Article

Formation of 4-Hydroxy-2- Trans -Nonenal, a Toxic Aldehyde, in Thermally Treated Olive and Sunflower Oils

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Abstract

4‐Hydroxy‐2‐trans‐nonenal (HNE) is a toxic aldehyde produced mostly in oils containing polyunsaturated fatty acid due to heat‐induced lipid peroxidation. The present study examined the effects of the heating time, the degree of unsaturation, and the antioxidant potential on the formation of HNE in two light olive oils (LOO) and two sunflower oils (one high oleic and one regular) at frying temperature. HNE concentrations in these oil samples heated for 0, 1, 3, and 5 hours at 185 °C were measured using high‐performance liquid chromatography. The fatty‐acid distribution and the antioxidant capacity of these four oils were also analyzed. The results showed that all oils had very low HNE concentrations (<0.5 μg g⁻¹ oil) before heating. After 5 hours of heating at 185 °C, HNE concentrations were increased to 17.98, 25.00, 12.51, and 40.00 μg g⁻¹ in the two LOO, high‐oleic sunflower oil (HOSO), and regular sunflower oil (RSO), respectively. Extending the heating time increased HNE formation in all oils tested. It is related to their fatty‐acid distributions and antioxidant capacities. RSO, which contained high levels of linoleic acid (59.60%), a precursor for HNE, was more susceptible to degradation and HNE formation than HOSO and LOO, which contained only 6–8% linoleic acid.

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... Corn oil contains about 60% linoleic acid and is commonly used for frying in the food industry, frying fast foods commercially and used also in households for frying. A number of previous experiments have shown the formation of HNE due to heat treatments in the above oils by this laboratory [20]- [25]. It is known that certain antioxidants can delay the reactions of lipid peroxidation and therefore could cause some protection to heat-treated PUFA oils, and lower the formation of secondary lipid oxidation products. ...
... The detailed methods used in the present experiments was described by Seppanen and Csallany [21] [22] and recently by Juan, Shoeman and Csallany [25]. ...
... The method used as described in detail [21] [22] [25]. ...
... • C), and the volatiles were increased with the temperature and constant with time in olive oils (5,12). The content of 4-HNE was increased in the sunflower oil (185 • C for 5 h) rich in linoleic acid (LA) and was more susceptible to decomposition (13). The close relationship between the UFAs and their corresponding volatile aldehydes was also revealed by some studies (14,15). ...
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Thermal treatment of lipids rich in fatty acids contributes to the formation of lipid oxidation products (LOPs), which have potentially harmful effects on human health. This study included soybean oil (SO), palm oil (PO), olive oil (OO), and lard oil (LO) as the research objects, with an aim to investigate the impact of heating temperature and fatty acid type on the generation of LOPs (α-dicarbonyl compounds, malondialdehyde (MDA), α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, and 16 volatile aldehydes). Results showed that LOPs increased significantly ( p < 0.05) with the increase in temperature (100 ~ 200°C). Furthermore, the amount of 2,3-butanedione (159.53 μg/g), MDA (3.15 μg/g), 4-hydroxy-hexenal (3.03 μg/g), 2-butenal (292.18%), 2-pentenal (102.26%), hexanal (898.72%), and 2,4-heptadienal (E, E) (2182.05%) were more at 200°C in SO rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) than other oils. Results from heat map analysis indicated that the 2, 4-heptadienal, and glyoxal related to the myristic acid of oil. Moreover, the MDA was in close association with PUFAs. Based on the effect of temperature and fatty acid type on the generation of LOPs, this study could serve as a control method to reduce harmful LOPs.
... Similarly, the high oleic acid content (80%) in high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) favors the use of HOSO as an EVOO adulterant. 8,9 Therefore, quality control to ensure EVOO purity is of great importance. ...
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Background: As extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has high commercial value, it is routinely adulterated with other oils. The present study investigated the feasibility of rapidly identifying adulterated EVOO using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) relaxometry and machine learning approaches (decision tree, K-nearest neighbor, linear discriminant analysis, support vector machines and convolutional neural network (CNN)). Results: LF-NMR spectroscopy effectively distinguished pure EVOO from that which was adulterated with hazelnut oil (HO) and high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO). The applied CNN algorithm had an accuracy of 89.29%, a precision of 81.25% and a recall of 81.25%, and enabled the rapid (2 min) discrimination of pure EVOO that was adulterated with HO and HOSO in the volumetric ratio range of 10-100%. Conclusions: LF-NMR coupled with the CNN algorithm is a viable candidate for rapid EVOO authentication. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
... A number of previous experiments by the author have shown the formation of HNE due to heat treatments in various oils [34]- [39]. HNE has also been shown to incorporate into fried food [40] [41]. ...
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The autoxidation of unsaturated lipids contained in oils, fats, and food and the endogenous oxidative degradation of membrane lipids by lipid peroxidation result in the formation of a very complex mixture of lipid hydroperoxides, chain-cleavage products, and polymeric material. Experimental animal studies and biochemical investigations lend support to the hypothesis that lipid-oxidation products, ingested with food or produced endogenously, represent a health risk. The oral toxicity of oxidized lipids is unexpectedly low. Chronic uptake of large amounts of such materials increases tumor frequency and incidence of atherosclerosis in animals. 4-Hydroxynonenal, a chain-cleavage product resulting from omega 6 fatty acids, disturbs gap-junction communications in cultured endothelial cells and induces several genotoxic effects in hepatocytes and lymphocytes. Although the concentrations of the aldehyde needed to produce these effects are in the range expected to occur in vivo, their pathological significance is far from clear. Recent findings strongly suggest that in vivo modification of low-density lipoprotein by certain lipid-peroxidation products (eg, 4-hydroxynonenal and malonaldehyde) renders this lipoprotein more atherogenic and causes foam-cell formation. Proteins modified by 4-hydroxynonenal and malonaldehyde were detected by immunological techniques in atherosclerotic lesions.
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Peroxidation of membrane lipids results in release of the aldehyde 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), which is known to conjugate to specific amino acids of proteins and may alter their function. Because accumulating data indicate that free radicals mediate injury and death of neurons in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and because amyloid beta-peptide (A beta) can promote free radical production, we tested the hypothesis that HNE mediates A beta 25-35-induced disruption of neuronal ion homeostasis and cell death. A beta induced large increases in levels of free and protein-bound HNE in cultured hippocampal cells. HNE was neurotoxic in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, and this toxicity was specific in that other aldehydic lipid peroxidation products were not neurotoxic. HNE impaired Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity and induced an increase of neuronal intracellular free Ca2+ concentration. HNE increased neuronal vulnerability to glutamate toxicity, and HNE toxicity was partially attenuated by NMDA receptor antagonists, suggesting an excitotoxic component to HNE neurotoxicity. Glutathione, which was previously shown to play a key role in HNE metabolism in nonneuronal cells, attenuated the neurotoxicities of both A beta and HNE. The antioxidant propyl gallate protected neurons against A beta toxicity but was less effective in protecting against HNE toxicity. Collectively, the data suggest that HNE mediates A beta-induced oxidative damage to neuronal membrane proteins, which, in turn, leads to disruption of ion homeostasis and cell degeneration.
Article
Peroxidation of lipids results in the formation of a number of aldehydic and other carbonyl-containing secondary degradation products. The effect of peroxidative stimuli mediated by vitamin E deficiency, a diet high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (containing cod liver oil), and carbon tetrachloride administration on urinary excretion of a number of lipophilic aldehydes and related carbonyl compounds was examined in rats. These secondary lipid peroxidation products were measured as 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatives. All three treatments increased urinary excretion of secondary lipid peroxidation products, although the pattern of excretion of these products varied somewhat among the treatments. Significant increases were found in butanal, hexanal, octanal, butan-2-one, pentan-2-one, hex-2-enal, hepta-2,4-dienal, 4-hydroxyhex-2-enal, 4-hydroxyoct-2-enal, 4-hydroxynon-2-enal, and a number of unidentified carbonyl compounds. These results suggest that urinary excretion of these lipophilic secondary lipid peroxidation products is a useful and noninvasive marker of whole-body lipid peroxidation.
Article
Aim of this study was to evaluate the total antioxidant activity (TAA) of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and the effect of heating on the alpha-tocopherol content and TAA in relation to the presence of polyphenols, heating time, and temperature. Experiments included the measurement by ABTS decolorization assay of antioxidant capacity of alpha-tocopherol and 14 simple phenolic compounds present in EVOO, either dissolved in ethanol or added to refined olive oil, and the evaluation of TAA, total phenols, and alpha-tocopherol of six commercial EVOO and three olive oils. Finally, four experimental oils were prepared from refined olive oil containing a fixed amount (300 ppm) of alpha-tocopherol and increasing amounts of polyphenols (25, 125, 225, and 326 ppm) extracted from EVOO. The thermal stability of experimental oils under domestic heating conditions (heating time from 30 to 120 min, heating temperature from 160 to 190 degrees C) was studied by evaluating the loss of alpha-tocopherol and TAA according to a Latin square design. Results indicate that TAA of commercial oils is mainly due to their phenol and alpha-tocopherol content. Heating experiments suggest that polyphenols from EVOO are effective stabilizers of alpha-tocopherol during olive oil heating, thus contributing to the nutritional value of cooked foods.
Article
Multiple lines of evidence indicate that oxidative stress is a critical pathogenic factor in Parkinson disease (PD) and diffuse Lewy body disease (DLBD). Previously, we demonstrated increased levels of redox-active iron in Lewy bodies, and that Lewy bodies accumulate advanced glycation end-products. To further characterize the role of oxidative stress in diseases with Lewy body formation, we examined immunocytochemically eight cases of PD and five cases of DLBD for adducts of the lipid peroxidation adduct 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, and for N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML). Our findings demonstrate immunolocalization of 4-hydroxynonenal and CML to Lewy bodies in PD and DLBD. These findings not only support prior studies indicating that lipid peroxidation is increased in patients with PD and DLBD but that oxidative damage may play a critical role in Lewy body formation.
Article
Chronic inflammation induces oxidative stress by producing reactive oxygen species. We investigated how the oxidative stress associated with chronic cholangitis induce bile duct damages in primary biliary cirrhosis. The intracellular status of lipid peroxidation due to oxidative stress and that of glutathione, an endogenous cytoprotective molecule, were examined in primary biliary cirrhosis and controls by immunostaining of 4-hydroxynonenal and glutathione-S-transferase-pi. The former is a by-product of lipid peroxidation, and the latter is involved in the formation of intracellular glutathione. In the damaged bile ducts of primary biliary cirrhosis, glutathione-S-transferase-pi expression was markedly reduced, reflecting reduction of intracellular glutathione, and perinuclear expression of 4-hydroxynonenal was frequent, reflecting active lipid peroxidation associated with biliary epithelial damages. There was diffuse/luminal expression of 4-hydroxynonenal in the bile ducts frequent in primary biliary cirrhosis and controls, likely reflecting absorption of 4-hydroxynonenal, also a component of oxidized low-density lipoprotein, from bile via scavenger receptor class B type 1 on biliary epithelium. The data suggest that lipid peroxidation in the bile ducts with reduced expression of glutathione-S-transferase-pi, may be an important pathologic process leading to the bile duct damage of primary biliary cirrhosis.
Article
Virgin olive oils were subjected to simulated common domestic processing, including frying, microwave heating, and boiling with water in a pressure cooker. The impact of these processes on polyphenol content and physicochemical characteristics of oils was assessed. Thermal oxidation of oils at 180 degrees C caused a significant decrease in hydroxytyrosol- and tyrosol-like substances. In contrast, oils heated for 25 h still retained a high proportion of the lignans 1-acetoxypinoresinol and pinoresinol. Thermal oxidation also resulted in a rapid degradation of alpha-tocopherol and the glyceridic fraction of oils. Microwave heating of oils for 10 min caused only minor losses in polyphenols, and the oil degradation was lower than that in thermoxidation assays. Again, lignans were the least affected polyphenols and did not change during microwave heating. Boiling a mixture of virgin olive oil and water in a pressure cooker for 30 min provoked the hydrolysis of the secoiridoid aglycons and the diffusion of the free phenolics hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol from the oil to the water phase. Losses of polyphenols were detected only at pH lower than 6. Moreover, alpha-tocopherol and the glyceridic fraction of oils were not modified during this process. It is worth noting that all the heating methods assayed resulted in more severe polyphenols losses and oil degradation for Arbequina than for Picual oil, which could be related to the lower content in polyunsaturated fatty acids of the latter olive cultivar. These findings may be relevant to the choice of cooking method and olive oil cultivar to increase the intake of olive polyphenols.
Article
4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), a major lipid peroxidation product of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which was discovered by the late Hermann Esterbauer, is a remarkable trifunctional molecule. Both the hydroxy group and the conjugated system consisting of a C=C double bond and a carbonyl group contribute to the high reactivity of HNE. Most of the biochemical effects of HNE can be explained by its rapid reactions with thiol and amino groups. Among the primary reactants for HNE are the amino acids cysteine, histidine and lysine, which--either free or protein-bound--undergo readily Michael additions to the C=C bond. After this primary reaction, which confers rotational freedom to the C2-C3 bond, secondary reactions may occur involving the carbonyl and the hydroxy group. Primary amines may alternatively react with the carbonyl group to form Schiff bases. Reactions which do not fit into this scheme are the oxidation and the reduction respective of the carbonyl group and the epoxidation of the C=C double bond. Examples will be presented for the interaction of HNE with various classes of biomolecules such as proteins and peptides, lipids and nucleic acids and the biochemical consequences will be discussed.
Article
Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an inverse association between consumption of fruits and vegetables and morbidity and mortality from degenerative diseases. The antioxidant content of fruits and vegetables may contribute to the protection they offer from disease. Because plant foods contain many different classes and types of antioxidants, knowledge of their total antioxidant capacity (TAC), which is the cumulative capacity of food components to scavenge free radicals, would be useful for epidemiologic purposes. To accomplish this, a variety of foods commonly consumed in Italy, including 34 vegetables, 30 fruits, 34 beverages and 6 vegetable oils, were analyzed using three different assays, i.e., Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) and ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP). These assays, based on different chemical mechanisms, were selected to take into account the wide variety and range of action of antioxidant compounds present in actual foods. Among vegetables, spinach had the highest antioxidant capacity in the TEAC and FRAP assays followed by peppers, whereas asparagus had the greatest antioxidant capacity in the TRAP assay. Among fruits, the highest antioxidant activities were found in berries (i.e., blackberry, redcurrant and raspberry) regardless of the assay used. Among beverages, coffee had the greatest TAC, regardless of the method of preparation or analysis, followed by citrus juices, which exhibited the highest value among soft beverages. Finally, of the oils, soybean oil had the highest antioxidant capacity, followed by extra virgin olive oil, whereas peanut oil was less effective. Such data, coupled with an appropriate questionnaire to estimate antioxidant intake, will allow the investigation of the relation between dietary antioxidants and oxidative stress-induced diseases.
Article
4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE) is by far the most investigated aldehydic end-product of oxidative breakdown of membrane n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Its potential involvement in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis has been corroborated by its consistent detection in both oxidized LDL and fibrotic plaque in humans. HNE has been shown to activate both macrophage and smooth muscle cells, i.e. the two key cell types in chronic inflammatory processes characterized by excessive fibrogenesis. By signalling to the nucleus, the aldehyde may up-regulate in these cells both expression and synthesis of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1). Oxysterols, namely 27 carbon atoms oxidation products of cholesterol, are found in relatively high amount in LDL from hypercholesterolemic individuals and are consistently detectable in foam cells and necrotic core of human atherosclerotic lesion. As for HNE, the challenge of cells of the macrophage lineage with a mixture of oxysterols like that detectable in hypercholesterolemic individuals led to a marked overexpression of TGFbeta1 and MCP-1. Both HNE and oxysterols then appear to be candidates for a primary role in the progression of the atherosclerotic process.
Article
4-Hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) were determined using selected ion-monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in 56 kinds of commercially available PUFA-fortified foods including infant formulas and baby foods. HHE and HNE, each specifically coming from the oxidation of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), were observed at <10-77 and 41-132 microg kg(-1) in the infant formulas (n = 12) and at <10-52 and 36-116 microg kg(-1) in the baby foods (n = 7), respectively. 4-Hydroxy-2-alkenals in infant formulas and baby foods were further determined at 10 and 30 days after opening in an attempt to examine the time dependence of the levels of 4-hydroxy-2-alkenals. The values of HHE and HNE had increased appreciably to <10-220 and 79-792 microg kg(-1) in infant formulas and to <10-112 and 135-572 microg kg(-1) in baby foods, respectively, at 10 days and decreased, although statistically not significant, in most of the tested samples after 30 days, which suggested that the reactive compounds might interact with other constituents like proteins in the samples to form adducts or be decomposed with time. Based on the current study, it was calculated that 3-month to 1-year-old babies maintained exclusively on these commercially available PUFA-fortified infant formulas or baby foods could be exposed to a maximum of 20.2 microg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) of 4-hydroxy-2-alkenals, which is two orders of magnitude higher than the exposure of Korean adults estimated in a previous study of the authors' (2005). The present study may trigger future studies investigating the physiological influence of 4-hydroxy-2-alkenals originating from the diet on man at an early stage of development.
Article
The oxidation of lipids containing polyunsaturated omega-3 or omega-6 acyl groups, such as docosahexenoic, eicosapentenoic, linolenic, arachidonic, or linoleic groups, and of the corresponding fatty acids, generates among other compounds alpha,beta -unsaturated aldehydes supporting different functional groups containing oxygen, which can be named oxygenated alpha,beta -unsaturated aldehydes (OalphabetaUAs). These compounds can be produced in cells and tissues of living organisms or in foods during processing or storage, and from these latter can be absorbed through the diet. In the last few years, OalphabetaUAs are receiving a great deal of attention because they are being considered as possible causal agents of numerous diseases, such as chronic inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases, adult respiratory distress syndrome, atherogenesis, diabetes, and different types of cancer. This review deals with the nature of the different kinds of OalphabetaUAs detected until now, their reactivity and consequent biological activity; the several pathways proposed for their formation; the current knowledge about the influence of both oxidative conditions and lipids nature in the rate of formation and yield of each kind of OalphabetaUAs in edible oils; the methods described until now to determine the presence in foods of some of these compounds, such as 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal, 4-hydroxy-trans-2-octenal, 4-hydroxy-trans-2-hexenal and 4-oxo-trans-2-hexenal; and finally, the levels found of some of them in several foods.
4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE), a toxic aldehyde in French fries from fast food restaurants
  • Csallany
  • Boskou
Fennema's food chemistry
  • D. J. McClements
  • E. A. Decker