DataPDF Available
Appendix 1. Papers used in thematic analysis (n=198)
Abidi, O. (2015). How Internatıonal
Knowledge Assets Support Capabılıty-
Buıldıng In Hıgh-Tech Born Globals?
Journal of Organisational Studies and
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internationalization and entrepreneurial
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between international new ventures,
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toward a theory of new venture's choice of
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Al-Laham, A., & Souitaris, V. (2008).
Network embeddedness and new-venture
internationalization: Analyzing
international linkages in the German
biotech industry. Journal of Business
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Almodovar, P., & Rugman, A. M. (2014).
The M Curve and the Performance of
Spanish International New Ventures.
British Journal of Management, 25, S6-
Almor, T., Tarba, S. Y., & Margalit, A.
(2014). Maturing, Technology-Based,
Born-Global Companies: Surviving
Through Mergers and Acquisitions.
Management International Review, 54(4),
Aspelund, A., Madsen, T. K., & Moen, O.
(2007). A review of the foundation,
international marketing strategies, and
performance of international new
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41(11-12), 1423-1448.
Autio, E. (2005). Creative tension: the
significance of Ben Oviatt's and Patricia
McDougall's article 'toward a theory of
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Exploring the antecedents of born-global
companies' international development.
International Entrepreneurship and
Management Journal, 10(1), 67-79.
Baum, M., Schwens, C., & Kabst, R. (2011).
A Typology of International New
Ventures: Empirical Evidence from High-
Technology Industries. Journal of Small
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Baum, M., Schwens, C., & Kabst, R. (2013).
International as opposed to domestic new
venturing: The moderating role of
perceived barriers to internationalization.
International Small Business Journal,
31(5), 536-562.
Blomqvist, K., Hurmelinna-Laukkanen, P.,
Nummela, N., & Saarenketo, S. (2008).
The role of trust and contracts in the
internationalization of technology-
intensive Born Globals. Journal of
Engineering and Technology
Management, 25(1-2), 123-135.
Bruneel, J., Yli-Renko, H., & Clarysse, B.
(2010). Learnıng from experıence and
learnıng from others: how congenıtal and
ınterorganızatıonal learnıng substıtute for
experıentıal learnıng ın young fırm
ınternatıonalızatıon. Strategic
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Cabrol, M., & Nlemvo, F. (2009). The
internationalisation of French new
ventures: The case of the Rhone-Alps
region. European Management Journal,
27(4), 255-267.
Cancino, C. A., & Coronado, F. C. (2014).
Exploring the determinants of born-global
firms in Chile. Academia-Revista
Latinoamericana De Administracion,
27(3), 386-401.
Cannone, G., & Ughetto, E. (2014). Born
globals: A cross-country survey on high-
tech start-ups. International Business
Review, 23(1), 272-283.
Cannone, G., & Ughetto, E. (2015).
Internationalization flows of high-tech
start-ups: a gravity model. European
Business Review, 27(1), 60-79.
Carvalho, L., Santos, I. P., & van Winden, W.
(2014). Knowledge spaces and places:
From the perspective of a "born-global"
start-up in the field of urban technology.
Expert Systems with Applications, 41(12),
Casas, R., Kavaliauske, M., &
Dambrauskaite, V. (2011). the impact of
external business environment factors to
internationalization of "born global"
companies by promoting
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Cavusgil, S. T., & Knight, G. (2015). The
born global firm: An entrepreneurial and
capabilities perspective on early and rapid
internationalization. Journal of
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Global Orientation on the Performance of
International New Ventures: Evidence
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Cesinger, B., Fink, M., Madsen, T. K., &
Kraus, S. (2012). Rapidly
internationalizing ventures: how
definitions can bridge the gap across
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Chandra, Y., Styles, C., & Wilkinson, I. F.
(2012). An Opportunity-Based View of
Rapid Internationalization. Journal of
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Chetty, S., & Campbell-Hunt, C. (2004). A
strategic approach to internationalization:
A traditional versus a "born-global"
approach. Journal of International
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Chetty, S., Johanson, M., & Martin, O. M.
(2014). Speed of internationalization:
Conceptualization, measurement and
validation. Journal of World Business,
49(4), 633-650.
Chun, L. Y., Tian, L., & Jing, Y. (2014). The
Effect of Born International's International
Strategies on its Subsequent
Development: Taking the Accumulated
Overseas Market Resources as the
Moderating Effects. Anthropologist,
17(3), 687-700.
Coelho, B. V., de Mello, R. C., & da Rocha,
A. (2014). Leblon Cachaca: A born global
in a traditional industry. Journal of
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Coviello, N. (2015). Re-thinking research on
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Coviello, N. E. (2006). The network
dynamics of international new ventures.
Journal of International Business Studies,
37(5), 713-731.
Crick, D. (2009). The internationalisation of
born global and international new venture
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26(4-5), 453-476.
Cuervo-Cazurra, A. (2011). Selecting the
country in which to start
internationalization: The non-sequential
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Danik, L., & Kowalik, I. (2015). Success
factors and development barriers
perceived by the Polish born global
companies. Empirical study results.
Journal for East European Management
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De Clercq, D., & Zhou, L. X. (2014).
Entrepreneurial Strategic Posture and
Performance in Foreign Markets: The
Critical Role of International Learning
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22(2), 47-67.
De Clercq, D., Hessels, J., & van Stel, A.
(2008). Knowledge spillovers and new
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De Clercq, D., Sapienza, H. J., Yavuz, R. I.,
& Zhou, L. X. (2012). Learning and
knowledge in early internationalization
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27(1), 143-165.
Di Gregorio, D., Musteen, M., & Thomas, D.
E. (2008). International new ventures: The
cross-border nexus of individuals and
opportunities. Journal of World Business,
43(2), 186-196.
Dunford, R., Palmer, I., & Benveniste, J.
(2010). Business Model Replication for
Early and Rapid Internationalisation The
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Efrat, K., & Shoham, A. (2011).
Environmental characteristics and
technological capabilities' interaction in
high-technology born global firms.
European Journal of International
Management, 5(3), 271-284.
Efrat, K., & Shoham, A. (2012). Born global
firms: The differences between their short-
and long-term performance drivers.
Journal of World Business, 47(4), 675-
Efrat, K., & Shoham, A. (2013). The
interaction between environment and
strategic orientation in born globals'
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Evers, N., & O'Gorman, C. (2011).
Improvised internationalization in new
ventures: The role of prior knowledge and
networks. Entrepreneurship and Regional
Development, 23(7-8), 549-574.
Evers, N., Andersson, S., & Hannibal, M.
(2012). Stakeholders and Marketing
Capabilities in International New
Ventures: Evidence from Ireland, Sweden,
and Denmark. Journal of International
Marketing, 20(4), 46-71.
Fan, T., & Phan, P. (2007). International new
ventures: revisiting the influences behind
the 'born-global' firm. Journal of
International Business Studies, 38(7),
Faroque, A. R., & Takahashi, Y. (2015).
Export marketing assistance and early
internationalizing firm performance Does
export commitment matter? Asia Pacific
Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 27(3),
Federico, J. S., Kantis, H. D., Rialp, A., &
Rialp, J. (2009). Does entrepreneurs'
human and relational capital affect early
internationalisation? A cross-regional
comparison. European Journal of
International Management, 3(2), 199-215.
Ferencikova, S., & Hluskova, T. (2015).
Internationalization of Central and Eastern
European companies - theory and its
implications in the Slovak IT sector.
Journal for East European Management
Studies, 20(4), 415-434.
Fernhaber, S. A., & Li, D. (2010). The Impact
of Interorganizational Imitation on New
Venture International Entry and
Performance. Entrepreneurship Theory
and Practice, 34(1), 1-30.
Fernhaber, S. A., & Li, D. (2013).
International exposure through network
relationships: Implications for new
venture internationalization. Journal of
Business Venturing, 28(2), 316-334.
Fernhaber, S. A., & McDougall-Covin, P. P.
(2009). Venture Capitalists as Catalysts to
New Venture Internationalization: The
Impact of Their Knowledge and
Reputation Resources. Entrepreneurship
Theory and Practice, 33(1), 277-295.
Fernhaber, S. A., Gilbert, B. A., &
McDougall, P. P. (2008). International
entrepreneurship and geographic location:
an empirical examination of new venture
internationalization. Journal of
International Business Studies, 39(2), 267-
Fernhaber, S. A., McDougall, P. P., & Oviatt,
B. M. (2007). Exploring the role of
industry structure in new venture
internationalization. Entrepreneurship
Theory and Practice, 31(4), 517-542.
Freeman, S., & Cavusgil, S. T. (2007).
Toward a typology of commitment states
among managers of born-global firms: A
study of accelerated internationalization.
Journal of International Marketing, 15(4),
Freeman, S., Deligonul, S., & Cavusgil, T.
(2013). Strategic re-structuring by born-
globals using outward and inward-
oriented activity. International Marketing
Review, 30(2), 156-182.
Freeman, S., Edwards, R., & Schroder, B.
(2006). How smaller born-global firms use
networks and alliances to overcome
constraints to rapid internationalization.
Journal of International Marketing, 14(3),
Freeman, S., Hutchings, K., & Chetty, S.
(2012). Born-Globals and Culturally
Proximate Markets. Management
International Review, 52(3), 425-460.
Freeman, S., Hutchings, K., Lazaris, M., &
Zyngier, S. (2010). A model of rapid
knowledge development: The smaller
born-global firm. International Business
Review, 19(1), 70-84.
Fuerst, S., & Zettinig, P. (2015). Knowledge
creation dynamics within the international
new venture. European Business Review,
27(2), 182-213.
Gabrielsson, M., & Gabrielsson, P. (2011).
Internet-based sales channel strategies of
born global firms. International Business
Review, 20(1), 88-99.
Gabrielsson, M., Gabrielsson, P., &
Dimitratos, P. (2014). International
Entrepreneurial Culture and Growth of
International New Ventures. Management
International Review, 54(4), 445-471.
Gabrielsson, M., Kirpalani, V. H. M.,
Dimitratos, P., Solberg, C. A., &
Zucchella, A. (2008). Born globals:
Propositions to help advance the theory.
International Business Review, 17(4),
Gabrielsson, P., & Gabrielsson, M. (2013). A
dynamic model of growth phases and
survival in international business-to-
business new ventures: The moderating
effect of decision-making logic. Industrial
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Gallego, A., & Casillas, J. C. (2014). Choice
of markets for initial export activities:
Differences between early and late
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23(5), 1021-1033.
Gassmann, O., & Keupp, M. M. (2007). The
competitive advantage of early and rapidly
internationalising SMEs in the
biotechnology industry: A knowledge-
based view. Journal of World Business,
42(3), 350-366.
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Beyond financial indicators: An
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performance for international new
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24(4), 615-629.
Gerschewski, S., Rose, E. L., & Lindsay, V.
J. (2015). Understanding the drivers of
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Glaister, A. J., Liu, Y. P., Sahadev, S., &
Gomes, E. (2014). Externalizing,
Internalizing and Fostering Commitment:
The Case of Born-Global Firms in
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Gleason, K. C., & Wiggenhorn, J. (2007).
Born globals, the choice of globalization
strategy, and the market's perception of
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42(3), 322-335.
Gupta, S., & Shapiro, D. (2014). Building
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Hagen, B., & Zucchella, A. (2014). Born
Global or Born to Run? The Long-Term
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Management International Review, 54(4),
Hallback, J., & Gabrielsson, P. (2013).
Entrepreneurial marketing strategies
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of geographic scope and foreign
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Hughes, M., Martin, S. L., Morgan, R. E., &
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International New Ventures: The
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Building the born global firm -
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Management International Review, 52(2),
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This research has two objectives. The first is to study the link between SMEs internationalizing at an early stage and the attitudes of their decision makers toward internationalization. The second is to analyze this relationship in an international context (India and France). We thus propose to contribute to a better understanding of the factors behind internationalization. To meet these objectives, we used an original methodology: decision makers' practices were studied using the scenario method. The assessment of attitudes toward internationalization was carried out using a new multidimensional scale of measurement. The measurement tool was distributed to decision makers in French and Indian SMEs. A database of 234 respondents was used. This research presents three main results: we found that the decision makers of SMEs with a very positive attitude towards internationalization are more conducive to internationalizing early than others but that the opposite is not always true. Contrary to our expectations, we observed that French decision makers are more favorable to internationalization than Indians. Finally, we identified that Indian decision makers are more likely to internationalize early than the French.
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