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Different types of nuts like almonds, brazil nuts, hazelnuts, peanuts, pine nuts, walnuts and cashews are present all over the world. Hazelnut is the nut of the hazel deriving from species of the genus Corylus, especially the nuts of the species Corylusavellana. It is the second most expensive nut and needs cold and hilly terrain with a few days of sub-zero temperature. Therefore, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Silguri, Uttarakhand & North-East states make the best choice in India. It takes three to five years for hazelnut plants to grow and yield fruit. Hazelnuts are rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, antioxidant bioactive substances & rich source of oleic acid (about 80%), which decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. It is used as antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammatory & in production of biodiesel. Turkey is the biggest market of the
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*Corresponding author: Kiran Dobhal
Uttaranchal Institutes of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Uttaranchal University, Dehradun, Uttarakhand (248007)
ISSN: 0976-3031
Review Article
A BRIEF REVIEW ON: HAZELNUTS
Kiran Dobhal., Nradev Singh., Amit Semwal and Arvind Negi
Uttaranchal Institutes of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Uttaranchal University,
Dehradun, Uttarakhand (248007)
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24327/ijrsr.2018.0901.1515
ARTICLE INFO ABSTRACT
Different types of nuts like almonds, brazil nuts, hazelnuts, peanuts, pine nuts, walnuts and cashews
are present all over the world. Hazelnut is the nut of the hazel deriving from species of the genus
Corylus, especially the nuts of the species Corylusavellana. It is the second most expensive nut and
needs cold and hilly terrain with a few days of sub-zero temperature. Therefore, Himachal Pradesh,
Jammu and Kashmir, Silguri, Uttarakhand & North-East states make the best choice in India. It
takes three to five years for hazelnut plants to grow and yield fruit. Hazelnuts are rich in
monounsaturated fatty acids, antioxidant bioactive substances & rich source of oleic acid (about
80%), which decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. It is used as antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic,
cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammatory & in production of biodiesel. Turkey is the biggest
market of the hazel nut in the world. The present article provides an overview about the significant
of hazelnut.
INTRODUCTION
A nut spreads after the winter weather via small mammals,
birds and human relocation. There are two types of nuts
cultivated in all over the world i.e. tree nuts and peanuts.
Naturally tree nuts are dry fruits with one seed like almonds,
hazelnuts, walnuts etc. Almonds, hazelnuts, walnuts, Brazil
nuts, pine nuts and pistachios are communal & required edible
tree nut. Hazel nuts are rich source of proteins, carbohydrates,
unsaturated fatty acid, vitamins and essential minerals. They
are used as a human food since primitive days and have been
cultivated at least since Roman times. Peanuts is an examples
of groundnuts, have a parallel nutrient outline like tree nuts
(Welna et al, 2008; Hu et al,1999; Vaughan et al, 1998,
Brufau et al, 2006; Ros et al, 2006).
The genus Corylus, source of hazel nut contains a wide variety
of deciduous shrub and tree species that are important
components of many moderate forests across the Northern
Hemisphere. It is widely distributed in Europe & Asia (Fig 1)
(Peltre et al, 1988; Caligiani et al, 2014; Sabeti et al, 2006,
FAOSTAT et al, 2006; Demir et al, 2000).
Biology of Corylusavellana
The word hazelnut is derived from the Anglo-Saxon word
haesel (bonnet). Hazelnut is a member of genus Corylus,
species avellana a and belongs to family Betulaceae (Table 1).
It is a multi-stemmed shrubs, 3-10 m tall, have weeping or
twisted branches. Leaves are quite differing in their thickness
and branching bulk. Average lengths of leaves are5-10 cm with
different shape, oval to round. Nuts develop in bunches of 1-
12, generally in shape of spherical or oval. Particular nut is
covered in double layered shell. Maturity of nuts takes
minimum 7 - 8 months after fertilization.
The floral biology of hazelnut is distinct from other plantation
crops. Unlike other cultivated plant, hazelnut plantsare diploid
(2n = 2x = 22), hermaphrodite, air-pollinated and flowering in
midwinter, from December to March in the Northern
hemisphere. Pollen tubes grow to the base of the styles and rest
for five months. The ovary becomes mature in the spring.
Fertilization occurs when the nut is about one-half of the
mature size (Amaral, 2006; Bennet et al, 1991;Smolyaninova,
1936, Kasapligil, 1972; Thompson et al, 1996).
Economically as well as commercially, maximum hazelnut
cultivars are from Europe in the present era. In spite of its
superior quality, production, larger sizeand thinner shells, it
cannot resist the severe winters & eastern filbert blight fungal
disease (Rushforth, 1999, Boccacci and Botta, 2009, Palme and
Vendramin, 2002, Chenab Industries).
Available Online at http://www.recentscientific.com
International Journal of
Recent Scientific
Research
International Journal of Recent Scientific Research
Vol. 9, Issue, 1(K), pp. 23680-23684, January, 2018
Copyright © Kiran Dobhal et al, 2018, this is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons
Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is
properly cited.
DOI: 10.24327/IJRSR
CODEN: IJRSFP (USA)
Article History:
Received 20th October, 2017
Received in revised form 29th
November, 2017
Accepted 30th December, 2017
Published online 28th January, 2018
Key Words:
Hazelnut, Antioxidant, Nutritional value,
Nuts
Kiran Dobhal et al., A Brief Review On: Hazelnuts
23681 | P a g e
Chemical Constituents
Hazelnuts are good source of fats like other nuts i.e. almond,
cashew etc. The lipid fraction forming the major part of
hazelnuts is composed of non polar and polar constituents.
Triacylglycerols are the major nonpolar lipids representing
nearly 100% of the total nonpolar lipids in hazelnut oil. It is
good source of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) &
polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). It contains predominately
palmitic acid, Steracic acid, linoleic acid & linolenic acid. The
omega-3 fatty acids are not synthesized by the human body. It
is obtained exclusively from the diet. α-linolenicacid is
precursor for omega-3 fatty acids. Hazelnut is good source of
that PUFA (Mehmet et al, 2005,Ciemniewska et al, 2011,
Alasalvar et al, 2003, Kornstriner et al, 2013, Hardman, 2002,
Amaral et al, 2006, Gunes et al, 2010, Whelan et al, 2006).
Figure 1 Hazel Plant with nut
Amino acids like glutamic acid, arginine, alanine and aspartic
acid are present in hazelnut (Alasalvar et al, 2003, Dmytryshyn
et al, 2004, Koksal et al, 2006, Feldman, 2002).
It is also good source of vitamin E & B1, B2 & B6 complex
(Table 2) (Feldman, 2002, Chen et al, 2005, Tapiero et al,
2002).
Various studied concluded that hazelnuts is excellent source of
the minerals like potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium,
boron, copper, manganese and selenium (Alasalvar et al, 2003,
Feldman, 2002, Cristifori et al, 2008, Schmitzer et al, 2011,
Cosmulescu et al, 2013, Rude et al, 2012, Hambidge et al,
1986, Demignei et al, 2004,Tripathi et al, 2013, Souci et al,
2013, Simsek and Aykut et al, 2007, Hunt et al, 1997, Ismail
et al, 2012).
Table 1 Brief description of Hazel nut
Corylusavellana Linn.
Kingdom Plantae
Clade Angiosperms
Order Eudicots
Family Betulaceae
Genus Corylus
Common name Filbert, Hazel Nut, European Nut
Latin name Corylusavellana Linn
Kashmiri Name Thangi, Thankoli, Warawi, Wiri,
English Name Hazelnut, Cobnut
Hindi Name Findak, Bindak
Punjabi Name Funduq
Uses
Hazelnut oil decreases the cholesterol level in blood and also
controls adverse effects of hypertension (Durak, 1999,
Boshtam et al, 2002, Xu and Hanna, 2009, Tey et al, 2011).45-48
The presence of MUFA and PUFA in hazelnut is good for
healthy heart. Daily diet of hazelnut satisfactory decrease
High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) & increase Low Density
Lipoprotein (LDL) in the blood plasma. Phenolic components
of hazelnut reduced the MDA level & increase antioxidant
activity in plasma. These factors directly alter the plasma lipid
profile in the body. Hazel nut can be further evaluated for cure
& prevention of heart disease (Durak, 1999, Orem et al, 2008).
As a rich source of minerals like potassium, phosphorus,
calcium, magnesium, copper, manganese and selenium,
hazelnut is effective remedy to maintain a healthy nerve
function & other body system balanced (Ozdemir et al, 2001,
Ozkutlu et al, 2011).
This plant has a venotonic action being used on varicose veins
and edema caused by venous inadequacy (Riethmuller et al.,
2013).
Antimutagenecity and anticancer activity of fresh hazelnut
were evaluated strong with respect of positive control sodium-
azide (as a carcinogenic compound), while dried hazelnut
potential was moderate. In future hazelnut can be used as
aspects of anticancer drug (Masoumi et al, 2014,
Venkateswaran et al, 2002, Haewen & John, 2011).
Table 2 Composition of Phytoconstituents in 100gm
edible part of Hazelnut
S. No Phytoconstituent Weight
1 Protein 14.95 g
2 Total lipid 60.75 g
3 Carbohydrate 16.70 g
4 Fiber (Total dietary) 9.70 g
5 Iron 4.70 mg
6 Magnesium 163 mg
7 Zinc 2.45 mg
8 Copper 1.72 mg
9 Selenium 4 µg
10 Vitamin E 15.18 g
11 Lysine 0.42 g
12 Arginine 2.21 g
13 Saturated 4.46 g
14 MUFA 45.67 g
15 PUFA 7.92 g
16 Phytosterol 96 mg
International Journal of Recent Scientific Research Vol. 9, Issue, 1(K), pp. 23680-23684, January, 2018
23682 | P a g e
Some evidence indicates that it helps to reduce the risk of type
2 diabetes (Dhein et al, 2003). α-Tocopherol may also be
protective against intellectual deterioration and Alzheimer’s
disease (Martin, 2003). Hazelnuts also used in cosmetics
product & pharmaceuticals. Hazelnuts oil also used in
massaging & cooking (Kornstriner et al, 2013).
Hazelnuts are widely used in the food industry such as
chocolate, confectionery and baking, ice-cream, dairy products
and can be added to a wide array of dishes from cereals and
breads, to yogurts, soups, salads, and from main dishes to
confections (Costa et al, 2013, Fallico et al, 2003). Nutella is a
brand of sweetened hazelnut cocoa spread (Nutella).
Ferrero Rocher® is delicious butter in which hazelnut is the
main ingredient. Cadbury® is world popular chocolate in
which hazelnut as one of the main ingredients. Hazelnut is a
chief component of the vodka based liqueur, Frangelico.
In recent years, Petrol & Diesel is the main energy sources.
Like CNG (Compressed Natural Gas), Hazelnut oil based
biodiesel is good sources of energy. It had an average heat for
approximately ignition of 40.23 kJ/g that is accounted for
approximately 88% of energy content of diesel fuel. Chemical
content of hazelnut oil diesel was the approximately similar as
natural oil (Xu and Hanna, 2009).
Hazelnut lipase enzyme is quite stable at the higher
temperatures, alkaline pH’s, and for four months of storage
time. For various researchers of biotechnological field, it can
be more effective enzyme (Ismail et al, 2012).
Hazelnut kernel contains a high concentration of oil, and may
be used to increase the dietary consumption of oleic acid for
those persons lacking of mono- unsaturated fats (Jauch et al,
1989).
Filbert one is the principal flavor compound of hazelnuts. It is
used in perfumery as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for
use in foods (Zarbin et al, 1998).
CONCLUSION
Green vegetable, fruits & non-vegetarian meal are mostly
included in Indian culture. But nut is randomly involved in our
daily meal. Different studies emphasize that hazelnuts are rich
in fatty acids & regular intake of hazelnut decreases the risk of
heart disease. It is also used in treatment of other diseases and
also in preparation of biodiesels & cosmetics products. We can
conclude that hazel nut is very beneficial for human being.
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How to cite this article:
Kiran Dobhal et al. 2018, A Brief Review On: Hazelnuts. Int J Recent Sci Res. 9(1), pp. 23680-23684.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24327/ijrsr.2018.0901.1515
... The analysis outlined in this paper will focus on hazelnut production in Italy. Confirming Cristofori et al. (2008), interest in this crop has been increasing due to the growing demand from the processing industry (chocolate, confectionery and bakery products) (Dobhal et al., 2018;Liso et al., 2017;Cristofori et al., 2015). As tree-bearing nuts, the hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) predominates in Italy (CREA, 2018). ...
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