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Different types of nuts like almonds, brazil nuts, hazelnuts, peanuts, pine nuts, walnuts and cashews are present all over the world. Hazelnut is the nut of the hazel deriving from species of the genus Corylus, especially the nuts of the species Corylusavellana. It is the second most expensive nut and needs cold and hilly terrain with a few days of sub-zero temperature. Therefore, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Silguri, Uttarakhand & North-East states make the best choice in India. It takes three to five years for hazelnut plants to grow and yield fruit. Hazelnuts are rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, antioxidant bioactive substances & rich source of oleic acid (about 80%), which decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. It is used as antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammatory & in production of biodiesel. Turkey is the biggest market of the
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*Corresponding author: Kiran Dobhal
Uttaranchal Institutes of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Uttaranchal University, Dehradun, Uttarakhand (248007)
ISSN: 0976-3031
Review Article
Kiran Dobhal., Nradev Singh., Amit Semwal and Arvind Negi
Uttaranchal Institutes of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Uttaranchal University,
Dehradun, Uttarakhand (248007)
Different types of nuts like almonds, brazil nuts, hazelnuts, peanuts, pine nuts, walnuts and cashews
are present all over the world. Hazelnut is the nut of the hazel deriving from species of the genus
Corylus, especially the nuts of the species Corylusavellana. It is the second most expensive nut and
needs cold and hilly terrain with a few days of sub-zero temperature. Therefore, Himachal Pradesh,
Jammu and Kashmir, Silguri, Uttarakhand & North-East states make the best choice in India. It
takes three to five years for hazelnut plants to grow and yield fruit. Hazelnuts are rich in
monounsaturated fatty acids, antioxidant bioactive substances & rich source of oleic acid (about
80%), which decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. It is used as antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic,
cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammatory & in production of biodiesel. Turkey is the biggest
market of the hazel nut in the world. The present article provides an overview about the significant
of hazelnut.
A nut spreads after the winter weather via small mammals,
birds and human relocation. There are two types of nuts
cultivated in all over the world i.e. tree nuts and peanuts.
Naturally tree nuts are dry fruits with one seed like almonds,
hazelnuts, walnuts etc. Almonds, hazelnuts, walnuts, Brazil
nuts, pine nuts and pistachios are communal & required edible
tree nut. Hazel nuts are rich source of proteins, carbohydrates,
unsaturated fatty acid, vitamins and essential minerals. They
are used as a human food since primitive days and have been
cultivated at least since Roman times. Peanuts is an examples
of groundnuts, have a parallel nutrient outline like tree nuts
(Welna et al, 2008; Hu et al,1999; Vaughan et al, 1998,
Brufau et al, 2006; Ros et al, 2006).
The genus Corylus, source of hazel nut contains a wide variety
of deciduous shrub and tree species that are important
components of many moderate forests across the Northern
Hemisphere. It is widely distributed in Europe & Asia (Fig 1)
(Peltre et al, 1988; Caligiani et al, 2014; Sabeti et al, 2006,
FAOSTAT et al, 2006; Demir et al, 2000).
Biology of Corylusavellana
The word hazelnut is derived from the Anglo-Saxon word
haesel (bonnet). Hazelnut is a member of genus Corylus,
species avellana a and belongs to family Betulaceae (Table 1).
It is a multi-stemmed shrubs, 3-10 m tall, have weeping or
twisted branches. Leaves are quite differing in their thickness
and branching bulk. Average lengths of leaves are5-10 cm with
different shape, oval to round. Nuts develop in bunches of 1-
12, generally in shape of spherical or oval. Particular nut is
covered in double layered shell. Maturity of nuts takes
minimum 7 - 8 months after fertilization.
The floral biology of hazelnut is distinct from other plantation
crops. Unlike other cultivated plant, hazelnut plantsare diploid
(2n = 2x = 22), hermaphrodite, air-pollinated and flowering in
midwinter, from December to March in the Northern
hemisphere. Pollen tubes grow to the base of the styles and rest
for five months. The ovary becomes mature in the spring.
Fertilization occurs when the nut is about one-half of the
mature size (Amaral, 2006; Bennet et al, 1991;Smolyaninova,
1936, Kasapligil, 1972; Thompson et al, 1996).
Economically as well as commercially, maximum hazelnut
cultivars are from Europe in the present era. In spite of its
superior quality, production, larger sizeand thinner shells, it
cannot resist the severe winters & eastern filbert blight fungal
disease (Rushforth, 1999, Boccacci and Botta, 2009, Palme and
Vendramin, 2002, Chenab Industries).
Available Online at
International Journal of
Recent Scientific
International Journal of Recent Scientific Research
Vol. 9, Issue, 1(K), pp. 23680-23684, January, 2018
Copyright © Kiran Dobhal et al, 2018, this is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons
Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is
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DOI: 10.24327/IJRSR
Article History:
Received 20th October, 2017
Received in revised form 29th
November, 2017
Accepted 30th December, 2017
Published online 28th January, 2018
Key Words:
Hazelnut, Antioxidant, Nutritional value,
Kiran Dobhal et al., A Brief Review On: Hazelnuts
23681 | P a g e
Chemical Constituents
Hazelnuts are good source of fats like other nuts i.e. almond,
cashew etc. The lipid fraction forming the major part of
hazelnuts is composed of non polar and polar constituents.
Triacylglycerols are the major nonpolar lipids representing
nearly 100% of the total nonpolar lipids in hazelnut oil. It is
good source of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) &
polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). It contains predominately
palmitic acid, Steracic acid, linoleic acid & linolenic acid. The
omega-3 fatty acids are not synthesized by the human body. It
is obtained exclusively from the diet. α-linolenicacid is
precursor for omega-3 fatty acids. Hazelnut is good source of
that PUFA (Mehmet et al, 2005,Ciemniewska et al, 2011,
Alasalvar et al, 2003, Kornstriner et al, 2013, Hardman, 2002,
Amaral et al, 2006, Gunes et al, 2010, Whelan et al, 2006).
Figure 1 Hazel Plant with nut
Amino acids like glutamic acid, arginine, alanine and aspartic
acid are present in hazelnut (Alasalvar et al, 2003, Dmytryshyn
et al, 2004, Koksal et al, 2006, Feldman, 2002).
It is also good source of vitamin E & B1, B2 & B6 complex
(Table 2) (Feldman, 2002, Chen et al, 2005, Tapiero et al,
Various studied concluded that hazelnuts is excellent source of
the minerals like potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium,
boron, copper, manganese and selenium (Alasalvar et al, 2003,
Feldman, 2002, Cristifori et al, 2008, Schmitzer et al, 2011,
Cosmulescu et al, 2013, Rude et al, 2012, Hambidge et al,
1986, Demignei et al, 2004,Tripathi et al, 2013, Souci et al,
2013, Simsek and Aykut et al, 2007, Hunt et al, 1997, Ismail
et al, 2012).
Table 1 Brief description of Hazel nut
Corylusavellana Linn.
Kingdom Plantae
Clade Angiosperms
Order Eudicots
Family Betulaceae
Genus Corylus
Common name Filbert, Hazel Nut, European Nut
Latin name Corylusavellana Linn
Kashmiri Name Thangi, Thankoli, Warawi, Wiri,
English Name Hazelnut, Cobnut
Hindi Name Findak, Bindak
Punjabi Name Funduq
Hazelnut oil decreases the cholesterol level in blood and also
controls adverse effects of hypertension (Durak, 1999,
Boshtam et al, 2002, Xu and Hanna, 2009, Tey et al, 2011).45-48
The presence of MUFA and PUFA in hazelnut is good for
healthy heart. Daily diet of hazelnut satisfactory decrease
High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) & increase Low Density
Lipoprotein (LDL) in the blood plasma. Phenolic components
of hazelnut reduced the MDA level & increase antioxidant
activity in plasma. These factors directly alter the plasma lipid
profile in the body. Hazel nut can be further evaluated for cure
& prevention of heart disease (Durak, 1999, Orem et al, 2008).
As a rich source of minerals like potassium, phosphorus,
calcium, magnesium, copper, manganese and selenium,
hazelnut is effective remedy to maintain a healthy nerve
function & other body system balanced (Ozdemir et al, 2001,
Ozkutlu et al, 2011).
This plant has a venotonic action being used on varicose veins
and edema caused by venous inadequacy (Riethmuller et al.,
Antimutagenecity and anticancer activity of fresh hazelnut
were evaluated strong with respect of positive control sodium-
azide (as a carcinogenic compound), while dried hazelnut
potential was moderate. In future hazelnut can be used as
aspects of anticancer drug (Masoumi et al, 2014,
Venkateswaran et al, 2002, Haewen & John, 2011).
Table 2 Composition of Phytoconstituents in 100gm
edible part of Hazelnut
S. No Phytoconstituent Weight
1 Protein 14.95 g
2 Total lipid 60.75 g
3 Carbohydrate 16.70 g
4 Fiber (Total dietary) 9.70 g
5 Iron 4.70 mg
6 Magnesium 163 mg
7 Zinc 2.45 mg
8 Copper 1.72 mg
9 Selenium 4 µg
10 Vitamin E 15.18 g
11 Lysine 0.42 g
12 Arginine 2.21 g
13 Saturated 4.46 g
14 MUFA 45.67 g
15 PUFA 7.92 g
16 Phytosterol 96 mg
International Journal of Recent Scientific Research Vol. 9, Issue, 1(K), pp. 23680-23684, January, 2018
23682 | P a g e
Some evidence indicates that it helps to reduce the risk of type
2 diabetes (Dhein et al, 2003). α-Tocopherol may also be
protective against intellectual deterioration and Alzheimer’s
disease (Martin, 2003). Hazelnuts also used in cosmetics
product & pharmaceuticals. Hazelnuts oil also used in
massaging & cooking (Kornstriner et al, 2013).
Hazelnuts are widely used in the food industry such as
chocolate, confectionery and baking, ice-cream, dairy products
and can be added to a wide array of dishes from cereals and
breads, to yogurts, soups, salads, and from main dishes to
confections (Costa et al, 2013, Fallico et al, 2003). Nutella is a
brand of sweetened hazelnut cocoa spread (Nutella).
Ferrero Rocher® is delicious butter in which hazelnut is the
main ingredient. Cadbury® is world popular chocolate in
which hazelnut as one of the main ingredients. Hazelnut is a
chief component of the vodka based liqueur, Frangelico.
In recent years, Petrol & Diesel is the main energy sources.
Like CNG (Compressed Natural Gas), Hazelnut oil based
biodiesel is good sources of energy. It had an average heat for
approximately ignition of 40.23 kJ/g that is accounted for
approximately 88% of energy content of diesel fuel. Chemical
content of hazelnut oil diesel was the approximately similar as
natural oil (Xu and Hanna, 2009).
Hazelnut lipase enzyme is quite stable at the higher
temperatures, alkaline pH’s, and for four months of storage
time. For various researchers of biotechnological field, it can
be more effective enzyme (Ismail et al, 2012).
Hazelnut kernel contains a high concentration of oil, and may
be used to increase the dietary consumption of oleic acid for
those persons lacking of mono- unsaturated fats (Jauch et al,
Filbert one is the principal flavor compound of hazelnuts. It is
used in perfumery as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for
use in foods (Zarbin et al, 1998).
Green vegetable, fruits & non-vegetarian meal are mostly
included in Indian culture. But nut is randomly involved in our
daily meal. Different studies emphasize that hazelnuts are rich
in fatty acids & regular intake of hazelnut decreases the risk of
heart disease. It is also used in treatment of other diseases and
also in preparation of biodiesels & cosmetics products. We can
conclude that hazel nut is very beneficial for human being.
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How to cite this article:
Kiran Dobhal et al. 2018, A Brief Review On: Hazelnuts. Int J Recent Sci Res. 9(1), pp. 23680-23684.
... The analysis outlined in this paper will focus on hazelnut production in Italy. Confirming Cristofori et al. (2008), interest in this crop has been increasing due to the growing demand from the processing industry (chocolate, confectionery and bakery products) (Dobhal et al., 2018;Liso et al., 2017;Cristofori et al., 2015). As tree-bearing nuts, the hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) predominates in Italy (CREA, 2018). ...
Assessing farm profitability and economic risk is important to support farmers' decisions. Several factors affect yields and product prices, in turn influencing farmers' income level and economic risk. However, the literature has often neglected to explicitly account for the role of product quality. This is particularly important for crops such as hazelnut because farmers' prices vary according to the quality of the harvested product. Furthermore, it seems fundamental to disentangle the role of parameters influencing farm results, noticeably yield, product price and quality. This is because farmers select their risk management tools to satisfy their needs, but these are often suitable for managing the risk of only one of these parameters. Deploying a large sample of individual farm data over ten years, the profitability and risk of hazelnut production in the four main production areas in Italy are assessed. The analysis is performed by using a set of risk indicators, which are based on the distribution of the gross margin for hazelnuts. The results of this analysis suggest that Campania and Lazio are generally the most profitable regions while Sicily is the least profitable. Risk is quite high in all regions with Campania facing the lowest risk level. The sensitivity analysis, performed by combining Monte Carlo simulations and stepwise regression techniques, permits to establish that the most important parameter generating risk is yield, followed by product quality and, to a lesser extent, market price. These results suggest that hazelnut farmers could reduce their risk by using production insurances; there is also potential to develop tools suited to managing risks related to product quality.
Agricultural activity is responsible of considerable negative effects on the environment. In this context, in the last years, organic cultivation is increasing being perceived as more sustainable for the environmental. Nevertheless, this higher sustainability compared to conventional agricultural systems is debated. This applied for crops but also for livestock systems. For some of the main crops (i.e., cereals, soybean) comparative analysis were carried out but for most of the other annual and perennial crops there is a lack of information about the environmental impact related to conventional and organic cultivation In this study, the environmental impact of the conventional and organic farming systems of hazelnuts production in Viterbo province in Italy was evaluated using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. Even if originally developed for industrial processes, LCA is more and more applied also to agriculture systems to quantify the environmental impact. Primary data were collected by the main Producer Organization and elaborated considering 1 kg of hazelnuts as functional unit and a from cradle to gate approach considering the 50-years as life cycle duration of the crop. Finally, using the Recipe characterization method, 15 midpoint impact categories were evaluated. The results show how, except than for ecotoxicity related impact categories, organic cultivation practice shows higher impact (from +5% to +285%) respect to the conventional production. For ecotoxicity related impact categories, organic hazelnut production performs better (from −42% to −81%) than the conventional one because no synthetic pesticides are applied. The sensitivity analysis carried shows how yield is the main driver of the environmental results while the uncertainty analysis performed with the Monte Carlo technique shows that the to the selection of the data source, model imprecision and data variability does not significantly affect the environmental results for the evaluated impact categories.
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Performed in 1995 and 1996, the aim of this research was the selection of hazelnut types grown in Terme, Çarşamba, Salipazari and Ayvacik districts of Samsun province. In total, 104 types were investigated. The types which resulted in 800 or more Total Weight-Ranked Points were considered. 19 types in 1995 and 22 types in 1996, five of which were preselected in 1995, were evaluated. The results were exposed to the "Weight-Ranked Method". According to the evaluation results the types 55-Ç-5, 55-T-15, 55-Ç-4, 55-A-3 and 55-Ç-7 were selected in 1995. In 1996, the types 55-S-15, 55-T-39, 55-Ç-26 and 55-Ç-8 alongside the types 55-T-15 and 55-Ç-4 of 1995 were found to be promising. 55-T-15 gave the highest nut weight (2.57 g.), kernel weight (1.34 g). nut size (19.51 mm) and kernel size (14.51 mm). The highest kernel ratio (57.20%) and good kernel ratio (96%) were observed from 55-Ç-7. 55-T-15 and 55-C-4 types gave the thinnest shell thickness (0.88 mm) and the highest pellicle removal ratio (100%) was determined from 55-Ç-26 hazelnut type. 55-Ç-5, 55-A-3 and 55-Ç-7, and 55-S-15, 55-Ç-26 and 55-Ç-4 types gave the lowest double kernel ratio (0%), in 1995 and 1996, respectively. The least perisperm separation was taken from 55-Ç-5, 55-T-15, 55-Ç-4 and 55-A-3 types. 55-T-39 and 55-Ç-26 resulted in the highest taste points (7.9). The total weight-ranked points were highest for 55-Ç-5 (883) and 55-S-15 (890) in 1995 and 1996. respectively.
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Twelve hazelnut cultivars taken from Bolu-Akçakoca, West Black Sea Region of Turkey, were evaluated in terms of bioactive properties such as fat and fatty acid composition, protein and amino acid, water-soluble and water-insoluble vitamins, ash and mineral content at 2 consecutive years. Considerable differences were observed among cultivars for all properties (P ≤ 0.05) with the exception of palmitoleic acid, leucine and threonine content (P ≥ 0.05). In all cultivars, fat was the predominant component (56.45-64.11 %) followed by oleic acid (80.59-85.64 %), glutamic acid (2.342-3.543 g 100 g-1), arginin (1.310-2.366 g 100 g-1), α-tocopherol (19.24-378.80 mg 100 g-1), ascorbic acid (1.430-3.207 mg 100 g-1), potassium contents (560.20-893.90 mg 100 g-1).
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Hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.) have a significant place among the types of dried nuts in terms of nutrition and health owing to their special composition of fats, protein, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, dietary fibers and phenolic antioxidants. Different hazelnut cultivars grown in Romania ('Cozia', 'Romavel', 'Valcea 22', 'Roverd' and 'Red Lambert') were evaluated for their mineral composition. Microelements were determined by using ICP-MS and a Flame AAS. The average microelements concentrations in the cultivars have varied in the following ranges (mg 100 g-1): K, 591.75-639.13; P, 300.67-455.06; Mg, 205.02-335.54; Ca, 72.07-130.92; Mn, 8.77-19.07; Fe, 5.3-8.77; Cu, 1.62-3.07; Zn, 1.82-2.84; Cr, 0.12-0.84; Na, 0.36-0.97; Al, 0.23-0.35; Sr, 0.88-1.6; Rb,1.34-3.03. According to the daily microelement requirements, the quantity of 100 g hazelnut provided approximately 13% for K, 55% for P, 70% for Mg, 10% for Ca, 94% for Fe, 22 for Zn and 5.6% for Cr of the RDA. These results indicated that hazelnuts are a rich source of a number of important micro-elements and hazelnut can be an important source of microelements for human nutrition and health.
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Roasted and raw Turkish and Oregon hazelnuts were examined. Whole nuts, skins, and skinless nuts of both hazelnut varieties were tested for fat contents, fatty acid profiles. Hazelnut and other byproducts were extracted with 5% acetone and examined for total phenolic contents (TPC), antioxidant activities against the peroxyl (ORAC) and DPPH radicals, and were also administered in vitro to the human colon cancer HT-29 cell line to determine antiproliferative effects. The Turkish hazelnuts contained over 65% total oil while the Oregon roasted variety contained 43.8%. The primary fatty acid in both was oleic acid (18:1n-9) comprising 76.7 g/100g oil in the Oregon variety and 83.3 g/100g oil in the Turkish variety. The TPC were 91.4 and 102.16 g gallic acid equivalents/g sample for the Turkish roasted hazelnut skin and Oregon roasted hazelnut skin respectively, at least 30-folds as high as the hazelnut without skin. Turkish roasted hazelnut skin had the highest ORAC value of 1166.27 Trolox equivalents (TE) mol/g sample (TE mol/g), it is 38 times as high as the Oregon roasted hazelnut no skin which as a value of 30.2 TE mol/g sample. The range of ED 50 of DPPH  is from 118.22 to 0.075 mg sample equivalents/mL among the samples, Oregon roasted hazelnut skin and Turkish raw hazelnut no skin exhibit the weakest and strongest ability to reduce DPPH  respectively. At 6 mg/mL media Oregon roasted hazelnut skin extract significantly inhibited the growth of the HT-29 cells by 96 h following 4 days of treatment, and no effect was seen from the Turkish roasted skinned hazelnut extract. The Turkish raw hazelnut had sig-nificantly higher antioxidant activities compared to the Oregon roasted variety which may be explained by chemical changes during heating or possibly the total oil to flour ratio.
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Chemical compounds present in nuts are involved in combating a number of life-threatening diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular. Identifying the antimutagenic compounds from plant sources, and evaluating their beneficial properties is an effective step in exalting the human health. Antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activities of phenolic compounds (as natural antioxidants) in fresh and dried kernels of pistachios, walnuts and hazelnuts were examined by Ames method, which in it was used from mutant strains of Salmonella typhimurium (TA100), chemical carcinogen of sodium azid and microsomes of rat liver (S9). The results showed that, the content of total phenol in fresh kernel of walnut was significantly higher than other the kernels. Also, the phenolic compounds of extracted from the kernels were reduced the carcinogenic effects of toxic sodium azide, too. Antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic potential of the fresh and dried walnut and pistachio as well as fresh hazelnut were evaluated strong, while these potential was moderate in dried hazelnut. Due to more activities of phenolic extracts in presence of microsomes, the anticarcinogenic activities were higher than antimutagenic effects in all of the kernels. In the meanwhile, anticarcinogenecity effects in the fresh kernels of the nuts were higher than the dried. This result is likely to be related with high content of total phenol in the fresh kernels. Assessment of correlation results indicated that, there was a positive and significant correlation among content of total phenol and antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activities in all of the kernels.
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Ten different nut kinds (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, peanuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) were evaluated for their total oil and phytosterol content as well as their fatty acid composition. The total oil content was the predominant component; mean values oscillated between 45.2 % (cashews) and 74.7 % (macadamias). Mean total phytosterol content ranged from 71.7 mg (Brazil nuts) to 271.9 mg (pistachios) per 100 g oil. ß-sitosterol was the major sterol (mean >71.7 mg/100 g oil) followed by minor contents of campesterol, ergosterol, and stigmasterol. Almonds, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, and pistachios were high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA; > 55 %). MUFA- and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich nuts were peanuts and pecans, whereas Brazil nuts, pine nuts, and walnuts had the highest PUFA content (> 50 %); the high unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio ranged from 4.5 to 11.8. However, the fatty acid pattern of every nut is unique.
Hazelnut is one of the most appreciated nuts being virtually found in a wide range of processed foods. The simple presence of trace amounts of hazelnut in foods can represent a potential risk for eliciting allergic reactions in sensitised individuals. The correct labelling of processed foods is mandatory to avoid adverse reactions. Therefore, adequate methodology evaluating the presence of offending foods is of great importance. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop a highly specific and sensitive sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection and quantification of hazelnut in complex food matrices. Using in-house produced antibodies, an ELISA system was developed capable to detect hazelnut down to 1mg kg�1 and quantify this nut down to 50 mg kg�1 in chocolates spiked with known amounts of hazelnut. These results highlight and reinforce the value of ELISA as rapid and reliable tool for the detection of allergens in foods.