DataPDF Available
Appendix 1. Papers used in thematic analysis (n=198)
Abidi, O. (2015). How Internatıonal
Knowledge Assets Support Capabılıty-
Buıldıng In Hıgh-Tech Born Globals?
Journal of Organisational Studies and
Innovation, 2(1), 1-27.
Acedo, F. J., & Jones, M. V. (2007). Speed of
internationalization and entrepreneurial
cognition: Insights and a comparison
between international new ventures,
exporters and domestic firms. Journal of
World Business, 42(3), 236-252.
Acs, Z. J., & Terjesen, S. (2013). Born local:
toward a theory of new venture's choice of
internationalization. Small Business
Economics, 41(3), 521-535.
Al-Laham, A., & Souitaris, V. (2008).
Network embeddedness and new-venture
internationalization: Analyzing
international linkages in the German
biotech industry. Journal of Business
Venturing, 23(5), 567-586.
Almodovar, P., & Rugman, A. M. (2014).
The M Curve and the Performance of
Spanish International New Ventures.
British Journal of Management, 25, S6-
Almor, T., Tarba, S. Y., & Margalit, A.
(2014). Maturing, Technology-Based,
Born-Global Companies: Surviving
Through Mergers and Acquisitions.
Management International Review, 54(4),
421-444.
Aspelund, A., Madsen, T. K., & Moen, O.
(2007). A review of the foundation,
international marketing strategies, and
performance of international new
ventures. European Journal of Marketing,
41(11-12), 1423-1448.
Autio, E. (2005). Creative tension: the
significance of Ben Oviatt's and Patricia
McDougall's article 'toward a theory of
international new ventures'. Journal of
International Business Studies, 36(1), 9-
19.
Baronchelli, G., & Cassia, F. (2014).
Exploring the antecedents of born-global
companies' international development.
International Entrepreneurship and
Management Journal, 10(1), 67-79.
Baum, M., Schwens, C., & Kabst, R. (2011).
A Typology of International New
Ventures: Empirical Evidence from High-
Technology Industries. Journal of Small
Business Management, 49(3), 305-330.
Baum, M., Schwens, C., & Kabst, R. (2013).
International as opposed to domestic new
venturing: The moderating role of
perceived barriers to internationalization.
International Small Business Journal,
31(5), 536-562.
Blomqvist, K., Hurmelinna-Laukkanen, P.,
Nummela, N., & Saarenketo, S. (2008).
The role of trust and contracts in the
internationalization of technology-
intensive Born Globals. Journal of
Engineering and Technology
Management, 25(1-2), 123-135.
Bruneel, J., Yli-Renko, H., & Clarysse, B.
(2010). Learnıng from experıence and
learnıng from others: how congenıtal and
ınterorganızatıonal learnıng substıtute for
experıentıal learnıng ın young fırm
ınternatıonalızatıon. Strategic
Entrepreneurship Journal, 4(2), 164-182.
Cabrol, M., & Nlemvo, F. (2009). The
internationalisation of French new
ventures: The case of the Rhone-Alps
region. European Management Journal,
27(4), 255-267.
Cancino, C. A., & Coronado, F. C. (2014).
Exploring the determinants of born-global
firms in Chile. Academia-Revista
Latinoamericana De Administracion,
27(3), 386-401.
Cannone, G., & Ughetto, E. (2014). Born
globals: A cross-country survey on high-
tech start-ups. International Business
Review, 23(1), 272-283.
Cannone, G., & Ughetto, E. (2015).
Internationalization flows of high-tech
start-ups: a gravity model. European
Business Review, 27(1), 60-79.
Carvalho, L., Santos, I. P., & van Winden, W.
(2014). Knowledge spaces and places:
From the perspective of a "born-global"
start-up in the field of urban technology.
Expert Systems with Applications, 41(12),
5647-5655.
Casas, R., Kavaliauske, M., &
Dambrauskaite, V. (2011). the impact of
external business environment factors to
internationalization of "born global"
companies by promoting
entrepreneurship. Transformations in
Business & Economics, 10(2A), 389-400.
Cavusgil, S. T., & Knight, G. (2015). The
born global firm: An entrepreneurial and
capabilities perspective on early and rapid
internationalization. Journal of
International Business Studies, 46(1), 3-
16.
Cerrato, D., & Piva, M. (2015). The Effect of
Global Orientation on the Performance of
International New Ventures: Evidence
from Italy. Management International
Review, 55(6), 857-883.
Cesinger, B., Fink, M., Madsen, T. K., &
Kraus, S. (2012). Rapidly
internationalizing ventures: how
definitions can bridge the gap across
contexts. Management Decision, 50(10),
1816-1842.
Chandra, Y., Styles, C., & Wilkinson, I. F.
(2012). An Opportunity-Based View of
Rapid Internationalization. Journal of
International Marketing, 20(1), 74-102.
Chetty, S., & Campbell-Hunt, C. (2004). A
strategic approach to internationalization:
A traditional versus a "born-global"
approach. Journal of International
Marketing, 12(1), 57-81.
Chetty, S., Johanson, M., & Martin, O. M.
(2014). Speed of internationalization:
Conceptualization, measurement and
validation. Journal of World Business,
49(4), 633-650.
Chun, L. Y., Tian, L., & Jing, Y. (2014). The
Effect of Born International's International
Strategies on its Subsequent
Development: Taking the Accumulated
Overseas Market Resources as the
Moderating Effects. Anthropologist,
17(3), 687-700.
Coelho, B. V., de Mello, R. C., & da Rocha,
A. (2014). Leblon Cachaca: A born global
in a traditional industry. Journal of
Business Research, 67(4), 567-575.
Coviello, N. (2015). Re-thinking research on
born globals. Journal of International
Business Studies, 46(1), 17-26.
Coviello, N. E. (2006). The network
dynamics of international new ventures.
Journal of International Business Studies,
37(5), 713-731.
Crick, D. (2009). The internationalisation of
born global and international new venture
SMEs. International Marketing Review,
26(4-5), 453-476.
Cuervo-Cazurra, A. (2011). Selecting the
country in which to start
internationalization: The non-sequential
internationalization model. Journal of
World Business, 46(4), 426-437.
Danik, L., & Kowalik, I. (2015). Success
factors and development barriers
perceived by the Polish born global
companies. Empirical study results.
Journal for East European Management
Studies, 20(3), 360-390.
De Clercq, D., & Zhou, L. X. (2014).
Entrepreneurial Strategic Posture and
Performance in Foreign Markets: The
Critical Role of International Learning
Effort. Journal of International Marketing,
22(2), 47-67.
De Clercq, D., Hessels, J., & van Stel, A.
(2008). Knowledge spillovers and new
ventures' export orientation. Small
Business Economics, 31(3), 283-303.
De Clercq, D., Sapienza, H. J., Yavuz, R. I.,
& Zhou, L. X. (2012). Learning and
knowledge in early internationalization
research: Past accomplishments and future
directions. Journal of Business Venturing,
27(1), 143-165.
Di Gregorio, D., Musteen, M., & Thomas, D.
E. (2008). International new ventures: The
cross-border nexus of individuals and
opportunities. Journal of World Business,
43(2), 186-196.
Dunford, R., Palmer, I., & Benveniste, J.
(2010). Business Model Replication for
Early and Rapid Internationalisation The
ING Direct Experience. Long Range
Planning, 43(5-6), 655-674.
Efrat, K., & Shoham, A. (2011).
Environmental characteristics and
technological capabilities' interaction in
high-technology born global firms.
European Journal of International
Management, 5(3), 271-284.
Efrat, K., & Shoham, A. (2012). Born global
firms: The differences between their short-
and long-term performance drivers.
Journal of World Business, 47(4), 675-
685.
Efrat, K., & Shoham, A. (2013). The
interaction between environment and
strategic orientation in born globals'
choice of entry mode. International
Marketing Review, 30(6), 536-558.
Evers, N., & O'Gorman, C. (2011).
Improvised internationalization in new
ventures: The role of prior knowledge and
networks. Entrepreneurship and Regional
Development, 23(7-8), 549-574.
Evers, N., Andersson, S., & Hannibal, M.
(2012). Stakeholders and Marketing
Capabilities in International New
Ventures: Evidence from Ireland, Sweden,
and Denmark. Journal of International
Marketing, 20(4), 46-71.
Fan, T., & Phan, P. (2007). International new
ventures: revisiting the influences behind
the 'born-global' firm. Journal of
International Business Studies, 38(7),
1113-1131.
Faroque, A. R., & Takahashi, Y. (2015).
Export marketing assistance and early
internationalizing firm performance Does
export commitment matter? Asia Pacific
Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 27(3),
421-443
Federico, J. S., Kantis, H. D., Rialp, A., &
Rialp, J. (2009). Does entrepreneurs'
human and relational capital affect early
internationalisation? A cross-regional
comparison. European Journal of
International Management, 3(2), 199-215.
Ferencikova, S., & Hluskova, T. (2015).
Internationalization of Central and Eastern
European companies - theory and its
implications in the Slovak IT sector.
Journal for East European Management
Studies, 20(4), 415-434.
Fernhaber, S. A., & Li, D. (2010). The Impact
of Interorganizational Imitation on New
Venture International Entry and
Performance. Entrepreneurship Theory
and Practice, 34(1), 1-30.
Fernhaber, S. A., & Li, D. (2013).
International exposure through network
relationships: Implications for new
venture internationalization. Journal of
Business Venturing, 28(2), 316-334.
Fernhaber, S. A., & McDougall-Covin, P. P.
(2009). Venture Capitalists as Catalysts to
New Venture Internationalization: The
Impact of Their Knowledge and
Reputation Resources. Entrepreneurship
Theory and Practice, 33(1), 277-295.
Fernhaber, S. A., Gilbert, B. A., &
McDougall, P. P. (2008). International
entrepreneurship and geographic location:
an empirical examination of new venture
internationalization. Journal of
International Business Studies, 39(2), 267-
290.
Fernhaber, S. A., McDougall, P. P., & Oviatt,
B. M. (2007). Exploring the role of
industry structure in new venture
internationalization. Entrepreneurship
Theory and Practice, 31(4), 517-542.
Freeman, S., & Cavusgil, S. T. (2007).
Toward a typology of commitment states
among managers of born-global firms: A
study of accelerated internationalization.
Journal of International Marketing, 15(4),
1-40.
Freeman, S., Deligonul, S., & Cavusgil, T.
(2013). Strategic re-structuring by born-
globals using outward and inward-
oriented activity. International Marketing
Review, 30(2), 156-182.
Freeman, S., Edwards, R., & Schroder, B.
(2006). How smaller born-global firms use
networks and alliances to overcome
constraints to rapid internationalization.
Journal of International Marketing, 14(3),
33-63.
Freeman, S., Hutchings, K., & Chetty, S.
(2012). Born-Globals and Culturally
Proximate Markets. Management
International Review, 52(3), 425-460.
Freeman, S., Hutchings, K., Lazaris, M., &
Zyngier, S. (2010). A model of rapid
knowledge development: The smaller
born-global firm. International Business
Review, 19(1), 70-84.
Fuerst, S., & Zettinig, P. (2015). Knowledge
creation dynamics within the international
new venture. European Business Review,
27(2), 182-213.
Gabrielsson, M., & Gabrielsson, P. (2011).
Internet-based sales channel strategies of
born global firms. International Business
Review, 20(1), 88-99.
Gabrielsson, M., Gabrielsson, P., &
Dimitratos, P. (2014). International
Entrepreneurial Culture and Growth of
International New Ventures. Management
International Review, 54(4), 445-471.
Gabrielsson, M., Kirpalani, V. H. M.,
Dimitratos, P., Solberg, C. A., &
Zucchella, A. (2008). Born globals:
Propositions to help advance the theory.
International Business Review, 17(4),
385-401.
Gabrielsson, P., & Gabrielsson, M. (2013). A
dynamic model of growth phases and
survival in international business-to-
business new ventures: The moderating
effect of decision-making logic. Industrial
Marketing Management, 42(8), 1357-
1373.
Gallego, A., & Casillas, J. C. (2014). Choice
of markets for initial export activities:
Differences between early and late
exporters. International Business Review,
23(5), 1021-1033.
Gassmann, O., & Keupp, M. M. (2007). The
competitive advantage of early and rapidly
internationalising SMEs in the
biotechnology industry: A knowledge-
based view. Journal of World Business,
42(3), 350-366.
Gerschewski, S., & Xiao, S. S. (2015).
Beyond financial indicators: An
assessment of the measurement of
performance for international new
ventures. International Business Review,
24(4), 615-629.
Gerschewski, S., Rose, E. L., & Lindsay, V.
J. (2015). Understanding the drivers of
international performance for born global
firms: An integrated perspective. Journal
of World Business, 50(3), 558-575.
Glaister, A. J., Liu, Y. P., Sahadev, S., &
Gomes, E. (2014). Externalizing,
Internalizing and Fostering Commitment:
The Case of Born-Global Firms in
Emerging Economies. Management
International Review, 54(4), 473-496.
Gleason, K. C., & Wiggenhorn, J. (2007).
Born globals, the choice of globalization
strategy, and the market's perception of
performance. Journal of World Business,
42(3), 322-335.
Gupta, S., & Shapiro, D. (2014). Building
and transforming an emerging market
global enterprise: Lessons from the
Infosys journey. Business Horizons, 57(2),
169-179.
Hagen, B., & Zucchella, A. (2014). Born
Global or Born to Run? The Long-Term
Growth of Born Global Firms.
Management International Review, 54(4),
497-525.
Hallback, J., & Gabrielsson, P. (2013).
Entrepreneurial marketing strategies
during the growth of international new
ventures originating in small and open
economies. International Business
Review, 22(6), 1008-1020.
Han, M., & Celly, N. (2008). Strategic
Ambidexterity and Performance in
International New Ventures. Canadian
Journal of Administrative Sciences-Revue
Canadienne Des Sciences De L
Administration, 25(4), 335-349.
Hashai, N. (2011). Sequencing the expansion
of geographic scope and foreign
operations by "born global" firms. Journal
of International Business Studies, 42(8),
995-1015.
Hennart, J. F. (2014). The Accidental
Internationalists: A Theory of Born
Globals. Entrepreneurship Theory and
Practice, 38(1), 117-135.
Hewerdine, L., & Welch, C. (2013). Are
international new ventures really new? A
process study of organizational emergence
and internationalization. Journal of World
Business, 48(4), 466-477.
Holtbrugge, D., & Wessely, B. (2009).
Initiating forces and success factors of
born global firms. European Journal of
International Management, 3(2), 232-260.
Hughes, M., Martin, S. L., Morgan, R. E., &
Robson, M. J. (2010). Realizing Product-
Market Advantage in High-Technology
International New Ventures: The
Mediating Role of Ambidextrous
Innovation. Journal of International
Marketing, 18(4), 1-21.
Isenberg, D. J. (2008). The Global
Entrepreneur. Harvard Business Review,
86(12), 107-+.
Isidor, R., Schwens, C., & Kabst, R. (2011).
Human resource management and early
internationalization: is there a leap-
frogging in international staffing?
International Journal of Human Resource
Management, 22(10), 2167-2184.
Jantunen, A., Nummela, N., Puumalainen,
K., & Saarenketo, S. (2008). Strategic
orientations of born globals - Do they
really matter? Journal of World Business,
43(2), 158-170.
Johanson, M., & Martin, O. M. (2015). The
incremental expansion of Born
Internationals: A comparison of new and
old Born Internationals. International
Business Review, 24(3), 476-496.
Kalinic, I., & Forza, C. (2012). Rapid
internationalization of traditional SMEs:
Between gradualist models and born
globals. International Business Review,
21(4), 694-707.
Karra, N., Phillips, N., & Tracey, P. (2008).
Building the born global firm -
Developing entrepreneurial capabilities
for international new venture success.
Long Range Planning, 41(4), 440-458.
Khalid, S., & Larimo, J. (2012). Firm
Specific Advantage in Developed Markets
Dynamic Capability Perspective.
Management International Review, 52(2),
233-250.
Khavul, S., Perez-Nordtvedt, L., & Wood, E.
(2010). Organizational entrainment and
international new ventures from emerging
markets. Journal of Business Venturing,
25(1), 104-119.
Khavul, S., Peterson, M., Mullens, D., &
Rasheed, A. A. (2010). Going Global with
Innovations from Emerging Economies:
Investment in Customer Support
Capabilities Pays Off. Journal of
International Marketing, 18(4), 22-42.
Khavul, S., Prater, E., & Swafford, P. M.
(2012). International responsiveness of
entrepreneurial new ventures from three
leading emerging economies.
International Journal of Operations &
Production Management, 32(10), 1147-
1177.
Kim, D., Basu, C., Naidu, G. M., & Cavusgil,
E. (2011). The innovativeness of Born-
Globals and customer orientation:
Learning from Indian Born-Globals.
Journal of Business Research, 64(8), 879-
886.
Kiss, A. N., Williams, D. W., & Houghton, S.
M. (2013). Risk bias and the link between
motivation and new venture post-entry
international growth. International
Business Review, 22(6), 1068-1078.
Knight, G. A., & Cavusgil, S. T. (2004).
Innovation, organizational capabilities,
and the born-global firm (vol 35, pg 124,
2004). Journal of International Business
Studies, 35(4), 334-334.
Knight, G., Madsen, T. K., & Servais, P.
(2004). An inquiry into born-global firms
in Europe and the USA. International
Marketing Review, 21(6), 645-665.
Kocak, A., & Abimbola, T. (2009). The
effects of entrepreneurial marketing on
born global performance. International
Marketing Review, 26(4-5), 439-452.
Kuivalainen, O., Saarenketo, S., &
Puumalainen, K. (2012). Start-up patterns
of internationalization: A framework and
its application in the context of
knowledge-intensive SMEs. European
Management Journal, 30(4), 372-385.
Kuivalainen, O., Sundqvist, S., & Servais, P.
(2007). Firms' degree of born-globalness,
international entrepreneurial orientation
and export performance. Journal of World
Business, 42(3), 253-267.
Kungwansupaphan, C., & Siengthai, S.
(2014). Exploring entrepreneurs' human
capital components and effects on learning
orientation in early internationalizing
firms. International Entrepreneurship and
Management Journal, 10(3), 561-587.
Laanti, R., Gabrielsson, M., & Gabrielsson,
P. (2007). The globalization strategies of
business-to-business born global firms in
the wireless technology industry.
Industrial Marketing Management, 36(8),
1104-1117.
Lehrer, M., Schlegelmilch, B. B., & Behnam,
M. (2009). Competitive advantage from
exposure to multiple national
environments: the induced
internationalisation of 'born-
multidomestic' firms. European Journal of
International Management, 3(1), 92-110.
Li, L., Qian, G. M., & Qian, Z. M. (2012).
Early internationalization and
performance of small high-tech "born-
globals". International Marketing Review,
29(5), 536-561.
Li, L., Qian, G. M., & Qian, Z. M. (2015a).
Should Small, Young Technology-Based
Firms Internalize Transactions in Their
Internationalization? Entrepreneurship
Theory and Practice, 39(4), 839-862.
Li, L., Qian, G. M., & Qian, Z. M. (2015b).
SPEED OF ınternatıonalızatıon: mutual
effects of individual- and company-level
antecedents. Global Strategy Journal, 5(4),
303-320.
LiPuma, J. A. (2012). Internationalization
and the IPO performance of new ventures.
Journal of Business Research, 65(7), 914-
921.
Loane, S., & Bell, J. (2006). Rapid
internationalisation among
entrepreneurial firms in Australia, Canada,
Ireland and New Zealand - An extension
to the network approach. International
Marketing Review, 23(5), 467-485.
Loane, S., Bell, J. D., & McNaughton, R.
(2007). A cross-national study on the
impact of management teams on the rapid
internationalization of small firms. Journal
of World Business, 42(4), 489-504.
Loane, S., Bell, J., & Cunningham, I. (2014).
Entrepreneurial founding team exits in
rapidly internationalising SMEs: A double
edged sword. International Business
Review, 23(2), 468-477.
Lopez, L. E., Kundu, S. K., & Ciravegna, L.
(2009). Born global or born regional?
Evidence from an exploratory study in the
Costa Rican software industry. Journal of
International Business Studies, 40(7),
1228-1238.
Manolova, T. S., Manev, I. M., & Gyoshev,
B. S. (2010). In good company: The role
of personal and inter-firm networks for
new-venture internationalization in a
transition economy. Journal of World
Business, 45(3), 257-265.
Masango, S., & Marinova, S. (2014).
Knowledge-based network ties in early
rapidly internationalising small firms: a
missing link? International
Entrepreneurship and Management
Journal, 10(3), 471-486.
McAuley, A. (1999). Entrepreneurial instant
exporters in the Scottish arts and crafts
sector. Journal of International Marketing,
7(4), 67-82.
McDougall, P. P. (1989). Internatıonal versus
domestıc entrepreneurshıp - new venture
strategıc behavıor and ındustry structure.
Journal of Business Venturing, 4(6), 387-
400.
McDougall, P. P., & Oviatt, B. M. (1996).
New venture internationalization, strategic
change, and performance: A follow-up
study. Journal of Business Venturing,
11(1), 23-40.
McDougall, P. P., Shane, S., & Oviatt, B. M.
(1994). Explaınıng the formatıon of
ınternatıonal new ventures - the lımıts of
theorıes from ınternatıonal-busıness
research. Journal of Business Venturing,
9(6), 469-487.
McGaughey, S. L. (2007). Hidden ties in
international new venturing: The case of
portfolio entrepreneurship. Journal of
World Business, 42(3), 307-321.
Melen, S., & Nordman, E. R. (2009). The
internationalisation modes of Born
Globals: A longitudinal study. European
Management Journal, 27(4), 243-254.
Mets, T., Kaarna, K., & Kelli, A. (2010).
Intellectual Property - Lever or Barrier to
the Globalization of Knowledge-intensive
SMEs of Small Country Origin. Inzinerine
Ekonomika-Engineering Economics,
21(4), 387-398.
Michailova, S., & Wilson, H. I. M. (2008).
Small firm internationalization through
experiential learning: The moderating role
of socialization tactics. Journal of World
Business, 43(2), 243-254.
Moen, O. (2002). The born globals - A new
generation of small European exporters.
International Marketing Review, 19(2-3),
156-175.
Moen, O., & Servais, P. (2002). Born global
or gradual global? Examining the export
behavior of small and medium-sized
enterprises. Journal of International
Marketing, 10(3), 49-72.
Moen, O., Sorheim, R., & Erikson, T. (2008).
Born global firms and informal investors:
Examining investor characteristics.
Journal of Small Business Management,
46(4), 536-549.
Monferrer, D., Blesa, A., & Ripolles, M.
(2015a). Born globals trough knowledge-
based dynamic capabilities and network
market orientation. Brq-Business
Research Quarterly, 18(1), 18-36.
Monferrer, D., Blesa, A., & Ripolles, M.
(2015b). Catching dynamic capabilities
through market-oriented networks.
European Journal of International
Management, 9(3), 384-408.
Mort, G. S., & Weerawardena, J. (2006).
Networking capability and international
entrepreneurship - How networks function
in Australian born global firms.
International Marketing Review, 23(5),
549-572.
Mort, G. S., Weerawardena, J., & Liesch, P.
(2012). Advancing entrepreneurial
marketing Evidence from born global
firms. European Journal of Marketing,
46(3-4), 542-561.
Mudambi, R., & Zahra, S. A. (2007). The
survival of international new ventures.
Journal of International Business Studies,
38(2), 333-352.
Munoz-Bullon, F., Sanchez-Bueno, M. J., &
Vo s-Saz, A. (2015). Nascent
entrepreneurs' personality attributes and
the international dimension of new
ventures. International Entrepreneurship
and Management Journal, 11(3), 473-492.
Murmann, J. P., Ozdemir, S. Z., & Sardana,
D. (2015). The role of home country
demand in the internationalization of new
ventures. Research Policy, 44(6), 1207-
1225.
Musteen, M., Datta, D. K., & Francis, J.
(2014). Early ınternatıonalızatıon by fırms
ın transıtıon economıes ınto developed
markets: the role of ınternatıonal
networks. Global Strategy Journal, 4(3),
221-237.
Nadkarni, S., & Perez, P. D. (2007). Prior
conditions and early international
commitment: the mediating role of
domestic mindset. Journal of International
Business Studies, 38(1), 160-176.
Nadkarni, S., Herrmann, P., & Perez, P. D.
(2011). Domestıc mındsets and early
ınternatıonal performance: the moderatıng
effect of global ındustry condıtıons.
Strategic Management Journal, 32(5),
510-531.
Norback, P. J., & Persson, L. (2014). Born to
be Global and the Globalisation Process.
World Economy, 37(5), 672-689.
Nordman, E. R., & Melen, S. (2008). The
impact of different kinds of knowledge for
the internationalization process of Born
Globals in the biotech business. Journal of
World Business, 43(2), 171-185.
Nowinski, W., & Rialp, A. (2013). Drivers
and strategies of international new
ventures from a Central European
transition economy. Journal for East
European Management Studies, 18(2),
191-231.
Nummela, N., Saarenketo, S., Jokela, P., &
Loane, S. (2014). Strategic Decision-
Making of a Born Global: A Comparative
Study From Three Small Open
Economies. Management International
Review, 54(4), 527-550.
Oviatt, B. M., & McDougall, P. P. (1994).
Toward a theory of ınternatıonal new
ventures. Journal of International Business
Studies, 25(1), 45-64.
Oviatt, B. M., & McDougall, P. P. (2005a).
The internationalization of
entrepreneurship. Journal of International
Business Studies, 36(1), 2-8.
Oviatt, B. M., & McDougall, P. P. (2005b).
Toward a theory of international new
ventures. Journal of International Business
Studies, 36(1), 29-41.
Park, S., LiPuma, J. A., & Prange, C. (2015).
Venture capitalist and entrepreneur
knowledge of new venture
internationalization: A review of
knowledge components. International
Small Business Journal, 33(8), 901-928.
Park, T., & Rhee, J. (2012). Antecedents of
knowledge competency and performance
in born globals. Management Decision,
50(7-8), 1361-1381.
Paul, J., & Gupta, P. (2014). Process and
intensity of internationalization of IT firms
- Evidence from India. International
Business Review, 23(3), 594-603.
Pellegrino, J. M., & McNaughton, R. B.
(2015). The Co-evolution of Learning and
Internationalization Strategy in
International New Ventures. Management
International Review, 55(4), 457-483.
Prashantham, S., & Birkinshaw, J. (2015).
Choose Your Friends Carefully: Home-
Country Ties and New Venture
Internationalization. Management
International Review, 55(2), 207-234.
Prashantham, S., & Dhanaraj, C. (2010). The
Dynamic Influence of Social Capital on
the International Growth of New Ventures.
Journal of Management Studies, 47(6),
967-994.
Prashantham, S., & Dhanaraj, C. (2015).
MNE ties and new venture
internationalization: Exploratory insights
from India. Asia Pacific Journal of
Management, 32(4), 901-924.
Prashantham, S., & Floyd, S. W. (2012).
Routine microprocesses and capability
learning in international new ventures.
Journal of International Business Studies,
43(6), 544-562
Prashantham, S., & Young, S. (2011). Post-
Entry Speed of International New
Ventures. Entrepreneurship Theory and
Practice, 35(2), 275-292.
Prashantham, S., Dhanaraj, C., & Kumar, K.
(2015). Ties That Bind: Ethnic Ties and
New Venture Internationalization. Long
Range Planning, 48(5), 317-333.
Presutti, M., Boari, C., & Fratocchi, L.
(2007). Knowledge acquisition and the
foreign development of high-tech start-
ups: A social capital approach.
International Business Review, 16(1), 23-
46.
Przybylska, K. (2013). The ınfluence of
psychıc dıstance on the
ınternatıonalızatıon of polısh born globals.
Transformations in Business &
Economics, 12(2B), 525-537.
Puig, F., Gonzalez-Loureiro, M., & Ghauri,
P. N. (2014). Internationalisation for
Survival: The Case of New Ventures.
Management International Review, 54(5),
653-673.
Ramos, E., Acedo, F. J., & Gonzalez, M. R.
(2011). Internationalisation speed and
technological patterns: A panel data study
on Spanish SMEs. Technovation, 31(10-
11), 560-572.
Rasmussen, E. S., & Tanev, S. (2015). The
Emergence of the Lean Global Startup as
a New Type of Firm. Technology
Innovation Management Review, 12-19.
Rialp, A., Rialp, J., & Knight, G. A. (2005).
The phenomenon of early
internationalizing firms: what do we know
after a decade (1993-2003) of scientific
inquiry? International Business Review,
14(2), 147-166.
Rialp-Criado, A., Galvan-Sanchez, I., &
Suarez-Ortega, S. M. (2010). A
configuration-holistic approach to born-
global firms' strategy formation process.
European Management Journal, 28(2),
108-123.
Ricard, A., & Saiyed, A. A. (2015). Attitude
Toward Internationalization And Early
Internationalization: Comparison of
Indian and French SMEs' Decision
Makers. Management, 18(1), 54-77.
Riddle, L. A., & Gillespie, K. (2003).
Information sources for new ventures in
the Turkish clothing export industry. Small
Business Economics, 20(1), 105-120.
Riding, A., Orser, B. J., Spence, M., &
Belanger, B. (2012). Financing new
venture exporters. Small Business
Economics, 38(2), 147-163.
Ripolles, M., & Blesa, A. (2012).
International new ventures as "small
multinationals": The importance of
marketing capabilities. Journal of World
Business, 47(2), 277-287.
Ripolles, M., Blesa, A., & Monferrer, D.
(2012). Factors enhancing the choice of
higher resource commitment entry modes
in international new ventures.
International Business Review, 21(4),
648-666.
Sapienza, H. J., Autio, E., George, G., &
Zahra, S. A. (2006). A capabilities
perspective on the effects of early
internationalization on firm survival and
growth. Academy of Management
Review, 31(4), 914-933.
Satta, G., & Persico, L. (2015). Entry mode
choices of rapidly internationalizing
terminal operators: The determinants of
the degree of control on foreign ventures.
Maritime Economics & Logistics, 17(1),
97-126.
Schwens, C., & Kabst, R. (2009). How early
opposed to late internationalizers learn:
Experience of others and paradigms of
interpretation. International Business
Review, 18(5), 509-522.
Schwens, C., & Kabst, R. (2011).
Internationalization of young technology
firms: A complementary perspective on
antecedents of foreign market familiarity.
International Business Review, 20(1), 60-
74.
Sepulveda, F. L. (2014). Does service
intangibility affect entrepreneurial
orientation? Service Industries Journal,
34(7), 604-629.
Sepulveda, F., & Gabrielsson, M. (2013).
Network development and firm growth: A
resource-based study of B2B Born
Globals. Industrial Marketing
Management, 42(5), 792-804.
Shrader, R. C. (2001). Collaboration and
performance in foreign markets: The case
of young high-technology manufacturing
firms. Academy of Management Journal,
44(1), 45-60.
Shrader, R. C., Oviatt, B. M., & McDougall,
P. P. (2000). How new ventures exploit
trade-offs among international risk
factors: Lessons for the accelerated
internationization of the 21st century.
Academy of Management Journal, 43(6),
1227-1247.
Sinha, P., Wang, M. Y., Scott-Kennel, J., &
Gibb, J. (2015). Paradoxes of psychic
distance and market entry by software
INVs. European Business Review, 27(1),
34-59.
Sleuwaegen, L., & Onkelinx, J. (2014).
International commitment, post-entry
growth and survival of international new
ventures. Journal of Business Venturing,
29(1), 106-120.
Smith, A. R., Ryan, P. A., & Collings, D. G.
(2012). Born global networks: the role of
connectors. European Journal of
International Management, 6(5), 566-589.
Spence, M., Orser, B., & Riding, A. (2011).
A Comparative Study of International and
Domestic New Ventures. Management
International Review, 51(1), 3-21.
Styles, C., & Genua, T. (2008). The rapid
internationalization of high technology
firms created through the
commercialization of academic research.
Journal of World Business, 43(2), 146-
157.
Sui, S., & Baum, M. (2014).
Internationalization strategy, firm
resources and the survival of SMEs in the
export market. Journal of International
Business Studies, 45(7), 821-841.
Sui, S., Yu, Z. H., & Baum, M. (2012).
Prevalence and longitudinal trends of
early internationalisation patterns among
Canadian SMEs. International Marketing
Review, 29(5), 519-535.
Tang, Y. K. (2011). The Influence of
networking on the internationalization of
SMEs: Evidence from internationalized
Chinese firms. International Small
Business Journal, 29(4), 374-398.
Taylor, M., & Jack, R. (2013). Understanding
the pace, scale and pattern of firm
internationalization: An extension of the
"born global' concept. International Small
Business Journal, 31(6), 701-721.
Terjesen, S., O'Gorman, C., & Acs, Z. J.
(2008). Intermediated mode of
internationalization: new software
ventures in Ireland and India.
Entrepreneurship and Regional
Development, 20(1), 89-109.
Tolstoy, D., & Agndal, H. (2010). Network
resource combinations in the international
venturing of small biotech firms.
Technovation, 30(1), 24-36.
Trudgen, R., & Freeman, S. (2014).
Measuring the Performance of Born-
Global Firms Throughout Their
Development Process: The Roles of Initial
Market Selection and Internationalisation
Speed. Management International Review,
54(4), 551-579.
Uner, M. M., Kocak, A., Cavusgil, E., &
Cavusgil, S. T. (2013). Do barriers to
export vary for born globals and across
stages of internationalization? An
empirical inquiry in the emerging market
of Turkey. International Business Review,
22(5), 800-813.
Vasilchenko, E., & Morrish, S. (2011). The
Role of Entrepreneurial Networks in the
Exploration and Exploitation of
Internationalization Opportunities by
Information and Communication
Technology Firms. Journal of
International Marketing, 19(4), 88-105.
Voudouris, I., Dimitratos, P., & Salavou, H.
(2011). Entrepreneurial learning in the
international new high-technology
venture. International Small Business
Journal, 29(3), 238-258.
Weerawardena, J., Mort, G. S., Liesch, P. W.,
& Knight, G. (2007). Conceptualizing
accelerated internationalization in the born
global firm: A dynamic capabilities
perspective. Journal of World Business,
42(3), 294-306.
Weerawardena, J., Mort, G. S., Salunke, S.,
Knight, G., & Liesch, P. W. (2015). The
role of the market sub-system and the
socio-technical sub-system in innovation
and firm performance: a dynamic
capabilities approach. Journal of the
Academy of Marketing Science, 43(2),
221-239.
Welbourne, T. M., & De Cieri, H. (2001).
How new venture initial public offerings
benefit from international operations: a
study of human resource value.
International Journal of Human Resource
Management, 12(4), 652-668.
Wu, A. Q., & Voss, H. (2015). When does
absorptive capacity matter for
international performance of firms?
Evidence from China. International
Business Review, 24(2), 344-351.
Yamakawa, Y., Peng, M. W., & Deeds, D. L.
(2008). What drives new ventures to
internationalize from emerging to
developed economies? Entrepreneurship
Theory and Practice, 32(1), 59-82.
Yan, L., & Panteli, N. (2011). Order and
disorder in a Born Global organisation.
New Technology Work and Employment,
26(2), 127-145.
Yeoh, P. L. (2000). Information acquisition
activities: A study of global start-up
exporting companies. Journal of
International Marketing, 8(3), 36-60.
Zahra, S. A. (2005). A theory of international
new ventures: a decade of research.
Journal of International Business Studies,
36(1), 20-28.
Zahra, S. A. (2014). Public and Corporate
Governance and Young Global
Entrepreneurial Firms. Corporate
Governance-an International Review,
22(2), 77-83.
Zahra, S. A., Ireland, R. D., & Hitt, M. A.
(2000). International expansion by new
venture firms: International diversity,
mode of market entry, technological
learning, and performance. Academy of
Management Journal, 43(5), 925-950.
Zhang, M. Y., & Dodgson, M. (2007). "A
roasted duck can still fly away": A case
study of technology, nationality, culture
and the rapid and early
internationalization of the firm. Journal of
World Business, 42(3), 336-349.
Zhang, M., & Sarker, S. (2013). Drivers and
export performance impacts of IT
capability in "born-global' firms: a cross-
national study. Information Systems
Journal, 23(5), 419-443.
Zhou, L. (2007). The effects of
entrepreneurial proclivity and foreign
market knowledge on early
internationalization. Journal of World
Business, 42(3), 281-293.
Zhou, L. X., & Wu, A. Q. (2014). Earliness
of internationalization and performance
outcomes: Exploring the moderating
effects of venture age and international
commitment. Journal of World Business,
49(1), 132-142.
Zhou, L. X., Barnes, B. R., & Lu, Y. A.
(2010). Entrepreneurial proclivity,
capability upgrading and performance
advantage of newness among international
new ventures. Journal of International
Business Studies, 41(5), 882-905.
Zhou, L. X., Wu, A. Q., & Barnes, B. R.
(2012). The Effects of Early
Internationalization on Performance
Outcomes in Young International
Ventures: The Mediating Role of
Marketing Capabilities. Journal of
International Marketing, 20(4), 25-45.
Zhou, L. X., Wu, W. P., & Luo, X. M. (2007).
Internationalization and the performance
of born-global SMEs: the mediating role
of social networks. Journal of
International Business Studies, 38(4), 673-
690.
Zou, H. A., & Ghauri, P. N. (2010).
Internationalizing by learning: the case of
Chinese high-tech new ventures.
International Marketing Review, 27(2),
223-244.
Zucchella, A., Palamara, G., & Denicolai, S.
(2007). The drivers of the early
internationalization of the firm. Journal of
World Business, 42(3), 268-280.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
This research has two objectives. The first is to study the link between SMEs internationalizing at an early stage and the attitudes of their decision makers toward internationalization. The second is to analyze this relationship in an international context (India and France). We thus propose to contribute to a better understanding of the factors behind internationalization. To meet these objectives, we used an original methodology: decision makers' practices were studied using the scenario method. The assessment of attitudes toward internationalization was carried out using a new multidimensional scale of measurement. The measurement tool was distributed to decision makers in French and Indian SMEs. A database of 234 respondents was used. This research presents three main results: we found that the decision makers of SMEs with a very positive attitude towards internationalization are more conducive to internationalizing early than others but that the opposite is not always true. Contrary to our expectations, we observed that French decision makers are more favorable to internationalization than Indians. Finally, we identified that Indian decision makers are more likely to internationalize early than the French.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – This paper aims to examine the role of psychic distance during the process of international market entry by software international new ventures (INVs) from small, open economies. Specifically, we investigate how home market and global industry contexts influence market-entry strategies, and how psychic distance influences initial then subsequent market-entry choice decisions. Design/methodology/approach – Using Atlas.ti7 software, this paper adopts a qualitative, multi-case analysis of ten software INVs based in New Zealand. Thematic coding of interview and secondary data revealed three core processes: pre-entry considerations, market selection criteria and post-entry evaluation, across the stages of initial and subsequent market entry. Findings – In the context of the global software industry, the key driver of proactive market entry by INVs from small, open economies is market size rather than psychic distance. During the process of market expansion, firms encounter the psychic distance paradox (PDP). A second paradox arises when, despite experiential learning, managerial perceptions of psychic distance increase, making entry into more distant markets less, rather than more, likely and reactive, rather than proactive. Originality/value – This paper addresses contextual differences in software versus more traditional sectors, and the influence of psychic distance on market entry rather than outcomes. Specifically, extending our understanding of the PDP, we find perceptual psychic and cultural distance ignored as criteria for initial market-entry decisions, and initial positive attitudes toward risk-taking become less apparent during subsequent entries.
Article
Full-text available
The nature of born global firms which from inception, seek to derive significant competitive advantage from the use of resources and the sales of outputs in multiple countries remains poorly understood. Given the lack of resources which born globals tend to have compared with larger international competitors the importance of social capital and network ties in addressing their liabilities of newness and smallness have received some attention. However, how these network ties actually operate and the nuances inside of these networks are as yet not fully understood. This paper seeks to address this knowledge gap by attempting to unpack the black box of the social networks and connectors which born globals draw upon in their internationalisation efforts. Based on a study of the indigenous Irish digital, film and TV production industry, our research points to a suite of both weak and strong connectors which facilitate the internationalisation of the firms in our sample.
Article
Using multiple case studies, we explore how Born Global networks develop as the firm's internal resources grow. Building on networks and entrepreneurship research, we develop a theoretical framework and advance five propositions that link resource development and entrepreneurial orientation to network content, structure, centrality, and management. We also explore the benefits that Born Globals gain from this development. Key findings include; resource accumulation and network development have a strong relationship while network content becomes increasingly strategic; strong entrepreneurial orientation coincides with calculative network management; network benefits are not always advantageous to the firms. This study makes empirical contributions to Born Global and Networks research in the context of Business-to-Business firms, and provides practical implications for Entrepreneurs and Born Global managers.
Article
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development predicts that the internationalization of businesses will accelerate in the 21st century. Our study examined how the risks of accelerated internationalization may be managed in 212 foreign market entries by 87 new ventures based in the United States. Findings suggested that ventures managed strategic international risks by exploiting simultaneous trade-offs among foreign revenue exposure, country risk, and entry mode commitment in each country.
Article
This study employed transaction cost theory to explore factors moderating the relationship between collaboration and performance in foreign markets among a sample of international new ventures. Results indicated that R&D intensity and advertising intensity were significant moderators of this relationship; however they were not significantly related to the use or nonuse of collaboration Besides enhancing understanding of international new ventures, these results provide advances in understanding the relationship between collaboration and firm performance that may also motivate future research on large multinational enterprises.
Article
An increasing number of new venture firms are internationalizing their business operations early in their life cycles. Previous explanations of this trend have focused on the importance of technological knowledge, skills, and resources for new ventures' international expansion. However, little is known about how these firms use the technological learning gained through internationalization. This study examined the effects of international expansion, as measured by international diversity and mode of market entry, on a firm's technological learning and the effects of this learning on the firm's financial performance.
Article
The surge of international terminal operators (ITOs) gives momentum to the ongoing internationalization process in ports, and induces academic literature to investigate their overseas growth patterns. Empirical evidence shows that, although most container port operators experience regular internationalization drives, several firms pursue an unconventional and accelerated foreign expansion process. In this study, we label this new species of ITOs as ‘emerging ITOs’. They include players from developing countries and a handful of financial operators. Grounding on the ‘born-global’ perspective and the Linkage-Leverage-Learning model, the article investigates the antecedents of the degree of control in foreign ventures. It emphasizes the uniqueness of the ITOs undertaking accelerated path of expansions, in opposition to traditional firms. The outcomes demonstrate that cultural distance, relational capabilities and market knowledge are valuable predictors of the emerging ITOs’ entry mode choices.
Article
Organizational learning has been studied as a key factor in firm performance and internationalization. Moving beyond the past emphasis on market learning, we develop a more complete explanation of learning, its relationship to innovation, and their joint effect on early internationalization. We theorize that, driven by the founders’ international vision, early internationalizing firms employ a dual subsystem of dynamic capabilities: a market subsystem consisting of market-focused learning capability and marketing capability, and a socio-technical subsystem comprised of network learning capability and internally focused learning capability. We argue that innovation mediates the proposed relationship between the dynamic capability structure and early internationalization. We conduct case studies to develop the conceptual framework and test it in a field survey of early internationalizing firms from Australia and the United States. Our findings indicate a complex interplay of capabilities driving innovation and early internationalization. We provide theoretical and practical implications and offer insights for future research.
Article
While learning plays an important role in firms’ internationalization process, the impact absorptive capacity has on the international performance when considering the timing of the internationalization is still unclear. Our research explores the role of absorptive capacity in international performance of early internationalizing firms and international experienced firms. Combining established theories, we propose opposing effect of absorptive capacity as the learning advantages of newness vanish over time and are replaced by organizational rigidities and inertia. Based on survey data from 162 Chinese firms, our empirical results indicate that the influence of absorptive capacity on international performance becomes stronger when the firm enters foreign market in its earlier stage of life cycle. However, we find that as the learning advantages of newness diminish, so does the effectiveness of high levels of absorptive capacity. Absorptive capacity resources become captured by organizational and operational rigidities and contribute less to firm performance.