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A Study of Communication Strategies Employed by Radfan College EFL Students in their Classroom Interactions

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Abstract

The focus of this study is to examine the communication strategies employed by Radfan College EFL students in their classroom interactions. In its theoretical part, the study shows the significance of CSs as a component of EFL learner’s communicative competence and its significance in foreign language learning and communication. The data of this study were collected through classroom observations. Results revealed that though Radfan College EFL students’ oral English proficiency is pretty low, most students tend to stop communication or switch into their mother tongue rather than utilizing effective CSs that may help them in communicating and developing their communication proficiency. The study showed that only a few students (high linguistic ability students) use some effective strategies; such as, paraphrasing of meaning, asking interlocutor’s for help, time fillers and nonverbal signals while the majority (low linguistic ability students) prefer to keep silent and whenever they participate and encounter linguistic difficulties, they usually tend to shift into mother tongue or abandon their messages. The main reasons behind that are: (a) students were not well trained to use such communication strategies, and (b) teachers do not force students to use English in their classroom interactions. The study recommends teaching students of this college CSs in the first year of their college education and creating opportunities for meaningful communication in the classroom to enable students to use and develop their CSs.
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A Study of Communication Strategies Employed by Radfan College EFL Students in
their Classroom Interactions
Sabri Thabit Saleh Ahmed
Ph.D. Research Scholar,
Dept of English S.M.D.M College,
Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, AurangabadIndia
sabri-t2010@hotmail.com
&
Dr. Sunil V. Pawar
Research Guide & Associate Professor,
Dept of English, S.M.D.M College,
Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad- India
Abstract
The focus of this study is to examine the communication strategies employed by Radfan
College EFL students in their classroom interactions. In its theoretical part, the study shows
the significance of CSs as a component of EFL learner’s communicative competence and its
significance in foreign language learning and communication. The data of this study were
collected through classroom observations. Results revealed that though Radfan College EFL
students’ oral English proficiency is pretty low, most students tend to stop communication or
switch into their mother tongue rather than utilizing effective CSs that may help them in
communicating and developing their communication proficiency. The study showed that only
a few students (high linguistic ability students) use some effective strategies; such as,
paraphrasing of meaning, asking interlocutor’s for help, time fillers and nonverbal signals
while the majority (low linguistic ability students) prefer to keep silent and whenever they
participate and encounter linguistic difficulties, they usually tend to shift into mother tongue
or abandon their messages. The main reasons behind that are: (a) students were not well
trained to use such communication strategies, and (b) teachers do not force students to use
English in their classroom interactions. The study recommends teaching students of this
New Academia: An International Journal of English Language, Literature and Literary Theory
(Online-ISSN 2347-2073) (U.G.C. Journal. No. 44829) Vol. VII Issue III, July 2018
http://interactionsforum.com/new-academia 164
college CSs in the first year of their college education and creating opportunities for
meaningful communication in the classroom to enable students to use and develop their CSs.
Keywords: Communication strategies (CSs), foreign language learning, Radfan College of
Education, linguistic insufficiency
1-Introduction:
Strategic competence or ‗communication strategies has become an important element
of the communicative competence that a second or foreign language learner needs in order to
communicate effectively ( Canale & Swain, 1980; Savignon 1983; Canale 1983; Bachman
1990; Celce-Murcia, Dörnyei & Thurrell,1995; Ahmed & Pawar, 2018). Some educators
think that it is not necessary to teach strategic competence as a part of the language syllabus
as learners already have acquired these strategies of communication from their mother
tongue. However, the situation with a foreign language is completely different as learners
need such strategies not only for making further meanings that are more sophisticated and
diplomatic but to compensate for lack of linguistic or sociolinguistic competencies.
In 1970s, the strategic competence was introduced as a main part of the competence
that foreign language learners need develop for communication. It has appeared as an element
in each of the communicative competence models that have emerged during the second half
of the last centuries. Though there has been a debate on what strategic competence includes
as some consider learning strategies as a part of CSs, it has remained there as a main
component of learners‘ communication competence in all models and refers to the coping
strategies that one uses to compensate for insufficiency of linguistic competence.
Communication strategies are often more needed by those learners who are at earlier stages
of their language learning as they struggle to get meanings across due to their linguistic
deficiency. It is for this reason that research in communication strategies has been growing up
during the last decades and more attention was paid to developing learners‘ strategic
competence as a part of their language learning.
CSs not only help speakers to compensate for language deficiency but also play a big
role in encouraging language learning and mastering communication competence.
Communicative approach urges for learning language through using it for communication
and such activities designed for that purpose cannot be fulfilled by beginners as they lack
their linguistic competence. So utilizing CSs in such activities motivates and enhances
language learning. For students who are not aware of CSs, they stop these activities
whenever they find difficulties due to their lack of their linguistic knowledge and this will
hinder their acquisition of the target language.
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1-1: Statement of the Problem
EFL students of Radfan College of education are of low English communication
proficiency. Only few students who try to use English in their classroom interactions while
others keep silent or speak in Arabic. There can be various problems that students encounter
in their communication which prevent them from participating in classroom discussions.
Surely, lack of linguistic knowledge and poor skills in using such knowledge for
communication can be among the major problems students encounter. As these students
usually come from rural areas where neither professional English institutions nor English
medium schools are available, they are seen as beginners who severely lack various aspects
of their language system. So CSs should be among the effective tools that usually help
beginners in compensating for linguistic deficiency and in keeping communication channel
ongoing while participating in classroom discussions. It is for this reason that this study is
devoted to surveying major CSs that Radfan College EFL students utilize in their classroom
interactions.
1-2: Objectives of the study
This paper aims at achieving the following objectives:
- To review the various definitions of communication strategies.
- To highlight the significance of communication strategies for EFL
learners.
- To examine the communication strategies employed by Radfan College
EFL students in their classroom interactions.
2-Literature Review
In this section, the study is to survey the previous research on communication
strategies. It attempts to go through the various definitions of communication strategies,
categories of communication strategies, their significance in communication and language
learning and providing some examples of most common communication strategies.
2-1: Communication Strategies
The term communication strategies refers to both linguistic and non-linguistic
strategies that a speaker calls upon to compensate insufficiency in his/her knowledge while
communicating. Boxer and Cohen (2004) defined CSs as "a systematic attempt by the
speakers or the learners to deliver or give the exact meaning that is not proportionate with the
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rules of the target language". Tarone (1981) has defied communication strategy is an attempt
by two speakers to agree on a meaning in the target language. Learners usually use these CSs
to compensate the insufficiency of knowledge. These strategies will help the speaker to pass
his/her message effectively. 
Dörnyei and Scott (1997) have emphasized that this term in applied linguistics is
usually debatable and researchers are not in a consensus on its definition nor on the various
examples of communication strategies:
CS research does not lack controversies. There is no universally
accepted definition of CSs; as a result, several competing taxonomies of CSs
exist, including different ranges of language devices, from paraphrase to filled
pauses, from code-switching to interactional meaning-negotiation mechanisms
(such as clarification requests). In fact, in view of the widespread use of the
term "communication strategy" in applied linguistics its coverage has by now
become "compulsory" in any overview of L2 acquisition and useit is
surprising how little CS researchers agree about what exactly these devices are.
(P:174)
Dornyei (1995) has defined communication strategy as "a systematic technique
employed by a speaker to express his or her meaning when faced with some difficulty"(p.
56). Anyway, from the discussions above we find that researchers have viewed
communication strategies as verbal and non-verbal devices that are used to compensate the
insufficiency of knowledge in our target language communication. I will conclude my
discussion on the definitions of communication strategies by quoting these two definitions
from Tarrone (1977) and Farch and Kasper (1983):
Conscious communication strategies are used by an individual to
overcome the crisis which occurs when language structures are inadequate to
convey the individual’s thought. (Tarone, 1977, p. 195)
CSs are potentially conscious plans for solving what to an individual
presents itself as a problem in reaching a particular communicative goal.
(Færch & Kasper, 1983, p. 36)
2-2: Research on communication strategies
During the last decades, communication strategies have become a field of research for
many scholars in the field of English as second or foreign language (Poulisse, 1990; Dörnyei
& Thurrell, 1991 ; Leki, 1995; Dörnyei & Scott, 1997; Ownie, 2010; Mariani & Kay, 2012;
Rodríguez & Roux, 2012; Hoesny, 2016; Martínez-Adrián, Gallardo-del-Puerto &
Basterrechea (2017); Palmer & Christison, 2018). According to Dörnyei and Scott (1997),
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Selinker (1972) has coined the term ―communication strategy‖ in his seminal paper on
interlanguage, discussing strategies of second language communication as one of the five
central processes involved in L2 learning. Then Savignon (1972) has published a paper in
which she showed the importance of coping strategies for FL learners. She considered
coping strategies (communication strategies) as a major part of communicative language
learning and testing that both teachers and learners should pay attention to.
The most important development of communication strategies was in the 1980s, when
Canale and Swain (1980); Canale (1983) have presented strategic competence as a major part
of the communicative competence. They introduced a model of communicative competence
comprising four main subcomponents which are: linguistic competence, sociolinguistic
competence, pragmatic competence and strategic competence. Their perspective is
interactional and highlights the role of meaning rather than linguistic structure.
Paribakht (1982, 1983) suggests that the term "strategic competence should be
broadened to include all languagerelated strategies. e.g. learning strategies used to expand
the speaker‘s competence and CS used to exploit it" (as cited in Paribakht, 1985: 142).
In 1990, there are some other studies have dealt with communication strategies in its
discussion of language learning such as Bachman (1990); Bialystok (1990) and Dörnyei &
Scott (1995) and Dörnyei & Scott (1997). All these studies gave more details about
communication strategies and showed its importance in target language communication and
its place as a sub-component of the communicative competence of the learners. Based on
these studies and some practical studies we come to a conclusion that communication
strategies are very important for communication and they should be taught to the learners of
the target language as they are very useful for building up their communication competence
and enabling them to communicate.
2-3: CSs Use and Speakers’ Level of Language Proficiency
When foreign language learners are engaged in oral communication, sometimes they
have communicative intentions that they cannot express through the language they have as
they are still in early stages of learning the foreign language and their linguistic system is
limited. In such a case, they should look for alternative ways to pass their message across and
agree one meaning. The use of communication strategies usually depends on the
communicative needs and level of proficiency as those students with low proficiency are
more in need for CSs to communicate and those students with high proficiency are more able
to use it as they have developed their strategic competence simultaneously with their
communicative competence. A study by Rosas (2016) has shown that learners with low oral
proficiency usually use communication strategies more than advanced learners. This can be
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explained by the fact that advanced learners usually have the linguistic system that enables
them to communicate and depend less on CSs. Another study by SiQing (1990) has shown
that there is a positive correlation between strategic competence and communicative
competence; while a study by Chuanchaisit, S. & Prapphal, K. (2009) has shown that the use
the CSs by Thai university students is determined by their level of proficiency. They found
out that the high-ability students prefer risk-taking strategies, such as social-affective,
fluency-oriented, help-seeking, and circumlocution strategies, whereas the low-ability
students tended to employ more risk-avoidance strategies, like time-gaining strategies. This
means that students usually need CSs in their communication. As students with low ability
employ avoidance strategies, high ability learners usually employ achievement strategies.
2-4: Major Types of Communication Strategies:
Tarone (1980) has categorized CSs into three categories: avoidance strategies,
paraphrasing strategies and borrowing or transferring strategies. Avoidance strategies refer
to strategies that a speaker uses to avoid language difficulties such as topic avoiding, message
abandonment. Paraphrasing strategies refer to strategies employed by a speaker in order to
compensate the linguistic insufficiency such as approximation, word coinage and
circumlocution. The third category transferring strategies refers to strategies such as miming,
language switching and appealing for assistance.
Dornyei and Scott (1997) have categorized the communication strategies into three
main categories: direct strategies (strategies used by a speaker who faces problems during
communication process and attempts to directly avoid it or use other devices that help him to
get the meaning across; such as paraphrasing or switching into native language), indirect
strategies (strategies used by a speaker to provide the conditions that lead to the mutual
understanding or strategies that help the speaker to gain time and keep communication
channel open; such as, using time fillers) and interactional strategies (strategies which refer
to the mutual cooperation between the speakers who mutually help each other to get the
meaning across; such as, appealing the listener for help or asking for clarification.(pp 177-
180) According to Putri (2013: 130-131) Bialystok (1990) has adapted a taxonomy of CSs
from Varidi (1973), Tarone (1977) and Faerch and Kasper (1983) in which he has
categorized CSs in three types: avoidance and reduction strategies (leaving a message
unfinished or avoiding the topic because of linguistic difficulties), achievement compensatory
strategies ( strategies used to compensate for lack of linguistic knowledge such as
approximation, paraphrasing, circumlocution, appeal for help…etc.), and time gaining
strategies (use of filler or hesitation devices to gain time in recalling linguistic system).
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Willems (1987) has categorized the communication strategies into positive
(achievement/compensatory strategies) and negative (reduction strategies), they may be
mother-tongue-based or based on another foreign language the speaker happens to have
(some or full) command of, they may contain an implicit or explicit request for help and they
may be non-verbal (paralinguistic strategies).They cannot always be identified
unambiguously. (P: 352)
Based on the discussion above-mentioned and other studies, communication strategies
can be categorized into the following:
1- Paraphrasing Strategies: strategies used by the speaker when s/he faces some
difficulties to express himself or herself with some specific structures or
vocabulary as he lacks such linguistic knowledge, then he paraphrases the
meaning with the words and structures that he has. Examples for these strategies
are: approximation, word coinage, circumlocution…etc.
2- Avoidance strategies: refer to speakers‘ attempts to avoid talking about concepts
s/he doesn‘t know about their structures in the target language. The speaker here
avoids talking about specific concepts or abandons his message as he realizes that
he is unable to manage communication due to his language insufficiency.
Examples of these strategies are: topic avoidance and message abandonment.
3- Switching into native language: When the two speakers share the same mother
tongue, they usually depend on switching into mother tongue so much when they
find it difficult to express themselves in the target language.
4- Seeking help or asking for clarification: a strategy by which a speaker seeks
help from the listener he interacts with. Here the speaker feels that he is unable to
pass the message due to his limited linguistic knowledge, then he will ask the
listener about specific meanings he lacks so that he can continue his interaction
and pass his message.
5- Nonverbal strategies: It is one of the most commonly used communication
strategies by the speakers. We find that most speakers when they face some
difficulties to get the meaning across, they use non-verbal signals to get the
message across. There are various types of these non-verbal strategies such as:
facial expressions, body languages, acting, using pictures…etc. These non-verbal
signals play an effective role in getting meanings across while communicating
orally.
6- Time fillers: It is one of the communication strategies that help the speaker to
gain time, restore knowledge and keep the communication channel ongoing. There
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are various time fillers that speakers use to fill gab in communication; such as,
―well I mean‖, ―what I mean‖, ―actually‖, …etc.
3- The Methodology of the Study
3-1: Participants:
The participants of this study are second and third year EFL students of Radfan
College of Education. They are about 120 male and female students and their ages range from
19-24. 70 students of them belong to the second year and 50 to the third year. Their mother
tongue is Arabic and they learn English as a foreign language.
3-2: Instruments
The instrument used for collecting data for this study is the observation. The
researcher has observed students‘ use of CSs during their interactions in English classes. As
he was working as a teacher at this college, he gave special focus to the CSs that students use
in order to assess which types of CSs they use, how such strategies help them to
communicate and learn. He also tried to keep a record of the most common CSs used by third
year high linguistic ability students during their interaction in three classes while they were
presenting lessons and interact with each other under researcher‘s supervision.
4- The findings
4-1: Data Presentation
This section presents and analyzes the findings of observations of how Radfan
College EFL students employ communication strategies in their classroom interactions and
the reasons behind their lack of use of effective communication strategies.
Most students under this study are not good English communicators as they lack
many aspects of their communicative competence and oral performance skills. Only few
students in each class who try to use English for classroom interactions while others spend
most of their classroom time silent or interacting in Arabic. As students‘ linguistic knowledge
is limited, they should employ communication strategies that help them to pass their
messages across. Unfortunately, few students have been observed using some of the
communication strategies while majority of them prefer stopping communication and keeping
silent. Observations revealed that the most used communication strategies by low ability
students are avoiding the topic, message abandonment and switching into mother tongue,
respectively. These students usually avoid the topic of discussion when they feel that they
don‘t have the linguistic ability to deal with. Most of them rejected to present lessons or
participate in discussion when they were required to participate. Only few of them
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participated when they feel that they can speak about a particular topic. I also found that
whenever they get in a linguistic trouble in their interaction, the most common strategy they
used was to abandon their message or switch into mother tongue in some cases. They found
‗language switch‘ so easy and effective strategy in communicating their messages as teachers
and students share the same mother tongue (Arabic). Anyway, those low ability students, who
constitute the majority of the classes, rarely participated in classroom discussions as they
prefer to stay as passive listeners in their classroom.
So far as high ability students are concerned, observations during English classes with
the second and third year students generally, and records of observations of three classes held
with third year students particularly (as shown in table no.1), showed that the most common
communication strategies employed by them are the paraphrasing of meaning, switching into
mother tongue, nonverbal signals and avoidance; respectively. These students seem to have
some linguistic competence that allows them to paraphrase the meaning (as shown in table
no. 2) and get the messages across even if they don‘t have the exact words or expressions.
They also find language switching useful especially as students and teachers share the same
mother tongue. They use nonverbal signals such as body language, eye contact and indicating
to things they talk about to pass their messages and make meaning clear.
CSs used by high ability students during
classroom discussions in three classes
Its frequency
Percentage
Paraphrasing
55
32.35%
Switching into Mother tongue
30
17.64%
Non-verbal signals (miming and body
language)
28
16.47%
Time fillers
23
13.52%
Avoidance Strategies
20
11.76%
Asking interlocutor for help
14
8.23%
Total
170
100%
Table no. 1 shows CSs used by third year high linguistic ability EFL students during
three classes supervised by the researcher
High ability students also use time fillers and hesitation devices to fill the gap during
their communication. Whenever they encounter linguistic difficulties or difficulties in
recalling ideas they want to express, they use time fillers to gain time till they recall their
linguistic system or recall another strategy that may help in passing their message across.
Most students were observed in many situations during the three classes and the other classes
using expressions such as ‗what I mean’, ‗you know‘, ‗well’, ‗mmm’…, ‗actually’ etc.
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Avoiding strategies such as avoiding participation in discussions when lacking
language knowledge or abandoning messages are rarely observed in the case high linguistic
ability students in comparison with low linguistic ability students.
Observations also showed that a few of high ability students ask their interlocutors
(teachers or classmates) for help when they lack the language during classroom interactions
while the majority prefer switching into Arabic rather than asking an interlocutor for help if
there is no other possible strategy.
Expressions students want to say
How they say it with the help of paraphrasing
strategies
Nice to meet you!
I am feeling happy that I meet you.
I need a quiet place for reading
I need to read in a room that is very silent
A: Where are you going?
B: I am going the library.
A: Where are you going?
B: I am going to that bookshop.
When I lost my wallet, I borrowed some
money from Ahmed.
When I lost my wallet, I asked Ahmed to give me
money and he gave me.
What is your monthly salary?
How much money the university gives you per
month?
My father travelled by a ship.
My father travelled by a boat.
It is difficult for us to participate in
classroom discussions, so we prefer to
keep silent.
We can‘t ask and answer questions in class. It is
very difficult and we stop speaking in classroom.
Is it a male or female?
(When inquiring about the sex of a
rabbit)
Is it a boy or girl?
T: Why are you late?
S: Because our bus got a flat tyre or
puncture.
T: Why are you late?
S: Because the wheel of our bus was cut on the
road.
Table no. 2 shows some examples of the paraphrasing strategies utilized by Radfan College
high ability EFL students
4-2: Interpretation of the findings
The results showed that only few students who use some effective communication
strategies while the majority (low language ability students) don‘t use or use only avoidance
and message abandonment strategies. The main reason behind that is that those students were
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not well trained to use the various types of communication strategies and have not yet built
their strategic competence. Though some students are aware of some of these strategies when
I asked them about, they were neither trained nor pushed to use them in their actual
interactions. Teaching students such strategies requires training them to use them in
meaningful communication.
The study showed that only few students (high ability students) are able to use some
of the CSs (as shown in fig.1) while the rest (the majority) only abandon their messages or
switch into Arabic whenever they encounter communication difficulties. These findings
about high language ability and low ability students‘ use of CSs obtained in this study go in
line with Chuanchaisit, S. & Prapphal, K. (2009) where they found out that high language
ability of Thai students use more effective CSs while low ability students use avoidance
strategies and switching into mother tongue. The difference can be in the fact that the low
ability students of this study constitute the majority of the sample and only few of them who
try to speak and use language switching and message abandonment strategies while the
majority of this low ability students don‘t speak at all and prefer to be silent.
The researchers really see a huge need for teaching and training students of this
college to use communication strategies as CSs are helpful in encouraging students to learn
and develop their spoken English. As the students of this college are usually rural students
who have no access to professional English institutions or English medium schools and their
public schools hardly teach them grammar and vocabulary, they are really in need for such
trainings of using communication strategies in their first year of their college education to
help them in compensating for their limited linguistic knowledge and motivating them to
pursue their learning, and break their silence.
The study, based on its findings collected from researcher‘s personal experiences
during his teaching of second and third year students and his records of three particular
classes, came to a conclusion that students of the concerned college are in need for training in
communication strategies as their linguistic knowledge is limited and performance skills are
very poor. Allowing students to be silent as they lack knowledge will demotivate them and
lead to their graduation with very poor English. It is for this reason advisable to train them on
CSs at their first year of college education and to push them to use English regardless of their
knowledge as this will help in their learning.
5-Conclusion:
Communication strategies have been recognized as techniques that help speakers to
compensate for their linguistic insufficiency and keep communication channel open when
they are involved in oral communication. Studies have revealed that these strategies are more
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significant for beginners than advanced learners and advocated teaching such strategies
within the language syllabus. These strategies are of different types: direct strategies (the
strategies that help a speaker to compensate for insufficient knowledge); indirect strategies
(the strategies that help the speaker to gain time and keep communication channels open) and
the interactional strategies which refer to the speakers' mutual help and request for
clarification. 
In its practical part, this study showed that though Radfan College EFL students‘ oral
English proficiency is pretty low, most students tend to avoid communication or switch into
their mother tongue rather than utilizing effective compensatory communication strategies
that may help them to communicate and to develop their language acquisition. The study
showed that a majority of the students (low linguistic ability students) usually avoid topic,
abandon their messages, switch into Arabic or stop talking whenever they encounter language
communication problems. Only few students (high language ability students) who try to use
some effective strategies such as paraphrasing the meaning, asking interlocutor‘s for help and
nonverbal signals to get their messages across. The main reasons behind that are that students
were not well trained to use such communication strategies and teachers do not force them to
use English in classroom interactions. So this study recommends teaching and training
students to use CSs in their first year of their college education and forcing them to interact in
English so that they find ways for using such strategies in their communication. This will lead
at the end to developing their communication competence generally and their strategic
competence in particular.
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... The communication strategies are a reflection of the communicative competence as mentioned by Canale & Swain (1980) where the study clarifies the communicative competence and strategic competence concept. According to Ahmed and Pawar (2018), the strategic competence was introduced in the 1970s as the main part of the competence that foreign language learners need to develop for communication purposes. During the second half of the last centuries, it has acted as a component in each of the communicative competence models that have occurred. ...
... It is suggested by Rofiatun (2018) that the use of communication strategies should be implemented more in the process of teaching and learning the English language in the classroom in order to help and encourage the students to be more confident and active in communicating in the target language. Ahmed & Pawar (2018) and Rofiatun (2018) agreed with Carvantes & Roddringuez (2012) whereby if the students' English proficiency is low, they tend to switch into their mother tongue language in order to proceed with the communication. ...
... This is because sometimes there is a need to further elaborate your answer or respond in order to make sure the other person fully understand what you are trying to say without any mistake or misunderstanding taken into account. Furthermore, this is in line with a study by Ahmed &Pawar (2018) where only very few students (with a higher linguistic ability) uses some effective communication strategies mainly, paraphrasing o meaning, asking interlocutor's help, time fillers and nonverbal signals while the other majority of students (with lower linguistic ability) prefer to keep silent altogether and whenever they participate and encounter any linguistic difficulties, they usually tend to shift into their mother tongue language or abandon their message right away. ...
... The students preferred to use fillers as their communication strategies in conversation or oral presentation maybe because they need time to search for ideas and to construct their sentences while translating the meaning from first language (L1) to L2 was least used maybe the students would try their best to use L2 in presenting their ideas. Nonetheless, in other research, they found that "self-repetition" (Spromberg, 2011) and "paraphrasing" (Ahmed and Pawar, 2018) were most used by students as their communication strategies. This is maybe due to ensuring that they could deliver the message and meaning clearly and currently. ...
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... Examples of them include translating into the first language (termed as "code switching") and word coinage. Ahmed and Pawar (2018) highlighted the significance of CS by stating that CS plays an integral role in language acquisition. ...
... They do not only help learners to pass meaning in their communication but also help them to participate in classroom interaction and activities regardless of their linguistic background. Ahmed and Pawar (2018) argued for teaching these communication strategies to EFL students and train them to us it in their interaction and learning to help them improve their English. For this reason, some common compensatory communication strategies were provided to the concerned students and they were requested to what extent they use these strategies to compensate the linguistic deficiency while communicating or participating in classroom activities. ...
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... The findings reflected that the participants employed achievement strategies more than avoidance strategies. Ahmed & Pawar (2018) carried out a study in India to find out what types of CSs Radfan College students use when communicating in English, and how significant such use is in the process of their learning of English. The study was qualitative; it made use of observation of classroom interaction to collect data and elicit CSs use. the participants were the sophomores and juniors of this college. ...
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... where they have open discussions with each other and with the supervision of their teacher. Discussions and debates should be carried out between learners of different proficiency levels, where information exchange will surely expand the learners' vocabulary repertoire (Ahmed &Pawar, 2018). 5. ...
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... Sabri T.S. Ahmed (2018) and Prabawatie (2017) argue that the reasons some students use ineffective CSs are that students do not train well to use CSs in EFL classrooms. They usually prepare everything in their notes before performing conversations that give them a chance to organize the conversations so that the conversations sound rigid with less communicative problems. ...
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