCB). The latest developments of parametric applications do not provide advanced tools, resulting in time-consuming work for the generation of models. This paper presents a method capable of processing and creating complex parametric Building Information Models (BIM) with Non-Uniform to NURBS) with multiple levels of details (Mixed and ReverseLoD) based on accurate 3D photogrammetric and laser scanning surveys. Complex 3D elements are converted into parametric BIM software and finite element applications (BIM to FEA) using specific exchange formats and new modelling tools. The proposed approach has been applied to different case studies: the BIM of modern structure for the courtyard of West Block on Parliament Hill in Ottawa (Ontario) and the BIM of Masegra Castel in Sondrio (Italy), encouraging the dissemination and interaction of scientific results without losing information during the generative process.
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In December 2012 ENIservizi (the Italian multi-national energy agency operating in many countries), after the Earthquake that occurred in April 2009, decided to undertake the project ‘Re-start from Collemaggio’ with the aim of giving new hope to the L’Aquila community, funding around 14 million Euro to restore the Basilica di Collemaggio. The Superintendence Office carried on the restoration project with the scientific support of the Università degli Studi de L’Aquila and the Università La Sapienza di Roma, under the coordination of the Politecnico di Milano. ENIservizi, aware of the BIM potential in the complex building and infrastructure domain in the world, required an advanced HBIM from the laser scanner and photogrammetric surveying to support the diagnostic analysis, the design project, the tender and the restoration itself, today still on course. Plans and vertical sections were delivered (2012) starting from the surveying campaigns (February and June 2013), together with the first HBIM advancement from the end of 2012 in support of the preliminary-definitive-executive steps of the restoration design project (2013-14-15). Five years later, this paper tries to make a synthesis of the different lessons learnt, in addition to the positive and critical aspects relating HBIM feasibility, sustainability and usefulness to the challenging restoration work. In particular, the Collemaggio BIM experience anticipated the new Italian Public Procurement Legislation (D.Lgs 50/2016, Nuovo Codice degli Appalti pubblici) aligned with to the EUPPD 24/2014: the EU Directive on Public Procurement asked all the 28 EU countries to adopt building informative modelling by February 2016 in order to support the whole LCM (Life Cycle Management), starting from the project and the intervention, through rewarding scores or mandatory regulations. Many analyses foresees to save from around 5% to 15% of the overall investment by adopting mature BIM (Level 3 to 5), particularly 4D remotely controlled BIM in support of the LCM, as in the case of maintenance and management process. The tender for Basilica restoration was published in 2015: the process was not developed enough to introduce selective criteria based on BIM adoption by the Construction Industry due to the lack of legislation at that time and the lack of BIM skills among the companies. Nevertheless ENIservizi also separately funded aside the HBIM of the Basilica to tackle an advanced BIM able to address decision-making processes in the heritage domain among the different actors: to support operators, architects, structural engineers, economic computation, construction site management and restoration, the theoretical and practical approach adopted by the HBIM, overcame the current logic based on sequential LoD (from simplex to complex, from the preliminary to the executive design) that is typical of new constructions in favour of a complex LoD approach that could guarantee management of the richness, unicity and multiplicity of each component and the maximum degree of knowledge in order to derive the decisions from the starting phases of the project. On the lesson learnt from this experience, the process of updating the current codification criteria (UNI11337-2009) was started with a draft proposal stimulating a debate for the future of HBIM adoption.
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Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry is facing a great process re-engineering of the management procedures for new constructions, and recent studies show a significant increase of the benefits obtained through the use of Building Information Modelling (BIM) methodologies. This innovative approach needs new developments for information and communication technologies (ICT) in order to improve cooperation and interoperability among different actors and scientific disciplines. Accordingly, BIM could be described as a new tool capable of collect/analyse a great quantity of information (Big data) and improve the management of building during its life of cycle (LC). The main aim of this research is, in addition to a reduction in production times, reduce physical and financial resources (economic impact), to demonstrate how technology development can support a complex generative process with new digital tools (modelling impact). This paper reviews recent BIMs of different historical Italian buildings such as Basilica of Collemaggio in L’Aquila, Masegra Castle in Sondrio, Basilica of Saint Ambrose in Milan and Visconti Bridge in Lecco and carries out a methodological analysis to optimize output information and results combining different data and modelling techniques into a single hub (cloud service) through the use of new Grade of Generation (GoG) and Information (GoI) (management impact). Finally, this study shows the need to orient GoG and GoI for a different type of analysis, which requires a high Grade of Accuracy (GoA) and an Automatic Verification System (AVS ) at the same time.
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The use of cloister vaults in the construction of noble buildings, as covering elements for square or rectangular rooms, is widespread and well-known. The geometric continuity at the intrados makes generally possible the execution all over the span of frescoes, stucco and decorations. The construction of brick vaults, from the late Middle Age, was sped up by limiting the centering to the wooden planks arches that were instrumental in the profile determination. Nowadays, the availability of several procedures, phases and tools for carrying out a survey allows to draw reliable assumptions about the construction methods and the execution time. It is mandatory to determine the properties of the binders, the shape and dimensions of the bricks, and to carry out a comparison between the geometry of the intrados surface and the evidences emerging at the extrados. The support of the laser scanner technique allows to accurately identify the surface profile and thickness. All these indications, in turn, are useful, in view of an interpretation of the structural behavior, to identify weaknesses, and to highlight contributing factors of instability (if any). The paper focuses on a well-documented case, the Magio Grasselli palace in Cremona in which the cloister vaults of two main rooms show different construction systems, although they were built almost at the same time. The thermographic recordings and laser-scanner surveys highlight the various arrangements used for the cloister vaults.
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Building Information Modelling (BIM) appears to be the best answer to simplify the traditional process of design, construction, management and maintenance. On the other hand, the intricate reality of the built heritage and the growing need to represent the actual geometry using 3D models collide with the new paradigms of complexity and accuracy, opening a novel operative perspective for restoration and conservation. The management of complexity through BIM requires a new management approach focused on the development of improve the environmental impact cost, reduction and increase in productivity and efficiency the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) Industry. This structure is quantifiable in morphological and typical terms by establishing levels of development and detail (LoDs) and changes of direction (ReversLoDs) to support the different stages of life cycle (LCM). Starting from different experiences in the field of HBIM, this research work proposes a dynamic parametric modeling approach that involves the use of laser scanning, photogrammetric data and advanced modelling for HBIM.
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In this paper, we present a procedure which makes available an accurate historic BIM (HBIM) in the cloud. Data processing is carried out with a NURBS-based strategy to reduce the size of the final HBIM derived from images and laser scans, providing an accurate and reliable 3D model with limited memory occupation. This guarantees a remote access with PCs and mobile devices connected through a cloud service.
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In 2011, Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) embarked on a comprehensive rehabilitation of the historically significant West Block of Canada’s Parliament Hill. With over 17 thousand square meters of floor space, the West Block is one of the largest projects of its kind in the world. As part of the rehabilitation, PWGSC is working with the Carleton Immersive Media Studio (CIMS) to develop a building information model (BIM) that can serve as maintenance and life-cycle management tool once construction is completed. The scale and complexity of the model have presented many challenges. One of these challenges is determining appropriate levels of detail (LoD). While still a matter of debate in the development of international BIM standards, LoD is further complicated in the context of heritage buildings because we must reconcile the LoD of the BIM with that used in the documentation process (terrestrial laser scan and photogrammetric survey data). In this paper, we will discuss our work to date on establishing appropriate LoD within the West Block BIM that will best serve the end use. To facilitate this, we have developed a single parametric model for gothic pointed arches that can be used for over seventy-five unique window types present in the West Block. Using the AEC (CAN) BIM as a reference, we have developed a workflow to test each of these window types at three distinct levels of detail. We have found that the parametric Gothic arch significantly reduces the amount of time necessary to develop scenarios to test appropriate LoD.
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In the context of rapid technology development, the theory of using building information modelling (BIM) has been used in several historic places. With BIM technology, an accurate virtual model of a historic building is digitally constructed in order to maintain the building through its entire lifecycle, including demolition. This model, known as historic building information modelling (HBIM), represents a new paradigm within architectural heritage that can be used for creating, conserving, documenting, and managing complete engineering drawings and information. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to give an overview of the concepts, as well as surveying and representation techniques that are used in HBIM in order to support the process of further integration and demonstrate how the complexity of built heritage resources can be dealt with. In addition, the study presents a theoretical framework that has been constructed as a guide towards understanding the different aspects of historic preservation and management through a smart open platform.
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The HBIM of the Basilica di Collemaggio in L'Aquila is part of the restoration project of the building seriously damaged by the earthquake in 2009. The project "Ripartire da Collemaggio", funded by ENIservizi, involves an interdisciplinary group called to work together toward a common goal: the need of security of the structures and the need of conservation of the architectonic value of the Basilica. Starting from the photogrammetric and laser scanning survey, interpretation and modelling were needed to create a detailed HBIM to manage the phases of analysis, simulation of structural behavior, economic evaluation of the project, and final restoration. This paper described the generation of the HBIM and its use in the on-going restoration project with a particular attention to the procedures used to preserve the complexity given by photogrammetric and laser scanning data.
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Conference Paper
In 2011, Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) embarked on a comprehensive rehabilitation of the historically significant West Block of Canada's Parliament Hill. With over 17 thousand square meters of floor space, the West Block is one of the largest projects of its kind in the world. As part of the rehabilitation, PWGSC is working with the Carleton Immersive Media Studio (CIMS) to develop a building information model (BIM) that can serve as maintenance and life-cycle management tool once construction is completed. The scale and complexity of the model have presented many challenges. One of these challenges is determining appropriate levels of detail (LoD). While still a matter of debate in the development of international BIM standards, LoD is further complicated in the context of heritage buildings because we must reconcile the LoD of the BIM with that used in the documentation process (terrestrial laser scan and photogrammetric survey data). In this paper, we will discuss our work to date on establishing appropriate LoD within the West Block BIM that will best serve the end use. To facilitate this, we have developed a single parametric model for gothic pointed arches that can be used for over seventy-five unique window types present in the West Block. Using the AEC (CAN) BIM as a reference, we have developed a workflow to test each of these window types at three distinct levels of detail. We have found that the parametric Gothic arch significantly reduces the amount of time necessary to develop scenarios to test appropriate LoD.
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Conference Paper
The paper illustrates the possibility to move from a 3D content model to an Historic Building Information Modelling (HBIM) to support conservation and management of built heritage. This three dimensional solution is based on simplified parametric models, suitable for industrial elements and modern architecture, that can be useful applied to heritage documentation and management of the data on conservation practices. Here are investigated the potentials in starting the definition of a library targeted to HBIM, toward the logic of object data definition, beginning from surface surveying and representation. In order to motivate the opportunity in using this 3D object modelling instruments, in the paper some case studies has been investigated. Vault and wooden beam floor analysis show how a HBIM for architectonic heritage could be implemented in order to collect different kind of data on historical building (dimensional, geometrical, thematic, historical and constructive information).
Article
The use of construction techniques in cloister vaults in noble buildings, as covering elements for square or rectangular rooms, is widespread across Europe. The geometric continuity at the intrados makes generally possible the execution all over the span of frescoes, stucco and decorations, with a great diffusion of a great variety of solutions. The construction of brick vaults, from the late Middle Age, was sped up by limiting the centring to the wooden planks arches that were instrumental in the profile determination. Starting from laser scanning, photogrammetric and thermographic techniques, the punctual reconstruction of the geometry and construction techniques allowed to recognise and understand the constructive richness, the multiplicity and unicity of each vaulted element, made of recurrent elements and specific features, thus sketching a mixed pattern of workers and highlighting the constructive knowledge of ‘stereotomy’ applied to the brick block vaults. Nowadays, the availability of several BIM-based modelling procedures and tools based on high detailed surveys allows to identify and reconstruct the shape, drawing reliable assumptions about the construction methods and the execution time. The research methodology here proposed intends to tackle an updatable geographic catalogue, able to transfer the construction richness, inheriting the historic lesson of French ‘repertoires’ to generate modern HBIM vault libraries (abaci). The paper focuses on a well-documented case, the Magio Grasselli palace in Cremona in which the cloister vaults of two main rooms, and others, show different construction systems embodied by the geometry. The methodology has shown how the cloister vault typology can be turned to a dome construction in the same vault, and how ‘stereotomy’, the capacity of skilled workers to control the space, modified the typical geometry, made by the ‘generative’ construction process used for the cloister vault (intended as the intersection of 2 barrel vaults), turning it into a dome in the upper part, giving back a sort of morphing, merging the two different generative rules (dome and vault) as described hereafter and creating unexpected scenic effect.
Article
The Basilica of Collemaggio in L’Aquila is one of the outstanding architectural heritage in Abruzzo Region. The church, built in the late XIII century, has experienced many earthquakes during its life, some of which caused damages to the masonry structures, requiring continuous interventions and renovations. The last strong earthquake (April 6th, 2009) caused the collapse of the transept structures and significant damages in the apses area. Since 2009, several research groups have focused their attention on the Basilica, both from architectural and structural point of view. Particularly, recent studies have pointed out the historical value of nave columns, which seem to be XIII century authentic elements. Despite the magnitude of the last earthquake, the columns have proved limited resistance against seismic loads, resulting in a widespread damage, but without reaching the collapse. The aim of the present paper is to understand their structural behavior under horizontal actions. An overall finite element model of the church has been developed to perform eigenvalue and response spectrum analyses of the Basilica. Afterwards, a representative nave column has been studied considering both geometrical and mechanical non-linearity. In order to obtain a reliable evaluation of its structural behavior, two different models have been developed: an analytical model and a solid-brick finite element one. The performed analyses have allowed the evaluation of the stresses redistribution inside the columns after cracking. The results, provided in terms of force–displacement curve and stress contours, have permitted to identify some possible explanations about the columns seismic response.
Conference Paper
This paper presents the photogrammetric pipeline behind the generation of the UAV-based orthophoto of the Basilica of Santa Maria di Collemaggio (L’Aquila, Italy). The 2009 L’Aquila earthquake caused serious damage to the basilica and a restoration work is currently in progress. A part of the research carried out by the authors was the investigation of UAV technology in urban context for supporting the surveying phase carried out with modern techniques that include total station data, laser scans, and close-range photogrammetry. The image acquisition phase by means of an UAV platform is illustrated and discussed along with the implemented algorithms used to generate an orthophoto with a flight over the whole basilica. We would like to prove that UAV technology has reached a significant level of maturity and image acquisition can be carried out in fully automated way. On the other hand, image processing software today available on the commercial market could be insufficient for accurate and detailed reconstructions. The implementation of ad-hoc algorithms is therefore mandatory to exploit the full potential and automate the photogrammetric processing workflow.
Article
This paper presents an innovative procedure to create parametric building information modelling (BIM) objects from point clouds of complex architectural features. BIM technology requires an advanced parametric representation of the geometry involving spatial relationships, constraints and material properties. The aim of the procedure is a BIM-based reconstruction methodology that preserves the level of detail encapsulated in photogrammetric and laser-scanning point clouds, and relies on non-uniform rational basis splines (NURBS) curves. The particular case of architectural objects with irregular shapes is addressed due to the lack of commercial BIM software able to handle such buildings. An actual case study made up of 7·5 billion points is discussed to demonstrate the use of the proposed procedure with huge point-cloud datasets. © 2015 The Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Article
The complexity of historic constructions, with irregular geometry, inhomogeneous materials, variable morphology, alterations and damages, poses numerous challenges in the digital modeling and simulation of structural performances under different types of actions. Although recent developments in Building Information Modeling have introduced advanced simulation capabilities, the numerical characterization of historic buildings is still a challenging task for the lack of reliable procedures for structural simulation. This paper presents an innovative two-step methodology (Cloud-to-BIM-to-FEM) able to convert a historic BIM into a finite element model for structural simulation. The generation of the BIM (Cloud-to-BIM) is carried out with an accurate survey that integrates geometrical aspects, diagnostic analysis based on destructive and non-destructive inspections, material information, element interconnections, and architectural and structural considerations. The BIM is then turned into a finite element model (BIM-to-FEM) with a geometric rationalization which preserves irregularities and anomalies, such as verticality deviation and variable thickness. After setting material properties, loads, and boundary conditions, the structural simulation is run with a detailed model that respects the uniqueness and authenticity of the historic building, without the typical excessive geometric simplifications of the shape. A real case study is illustrated and discussed to prove that a rigorous Cloud-to-BIM-to-FEM workflow allows the generation of an accurate historic BIM from a set of laser scanning point clouds. Structural simulation was carried out with a 3D mesh derived from the BIM in order to take into consideration the geometrical irregularity of a castle. Here, the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed approach are illustrated and discussed.
Conference Paper
One of the greatest challenges to using Building Information Modelling (BIM) for the documentation of architectural heritage is in overcoming the propensity of the software toward standardization. Most BIM applications are optimized for industrialized building systems where even a minor deviation in geometry or dimension between like elements is considered problematic. Heritage buildings, on the other hand, are more typically constructed of unique elements that, while sometimes similar, can never be assumed to be identical. For example, two Corinthian capitals from the Temple of Mars Ultor may be similar, but they are not the same. In this paper, we discuss a novel method for developing a BIM for a unique vernacular building in eastern Ontario, Canada. Constructed anonymously in two discrete stages during the last half of the 19C, the builders employed both stacked log and an idiosyncratic balloon frame construction. Both types of construction are far from the standard assemblies found in commercial BIM software. In discussing the construction of the model, we will outline the integration of detailed survey data, including pointcloud, with a library of 'typical', but parametric, construction details under development by our research group. While the survey provides an accurate geometrical record of the building under discussion - including structural deformations - the library is used to develop the specific assemblies and is based on, and fully indexed to, 'typical' details culled from construction manuals available in Canada during the late 19C.
Article
The paper outlines a method to compare two digital surfaces of the same rock face to detect major changes resulting from detached rocks and deformations. A terrestrial laser scanning survey is used for data gathering. After georeferencing, if the cliff has a complex morphology, a 3D segmentation algorithm is applied to split the whole rock surface into more subregions with an almost planar structure. In each subregion the raw point cloud is resampled on a regular grid and multitemporal differences are analyzed. Anomalies in differences, which should be very close to zero if no geometric variations have occurred, are identified with the following purposes: (a) localizing gross changes due to rock detachments, (b) removing global rigid-body displacements, and (c) understanding local cliff deformations. In the case where the rock face is covered by vegetation, this has to be filtered out, e.g., by visual inspection of RGB images co-registered to the point cloud. This paper also describes a procedure to carry out vegetation filtering in automatic way from the analysis of near-infrared images captured by a camera integrated to laser scanner. The application of the full processing pipeline has been tested on a real case study located in the Italian pre-alpine area. Here, after filtering some vegetation, a total rock fall volume of 0.15 m3 was detected on a cliff of about 375 m2 and within a period of six months.
Article
On Monday, the 6th of April, 2009, a devastating earthquake struck L’Aquila causing the partial collapse of the Basilica S. Maria di Collemaggio, an important symbol of the city. The mechanism of the transept structure’s failure, which left the external boundary walls almost undamaged, probably due to the sudden collapse of the large multi-lobed pillars at the end of the nave, is discussed in the paper by different points of view. A brief historical review of the monument restorations is followed by the analysis of the damage scenario recorded during the post-earthquake inspections. Finite element models of the Basilica, updated on the basis of available dynamic tests, have been used to perform a seismic assessment by response spectrum analysis according to the current Italian code, showing a high vulnerability, in the transversal direction larger than in the longitudinal one. The AQK earthquake accelerograms, recorded close to the site, have evidenced a prevailing component almost aligned with the longitudinal Basilica axis; the intensity is comparable with the one provided by the code, with exception in the vertical one greater than expected. Static nonlinear analyses have furnished the crack propagation in the masonry walls due to the increase of longitudinal horizontal loads. The presented failure description obtained by structural modeling is coherent with the direction of the registered polarized seismic action and it is compatible with the observed damage and with most of the debris positions coming from the collapse of the transept structures.
Effect of misuse and lack of maintenance on a historical building
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Shaping tools for built heritage conservation: from architectural design to program and management. Learning from Distretti culturali
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A methodological non-destructive approach for the conservation or structural repair of the medioeval stone pillars of the Basilica of Santa Maria di Collemaggio in L’Aquila
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Cracking of the apse of S. Lorenzo in Cremona: structural investigation and monitoring
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Built heritage information modelling management/modellazione e gestione e delle informazioni per il patrimonio edilizio esistente
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Experimental study on the damaged pillars of the Noto Cathedral
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Disegno e modellazione parametrica per la conservazione di un edificio monumentale danneggiato dal sisma. Dal rilievo al cantiere
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Oreni, D., Brumana, R., Della Torre, S., Banfi, F., ( 2017). Disegno e modellazione parametrica per la conservazione di un edificio monumentale danneggiato dal sisma. Dal rilievo al cantiere. In: ANANKE (on course of publication).
Learning from failure. Long-term behavior of heavy masonry structures, series: advances in architecture
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