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Abstract

For making actual purchase in any category, the literature suggests that brand awareness plays a vital role. Whereas in existing literature the conceptual properties of brand awareness were less tapped in finding their impact on actual purchase. Therefore, the current study examined the impact of the two properties of brand awareness, i.e., brand recall and brand recognition on actual purchase of the consumers also testing the moderating effect of price consciousness in the relationship between brand recognition and actual purchase. Majority of the respondents for the study were female shoppers at the retail stores as they are the consumers as well as they play an active role in home budgets. Two separate studies were conducted, i.e., for brand recognition and brand recall, and the survey used 175 responses (125 for brand recognition and 50 for brand recall). The results revealed that brand recall and brand recognition have a positive relation to actual purchase. No moderating effect of price consciousness was found. The paper not only adds to the knowledge but is also important for managers in developing their strategies for the right fit between the brand recall and brand recognition being equally important for the actual purchase.
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The Role of Brand Recall, Brand Recognition and Price
Consciousness in Understanding Actual Purchase
Mehreen Khurram
Lecturer, Business Administration Department, University of Education, Lahore
Dr Faisal Qadeer
Associate Professor, Lahore Business School, University of Lahore
Muhammad Sheeraz
Assistant Professor, Lahore Business School, University of Lahore
Abstract
For making actual purchase in any category, the literature
suggests that brand awareness plays a vital role. Whereas in existing
literature the conceptual properties of brand awareness were less tapped
in finding their impact on actual purchase. Therefore, the current study
examined the impact of the two properties of brand awareness, i.e., brand
recall and brand recognition on actual purchase of the consumers also
testing the moderating effect of price consciousness in the relationship
between brand recognition and actual purchase. Majority of the
respondents for the study were female shoppers at the retail stores as they
are the consumers as well as they play an active role in home budgets.
Two separate studies were conducted, i.e., for brand recognition and
brand recall, and the survey used 175 responses (125 for brand
recognition and 50 for brand recall). The results revealed that brand
recall and brand recognition have a positive relation to actual purchase.
No moderating effect of price consciousness was found. The paper not
only adds to the knowledge but is also important for managers in
developing their strategies for the right fit between the brand recall and
brand recognition being equally important for the actual purchase.
Keywords: Brand Recall, Brand Recognition, Actual Purchase, Price
Consciousness, Lawn Brands in Pakistan.
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Introduction
The consumer today is aware and knowledgeable, thus it has
become more complicated for the managers to understand the purchase
behaviors of consumers. The goal of every business is to get consumer
purchase their goods/services and develop long term profitable relations
with the business. Marketers are trying to achieve this goal by
communications, however, only by remembering any advertisement or any
other communication does not necessarily lead to purchase (Srull, 1983).
There are many other factors, such as brand awareness (Lin, Lin & Ryan,
2014), brand image and brand knowledge lead to actual purchase
(Schiffman et al., 2010; Yazdanparast, Joseph, & Muniz, 2016). The
purchase decision is a stepwise decision starting from initial awareness to
information search, evaluation, selection and reaching ultimately to brand
loyalty (Court et al., 2009; Powell et al., 2010).
In order to know position and importance of a brand in the minds
of target consumers, it is imperative for managers to understand how well
the consumer is aware of the brand. Brand awareness is the extent to
which the consumer is aware of the brand and plays an important role in
the decision-making process (Gustafson & Chabot, 2007; Lin et al., 2014).
The more the consumer is aware of the brand, the more likely it is that the
brand is purchased. This awareness has two conceptual properties
embedded in it; brand recall and brand recognition (Rossiter, 2014;
Rossiter & Percy, 1987). Marketers always focus to regularly evoke brand
recall and embed brand recognition associations in consumer's mind.
Brand recall refers to how well a consumer recalls a brand when
given a certain situation (Prashar et al., 2012). Brand recall is the
reproduction of some targeted item/brand for which consumer has pre-
knowledge or experience (Bagozzi & Sailk, 1983). Recall can be aided or
unaided. When a consumer is given a brand name, and in the form of
advertisement, it indicates to aided recall, when an unbranded
advertisement is given to the consumer to know the name of the brand, it
refers to unaided recall. The dual-process theory claims that brand
recognition is a sub process of brand recall (Anderson & Bower, 1972).
Brand recognition is how quickly a consumer recognizes and
discriminates the brand when any of its elements is shown, e.g., logo,
slogan (Keller, 1993). Recognition is when the consumer is given a full
concept of the actual advertisement to see if it is viewed before by the
consumer. People choose mostly the things that are familiar to them
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(Behe, Huddleston, Hall, Khachatryan & Campbell, 2017; Coates et al.,
2006; Hoyer & Brown, 1990; Mcdonald & Sharp, 2000). As per the
recognition heuristic proposed by Goldstein and Gigerenzer (2002), while
choosing an answer in a situation where the correct answer is not known,
people choose the one which they recognize. Both are techniques to test
the memory of the consumers for measuring the level of awareness he/she
has for the brand or the product; where recall is indirect while recognition
is a direct technique (Plessis, 2005).
Many consumers are price conscious today, and they go for
comparisons whether they are getting good quality against price or not.
Price consciousness is the degree to which a consumer gives attention to
paying only a low price (Linchtensien et al., 1993). Marketers try to instill
in consumer perception that certain brand has greater value for reasonable
price or lower than competitors so that consumer‘s chances of purchase
can be increased (Biswas & Blair, 1991; Campbell, Dipietro & Remar,
2014; Grewal et al., 1998; Urbany et al., 1988) and his brand recognition
in different situations/occasions can be enhanced.
Figure 1
The Conceptual Model
It is evident that brand purchase is influenced by how quickly the
consumer recognizes the brand and how strong it is the part of his/her
consideration set. Brand awareness has been mostly gauged by either
brand recognition or brand recall (Dotson, Fan, Feit, Oldham & Yeh,
2017), which is unable to give a complete and comprehensive picture of
Brand
Recognition
Actual
Purchase
Brand
Price
Consciousness
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the consumer mind (Barreda, Bilgihan, Nusair & Okumus, 2015). Further,
it is also observed that consumer‘s purchase decision is influenced by
his/her level or price consciousness. This is what Huang and Sarrigollu
(2011) also mentioned that price promotions promote awareness.
Therefore, it would be interesting to investigate whether price
consciousness consumers make more purchase after they recall and
recognize the brand matching with their preferences. This study attempts
to fulfill the gap by investigating the individual impact of brand
recognition and brand recall on actual purchase and also by measuring the
moderation of price consciousness with respect to brand recognition. The
conceptual framework of the study is shown in Figure 1. The subsequent
sections, reveal the background knowledge, methodology, analysis,
findings, and discussion.
Literature Review
Actual purchase is basically the purchasing of goods for personal
consumption of the consumer the final stage in the decision-making
process and can be different from the purchase intention. Consumers make
an actual purchase after going through the three-step purchase process:
input, process, and output. This process is influenced by marketing efforts
as well as the social and cultural environment of the consumer. Not only
the awareness and the knowledge created by advertisement and other
marketing efforts, but the image of the brand in the social environment
also plays a significant role in this decision-making process, which
ultimately leads to the product purchased (Schiffman et al., 2010). Per the
consumer funnel (Court et al., 2009; Powell et al., 2011), actual purchase
is a step in the consumer decision-making journey starting at initial
awareness, information search, evaluation of the alternatives, actual
purchase and lastly building loyalty for the brand. The customer‘s
intention to buy the product depends on the value and benefits that the
customer perceives to get from the product (Zeithaml, 1988). Many factors
lead the consumers to the step where they actually purchase the product,
and one of the factors is the satisfaction of the consumer with the
product/brand from the previous purchase. The level of satisfaction will
thus decide the position of the brand in the consideration set of the
consumer for next buying decision.
Brand recall is the mental reproduction of some target item
experienced or learned earlier (Bagozzi & Sailk 1983). It is defined by
Prashar et al., (2012) as ―the extent to which consumers remember
advertising and other messages that have been sent about a brand. It is a
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type of brand awareness where the consumer recognizes or identifies a
brand, using information from memory.‖ Brand recall is the customer‘s
ability to recall a brand when some cues related to the brand is given,
requiring that consumers correctly generate the brand from memory
(Baumann, Hamin & Chong, 2015; Keller, 1993). The importance of
memory cannot be ignored when we think about recalling a brand as
memory factors help in retrieving the brand and also the other competing
brands and thus making a consideration set for the consumer to make the
final purchase (Nedungadi, 1990). For well-known brands, Aaker (1996)
proposed that brand recall and top-of-mind awareness can be more
significant and meaningful. Operationally, when a cue is provided, and the
respondent retrieves the target item from the memory that is a brand recall.
Keller (1993) defines brand recognition as consumer‘s ability to
discriminate the brand as having seen or heard before. Brand recognition
is to confirm prior exposure to the brand when the brand is given a cue.
According to the ―strength theory‖ or ―threshold theory‖ (Kintsch, 1970),
the recognition requires a lower level of strength of memory than it does
for the recall. Different studies have shown that people usually choose
things that are familiar to them (Coates et al., 2006; Hoyer & Brown,
1990; Mcdonald & Sharp, 2000) also in the cases where they have only
seen the things but are not aware of them (Bornstein, 1989 & Zajonic,
1968). As per the recognition heuristic (Goldstein & Gigerenzer, 2002),
choosing an answer in a situation where the correct answer is not known
people will choose the option that they recognize from a previous
experience over the unrecognized option (Barreda, Bilgihan, Nusair &
Okumus, 2015). The people believe that the recognized option is more
secure. Brand image, an equally important component of building brand
equity, is explained by Lin (2009) as the consumer‘s perception of the
brand through the prior product experience plus the information, i.e.,
through recognition of the brand. According to Aaker (1996) recognition
is believed to be more important for the new or niche brands.
Price consciousness is ―the degree to which the consumer focuses
exclusively on paying a low price‖ (Linchtensien et al., 1993, p. 235). Price
can be viewed in two different ways; positively (eagerness to spend) and
negatively (reluctant to spend). When price plays a positive role, the
consumer spends more to get high quality or to give the impression of
high status to others (Lichtenstein et al., 1988, 1993; McGowan &
Sternquist, 1998). The experienced shoppers do not consider price as a
quality cue as they can judge the quality by directly experiencing the
product (Rao & Monroe, 1988). On the other hand, an inexperienced
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shopper relies more on high reference prices and purchase discounts
(Grewal et al., 1998; Yadav & Seiders, 1998). Price is not only used to
judge the quality of the product but also to know the monetary sacrifice
associated with the purchase of products (Leszinski & Marn, 1997;
Monroe, 1990). Due to recent economic times, customers have become
more price conscious and are likely to get best deals for themselves
(Grewal et al., 2012). Price conscious consumers tend to engage in price
comparisons more than the less price conscious consumers (Alford &
Biswas, 2002).
Brand Recall and Actual Purchase
Brand recall is based on the information that is stored in the
memory of the consumer that the consumer can retrieve when the cue is
given. The brand that can create image and personality rightly in the
minds of the consumer has a better chance of revoking recall, and for
various categories, brand recall is enough for generating sales. It has been
long before confirmed a study by Wilson (1981) that higher the brand in
the memory of the consumer there is a greater chance of it being
considered for purchase and then actually purchased. In the modern world,
customers highly depend on their recall ability when making a purchase
decision due to the lack of time available to absorb the other marketing
efforts (e.g., advertising on television, etc.) of the marketer (Prashar et al.,
2012). When the choice for purchase has to be made at home, then recall
the level of learning is important as the choices are not physically present
(Bettman, 1979). According to Nedugandi (1990) brand consideration is
very important for brand retrieval. The brand retrieval refers to the ability
of the consumer to recall the brand from the memory to be included in the
consideration set for making a purchase decision. The brands that are
recalled easily are favorably evaluated by the consumer (Labroo & Lee,
2006), and therefore have a high chance of being purchased. The increase
in the brand awareness leads to better recall of the brand at the point of
purchase, so the companies should concentrate on increasing their brand
awareness (Shabbir et al., 2009). When the consumer can recall the brand
while making a purchase decision, it is called brand recall without priming
(Huang & Sarigollu, 2011). Similarly, consumers prefer to purchase those
brands, which portray higher recall due to the sponsorship of the events
(Biscaia, Correia, Rosado, Ross & Maroco, 2013; Biscaia, Correia, Ross
& Rosado, 2014). The consumers with high brand recall are more inclined
to purchase the brand (Lu, Chang & Chang, 2014; Ndlela & Chuchu,
2016). It is assumed that under brand recall, consumers go through the
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purchase decision process before they make the purchase. Thus, it leads to
the hypothesis:
H1: High brand recall positively affects the actual purchase.
Brand Recognition and Actual Purchase
Knowledge about the brand refers to the ability of the consumers
to recall the information from memory at the time of purchase. According
to Portor and Claycomb (1997), ―a well-recognized brand leads to repeat
purchases.‖ In case of consumer products, customers rely on recognition
when making preferential decisions (Lin, 2013; Thomas and Williams,
2013). When the customers have to decide between the brands, they will
prefer the brand that they have recognized rather than a brand that is
unfamiliar to them. Bettman (1979) says that if the purchase decision is to
be made at the time of purchase, then recognition level of learning is
enough as the options are available for examination at the retail outlet this
is mostly in the case of low-involvement products. Thomas and Williams
(2013) found that recognition is more than just a cue that affects
preferential choice; contrary to some previous studies like Newell and
shanks (2004) showing that other cues can have a significant effect on
inferential choice instead of recognition. Recognition is an emotional task
and relates to the right hemisphere of the brain; the right hemisphere of the
brain refers to the emotional thinking (Krugman, 1977). Neuroscience
believes that human emotions are irrational for good decision making.
However, Lehrer (2009) states that emotions are very important for the
decision-making process. According to him, ―a brain that can‘t feel can‘t
make up its mind.‖ Therefore, the importance of the events that make the
consumers aware of the different brands and the situations around them
play a critical role in the actual purchase decision made by the consumers.
Hauser (2011) concluded that recognition is an important factor in making
a decision, but it is usually one of the cues that are considered when the
purchase decision is made. In some situations, when the customer does not
know about the brand before going to the store, shelf-visibility of the
brand may lead to purchasing behavior, i.e., brand recognition (Huang &
Sarrigollu, 2011). The consumers who possess strong brand recognition
hold strong tendency to purchase the brand (Biscaia et al., 2013, 2014; Lu
et al., 2014) and purchase behavior (Ndlela & Chuchu, 2016). Based on
above arguments following hypothesis is proposed:
H2: High brand recognition positively affects the actual purchase.
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Price promotions are another way for creating awareness for the
brand. Huang and Sarrigollu (2011) found that price promotion
encourages the consumers to purchase the brand which they would not
have purchased at full price. They found that price promotion creates
awareness. Price promotion is a way to show consumers of greater value
for lower prices, thus making them price conscious. More price
consciousness of a consumer may interact with the brand recognition such
that if the consumers are price conscious, it may affect the purchase
decision when the brand is recognized, thus proposing the final
hypothesis:
H3: The relationship between brand recognition and actual purchase is
moderated by price consciousness.
Methodology
Two separate mall intercept surveys were carried out; one is brand
recall study and the other is brand recognition study. Cross-sectional data
is collected from the actual customers of the products in the shopping
malls without manipulating the environment. Three large retail stores were
randomly selected out of the 30 retail stores in Lahore. The sampled stores
(research sites) have a significant high number of customers flow daily
from every walk of life. The data was collected in about three weeks. The
walk-in customers, willing to participate in the survey were briefed about
the study. The questionnaire was handed over to them at the billing
counter after they have paid their bill and were given appropriate time to
fill it on their own. From the mall intercept survey techniques, 200
responses were collected out of which 175 responses were usable for the
two studies. The actual sample for brand recall study is 50, and that for
brand recognition study is 125.
Two separate questionnaires (duly translated in the national
language of Pakistan, i.e., Urdu) are designed. In order to ensure
understanding of the instrument, a pilot study was conducted from fifteen
respondents at a local retail outlet, and there seemed no ambiguity in the
items. Using product category as the cue, the brand recall questionnaire
covers information about demographics and measures for brand recall,
price consciousness, and actual purchase. Similarly, the brand recognition
questionnaire includes a measure of brand recognition, and everything else
was same. However, three identical questionnaires were prepared for three
unique brands (Gul-Ahmed, Firdous Collection, and Al-Karam). Thus,
respondents completed the survey keeping in mind the specific brand. We
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measured brand recall following Nicholls and Roslow (1999). The
respondents were asked to name any four brands that come to their minds
regarding the unstitched clothing brands in Pakistan. The score allocated
to the first recalled brand was 4, and that of the last recalled brand was 1.
For each of the brand, we calculated an accumulated score.
Brand recognition was measured using five items (Yoo & Donthu,
1999). The sample items are, ‗I can recognize brand X among other
competing brands‘, and ‗I am aware of brand X‘. All items are measured
on six-point scale with 1=Never, 2 = Almost Never, 3=Sometimes,
4=Often, 5=Very Often and 6=Always. Actual purchase is operationalized
by a single item, List down the brands that you have purchased
previously in the order of the amount spent (starting from highest to
lowest).' The score allocated to the highest purchased brand was 3, and
that of the last lowest purchased brand was 1. For each of the brand, we
calculated an accumulated score. Price consciousness was measured
through five items (Kinney et al., 2012). The same items are, ‗I check the
prices even for inexpensive items before buying‘ and ‗low price is an
important consideration in my purchases.' Like brand recognition, all
items are measured on a six-point scale with 1=Never through 6=Always.
Analysis and Results
Of the 175 participants, 97% were female; about 44% were married.
In the recognition study (n=125), about 44% were employed, about 37%
are students, and the remaining were home makers. Whereas, in the recall
study (n=50), about 63 % fall in the student category. Most of the
respondents in both studies (about 54% for the recognition study and
about 77% for the recall study) fall in the age bracket of 20-29 years.
The Recall Study-Results
Brand recall score and actual purchase score is calculated to convert
the categorical variables in the numeric form. The recall of brand names is
measured by asking the participants to list four brands by thinking of the
unstitched, locally manufactured clothing. The data transformation
enabled us to rank all brands on the basis of brand recall. We allotted 4
points for the first recalled brand, 3 points for the second, 2 points for the
third and 1 point for the last recalled brands. The same procedure is
followed for data transformation of the responses on the item pertaining to
actual purchase. The brand recall and actual purchase scores are calculated
by an independent judge to minimize the chance of any discrepancies.
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Table 1
Top Ten Brands Recalled and Actually Purchased
Brand Recall
Actual Purchase
Score
Rank
Score
Rank
Gul-Ahmad
136
1
141
1
Nishat Linen
57
2
45
2
Sana Safina
45
3
42
3
Al-Karam
31
4
27
5
Bareeze
25
5
23
7
Wardha
25
6
36
4
Kayseria
21
7
21
9
Firdous
20
8
23
8
Mausammery
17
9
25
6
Asim Jofa
14
10
Khaadi
11
10
After calculating the brand recall, the top four brands recalled are
Gul-Ahmad, Nishat Linen, Sana Safinaz and Al-Karam. A list of the top
ten brands recalled is given in Table 1. In the top ten brands recalled, the
80% of the recall is in the top three brands and 24% in the next six brands.
It means that top three brands are recalled more than thrice the other
brands combined. Table 4.1 also shows the top ten brands actually
purchased. The top three brands actually purchased are same as the top
three brands recalled in the same order and they represent 76% of the
brands actually purchased. The next six brands are also the same, but there
is a minor difference in order. They make up 26% of the brands actually
purchased. The only difference is the last brand on the list.
If we compare the list of top ten expensive brands with the brands
actually purchased, we can note that only three of the expensive brands
(Gul-Ahmed, Nishat Linen, and Sana Safinaz) are actually being
purchased. Just to mention here that other expensive brands recalled in
order of recall score were: Al_Karam, Bareeze, Wardha, Kayseria,
Firdous, Mausammery, Asim Jofa, and Khaadi. Even a brand recall for the
expensive brands is not being translated into an actual purchase. This may
be due to price consciousness of the occasional purchase of these brands
on special events or may be the shares of expensive brands is relatively
less in overall purchase or participants attempted to build impression.
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The Recognition Study-Results
Bi-variate correlation (Table 2) show that there is a positive and
significant correlation between brand recognition and actual purchase
(coefficient = 0.332, p < 0.01), which is as per our hypothesized
expectation and therefore leads to an initial support for H2. This may also
be noted from the table that price consciousness also correlates with actual
purchase (coefficient = 0.199, p < 0.05). The formal education (in years)
does not significantly correlate with any of the study variables. Similarly,
brand recognition is not associated with the price consciousness of the
customers.
Table 2
Bi-variate Correlation among Numeric Variables
Variables
Edu
BR
PC
AP
Education
1
Brand Recognition
-0.016
1
Price consciousness
-0.07
0.137
1
Actual Purchase
0.158
0.332**
0.199*
1
* P < 0.05, **P < 0.01
Hypothesis Testing
We have observed in the recall study that the top three brands
recalled (Table 1) are exactly the same brands that are being actually
purchased. Even the rank order for the three brands is same concerning
their scores. Similarly, the next six brands recalled are also the brands
being actually purchased with some minor differences in the rank order.
Overall, we may infer that there is a strong relationship between brand
recall and actual purchase. The similarity in the rank orders of the brand
names recalled and the brands actually purchased, and the highly
significant and an extremely strong correlation coefficient (almost close to
1) provides strong support for H1.
Table 3
Linear Regression Models for Actual Purchase
Model 1
Model 2
Model 3
Constant
1.080
0.679
-0.325
Independent
Brand Recognition
0.332**
0.307**
0.643
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Moderator
Price consciousness
0.146^
0.434
Two Way Intersection
BR X PC
-0.485
^ P < 0.10; * P < 0.05; ** P < 0.01
The linear regression Model 1 for actual purchase (Table 3)
demonstrates the significance of brand recognition for predicting actual
purchase (coefficient = 0.332, p < 0.01). In Model 2, price consciousness
is also added along with brand recognition to predict the actual purchase.
The results show that brand recognition is still significantly predicting
actual purchases (coefficient = 0.307, p < 0.01). Thus, H2 is supported.
Table 4
Binary Logistic Regression Models for Actual Purchase
Model 1
Model 2
Model 3
Constant
-2.476
-3.608
-5.671
Independent
Brand Recognition (BR)
0.578**
0.511*
1.083
Moderator
Price Consciousness (PC)
0.366^
0.879
Two Way Intersection
BR X PC
-0.141
^ P < 0.10; * P < 0.05; ** P < 0.01
The score of the actual purchase for the brands is an ordinal
variable; therefore, the simple linear regression model may have distorted
our results. In order to get a clear picture, the actual purchase variable is
transformed into high and low categories. The brands ranked at number 1
and 2 may be considered as high purchase brands while the brands ranked
3 are considered as low purchase brand. Now, the dependent variable
becomes a dichotomous categorical variable. In this situation, binary
logistic regression is more suitable. In the Model 1 (Table 4) the
standardized beta (coefficient = 0.578, p < 0.01) is even more high than
standardized beta for the linear regression. Same is the case with the
Model 2. Thus, there is strong support for H2.
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Moderation of Price Consciousness
For testing the moderating effect of price consciousness, an
interaction term (brand recognition X price consciousness) is also
regressed linearly on actual purchase (Model 3, Table 3). The standardized
coefficient of the interaction term is not significant. Therefore, there is no
moderation of price consciousness in the relationship between brand
recognition and actual purchase. Similar results are observed for testing
the interaction term with binary regression analysis (Mode3, Table 4).
Even though price consciousness has a direct impact (p = < 0.10) on actual
purchase in both type of regression analysis (Model 2 in Table 3 and Table
4), it has no moderating role in the relationship between brand recognition
and actual purchase. Overall, we conclude that our H3 is not supported.
Price Consciousness and Expensive Brands
The recall study shows that there exists a role of price
consciousness in the recall of the brand names. Majority of the participants
(64%) in the recall study belonged to the low price conscious category. All
the expensive brands (10) that have been recalled during the study have
been mentioned by the low price conscious consumers. On the other hand,
the high price conscious consumers only mentioned a little less than one-
third of the total expensive brands. In the low price, conscious category,
about 26% of the consumers recalled the expensive brands while in the
high price conscious category about 19% of the consumers could recall the
expensive brands.
The results of the recall study and the recognition study can be
summarized concerning the results of the proposed hypotheses. The study
shows support for the relationship between brand recall and actual
purchase, i.e., H1 is supported. Similar results are obtained for the H2.
Conversely, there was no support for the H3. Although there was no
hypothesis formulated for testing the role of price consciousness in the
brand recall and actual purchase relationship; a positive impact of price
consciousness on the actual purchase of the consumers has been observed.
Findings and Conclusions
We empirically tested the impact of brand recall and brand
recognition on the actual purchase decision of the consumer. We also
tested the moderating effect of price consciousness in the relation between
brand recognition and actual purchase. The respondents were the buyers of
the product, and primary data were collected using a self-administered
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questionnaire. Two separate studies, referred here as the recall study and
the recognition study were carried out for apparel industry (the unstitched
lawn category) of Pakistan, which represents low-involvement product
category. The results of each of the study are discussed as under.
For the recall study, we found two main results. Firstly, the study
finds that there exists a strong and positive relationship between brand
awareness and actual purchase in consumers. These findings are consistent
with the previous research, which states that there exists a strong
relationship between the brand recall and the purchase intention of the
brand. That is higher the brand in the memory of the consumer there is a
greater chance of being considered and actually purchased (Wilson, 1981).
The most recalled brands are also the most purchased brands. We also find
support for the notion that brand awareness increases the market
performance of the brand (Huang & Sarigollu, 2011).
Secondly, the previous research has found that sometimes
consumers rate high price as a sign of better quality, thus forming a
positive relationship with the price (Kinney et al., 2012). Our results are
congruent with the previous results because the low price conscious
consumers have recalled the expensive brands and purchased them also.
Low price conscious consumers are not supposed to be worried about the
price of a brand. Whereas, high price conscious consumer may have the
feeling that some of the brands are beyond his/her reach. Therefore, high
price conscious people stop storing expensive brands in their minds and
thus could not recall these expensive brands accordingly. The difference in
social class and their social influences may be a reason.
For the brand recognition study, there are two main results. Firstly,
there is a strong and positive relationship between brand recognition and
the actual purchase. Three different questionnaires were administered to
test the impact of brand recognition on actual purchase for the three
leading Lawn brands in the Pakistan‘s Apparel industry. The results for all
the three brands were similar and revealed that high brand recognition
resulted in more purchase of the product. The results were in support of
the previous findings that in case of consumer goods, customers tend to
rely on recognition (Thomas & Williams, 2013). The results revealed that
out of three most popular Lawn brands, one brand, i.e., Gul-Ahmad was
the most purchased brand although the level of recognition was also high
for the other two brands.
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Secondly, price consciousness has no moderating effect on the
relationship between brand recognition and actual purchase of the
consumer. We found a direct impact of price consciousness on actual price
exist, however, this is relatively less in value and significance than brand
recognition. None the less both brand recognition and price consciousness
can predict actual purchases directly. Yet the interaction term of the two is
not significant in predicting actual purchases. These results are in support
to the findings that, the information generated from the price ranges does
not interfere with the effects of brand recognition (Thomas & Williams,
2011).
The current study contributes in several ways. Firstly, to the best
of our knowledge, the current study tests both the components of brand
awareness, that is, brand recall and brand recognition, separately which
has been non-existent in the previous literature. Secondly, this is a pioneer
study conducted in Pakistan on measuring the impact of brand recall and
brand recognition on the actual purchase of the consumers and the
moderating role of price consciousness in the apparel industry (unstitched
Lawn brands). Thirdly, the study has helped us in deriving the list of most
recalled lawn brand in Pakistan. Also, top ten expensive lawn brands in
the market were recognized from the results. Fourthly, the two different
questionnaires were designed to measure the brand recall and recognition
separately, and three separate questionnaires were used to measure the
recognition for each brand separately. Furthermore, the translation of the
questionnaire in the local language (Urdu) was done for the convenience
of the consumer and better understanding of the questions asked. Finally,
the study has helped in gaining insights on the role of brand awareness on
the purchase decisions of the consumer in the developing country like
Pakistan.
Limitations and Future Directions
The respondents are mostly females falling in the age-group of 20-
30, and may not be very price conscious. The responses may have been
affected by social desirability biases and the impression management
motives, thereby not providing the real picture. The data was collected
from only one city and therefore lack generalization for the whole country.
Future study can include a more diversified sample in term of gender, age
grouping and respondents from multiple cities. Brand equity plays a strong
role in actual purchase decisions and it's gauging actual purchase must
also be checked. The moderation of only price consciousness is checked,
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whereas, many other variables such as social class, brand loyalty may be
playing a moderating role and offers an area for further research.
Conclusion
The focus of the marketer in today‘s world is not just selling the
product but to make a long-term relationship with the customer. The
organizations aim to make the customer knowledgeable about the products
and services provided by them and convincing the consumer to buy their
product. The importance of promotion efforts of the marketers cannot be
ignored in this context. The main purpose of promotion and advertising is
to make the customer recognize their brand/product immediately and give
it top position in their consideration set by having a strong recall
ultimately leading them towards the product purchase. The awareness of
the brands reflected through brand recall and recognition have a strong
positive impact on the actual purchase made by the consumer.
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... Companies can develop several strategies from five strategic aspects, namely: a. Communication Purpose There are two communication objectives that can be achieved in marketing communication planning activities, namely brand recall and brand recognition. Brand Recall according to Prashar [7] is how good a customer can remember a brand when faced with certain situations. Brand recall can be grown on customers who already have knowledge or experience with the brand. ...
... Brand recall can be grown on customers who already have knowledge or experience with the brand. Meanwhile, according to Keller, brand recognition [7] is how fast customers can recognize and differentiate a brand when faced with elements of the brand such as logos, slogans, and so on. Brand Recognition can occur because humans tend to be able to identify things that can be recognized. ...
... Eles descobriram que a promoção de preços cria consciência. Mais consciência de preço, por parte do consumidor, pode interagir com o reconhecimento da marca, de tal forma que se os consumidores forem conscientes do preço, esse pode afetar a decisão de compra, quando a marca for reconhecida (Khurram, Qadeer, & Sheeraz, 2018). Nesse contexto, tem-se a seguinte hipótese: ...
... A hipótese H3 que sugere influência da renda familiar no top of mind da marca mais lembrada de eletrodomésticos também foi suportada, essa foi validada (b = 0,187, p < 0,05), resultados em conformidade com o trabalho apresentado que aponta existência de diversos fatores, dentre esses a renda familiar, determinantes do comportamento do consumidor na busca pela satisfação de suas necessidades, ou seja, o processo de decisão de compra é influenciado por diversos impulsos (Castro et al., 2020). Já a hipótese H2 que sugere a influência do preço no top of mind da marca de eletrodomésticos, eletrodomésticos essa foi refutada (b = 0,000, p > 0,05), indo em desacordo com as conclusões de (Khurram et al., 2018). E contra a conclusão de que uma das formas de manter a marca em evidência é o preço. ...
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... According to Khurram et al. (2018), brand awareness consists of two essential parts: recall and recognition. Recall is the ability of consumers to remember the brand in a specific product category. ...
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Purpose: This research aimed to analyze the role of perceived risk in the relationship between brand awareness and purchase intention. This research is important because the perceived risk of online purchasing can influence consumer purchasing behavior. Design/methodology/approach: This research used an explanatory study with a quantitative approach. The research was conducted on 112 Shopee users in Makassar City. Data were collected through an online questionnaire. The data collected were analyzed using the Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) with the AMOS application and the Sobel Test to test the indirect relationship. Findings: Risk, financial risk, time risk, delivery risk, and privacy risk were essential elements forming perceived risk. Brand awareness had a positive influence on purchase intention. Perceived risk was a variable that mediated the influence of brand awareness on purchase intention. Originality/value: The results of this research indicated that the more aware consumers are of a brand, the negative perceptions of the brand will appear due to the ease with which information was disseminated and accepted by consumers. Perception of risk is a factor that can reduce consumer buying interest. Consumer purchase intention towards a known brand will decrease if the brand is perceived as having a high risk. Research limitation: This research was conducted on most students who did not yet have stable financial capabilities. For further studies, we suggest using respondents who have better financial ability to provide a more tangible measurement of purchasing ability. Practical implication: Results showed that perceived risk could reduce the influence of brand awareness on purchase intention. Thus, minimizing risk, ensuring the absence of perceived negative things before choosing a brand, and ensuring consumer comfort in using a brand were factors encouraging purchase intention.
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A growing body of research testifies that humans naturally deduce certain images from auditory cues as they do from visual cues. In the context of branding, this paper bridges two streams of research to reveal how the interplay between the auditory and visual images embedded in brand identities influences consumer response. Study participants were exposed to brand logotypes whose brand name and typography either agree or disagree in the images they convey. The results revealed that audiovisual image congruence in brand identity leads to increased brand appeal and quality perception as well as memory. In addition, the effect of auditory images and that of visual images were found to equally influence associative mappings such that neither dominates the other. These findings provide an evidential ground to reason and further explore how business enterprises may effectively communicate their brand images through multisensory channels by providing guidance in the intuitive decision-making process involved in brand naming and visual identity development.
... Considering the payment habits and payment power of consumers, it can be thought that it is a reasonable reason to further examine the consciousness of the price. Khurram et al. (2018) examined the mediating effect of price-conscious on the relationship between brand recall and brand recognition with the actual purchasing situation. It is seen that consumers with high brand conscious generally focus on the perceived value of the price. ...
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In this research, the effect of brand image and brand conscious on perceived price and purchase intention are examined. The role of perceived price on purchase intention is also investigated. The sample of the research is the customers using a mobile phone in Turkey. In this study, the convenience sampling method was used which is the non-probability sampling method. According to the convenience sampling method, 450 customers were reached and 409 questionnaires were found suitable for data analysis. The collected data was analyzed with SPSS and AMOS programs and the validity and reliability of the scales were tested. According to the results of the research, there was a positive relationship between brand image and perceived price and purchase intention. On the other hand, brand-conscious did not affect the perceived price and purchase intention. It was also found that there was a positive relationship between perceived price and purchase intention.
... By getting closer to the K-POP community, Chuseyo Coffee will be closer to the target market There are two communication objectives that are very important in designing marketing communications, namely brand recall and brand recognition. Chuseyo Coffee has its own market in reaching consumers so that until now the Chuseyo Coffee brand is quite strong and well-known in the community [11] thinking that how good customers can remember a brand when faced in certain situations. ...
... Keller (1993) defines brand recognition as consumer's ability to discriminate the brand as having seen or heard before. Brand recognition is to confirm prior exposure to the brand when the brand is given a cue (Khurram et al., 2018). People choose mostly the things that are familiar to them (Coates et al., 2006). ...
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Every year, the global retail industry loses billions of dollars due to the product returns. Despite this, too little attention in the literature has been paid to examine customers’ intentions to return and the associated implications. As the subject of returns is broad and multifaceted, this article attempts to analyze one of the many aspects of the returns policy, namely the impact of the pro-consumer returns policy on brand recognition. The research process related to the collection of primary data consisted of two stages: pilot and proper studies. The research shows that brands that notice the need to introduce a pro-consumer return system by extending the return period and introducing a more efficient system for managing the process of accepting them, derive more and more benefits in the form of increasing brand recognition
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Product choice in retail stores is influenced by visual recognition and the memory-based presence of brands. As the branding of fresh fruit is uncommon, we tested the effect of visual salient branding on a fresh produce shelf, visual attention, and choice on later brand recall of a fruit product. We showed participants two fresh produce shelves, conducted an eye-tracking experiment to capture visual attention, and administered a structured computer-based questionnaire with open recall of the brands seen during the eye-tracking. We found visual saliency and choice to be significant predictors for brand recall. Visual attention was significant only for the cluttered fresh produce shelf. A higher fixation count improved the probability of recalling the brand.
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Consumer behaviors within a segment and regarding a product category that do not vary across cultures are defined as market universals (Dawar and Parker 1994). Japanese and U.S. students (N = 267) participated in this study of price cues. The psychometric properties of three different price scales -price/quality schema, prestige sensitivity, and value consciousness - are assessed, and equality constraints are introduced to compare the measurement models from the two groups. Results suggest that the scales are reliable measures across the two countries and that market-universal behaviors may exist for a similar segment of Japanese and U.S. consumers.
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This study is to discuss the relations between brand images on purchase intention in catering industry; quantitative questionnaire survey is preceded in this study. Total 500 copies are distributed and 361 copies are collected, where 354 copies are valid, with the retrieval rate 71%. Having Functionality, Symbolism, and Experientiality in brand image as independent variables and Possibility of Buying, Considered Purchase Product, Recommending Friends for Buying in purchase intention as dependent variables, the casual relationship is explored. After the data analyses with Regression Analysis and Analysis of Variance, the following results are concluded. (1) Brand image presents partially positive effects on Possibility of Buying in purchase intention. (2) Brand image shows remarkably positive effects on Considered Purchase Product in purchase intention. (3) Brand image reveals partially positive effects on Recommending Friends for Buying in purchase intention. (4) Demographic variables appear partially notable effects on the correlations between brand image and purchase intention. Taking Ambassador Hotel Kaohsiung as the research subject, the study is expected to provide precious opinions for catering industry promoting the brand image.
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An alternative conceptualization of consumer behavior is developed to provide better information on product success and failure. In this approach, the concepts of awareness set and evoked set are expanded to include inert set and inept set. The approach supplies relevant clues for present product performance and future marketing strategies.