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Collective ‘action recipes’ in a circular economy – On waste and resource management frameworks and their role in collective change

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Abstract and Figures

This paper shows how to constructively engage with waste and resource management frameworks, by clarifying their role in the societal discourse on waste and resources, providing insight into their step-based structure, and how they draw on different definitions of ‘waste’ and ‘resource.’ Through use of the concepts of ‘frame,’ ‘collective action frame’ and ‘logics,’ a language and conceptual toolbox is made available that facilitates a constructive debate around such frameworks. Ten waste and resource management frameworks are included here, among which are the five frameworks that are part of the synthesis of the Ellen MacArthur Foundation's Circular Economy framework: Cradle-to-Cradle™ by Braungart and McDonough, the Performance Economy by Walter Stahel, the Blue Economy by Gunter Pauli, Regenerative Design by John Lyle and the Industrial Symbiosis framework. A case is made for the careful consideration, creation, use and further development of such frameworks and directions are provided for the further development of the CE concept into a robust concept.
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!
1!
!Collective!‘action!recipes’!in!a!circular!economy!–!on!waste!and!resource!
management!frameworks!and!their!role!in!collective!change!
!
Fenna!Blomsma!
1"Imperial"College"London,"Centre"for"Environmental"Policy,"Faculty"of"Natural"Sciences,"UK"
2"Technical"University"of"Denmark,"Department"of"Mechanical"Engineering,"Lyngby,"Denmark"
"
Abstract!!
This"paper"shows"how"to"constructively"engage"with"waste"and"resource"management"
frameworks,"by"clarifying"their"role"in"the"societal"discourse"on"waste"and"resources,"
providing"insight"into"their"step-based"structure,"and"how"they"draw"on"different"definitions"
of"‘waste’"and"‘resource.’"Through"use"of"the"concepts"of"‘frame,’"‘collective"action"frame’"
and"‘logics,’"a"language"and"conceptual"toolbox"is"made"available"that"facilitates"a"
constructive"debate"around"such"frameworks."Ten"waste"and"resource"management"
frameworks"are"included"here,"among"which"are"the"five"frameworks"that"are"part"of"the"
synthesis"of"the"Ellen"MacArthur"Foundation’s"Circular"Economy"framework:"Cradle-to-
Cradle™"by"Braungart"and"McDonough,"the"Performance"Economy"by"Walter"Stahel,"the"
Blue"Economy"by"Gunter"Pauli,"Regenerative"Design"by"John"Lyle"and"the"Industrial"
Symbiosis"framework."A"case"is"made"for"the"careful"consideration,"creation,"use"and"further"
development"of"such"frameworks"and"directions"are"provided"for"the"further"development"
of"the"CE"concept"into"a"robust"concept."
"
"
"
Keywords!
Circular"economy,"resource"productivity,"collective"action"frame,"societal"change,"waste,"
closed-loop,"circular"strategies"
"
Highlights!
Conceptualises"waste"and"resource"frameworks"as"collective"action"frames"(CAFs)"
Includes"a"discussion"of"10"waste"and"resource"frameworks"
Clarifies"the"role"of"CAFs"in"the"societal"discourse"on"waste"and"resources"
Provides"insight"in"the"step-based"structure"of"CAFs"
Shows"how"CAFs"draw"on"different"definitions"of"‘waste’"and"‘resource’"
"
! !
!
2!
1. Introduction!!
The"circular"economy"(CE)"concept"has"caught"the"attention"of"businesses,"policy"makers"and"
academics."The"concept’s"core"proposition"is"to"move"away"from"take-make-use-dispose’"
practices"and"replace"these"with"material,"part"and"product"cycling"and"cascading,"thus"
enabling"resource"preservation,"efficiency"and"productivity."CE"functions"as"an"umbrella"
concept."This"means"that"it"groups"a"wide"range"of"waste"and"resource"management"
strategies"and"focusses"the"attention"on"their"capacity"to"extend"resource"life,"whilst"
generating"value"and"preventing"value"loss"and"destruction"(Blomsma"and"Brennan"2017)."As"
such,"the"CE"concept"constructs"and"legitimises"a"space"for"the"interrogation"of"the"
appropriate"and"effective"use"of"such"strategies.""
"
Rising"to"the"challenge"posed"by"the"umbrella"concept,"many"frameworks"have"emerged"
that"can"be"seen"as"proposals"or"visions"of"how"a"CE"could"or"should"operate"through"
combining"different"ways"to"cycle,"loop"and"cascade"(Blomsma"and"Brennan"2017)."In"fact,"
the"most"well-known"framework"by"the"Ellen"MacArthur"Foundation"–"which"can"be"
summarised"by"its"butterfly"diagram"and"the"ReSOLVE"acronym"–""is"itself"a"synthesis"of"a"
number"of"such"frameworks"(EMF"2013,"2015),"specifically"Cradle-to-Cradle™"(Braungart"and"
McDonough"2002),"the"Performance"Economy"(Stahel"2006),"the"Blue"Economy"(Pauli"2010),"
Regenerative"Design"(Lyle"1994)"and"Industrial"Symbiosis"(e.g."Lowe"and"Evans"1995)."
"
Frequently,"the"research"community"engages"such"frameworks"in"one"of"two"ways"–"both"
unhelpful"in"catalysing"societal"change"in"the"area"of"waste"and"resource"management."In"
the"first"manner"of"engagement,"a"framework"is"taken"as"‘given.’"That"is:"it"is"used"as"a"
framework"for"research,"but"not"reflected"upon,"strengthened"or"further"developed."In"other"
words,"the"framework"is"applied"uncritically.""
"
A"recent"example"can"be"found"in"Zhijun"and"Nailing"(2007),"who"focus"on"CE"in"the"Chinese"
context,"but"do"not"reflect"on"how"a"definition"of"CE"grounded"in"the"Industrial"Symbiosis"
framework"leads"to"initiatives"focussed"on"the"creation"of"eco-industrial"parks,"whilst"
omitting"many"other"strategies."Another"example"can"be"found"in"Govindan"and"Hasanagic"
(2018),"whose"use"the"interpretation"of"CE"by"the"Ellen"MacArthur"Foundation,"and"based"on"
this"proceed"with"their"literature"search"and"analysis"without"detailing"or"reflecting"on"the"
limitations"thus"built"into"their"approach."
"
The"second"manner"of"engagement,"in"contrast,"engages"such"frameworks"over-critically."
This"is"usually"because"the"scope"or"context"of"the"framework"is"overlooked"or"
misunderstood,"causing"misinterpretation"of"(many"of"the)"details"or"crucial"elements"of"the"
framework."This"can"lead"to"premature"dismissal"of"the"examined"framework.""
"
See,"for"example,"Allwood"(2014),"who"equates"the"CE"concept"to"a"call"for"increased"
recycling"and"instead"proposes"a"focus"on"the"preservation"and"intensified"use"of"materials,"
parts"of"products"already"manufactured."This"leads"the"author"to"introduce"a"new"
framework"–"‘material"efficiency,’"ignoring"the"possibility"to"expand"or"adapt"the"emerging"
CE"terminology"to"include"an"increased"focus"on"energy"aspects."Positioning"such"
frameworks"as"non-complimentary"risks"potentially"helpful"ideas"being"put"aside"before"they"
are"further"developed,"resulting"in"the"potential"loss"of"momentum"for"change."
!
3!
This"paper"shows"how"to"appropriately"and"constructively"engage"with"waste"and"resource"
frameworks"that"cover"the"level"of"industrial"systems"and"economies"in"the"academic"
domain."Through"drawing"on"the"constructs"of"‘frame’"(Goffman"1974)"and"‘collective"action"
frames’"(Benford"and"Snow"2000)"from"sociology,"and"‘logics’"from"institutional"theory"(e.g."
Thornton"and"Ocasio"2008),"the"purpose"and"structure"of"such"frameworks"is"examined."This"
has"three"key"outcomes."First,"the"societal"function"of"such"frameworks"is"elucidated."
Second,"it"is"shown"how"these"frameworks"construct"high-level"courses"of"action,"based"on"
their"structure."That"is:"it"is"shown"how"such"frameworks"compile"suggested"collective"
‘action"recipes’"in"the"domain"of"waste"and"resource"management."In"addition"to"this,"a"key"
outcome"is"the"development"of"the"!"#$%&"'(&)%#*+),%#&-).(,"which"can"aid"in"assessing"
waste"and"resource"frameworks"through"determining"their"relevance"and"suitability"for"use"
in"particular"contexts."In"addition"to"this,"this"tool"can"also"support"the"future"development"
and"synthesis"of"waste"and"resource"frameworks,"by"serving"as"a"means"to"verify"coverage"of"
relevant"strategies."
"
Through"this,"a"language"and"conceptual"toolbox"is"made"available"that"facilitates"a"
constructive"debate"around"waste"and"resource"frameworks."The"aim"of"this"is"to"maintain"
and"strengthen"the"current"momentum"around"the"CE"concept,"whilst"improving"upon"
current"frameworks"and"developing"them"further."This"supports"the"development"of"the"CE"
concept"into"a"coherent"concept"and"one"of"truly"transformative"potential"(Blomsma"and"
Brennan"2017)."
"
This"paper"is"structured"as"follows."In"the"next"section,"the"concepts"of"‘frame,’"‘collective"
action"frame’"and"‘logics’"are"introduced"and"their"applicability"to"the"waste"and"resource"
management"discourse"is"discussed."Next,"the"methodology"for"selecting"the"10"frameworks"
discussed"in"this"paper"is"introduced,"and"an"overview"of"the"10"frameworks"is"provided."In"
the"following"two"analysis"and"results"sections,"the"structure"of"the"frameworks"is"examined"
in"more"detail,"respectively"through"the"lenses"of"‘collective"action"frame’"and"‘logics.’"This"
includes"the"development"of"the"!"#$%&"'(&)%#*+),%#&-).(/"This"is"followed"by"a"discussion"
outlining"the"implications"for"synthesis"efforts"and"further"development"of"waste"and"
resource"frameworks."A"concluding"section"provides"a"summary."
"
"
2. Theoretical!background!!
!
0/1/ 2)"3%#4&5*-.,#&"'(&,6"'-%&
Frames"and"framing"processes"are"central"to"understanding"how"meaning"is"constructed,"
maintained"and"challenged."2)"3%#,"according"to"Goffman,"are"cognitive"devices"that"people"
use"to"determine"how"their"world"“hangs"together”"(Goffman"1974:440)."2)"3.'-&7)*,%##%#"
are"the"automatic"and"always"on-going"processes"which"generate"meaning"as"and"when"
events"transpire."For"example:"the"same"sequence"of"events"can"be"described"as"an"
experiment,"a"practice"or"a"demonstration."Adopting"either"description"results"in"a"different"
assessment"of"what"is"‘going"on’"(Goffman"1974)."Through"the"process"of"extracting"
meaningful"clues"present"in"the"situation,"it"is"determined"which"frame"should"be"applied"to"
a"situation."As"such,"people"perceive"reality"through"the"frames"they"apply"and"they"use"
them"to"determine"what"is"relevant"and"the"manner"in"which"to"engage"(Gitlin"1980:6,"in:"
!
4!
Gray"et"al"2015)."In"other"words:"frames"guide"perception"and"steer"action"(Creed"et"al"
2002:36).""
"
Frames"can"draw"on"‘logics’"to"establish"meaning:"5*-.,#1&are"abstract"cognitive"concepts"
that"consist"of"widely"shared"belief"systems"that"provide"meaning"to"the"actions"of"
individuals"and"organizations"(Thornton"and"Ocasio"2008)."Logics"both"determine"and"
restrict"the"actions"that"are"possible"(Rao"et"al"2003):"actors"can"draw"and"elaborate"upon"
frames"within"the"limits"the"underpinning"logic"delineates"(Friedland"and"Alford"1991:248)."
An"example"of"logics"in"the"field"of"sustainability"is"provided"by"Heiskanen"(2002),"who"
conceptualises"life-cycle"thinking"as"an"institutional"logic"that"influences"the"way"
environmental"problems"are"conceptualized"and"responsibilities"allocated."
"
Frames"and"logics"play"a"crucial"role"in"change"processes."A"new"frame-logic"combination"–""
or"new"frame"for"short"–"that"is"different"from"and"that"challenges"existing"frame-logic"
combinations,"can"open"up"solution"spaces"previously"not"recognised,"not"seen"as"relevant"
or"not"considered"feasible."A"#*5+$.*'&#7",%"designates"the"(set"of)"solutions"that"are"
highlighted"as"realistic"by"a"problem"definition"(Dorst"and"Cross"2001)."(The"proverbial:"“To"
someone"with"a"hammer"every"problem"looks"like"a"nail,”"applies"here."In"this"proverb,"the"
“hammer”"refers"the"frame,"and"the"underpinning"logic"can"be"summarized"as"“hammers"
are"to"be"used"for"applying"nails.”)"Through"pointing"towards"alternate"solution"spaces,"new"
frames"have"the"potential"to"divert"established"courses"into"new"directions."(Glue"or"a"
screwdriver"may"be"required"instead.)"To"affect"change,"the"new"frame"has"to"successfully"
replace"established"meanings"and"become"widely"accepted"(Benford"and"Snow"2000,"Gray"
et"al"2015)."
"
In"the"context"of"industrial"systems,"it"has"been"demonstrated"that"new"frames"can"
transform"value"chains,"industries"and"markets"(Rao"et"al"2003,"Anand"and"Watson"2004,"
Benner"and"Tripsas"2012)."Framing"processes"also"have"bearing"on"the"waste"and"resource"
management"discourse."The"historical"shifts"in"the"perceived"scope"and"purpose"of"waste"
and"resource"management"–"that"is,"from"being"oriented"towards"city"sanitation"and"
bolstering"production"to"having"sustainable"development"at"its"core"(Blomsma"and"Brennan"
2017),"can"be"seen"as"instances"where"new"ideas"were"successful"in"challenging"established"
meanings"with"regards"to"what"constitutes"appropriate"waste"and"resource"management.""
"
New"frames"exercise"their"transformative"potential"through"operating"at"scale"and"enduring"
over"time."In"the"context"of"waste"and"resources,"the"application"of"frames"results"in"
particular"management"practices"to"assert"themselves"and"become"established"in"industrial"
systems"(Lounsbury"et"al"2003,"O’Brien"2008,"Boons"2009,"Corvellec"and"Hultman"2012,"Silva"
et"al"2016)."This"involves"a"process"referred"to"as"%'",$3%'$,"where"decisions"and"actions"
become"aligned"with"meanings"(Goffman"1974,"Weick"1995)."This"results"in"the"
establishment"of"enabling"infrastructure,"the"adoption"of"particular"technologies,"and"the"
creation"of"dedicated"executive"and"supervisory"organizations"and"institutions."As"a"result"of"
these"enactment"processes"waste"and"resources"come"to"flow"in"particular"ways,"as"
opposed"to"a"range"of"alternative"ways."Baumann"(2012,"2014)"and"Hoffman"(2003)"describe"
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
1"‘Logics’"is"used"as"shorthand"for"‘institutional"logics,’"for"reasons"of"simplification."The"concept"of"institutional"logics"is"well"established"
within"organizational"science."
!
5!
this"phenomenon"as"the&%38%((%('%##"of"flows"in"social"systems."Specifically,"in"the"context"
of"circular"resource"flows"Boons"and"Howard-Grenville"(2009)"point"out"that"industrial"
systems"“do"not"self-organize"automatically"in"such"a"way"that"loops"are"closed,”"but"that"
people"shape"these"systems"based"on"their"perceptions"and"beliefs."To"paraphrase:"without"
people,"no"(industrial)"flows.!
"
0/0/ 9*55%,$.:%&",$.*'&;)"3%#&"'(&$6%.)&;+',$.*'&
9*55%,$.:%&",$.*'&;)"3%#"(CAFs)"are"those"frames"that"are"deliberately"wielded"by"one"or"
more"groups"of"people"to"address"one"or"more"specific"problematized"issue"within"a"(part"
of)"society."The"new"frames"proposed"by"CAFs"are"intended"to"be,"but"may"not"yet"be,"
widely"shared"within"a"(part"of)"society."Frequently,"CAFs"are"used"by"#*,."5&3*:%3%'$&
*)-"'.#"$.*'#"(SMOs)"–"any"organisation"that"aims"to"inspire"action"in"order"to"address"an"
issue."CAFs"function"as"discursive"instruments"that"help"SMOs"orient"their"audience"towards"
a"topic,"and"to"free"resources"(time,"money,"attention,"etc)"for"affecting"the"proposed"
change."See"for"examples"of"CAFs"with"societal"relevance"the"nuclear"disarmament"
movement"Benford"(1993)"and"the"student"revolutions"in"China"(Zuo"and"Benford"1994)."
More"recent"work"describes"the"role"of"frames"in"social"media"mobilization"(Goh"and"Pang"
2016)"and"bioenergy"siting"proposals"(Eaton"et"al"2014)2."
"
CAFs"perform"their"function"by"rendering"the"presence"or"absence"of"something"meaningful"
and"creating"an"‘action"recipe’"for"changing"the"current"situation"(Benford"and"Snow"2000,"
Gray"et"al"2015)."Specifically,"CAFs"have"three"characteristic"functions:"punctuation;"
elaboration,"divided"in"the"sub-functions"diagnosis"and"prognosis;"and"motivation"(Creed"et"
al"2002)."These"functions"can"be"seen"as"a"series"of"steps,"as"each"step"is"contingent"on"the"
preceding"one,"see"Figure"1"(left)."The"steps"are"as"follows:"1)"problematize"an"issue"of"
importance,"2)"diagnose"the"cause"of"the"identified"problem,"3)"propose"a"course"of"action"
to"address"it"and"4)"name"actors"that"should"remedy"the"situation."
"
0/</ ="#$%&"'(&)%#*+),%&9>2#&
The"10"frameworks"reviewed"in"this"paper"can"be"thought"of"as"CAFs"with"applicability"in"the"
domain"of"waste"and"resource"management."That"is:"these"frameworks"point"out"the"
salience"of"waste"and"resource"management"and"identify"(part"of)"current"waste"and"
resource"management"practices"as"inappropriate."In"addition"to"this,"they"propose"new"
practices,"as"well"as"discuss"who"is"called"upon"to"take"a"proactive"role"in"addressing"the"
situation."As"such,"the"structure"of"waste"and"resource"CAFs"follows"the"general"structure"of"
CAFs."How"this"structure"applies"to"these"frameworks"is"discussed"below."First,"however,"the"
methodology"for"selecting"the"10"frameworks"is"introduced,"including"an"overview"of"the"
frameworks"thus"selected."How"the"frameworks"draw"on"various"‘logics’"features"in"the"
subsequent"section."
"
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
2"CAFs"are"a"well-known"and"widely"researched"phenomenon"within"the"field"of"sociology.!
!
6!
"
&
2.-+)%&?1&@,6%3"$.,&*:%):.%!&*;&6*!&!"#$%&"'(&)%#*+),%&9>2#&A).-6$B&()"!&*'&$6%&-%'%)"5&9>2&#$)+,$+)%&A5%;$B/&
=6"$&.#&(%7.,$%(&")%&$6%&#$%7#&$6"$&8*$6&-%'%).,&"'(&!"#$%&"'(&)%#*+),%&9>2#&-*&$6)*+-6&$*&(%:.#%&#+--%#$%(&
C",$.*'&)%,.7%#/D&
"
"
3. Method!and!selection!of!waste!and!resource!frameworks!!
Ten"frameworks"were"selected"for"analysis."The"first"group"forms"the"basis"of"the"CE"
framework"proposed"by"the"Ellen"MacArthur"Foundation"(EMF"2013),"which"is"currently"the"
most"well-known"interpretation"of"CE."The"choice"was"made"to"look"at"the"constituting"
frameworks"of"this"interpretation,"in"order"to"understand"how"different"frameworks"can"be"
expanded"upon"and"combined."The"synthesised"framework"does"not"feature"separately,"but"
is"examined"in"the"discussion"section."Thus"included"are:"Cradle-to-Cradle™"(Braungart"and"
McDonough"2002),"Blue"Economy"(Pauli"2010),"Performance"Economy"(Stahel"2006),"
Regenerative"Design"(Lyle"1994)"and"Industrial"Symbiosis"(e.g."Lowe"and"Evans"1995)3."
"
The"second"group"of"frameworks"was"added"through"following"a"snowballing"approach"as"a"
result"of"the"historical"work"described"in"Blomsma"and"Brennan"(2017),"which"traced"the"
emergence"of"the"circular"economy"concept"from"the"second"industrial"revolution"to"the"
present."Frameworks"included"here"stem"from"the"period"described"in"this"work"as"the"
excitement"period’"that"lasted"from"about"1985"to"2013,"and"which"is"identified"as"a"period"
in"which"many"waste"and"resource"frameworks"with"the"CAF"format"were"created."Thus"
included"are:"the"Waste"Hierarchy"(EC"2008),"The"Natural"Step"(Robèrt"2002),"Sustainable"
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
3"Please"note"that"these"frameworks"are"not"equated"to"academic"fields."That"is:"Industrial"Symbiosis"does"not"represent"the"sub-field"of"
Industrial"Ecology"also"known"as"Industrial"Symbiosis,"in"the"same"way"that"Cradle-to-Cradle™"does"not"refer"to"the"field"of"green"
chemistry."Rather,"Industrial"Symbiosis,"as"used"here,"refers"to"the"core"ideas"of"facilities"exchanging"waste"–"which"is"the"idea"at"the"
heart"of"the"academic"field"of"Industrial"Symbiosis,"but"further"elaborated"upon"within"this"field."
!
!
7!
Materials"Economy"(Geiser"2001),"Product"Life"Cycle"System"(EPA"1993)"and"Material"
Efficiency"(Allwood"et"al"2011)."
"
The"following"criteria"were"applied"for"selecting"frameworks"in"the"second"group:""
1) a"large"role"is"assigned"to"resource"productivity"or"circular"strategies;""
2) the"framework"is"codified"by"means"of"a"set"of"heuristics"or"principles;"
3) the"framework"is"linked"to"a"conceptual"diagram"that"visually"explains"the"
framework’s"vision"for"waste"and"resource"management;""
4) the"framework"is"of"a"generic"character"covering"the"industrial"system"and"economy"
and"not"case,"company"or"industry"specific;"
5) documentation"was"(also)"available"in"the"public"domain;"that"is,"an"attempt"was"
made"at"wider"dissemination"of"the"framework;"
6) sufficient"documentation"describing"the"framework"was"available,"to"be"able"to"fully"
capture"the"nuances"in"the"proposed"vision4."""
"
Excluded"were"conceptual"frameworks"that"are"more"appropriately"thought"of"as"‘schools"of"
thought,’"such"as"industrial"ecology"(Frosch"and"Gallopoulos"1989)"or"natural"capitalism"
(Hawken"et"al"1999),"as"these"do"not"offer"the"specificity"that"the"diagrams"and"heuristics"in"
the"selected"frameworks"do."Excluded"also"are"(design)"philosophies"such"as"biomimicry"
(Benyus"1997),"which"invoke"circularity"as"a"principle"but"that"do"not"contain"a"systematic"
approach"to"it."
"
Table"01"provides"an"overview"of"the"10"selected"frameworks."Where"available,"multiple"
sources"were"used"to"build"a"complete"picture"of"the"framework:"see"Figures"2"to"5"for"an"
overview"of"the"sources"consulted."The"purpose"here"is"not"to"provide"a"comprehensive"
overview"of"all"waste"and"resource"management"that"have"ever"existed,"but"to"illustrate"
how"such"frameworks"produce"meaningful"interpretations"of"waste"and"resource"
management."The"included"set"was"judged"sufficiently"large"and"diverse"for"meaningful"
contrasting"and"comparing"to"be"able"to"highlight"similarities"as"well"as"differences"in"how"
they"arrive"at"their"respective"‘action"recipes.’"
!
Next,"two"analysis"and"results"sections"follow."Through"critical"analysis,"it"will"be"shown"how"
the"concepts"outlined"in"the"previous"section"–"‘collective"action"frames’"and"‘logics’"–"apply"
to"waste"and"resource"frameworks"and"what"role"these"concepts"play"in"such"frameworks."
The"first"section"discusses"how"the"CAF"structure"applies"to"the"waste"and"resource"
frameworks."The"second"section"examines"–"through"the"development"of"the"!"#$%&"'(&
)%#*+),%#&-).("–"the"underpinning"logics"of"the"frameworks"in"terms"of"the"underpinning"
definitions"regarding"what"constitutes"‘waste’"and"what"a"‘resource’."
!
" "
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
4!Not"every"framework"or"diagram"has"sufficient"‘depth’"underpinning"it,"rendering"any"interpretation"of"it"speculative.!
!
8!
"
Description!of!included!waste!and!resource!frameworks!
Featuring!as!input!for!the!!EMF’s!CE!framework!
Regenerative!Design!
John"T."Lyle"was"a"landscape"architecture"professor"and"systems"thinker."Lyle,"inspired"by"emerging"ideas"and"
philosophies"around"sustainability"during"the"70’s"and"80’s,"worked"with"his"students"and"colleagues"to"create"
‘community"support"systems’"that"use"on-site"resources,"operate"with"renewable"energy,"and"work"with"
biologically"based"processes."The"lessons"learned"resulted"in"the"1994"publication"of"E%-%'%)"$.:%&F%#.-'."
The!Blue!Economy!
His"previous"experiences"as"an"entrepreneur"taught"Gunter"Pauli"that"“biodegradability"and"renewability"do"not"
equate"sustainability”"(Pauli"2010:xxvi)."His"subsequent"search"for"what"sustainability"entails"resulted"in"the"
formulation"of"the"Blue"Economy,"based"on"principles"formulated"by"the"Zero"Emissions"Institute"(ZERI)."The"
associated"publication"G6%&H5+%&I,*'*3J"(Pauli"2010)"was"designated"a"Report"to"the"Club"of"Rome."Blue"
Economy"has"a"focus"on"the"provision"of"basic"human"needs."
Cradle-to-Cradle™!
Cradle-to-Cradle™"comprises"an"inspirational"vision,"analytical"framework"and"prescriptive"certification"
programme"for"product"design"and"material"composition."The"framework"was"born"from"the"cooperation"
between"chemist"Michael"Braungart"and"architect"William"McDonough."An"outline"of"the"ideas"contained"
within"this"framework"can"already"be"found"in"the"Hannover"principles"(McDonough"1992),"published"a"decade"
before"the"seminal"9)"(5%K$*K9)"(5%L&)%3"M.'-&$6%&!"J&!%&3"M%&$6.'-#"(Braungart"and"McDonough"2002)."
Performance!Economy!
Various"iterations"of"Stahel’s"thinking"since"he"co-authored"the"1982"publication"of"Jobs"for"Tomorrow"(Stahel"
and"Reday-Mulvey"1981)"eventually"culminated"in"the"2006"publication"of"G6%&N%);*)3"',%&I,*'*3J."The"
Performance"Economy"is"a"framework"and"inspirational"vision"targeted"at"businesses"and"policy"makers"alike"
that"proposes"a"focus"on"utility,"performance"and"radical"efficiency,"as"opposed"to"product"ownership."
Industrial!Symbiosis!
A"sub-field"of"Industrial"Ecology"(Chertow"and"Park"2016),"Industrial"Symbiosis"is"not"associated"with"a"single"
organization"or"a"specific"person"as"its"advocate,"although"the"first"academic"article"on"Industrial"Symbiosis"is"
generally"attributed"to"Lowe"and"Evans"(1995)."Instead,"the"case"study"of"Kalundborg"in"Denmark"fulfils"the"role"
of"icon"or"illustrative"symbol:"referring"to"the"material"and"energetic"by-product"exchanges"between"the"
industrial"facilities"located"there"(Kalundborg"Symbiosis"2014).!
From!snowballing!from!historical!review!
The!Natural!Step!
The"Natural"Step"framework"is"the"result"of"a"consensus"building"effort"among"Swedish"scientists,"led"by"
oncology"doctor"and"researcher"Karl-Hendrik"Robèrt."In"1989"this"culminated"in"the"founding"of"what"has"
grown"into"an"international"non-profit,"that"advice,"outreach"and"education"services."The"essence"of"the"
approach"are"its"techniques"for"dialogue"and"the"‘backcasting’"method,"where"a"projection"into"the"future"is"
made"to"plan"backwards"from."
Sustainable!Materials!Economy!
Kenneth"Geiser’s"book"O"$%)."5#&3"$$%)L&$*!")(#&"&#+#$".'"85%&3"$%)."5#&7*5.,J"(Geiser"2001),"is"the"result"of"a"
personal"encounter"with"victims"of"a"factory"tragedy"and"the"ensuing"quest"to"prevent"such"disasters"from"
occurring"in"the"future."The"work"contains"evidence"in"support"of"both"the"necessity"and"the"feasibility"of"such"
policies."Prof"Kenneth"Geiser"held"a"chair"at"University"of"Massachusetts"Lowell."
The!Waste!Hierarchy!
The"Waste"Hierarchy,"based"on"Lansink’s"Ladder"developed"in"the"1970s"(Kemp"and"Van"Lente"2011),"was"
included"as"part"of"the"European"Waste"Directive:"a"legislative"framework"for"dealing"with"non-hazardous"
waste"that"defines"key"waste"related"concepts"and"responsibilities"for"member"states"(EC"2008)."The"Waste"
Hierarchy"is"often"referred"to"as"‘3R,’"because"colloquially"it"is"referred"to"as"‘reduce,"reuse"and"recycle.’"The"
directive"encourages"application"of"the"Waste"Hierarchy,"but"does"not"enforce"it.!
Product!Life-Cycle!System!!
Developed"as"part"of"the"Pollution"Prevention"Research"Program,"the"Product"Life-Cycle"System"framework"
suggests"the"means"of"cycling"as"proposed"in"the"Environmental"Protection"Agency’s"P.;%&9J,5%&F%#.-'&Q+.("',%&
O"'+"5"(EPA"1993)."This"document"is"generally"regarded"as"an"early"eco-design"manual.!
Material!Efficiency!
Material"Efficiency"codifies"the"insights"of"a"5-year"collaborative"research"project"with"industry,"led"by"
industrialist-turned-scholar"Julian"Allwood"(Allwood"et"al"2011,"Allwood"and"Cullen"2012)."The"framework"is"
primarily"concerned"with"engineering"materials:"the"materials"used"in"bulk"in"buildings,"infrastructure"and"
goods,"such"as"steel"and"aluminium,"but"also"paper,"cement"and"plastic.""
G"85%&?1L&@6*)$&(%#,).7$.*'&*;&$6%&.',5+(%(&!"#$%&"'(&)%#*+),%&;)"3%!*)M#/&
!
9!
4. Analysis!and!results!part!I!-!Waste!and!resource!frameworks!as!CAFs!!
Figure"1"(right),"gives"an"overview"of"how"the"general"CAF"structure"is"adapted"by"waste"and"
resource"CAFs."How"this"structure"is"filled"in"by"the"10"frameworks"individually,"is"
summarised"in"Figures"2"to"5."To"aid"comparison"of"the"flow"diagrams"in"these"images,"the"
original"branding"and"layout"was"replaced"with"a"uniform"visual"language"that"preserves"the"
original"strategies"and"their"relationships5.""
"
The"following"illustrates"the"general"applicability"of"the"CAF"structure"to"waste"and"resource"
frameworks."
&
4.1. ‘Punctuation’"and"‘diagnosis’,"or"‘purpose’"and"‘mechanism’"
Starting"with"punctuation,"termed"‘purpose’"in"the"context"of"waste"and"resource"CAFs,"all"
frameworks"point"to"the"presence"of"certain"problems"or"the"absence"of"particular"benefits"
in"the"context"of"waste"and"resource"management."However,"individual"frameworks"focus"
on"different"(sets"of)"problems"or"benefits,"thus"defining"their"purpose"in"different"ways."For"
example:"the"Blue"Economy"poses"that"hunger"and"unemployment"need"not"exist"and"that"
all"basic"human"needs"can"be"provided"for"by"handling"waste"and"resource"is"a"different"
manner."This"purpose"is"very"similar"to"that"pursued"by"Regenerative"Design,"which"focusses"
on"providing"the"necessities"of"daily"life:"energy,"shelter,"water,"food"and"waste"processing."
In"contrast,"The"Natural"Step"framework,"defines"the"purpose"of"waste"and"resource"
management"as"1)"preventing"waste"from"systematically"accumulate"in"nature,"and"to"2)"
reconstitute"material"quality."The"Waste"Hierarchy,"on"the"other"hand,"focuses"on"the"
reduction"and"avoidance"of"environmental"harm"and"landfilling."Although"not"mutually"
exclusive,"these"are"different"ambitions.""
"
In"the"‘diagnosis’"step"the"included"frameworks"identify"what,"in"the"view"of"their"
proponents,"needs"to"change"about"the"workings"of"the"economy"and/"or"industrial"systems."
Laid"bare"is"a"high-level"mechanism’"for"orchestrating"flows"in"a"different"manner."For"
example,"Industrial"Symbiosis"proposes"to"match"industrial"input"and"output"to"the"carrying"
capacity"of"the"earth"by"optimizing"manufacturing"systems"through"the"reintroduction"of"
relevant"relationships"between"production"facilities.""
"
In"contrast,"the"Performance"Economy"suggests"that"a"variety"of"issues"among"which"
stagnating"levels"of"wealth"and"growth"and"excessive"resource"consumption"can"be"solved"
through"the"implementation"of"radical"performance"improvements,"by"focusing"on"utility"
and"radical"efficiency."The"underlying"thought"here"is"that"through"focussing"on"outcomes"
and"results,"it"becomes"possible"to"find"different"ways"of"achieving"goals,"but"with"radically"
less"resources"used"in"the"process."That"is:"the"Performance"Economy"proposes"a"
reorientation"of"the"mind-set"of"businesses,"designers,"R&D"and"engineers."In"a"similar"vein,"
Regenerative"Design"suggests"a"mind-set"change,"where,"instead"of"placing"humans"outside"
of"nature,"humans"are"seen"as"an"integral"part"of"nature."This"implies"that"human"
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
5"The"exception"to"this"is"the"diagram"for"the"Blue"Economy:"Gunter"Pauli"does"not"provide"a"general"conceptual"diagram"in"The"Blue"
Economy"(Pauli"2010)."Instead,"this"diagram"in"based"on"the"waterfall"metaphor"he"uses"and"the"format"used"in"the"diagrams"that"
accompany"his"case"descriptions."Figures"2,"3"and"4"are"from"Blomsma"(2016)."Used"with"permission."
!
!
10!
development"needs"to"be"better"integrated"in"the"environment,"through"the"appropriate"
design"of"infrastructure"such"as"buildings."
"
Cradle-to-Cradle™,"on"the"other"hand,"poses"that"the"problems"is"a"“materials-in-the-wrong-
place"problem,”"and"that"materials"simply"need"to"be"directed"to"their"proper"processing"
metabolisms."This"can"be"achieved"through"the"use"of"materials"appropriate"for"different"
cycling"mechanisms"and"by"adjusting"product"design."Because"purpose’"and"mechanism’"
are"closely"intertwined"they"are"grouped"under"a"single"header"in"Figures"2"to"5."
"
4.2. Prognosis,"or"‘prevention’"and"‘perpetuation’"
Typically,"a"comprehensive"set"of"heuristics"in"the"form"of"a"list"of"guidelines"or"principles,"
provides"the"basis"for"selecting"waste"and"resource"management"strategies."These"heuristics"
embody"a"CAF’s"‘prognosis’"function."The"proposed"strategies"often"consist"of"two"main"
categories,"depending"on"the"framework:"preventative"strategies,"and"those"that"can"be"
designated"as"looping"or"cycling,"labelled"respectively"as"‘prevention’"and"perpetuation.’"
"
Prevention’"refers"to"strategies"that"forestall"resource"use,"such"as"efficiency"measures"and"
functional"replacement,"or"measures"that"prevent"harmful"effects,"such"as"the"choice"for"
non-toxic"materials."Prevention"plays"an"important"role"in"frameworks"like"the"Blue"
Economy,"Waste"Hierarchy"and"the"Performance"Economy:"in"these"frameworks,"the"
reduction"of"resource"use"is"prioritized"over"cycling"strategies."In"other"frameworks,"such"as"
Cradle-to-Cradle™,"prevention"through"reducing"the"magnitude"of"flow"plays"a"minor"role6."
However,"this"framework"stresses"the"importance"of"using"non-toxic"materials"as"a"way"of"
reducing"harm."Regenerative"Design"and"The"Natural"Step"similarly"highlight"the"importance"
of"safe"re-assimilation"of"wastes"in"the"biosphere."
"
Perpetuation’"refers"to"strategies"that"facilitate"the"preservation"of"resources"for"
subsequent"use."Cradle-to-Cradle,"for"example,"emphasizes"recycling"and"composting"of"
materials"as"ways"to"preserve"industrial"“nutrients,”"where"Industrial"Symbiosis"emphasizes"
material"and"energetic"exchanges"between"industrial"facilities."Blue"Economy"expands"on"
the"scope"of"Industrial"Symbiosis,"by"proposing"substance"cascading7"as"a"general"operating"
principle"for"manufacturing"firms."That"is:"firms"should,"through"the"controlled"
transformation"of"inputs,"generate"multiple"outputs"and"benefits."Other"frameworks"
propose"that"a"variety"of"cycling"strategies"supplement"each"other,"such"as"Product"Life-
Cycle"System,"Material"Efficiency,"Performance"Economy,"Waste"Hierarchy,"The"Natural"Step"
and"Regenerative"Design."Usually"this"consists"of"a"mix"of"two"or"more"of"the"following:"
direct"reuse,"redistribution,"remanufacturing"and"refurbishment,"upgrading,"alternate"use,"
the"reuse"of"parts"and"the"reuse"of"materials"through"recycling"(mechanical"or"otherwise),"
substance"cascading"or"energy"recapture"(incineration)."
"
For"the"elaboration"step,"half"of"these"frameworks"look"at"nature"for"inspiration."They"see"
nature"as"either"as"a"model"for"emulating"(Industrial"Symbiosis)"or"as"a"provider"of"(benign)"
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
6"As"with"CAFs,"the"waste"and"resource"management"CAFs"can"contain"counter-framings."These"consist"of"the"negative"portrayal"of"
other"frames,"resulting"in"a"deliberate"oppositional"placement"of"the"two"frames."Cradle-to-Cradle™’s"portrayal"of"eco-efficiency"as"
ineffective"is"an"example"of"this."For"this"work,"counter-framings"are"considered"out"of"scope.!
7"The"term"‘substance"cascade’"is"used"here"to"distinguish"material"cascading"from"that"of"‘product"cascading’"(Stahel"2006).!
!
11!
processes"and/"or"materials"(Blue"Economy),"or"both."In"case"of"the"latter,"a"compromise"is"
proposed"that"acknowledges"that"natural"processes"and/"or"materials"can"be"used"where"
possible,"but"that"their"application"in"industrial"systems"requires"adaptations."Examples"of"
these"frameworks"are"Cradle-to-Cradle™,"Regenerative"Design"and"The"Natural"Step."
"
4.3. Motivation’,"or"‘proaction’"
Lastly:"the"‘motivation’"step,"or"‘proaction’"as"it"is"termed"for"waste"and"resource"CAFs."The"
Blue"Economy,"Cradle-to-Cradle™"and"The"Natural"Step"see"business"as"a"primary"actor,"as"it"
is"thought"to"be"in"business’"self-interest"to"exercise"custodianship"over"the"inputs"that"
enable"businesses"to"exist"in"the"first"place."Within"the"business"environment"Cradle-to-
Cradle™"targets"designers"specifically,"as"can"be"deduced"from"their"conceptualisation"of"the"
issue"as"a"‘design"problem.’"Blue"Economy"and"The"Natural"Step,"on"the"other"hand,"focus"
more"on"the"executive"and"strategy"level"of"businesses."
"
Industrial"Symbiosis"also"has"a"focus"on"business,"but"on"a"specific"part"of"the"value"chain:"on"
manufacturing"facilities,"their"managers"and"other"stakeholders"in"industrial"facilities,"such"
as"planners"and"regions."Instead,"Regenerative"Design"places"an"emphasis"on"system"and"
infrastructure"design,"and"thus"on"the"involvement"of"those"in"planning"and"landscape"
architecture"professions."Sustainable"Materials"Economy"and"Material"Efficiency,"on"the"
other"hand,"pose"that"a"myriad"of"actions"by"many"parties"are"required"to"achieve"more"
sustainable"waste"and"resource"management."This"may"involve"consumers,"business,"
legislators,"NGOs,"etc."
"
The"above"has"shown"how"waste"and"resource"CAFs"use"the"general"CAF"structure"to"build"
internal"coherence"around"a"proposed"set"of"actions"that"a"specific"audience"is"meant"to"
execute."In"summary:"the"included"waste"and"resource"frameworks"can"indeed"be"regarded"
as"CAFs."Examined"next,"is"the"role"of"‘logics’"in"the"selected"frameworks.""
"
"
!
12!
!
!
2.-+)%&?0&R:%):.%!&"'(&#+33")J&*;&N)*(+,$&P.;%K9J,5%&@J#$%34&N%);*)3"',%&I,*'*3J&"'(&O"$%)."5&I;;.,.%',J&
;)"3%!*)M#.!! !
!
13!
2.-+)%&?<&R:%):.%!&"'(&#+33")J&*;&H5+%&I,*'*3J4&9)"(5%K$*K9)"(5%GO&"'(&@+#$".'"85%&O"$%)."5#&I,*'*3J&
;)"3%!*)M#/!! !
!
14!
!
2.-+)%&?S&R:%):.%!&"'(&#+33")J&*;&="#$%&T.%)"),6J&"'(&U'(+#$)."5&@J38.*#.#&;)"3%!*)M#/!
!
15!
2.-+)%&?V&R:%):.%!&"'(&#+33")J&*;&G6%&W"$+)"5&@$%7&"'(&E%-%'%)"$.:%&F%#.-'&;)"3%!*)M#/&! !
!
16!
5. Analysis!and!results!part!II!-!Logics!and!waste!and!resource!CAFs!!
This"section"introduces"the"!"#$%&"'(&)%#*+),%#&-).(,"which"is"based"on"the"two"types"of"
‘resource’"and"the"two"types"of"‘waste’"that"are"present"in"the"selected"frameworks."First,"
the"two"types"of"waste"and"the"two"types"of"resources"acknowledged"in"the"frameworks"are"
introduced."Next,"these"are"combined"in"a"grid-based"typology."This"is"followed"by"a"
discussion"of"how"the"respective"logics"apply"to"the"included"frameworks."Lastly,"in"a"critical"
analysis"it"is"shown"that"it"is"important"to"acknowledge"the"existence"and"joint"use"of"these"
logics,"as"their"different"use"leads"to"different"interpretations"of"individual"cycling"
strategies8."
"
>&$J7*5*-J&8"#%(&*'&C!"#$%D&"'(&C)%#*+),%D&
In"the"context"of"CE,"a"‘resource’"is"a"valued"thing"of"physical"nature"which"is"considered"
worth"preserving"for"continued"value"extraction"or"because"its"preservation"prevents"
(further)"value"loss"or"destruction"(Blomsma"and"Brennan"2017)."What"constitutes"a"
)%#*+),%"is"typically"defined"in"one"of"two"ways9."First,"it"can"be"defined"as"a"collection"of"
elements,"particles,"molecules"and"(mixed)"substances,"often"simply"referred"to"as"a"
‘material.’"In"contrast,"a"resource"can"also"be"defined"from"the"perspective"of"a"specific"
physical"form"from"which"an"end-user"can"extract"value."This"type"of"resource"is"typically"
labelled"as"a"‘good’"or"‘product.’""
"
Generally,"‘waste’"can"take"one"of"two"forms10."First,"a"resource"can"be"considered"wasted"
when"it"is"not"renewed."This"describes"situations"where"the"means"exist"to"restore"or"
rejuvenate"a"resource"in"a"manner"that"re-establishes"its"functionality"in"relation"to"a"fixed"
or"evolving"quality"level."That"is:"a"limiting"state"–"the"occurrence"of"functional,"stylistic"or"
other"constraints"–"can"be"prevented,"undone"or"reversed."To"neglect"the"execution"of"such"
renewal"means"that"value"is"lost"unnecessarily"and"thus"that"waste"is"created."To"prevent"
such"open"ended"or"wasted"life-cycles,"strategies"can"be"used"that"turn"end-of-use/"life"into"
new"or"extended"life,"which"is"usually"not"(significantly)"different"from"the"previous"life."For"
example:"end-of-life"materials"can"be"returned"to"a"virgin-like"state"as"advocated"by"Cradle-
to-Cradle™,"or"broken"products"repaired,"refurbished"or"remanufactured"to"restore"them"to"
functional"use"as"the"Performance"Economy"and"Material"Efficiency"propose."
"
A"second"type"of"waste"occurs"when"resource"capacity"is"not"exhausted,"fully"consumed"or"
‘used"up.’"This"covers"situations"where"more"value"or"utility"may"be"extracted"from"the"
resource"by"changing"or"allowing"for"an"evolution"in"the"definition"of"quality.’"After"all,"the"
end-of-use/"life"of"a"resource"in"a"particular"context"does"not"have"to"be"the"end"of"value"
extraction"from"that"resource"altogether:"there"may"be"other"uses"or"contexts"where"the"
resource"can"continue"to"deliver"value.""
"
Examples"of"strategies"that"prevent"wasted"life"cycles"from"occurring"are"material"and"
product"cascades,"where"the"quality"of"the"resource"is"appropriately"matched"to"not"exceed"
the"minimum"quality"level"required"in"each"subsequent"use"phase"as"suggested"by"the"Blue"
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
8"The"focus"is"on"resource"productivity"or"cycling"strategies:"preventative"logics"are"out"of"scope"for"this"work.!
9"The"interested"reader"can"find"more"information"on"‘resource"states’"in"Blomsma"(2016)."Here,"a"distinction"is"made"between"three"
resource"states,"that"of"materials"or"particles,"parts"and"subassemblies"and"products."For"reasons"of"simplicity,"only"materials"and"
products"are"discussed"here.!
10"Used"here"are"two"expressions"inspired"by"and"adapted"from"Lacy"and"Rutqvist"(2015).!
!
17!
Economy"and"the"Performance"Economy."The"latter"framework"also"includes"sharing"and"
pooled"use"as"other"examples"of"strategies"that"can"serve"to"better"use"otherwise"un-"or"
underused"capacity"of"products."
"
The"‘resource"consumption’"perspective"differs"from"the"resource"renewal"perspective’"in"
that"it"does"not"require"restoration"or"improvement"of"quality"levels."In"fact,"a"(controlled)"
transformation,"deterioration"or"redefinition"of"the"resource"value,’"‘quality’"or"utility’"may"
be"involved11.""
"
These"different"definitions"of"waste"and"resources"are"not"mutually"exclusive."Rather,"they"
co-exist"and"can"therefore"be"depicted"as"a"matrix,"see"Figure"6"(top)."This"creates"four"
strategy"categories:"‘Closed"loops,’"‘Extended"loops,’"‘Long"life"loops’"and"‘Intensifying"
loops.’"To"implement"closed"loops’"strategies"means"that"materials"are"contained"within"or"
return"to"cycles"that"preserve"or"restore"their"quality"levels."‘Extend"loops’"extract"more"
value"from"materials"through"controlled"transformations"that"exhaust"or"‘use"up’"a"
material’s"capacity"to"deliver"value."‘Long"life"loops’"serve"to"extend"value"extraction"
possibilities"from"a"product."Strategies"in"this"category"serve"to"keep"a"product"performing"
on"consistent"or"evolving"standards"of"performance."Intensifying"loops’"allows"for"tapping"
into"un-"or"underused"capacity"of"a"product,"and"includes"strategies"that"facilitate"the"
subsequent"use"of"a"product"for"either"its"intended"purpose"of"for"alternate"purposes."See"
for"more"explanation"on"the"strategies"covered"by"each"category"Figure"6"(top)."
&
V/1/ CP*-.,#D&"#&+#%(&8J&$6%&!"#$%&"'(&)%#*+),%&9>2#&
Figure"6"(bottom)"illustrates"the"emphasis"the"10"frameworks"put"on"the"different"waste"and"
resource"categories."Frameworks"that"have"a"particularly"strong"affinity"with"resources"as"
‘materials’"are"Industrial"Symbiosis,"Cradle-to-Cradle™,"Blue"Economy,"Sustainable"Materials"
Economy"and"The"Natural"Step."However,"to"a"lesser"degree"Cradle-to-Cradle™12"also"
discusses"cascading;"and"Blue"Economy,"as"well"as"emphasising"cascading,"also"highlights"the"
importance"of"cycling"materials"in"the"biosphere."Sustainable"Materials"Economy"has"a"
somewhat"broader"scope"by"also"including"product"oriented"strategies."Frameworks"that"
place"a"strong"emphasis"on"resources"as"‘products’"are"Material"Efficiency"and"Performance"
Economy,"although"strategies"aimed"at"materials"also"feature."
"
Frameworks"that"have"a"particularly"strong"focus"on"combatting"waste"as"a"result"of"a"lack"of"
resource"renewal"are"Cradle-to-Cradle™,"Material"Efficiency,"Sustainable"Materials"
Economy,"Regenerative"Design"and"The"Natural"Step."In"contrast,"frameworks"that"have"a"
strong"focus"on"combatting"wasted"capacity"are"Industrial"Symbiosis"and"Blue"Economy."
Performance"Economy"emphasises"combatting"both"types"of"waste"equally."The"Waste"
Hierarchy"and"Product"Life-Cycle"System"both"seemingly"point"to"a"broad"solution"space,"
across"the"four"categories,"without"a"particular"emphasis.""
"
"
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
11"See"for"a"comprehensive"explanation"of"material"and"product"cascades:"Sirkin"and"Ten"Houten"(1994).!
12"In"the"updated"version"of"the"framework,"see"McDonough"and"Braungart"(2013).!
!
18!
"
2.-+)%&?X&="#$%&"'(&)%#*+),%#&-).(&A$*7B4&!.$6&3"77.'-&*;&!"#$%&"'(&)%#*+),%&9>2#D&;*,+#&A8*$$*3B/&
&
&
&
!
19!
V/0/ =6J&C5*-.,#D&"'(&$6%.)&"775.,"$.*'&,*'$%Y$&3"$$%)&
Why"is"it"important"to"acknowledge"the"existence"and"joint"use"of"these"logics?"This"is"
because"logics"do"not"function"independently:"a"specific"strategy"takes"on"its"function".'&
)%5"$.*'"to"the"other"strategies"that"a"framework"encompasses,"the"relationship"that"is"said"
to"exist"between"the"strategies"and"the"logic’s"application"area."To"illustrate"this,"one"has"but"
to"look"at"the"role"different"strategies"play"within"these"frameworks."Take,"for"example,"
recycling."In"the"Waste"Hierarchy"recycling"is"applied"when"the"best"practical"environmental"
option"demands"it,"even"if"this"leads"to"a"significant"degradation"of"the"material’s"chemical"
or"performance"characteristics."That"is:"within"the"Waste"Hierarchy"both"the"preferred"order"
and"the"feasibility"of"application"are"considered,"with"the"latter"overruling"the"former."As"
such,"‘downcycling’"–"i.e."the"use"of"a"material"in"a"manner"that"is"considered"somehow"
‘lesser’"than"its"preceding"use"–"is"acceptable"within"the"Waste"Hierarchy"framework.""
"
However,"according"to"Cradle-to-Cradle™,"downcycling"is"to"be"avoided."This"framework"
primarily"advocates"two"types"of"cycling:"cycling"within"the"biosphere"or"composting,"and"
cycling"within"the"technosphere"or"recycling."As"recycling"is"one"of"the"two"major"
mechanisms"for"cycling,"the"goal"is"to"achieve"(near)"infinite"cycling13."This"means"that"
recycling"should"lead"to"the"restoration"of"recyclate"to"a"virgin-like"state,"or"as"close"to"this"
state"as"possible."
"
The"Performance"Economy,"on"the"other"hand,"positions"recycling"as"taking"place"after"a"
succession"of"other"strategies,"such"as"reuse,"upgrading,"remanufacturing"and"
refurbishment."At"every"subsequent"stage"value"is"preserved"and/"or"generated."When"
recycling"comes"into"play,"it"is"one"of"the"few"options"remaining"to"recapture"any"residual"
value"whatsoever."As"such,"within"these"three"frameworks,"recycling"fulfils"a"very"different"
role:"although"the"same"label"is"used"to"describe"it,"‘recycling’"is"envisioned"to"lead"to"very"
different"outcomes."
"
As"well"as"the"combined"use"of"different"logics,"the"application"context"of"logics"also"
matters."For"example:"cascades"play"an"important"role"in"both"Industrial"Symbiosis"and"Blue"
Economy."However,"Industrial"Symbiosis"is"targeted"at"industry"facilities"and"Blue"Economy"
at"the"strategic"level"of"businesses."As"such,"cascading"fulfils"a"different"role"within"both"
frameworks:"within"Industrial"Symbiosis"it"is"used"to"describe"the"continued"use"of"
substances"within"industry"networks,"and"within"Blue"Economy"it"describes"the"strategy"of"
deriving"more"value"from"material"uses"through"controlled"transformations"of"substances"
within"the"boundaries"of"an"organisation.""
"
As"such,"it"is"important"to"recognise"that"the"frameworks"can"draw"on"one"or"more"logics"
and"that"their"combination"as"well"as"their"application"area"can"lead"to"different"
interpretations"of"individual"cycling"strategies"and"their"respective"roles."
"
"
6. Discussion!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
13"See"Cullen"(2017)"for"a"comprehensive"critique"on"the"notion"of"perpetual"cycling.!
!
20!
In"the"theoretical"background,"it"was"shown"that"CAFs"are"important"instruments"in"societal"
change"processes."Section"4"showed"that"the"included"waste"and"resource"frameworks"can"
indeed"be"considered"to"be"CAFs."This"implies"that"frameworks"of"this"type"have"an"
important"function"in"orienting"audiences"towards"the"importance"of"appropriate"waste"and"
resource"management"and"in"outlining"possible"interventions"on"the"level"of"industrial"
systems"and"economies."This"has"a"number"of"implications"for"academics"and"practitioners"
active"within"the"CE."
"
First,"for"opportunity"finding"in"immediate"practical"situations,"the"work"discussed"in"this"
paper"can"be"used"to"assess"a"considered"framework’s"suitability"in"a"given"context."This"can"
be"done"by"examining"its"structure"and"by"making"explicit"the"argumentation"used"in"the"
CAF"steps."Furthermore,"the"!"#$%&"'(&)%#*+),%#&-).("can"be"used"to"determine"whether"the"
considered"framework"covers"appropriate"circular"strategies,"based"on"the"type"of"resources"
that"are"considered"and"the"type"of"waste"that"is"expected"to"be"encountered"in"the"
application"context."
"
A"second"implication"is"that,"within"academia,"the"purposeful"construction"and"development"
of"waste"and"resource"frameworks"should"be"seen"as"a"serious"task"in"its"own"right."This"
means"that"the"following"questions"should"be"further"explored:"How"can"resonant"
frameworks"be"developed?"How"widely"should"they"resonate"and"for"what"audiences?"In"
relation"to"existing"frameworks"it"means"that"it"should"be"interrogated"if,"when"and"how"
CAFs"should"be"elaborated"upon"and"synthesised.""
"
Such"elaboration"and"synthesis"is"already"ongoing."For"instance,"Cradle-to-Cradle™"explicitly"
included"cascading"as"a"cycling"strategy"in"the"second"version"of"the"framework."However,"
accompanying"conceptual"diagrams"were"not"updated"to"reflect"this."Another"example"is"the"
synthesis"performed"by"the"Ellen"MacArthur"Foundation,"which"synthesised"at"least"five"
frameworks"into"a"single"CAF"(EMF"2013)."However,"in"this"effort"the"precise"meaning"of"
individual"strategies"could"benefit"from"clarification."As"was"discussed"above,"‘recycling’"
fulfils"a"different"function"in"the"Performance"Economy"and"Cradle-to-Cradle™,"and"both"
meanings"seem"to"have"been"embraced"by"the"EMF"framework."Moreover,"the"term"
‘regeneration’"–"borrowed"from"Regenerative"Design"–"is"used"as"a"much"more"widely"
encompassing"term"than"in"Lyle’s"framework,"who"mainly"focusses"on"(building)"utilities."
These"points"raise"issues"of"how"best"to"achieve"meaningful"synthesis,"how"to"resolve"
conceptual"differences"between"included"terminology"and"how"to"resolve"the"critique"on"
the"individual"frameworks."The"CAF"structure"and"the"!"#$%&"'(&)%#*+),%#&-).("discussed"in"
this"paper"can"be"used"as"a"basis"for"such"interrogations,"as"they"provide"a"means"to"unpick"
the"argumentation"underpinning"a"framework,"as"well"as"serve"as"a"basis"for"identifying"
potentially"conflicting"and"complimentary"logics."
"
Another"set"of"relevant"questions"in"relation"to"the"development"of"CAFs"is"to"understand"
what"makes"frameworks"endure"and"exercise"their"influence"over"time."CAFs"are"not"static"
entities:"their"meaning"is"continuously"negotiated."A"case"in"point"is"the"Waste"Hierarchy."
Looking"at"earlier"interpretations"of"this"framework"(see:"Lansink’s"Ladder,"but"also"DotE"
(1995)),"it"has"broad"applicability."However,"it"became"a"much"narrower"framework"due"to"
the"way"it"was"operationalised"(Bulkeley"and"Gregson"2009),"and"was"subsequently"regarded"
!
21!
as"a"framework"targeted"primarily"at"manufacturing"and"waste"treatment"activities."This"
raises"the"question"of"how"frameworks"can"be"designed"to"be"truly"transformative,"and"what"
processes"lead"to"frameworks"fulfilling"their"transformative"potential."
"
Salient"questions"also"arise"in"relation"to"the"suitability"of"CAFs"for"particular"levels"and"
contexts,"and"how"these"can"best"be"linked"to"other"frameworks"that"facilitate"
operationalisation."CE"has"applicability"to"the"nano,"micro,"meso"and"macro"levels,"as"well"as"
covers"a"wide"range"of"activities"along"the"life"cycle"and"value"chain"(Saidani"et"al"2017,"
Ghisellini"et"al"2015,"Kirchherr"et"al"2017)."Efforts"are"ongoing"to"link"the"CE"concept"with"
circular"business"models"(e.g."Ludeke-Freund"et"al"2018),"circular"metrics"(e.g."Saidani"et"al"
2017)"and"circular"design"practices"(e.g."Moreno"et"al"2016,"Mestre"and"Cooper"2017)."This"
raises"the"question"of"how"an"ecosystem"of"CAFs"and"operationalising"frameworks"can"be"
created"that"engages"with"the"full"complexity"of"circular"economy."Important"in"this"respect"
is"that"(dangerous)"over-simplification"is"avoided"(Murray"et"al"2017)"and"that"relevant"
audiences"are"assisted"with"unpacking"complexity"in"a"suitable"manner"(i.e."frameworks"are"
sensitive"to"the"audience"background"and"application"context,"the"time"investment"required"
for"application"of"the"framework(s),"and"information"and"considerations"are"structured"and"
layered"as"to"prevent"overwhelming"audiences)."
"
!
7. Conclusion!
This"paper"made"a"connection"between"framing"and"waste"and"resource"frameworks,"posing"
that"such"frameworks"can"be"conceptualised"as"collective"action"frames,"or"CAFs."This"means"
that"such"waste"and"resource"frameworks"point"out"the"salience"of"waste"and"resource"
management."In"addition"to"this,"they"draw"attention"to"the"fact"that"waste"and"resources"
could"be"managed"in"a"different,"more"sustainable"manner."They"furthermore"propose"new"
practices,"as"well"as"discuss"who"is"called"upon"to"realise"the"proposed"change"and"articulate"
why"these"stakeholders"should"act."It"was"furthermore"shown"how"such"frameworks"draw"
on"different"definitions"of"‘waste’"and"‘resource,’"and"that"they"can"constitute"of"different"
mixes"of"these"‘logics,’"which"leads"them"to"identify"and"put"emphasis"on"different"types"of"
strategies."
"
A"case"was"made"for"the"careful"consideration,"creation,"use"and"further"development"of"
such"frameworks."By"having"illustrated"the"applicability"of"the"concepts"of"CAF"and"logics,"as"
well"as"the"construction"of"the"!"#$%&"'(&)%#*+),%&-).(,"this"paper"has"contributed"to"the"
creation"of"a"language"and"conceptual"toolbox,"that"can"be"used"to"reflect"upon"the"use"of"
such"frameworks"or"further"develop"and"improve"them.""
"
As"such,"this"paper"has"expanded"on"earlier"work"that"observed"the"existence"of"many"waste"
and"resource"frameworks"(e.g."Blomsma"and"Brennan"2017,"Reike"et"al"2018)"by"providing"
an"in-depth"discussion"of"directions"for"further"developing"the"CE"concept"into"a"robust"
concept."It"is"my"hope"that"this"facilitates"a"constructive"and"appropriately"critical"debate"
around"the"CE"concept,"that"supports"its"function"as"a"catalyst"for"change."
"
"
8. Acknowledgements!
!
22!
An"earlier"version"of"this"work"in"included"in"Blomsma"(2016)."This"research"has"been"funded"
in"part"by"Climate-KIC"(No"1292/2013)"and"the"EPSRC"National"Centre"for"Industrial"
Sustainability"(RG64858)."The"author"would"like"to"thank"Dr"Mike"Tennant"and"Dr"Ritsuko"
Ozaki"for"their"support"and"feedback"on"earlier"versions"of"this"article,"as"well"as"thank"the"
anonymous"reviewers"for"their"insights"that"have"aided"the"development"of"this"paper."
" "
!
23!
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... Instead, waste should be regarded as valuable by-products that could be locally reintegrated as resources into other production processes, a process known in the literature as IS. Literature shows that viable value chain (VVC) with closed, extended, and intensifying loops strategy (Baldassarre et al., 2019;Blomsma, 2018) reinforce and improve circularity in the bio-based industrial symbiosis (BBIS) (Baas and Boons, 2004;Chertow, 2007;Taddeo et al., 2017), particularly through the enhancement of supply chain management in a territorial mesoscale (Albino et al., 2016). VVC entails interconnected supply chains able to withstand a disruption or series of disruptions when at the same time securing the provision of society and markets in a changing environment (Holling, 1973), unfolding an ideal experimentation arena for CE in the BBIS (Baldassarre et al., 2019;Blomsma, 2018). ...
... Literature shows that viable value chain (VVC) with closed, extended, and intensifying loops strategy (Baldassarre et al., 2019;Blomsma, 2018) reinforce and improve circularity in the bio-based industrial symbiosis (BBIS) (Baas and Boons, 2004;Chertow, 2007;Taddeo et al., 2017), particularly through the enhancement of supply chain management in a territorial mesoscale (Albino et al., 2016). VVC entails interconnected supply chains able to withstand a disruption or series of disruptions when at the same time securing the provision of society and markets in a changing environment (Holling, 1973), unfolding an ideal experimentation arena for CE in the BBIS (Baldassarre et al., 2019;Blomsma, 2018). CE in BBIS entails organic by-products from agriculture, food industry, wood, or waste treatment that are absorbed and reintegrated into the system loops, engaging a more systemic and circular approach where viable management of resources in the supply chain is needed (D'Amato et al., 2017). ...
... Intensifying loops aims to tap into un-or underused capacity of products and by-products and includes strategies that facilitate the subsequent use of products and services for either its original purpose or for alternate purposes. The quality and/or utility value of a product are redefined in each use-case (Blomsma, 2018). Society needs to figure out CE policy interventions to reinforce viability in value chains because the implementation of all three CE goals is not always viable, for example, many firms need to stabilize or even increase their waste (by-product) production when it is required as input of a partner's production process to maintain or increase their production, then harming the value chain viability through transportation increase or the offshoring of their waste for recycling, disregarding the environmental impact of what takes place abroad (Korhonen et al., 2018), considering them as externalities. ...
Article
The complexity of predicting the impact of extraordinary events in the bio-based industrial symbiosis (BBIS) emerges as the main challenge addressed in this study. Complex systems theory, value chain dynamics, and the geographic economy constitute the best available frameworks to shed light on the aim of identifying the relationship between circular economy (CE) and viable value chains in BBIS. The Bazancourt-Pomacle biorefinery was selected as the case study to be analyzed at the mesoscale via System dynamics modelling. A scenario-based approach was adopted to identify the most required conditions to implement circularity in the sugar-beet value chain in BBIS. Three scenarios have been proposed up to 2027, the baseline scenario, the second scenario that considers the non-viable value chain scenario due to climate change effects, and the third showing an outstanding implementation of CE strategies (risk mitigation; production changeover, re-design of products and by-products, capacity buffers, and responsiveness) applied to face COVID19 outbreak is the most circular among the three. Finally, the third scenario also ensures the viability of the sugar beet value chain when facing the COVID19 outbreak by triggering leagility (leanness + agility), resilience, and survivability making the shift from bioethanol to alcohol production possible and therefore maintaining the value chain functionality.
... However, Blomsma (2018), Mendoza et al. (2017), and Reike et al. (2018) observed that such circular strategies frameworks could identify or emphasize different (groups of) circular strategies, which can be linked to addressing different types of structural waste. As such, there is a risk that they do not include circular strategies with transformative potential for a particular context. ...
... As such, there is a risk that they do not include circular strategies with transformative potential for a particular context. Moreover, Blomsma (2018) points out that little work has been done with regard to ensuring that frameworks are 14 2.2. Digital Technologies seen as relevant and useful by their intended audiences. ...
... For these reasons, there is scope to develop these frameworks further to support visioning in COI. Blomsma (2018), Mendoza et al. (2017), and Niero and Hauschild (2017) therefore call for the development of such frameworks within academia. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The digital transformation holds much potential for solving some of society’s grandest and most pressing challenges, such as climate change and resource depletion. Specifically, digital technologies (DTs) represent a major opportunity to accelerate the circular economy (CE) transition. However, effectively managing this joint transformation is challenging, and firms struggle to understand how DTs support circular strategies and which business analytics (BA) resources and capabilities they should target. Addressing this gap, the thesis first establishes a reference framework for circular strategies along with a digital CE framework, enabling researchers, practitioners, and policymakers to better align their activities across boundaries in the information systems and CE fields. Next, drawing on the resource-based view and the resource orchestration view of the firm, the thesis investigates which BA resources are essential for CE and how to leverage them towards a firm-wide BA capability for CE. Finally, a conceptual model summarizes the mechanisms of how BA improves firms’ CE implementation, resource orchestration capability, and firm performance. The thesis followed a sequential mixed methods research design, starting from an exploratory approach to uncover key concepts and their relationships, followed by a confirmatory study to examine effects. Both qualitative and quantitative cross-sectional data were sought to empirically examine the conceptual model. In total, one in-depth case study, 15 expert interviews, and a quantitative survey of 125 European firms were performed. The resulting contributions add new knowledge to both the CE and information systems fields by detailing how DTs can increase the efficiency and enhance the effectiveness of circular strategies. First, by two reference frameworks and a process methodology providing systematic support from the strategic level of CE and digital objectives to the operational level of data science processes. Second, by a conceptual model and associated BA resources and capability of how firms manage this transition to improve their corporate reputation and environmental, financial, and competitive performance. Third, by detailing the mechanisms and effects of DTs on circular strategies and performance effects. In closing, research, practice, and policy implications are discussed, along with avenues for future research
... Studies on understanding definitions of CE [13], exploration of CE history [10], analysis of core evaluation of CE with novel definitions [19], identification and understanding of limitations and challenges the CE [20], identification of the frameworks for literature categorization [21], identification of the C(Circular)-indicators [22], and a few more studies along similar lines exist but with different lenses. This includes a human need approach [23], a waste and resource management approach [24], a quantification approach [18], etc.; but no author has explored associates of CE with their significance score and neither have previous authors used the SQLR method for their review studies. Moreover, researchers have welcomed more scientific studies to strengthen CE's theoretical framework and remove ambiguities [21,25,26]. ...
... The prominent schools of thought contributing to the inception and propagation of CE include Laws of Ecology [68], Regenerative Design [69], Biomimicry [70], Cradle-to-Cradle [71], Industrial Ecology [72], Looped and Performance Economy [73], and The Blue Economy [74]. The Ellen MacArthur Foundation (EMAF), in its publication in 2013, also acknowledged the presence of multiple schools of thought in CE [24]. Besides, the literature also recognized CE as an umbrella concept with multiple disciplines that illustrate its roots [52,59]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Circular Economy (CE) frameworks augmented multi-dimensional research, including definitions, principles, indicators, history, limitations, enablers, and allied issues. Rethinking the designing strategies requires the exploration of CE associates and their functioning as companions for amplification through multiple suggestions, highlighting the interactions with the overall CE system towards sustainability. This paper focuses on how CE literature concentrates on premeditated areas and solution approaches. A lack of deterministic manifestations critically limits the interpretation and application of CE concepts. The paper contributes to the CE theoretical and practical understanding by for the first time outlining the CE associates, their connotation, progression, positioning in architecture, and their current state. These associates support individualization of a CE concept. The coherently applied methodology attempts to reduce the knowledge gap by following a systematic quantitative literature review process to screen 76 articles and 122 CE definitions, referencing one decade of literature. Application of comprehensive morphological mining facilitated the extraction of CE associates and later analysis. On application of Bibliometric Analysis, Text Analysis, Semantic Analysis, and Relation Mapping to the literature, 49 associates emerged. They were further validated by application of Content Analysis and Weighted Average Priority Ranking on extracted article content and definitions for deriving the most prominent associates. Subsequently, Association Rules Data Mining and K-Means Clustering were deployed in exploring the relations, ranking, and significance of CE associates. The findings consistently state that business actions (virtualize, exchange); sustainability pillars (society); and R strategies (refuse, refill, and repurpose) are unexplored CE associates, whereas Business, Economics, Environment, Measurement, Product, Industry, Resource, System, Waste, and Recycle are the most explored associates of the CE ecosystem.
... Another aspect of the concept is the collaboration between actors in society, within micro and macro actors [85]. CE aims to limit value loss of products and materials, as well as avoiding End-of-Life [86]. ...
... Furthermore, CE corresponds to the recovery of resources and materials, as the waste is, if possible, reused [110]. Blomsma [86] highlights one of the main ideas brought up by CE that is the preservation of resources, as well as remanufacturing and replacing. The effort put in reducing the use of raw and new resources has led to innovation in order to adapt to the concept of CE [111]. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The given work is devoted to the analysis of circular economy as a tool promoting sustainable development, insisting on the positive impact for countries implementing it in trade. In the process of this research, the following tasks were solved: 1. Analysing and referencing the theories surrounding international trade and circular economy. 2. Overview of the current trend in in international trade with a focus on the Russian Federation and France. 3.Comparison of the assessment method of management of waste. 4.Conducting a qualitative study on consumers behaviours towards circular products in France and Russia. The research was mostly conducted on the database Scopus and supported by research made on Google Scholar. The literature review has been the most popular method for this work. A questionnaire shared on the Russian and French markets gave the opportunity to find new answers and face the lack of data on the topic studied. The result of the work produced was to highlight disparities and gaps in the implementation of circular economy on the global market. The role of the stakeholders was discussed and bring new perception on the opportunities and challenges met by those.
... The concept of CE has attracted more attention in recent years from industrialists and policymakers due to its potential in improving resource utilization, reducing waste generation (Blomsma 2018;Moktadir et al. 2020), and creating business values (Mura et al. 2020). Well-known CE practices include 3Rs (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle), pollution prevention, product stewardship, eco-design, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Internal Environmental Management (IEM), green purchasing, cooperation with customers, refurbishing, and remanufacturing (Kalmykova et al. 2018;Masi et al. 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has widely disrupted manufacturing industries. This research focuses on how project management, Industry 4.0 technologies, and the Circular Economy contribute to Sustainable Supply Chain development during the pandemic. A multiple case study focusing on three companies in the metals industry, covering small-, medium-, and large-size companies from Thailand, is adopted to investigate the impact of the pandemic on companies using the dimensions of demand, production, and distribution disruptions. The result shows that project management supports Industry 4.0 technologies and Circular Economy adoption. Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic also expedites Industry 4.0 technologies adoption. Product customization is one of the key focuses of the companies to differentiate from the competitors and create long-term competitive advantages. Industry 4.0 technologies and the Circular Economy have a positive influence on Sustainable Supply Chain development.
... Waste is also key to describing resource flows throughout life cycles but is a versatile term with different interpretations depending on context. Drawing on the concepts presented by Blomsma (2018), waste in this article is defined as material stocks whose value has been temporarily lost through the lack of a process to restore its value. ...
Article
Full-text available
Concrete is the world's most widely-used anthropogenic material, and Circular Economy strategies will be key to addressing the myriad challenges that face its use today and into the future. Despite a rapid growth of research interest in developing Circular Economy strategies for concrete, this has mostly focussed on technical and environmental issues at the material and product scale. Holistic approaches considering wider social and political aspects as well as system-scale perspectives have been relatively neglected. This article uses a narrative review to investigate three outstanding questions to help address this gap: how concrete's material, product and system-scale attributes influence the interpretation of Circular Economy principles; how the full range of Circular Economy strategies can be implemented for concrete; and what the likely implementation issues will be when integrating different Circular Economy strategies (such as design for durability, component reuse and material recycling). From a product-scale perspective, it is argued that greater specificity is needed around the growing diversity of concrete materials and products in Circular Economy discourse - their properties are often distinct and hence specific strategies are not necessarily universally applicable. At the same time, a solely product-centric Circular Economy perspective is insufficient for concrete, and that only joint consideration of structural and systemic perspectives will yield satisfactory solutions. ‘Soft’ perspectives of social, political and legal aspects cannot be viewed simply as an added bonus, but are essential to reconciling the ‘hard’ issues of technical, environmental and economic aspects that dominate discussions. Whilst concrete can and should have a key role in a Circular Economy, its success will require more than just extensions of linear economy thinking.
... Meso level implementation looks at eco-industrial parks like those being developed across China, where business are deliberately placed together to enable the waste from one business to be easily transferred to another that uses that waste as a resource (Mathews, Tan, & Hu, 2018;Yuan, Bi, & Moriguichi, 2006). Thirdly macro, at national, regional or city level implementation, ensuring that the infrastructure is in place to support the effective sharing of resources and implementation of many small loops that feed into the overall circular system (Blomsma, 2018;Ellen MacArthur Foundation & ARUP, 2019;Kirchherr et al., 2017;Saidani, Yannou, Leroy, Cluzel, & Kendall, 2018). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There is a lack of public engagement in sustainability initiatives such as the circular economy. This can be attributed to an absence of understanding and promotion of this new way of living and consuming. This lack of engagement is hindering the implementation of the CE. This paper aims to address this through an exploration of the role of games in explaining difficult concepts. There will be a particular focus on board games as tools for exploring aspects of sustainability, as they allow for a more discursive experience with other players and are a simple way to relate complex ideas. The paper will then detail the design and development of a serious board game Circul8. Designed by the authors to encourage engagement with complex systems, it aims to introduce ideas of the CE to the general public. The paper will explore the methodology of game creation and detail initial gameplay results.
... In order to be able to provide adequate solutions to this problem, firms, government agencies, and other stakeholders need to incorporate strategies such as reuse, refurbishment, remanufacturing, and recycling in their operations. However, the knowledge, technological capabilities, resources, and infrastructural facilities needed are distributed across many partners and actors [73]. Therefore, there is an urgent need to create a new network of actors to create value within the global value chain [11,74]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Open innovation runs contrary to the individualistic mentality of traditional corporate R&D implementation while embracing external cooperation in a complex world. Our main motivation for the study is to assess and characterise knowledge structure that represents radical transformation toward accelerating co‐development of sustainable innovations. Our review points to the role of the open eco-innovation research landscape as an emerging research domain of potential contributions to sustainable development. Specifically, in this systematic analysis, we apply exploratory, bibliometric, and network visualization techniques to characterize the available knowledge in the field. We trace the growth trajectory of this emerging literature and map the knowledge base of the open eco-innovation (OE) research field. We conceptualised four phases of research domain development and recognised that OE is at the acceleration phase. We emphasized that a synthetic knowledge base is one of the basic ingredients of an open eco-innovation model in addition to analytic and symbolic knowledge bases. Finally, we highlighted what might seem to be budding theoretical perspectives underlining open eco-innovation.
Article
Purpose This study aims to analyze how, under the stakeholder theory, corporate social responsibility (CSR) might favor the emergence of circular economy (CE) in the Agri-food sector, which is a relevant context, as it is technologically dynamic and requires paying attention to all the stakeholders. Design/methodology/approach An exploratory, qualitative research design has been adopted to study the phenomenon in detail, as it facilitates the understanding of complex phenomena such those under investigation and helps enrich existing theory with new insights from real-world cases to add theoretical generalizations to the existing body of research in the field. Findings The results of this study highlight that companies adopting CSR models are oriented toward circularity. Practical implications This study provides useful indications to managers and policymakers as to how to favor the two approaches (CSR and CE) and benefit all the stakeholders. Originality/value While there is wide scholarly and managerial interest toward CSR and CE, previous research has mainly analyzed CE and CSR as two independent phenomena. Therefore, there is a lack of understanding about how the two areas are linked. Following previous studies that have started to theoretically argue an interconnection between CSR and CE, in this research, it has been empirically investigated, and further explored theoretically, whether CSR can implicitly encourage the emergence of CE approaches.
Article
This study examines how management and organisation sciences can contribute to and accelerate circular economy (CE) practices by providing insight into how circular oriented innovation (COI) processes unfold. Emergent theory and recent empirical evidence shows that research into CE needs to acknowledge both salient commonalities between circular solutions, but—crucially—also their differences. A range of well‐known circular strategy frameworks exist that offer suggestions for understanding circular strategies in relation to each other. However, at present such frameworks tend to be normative and conceptual. Our objective is therefore twofold: (1) to develop an analytical framework for CE that is grounded in both theory and practice, as well as (2) to demonstrate the application of such a framework to a wide range of different circular solutions and how this can lead to new insights and new directions for research. We deploy a longitudinal qualitative multi‐case case study design, where we focus on business‐led COI projects, covering innovation projects of 23 product(s) (groups) for 19 focal companies. We identify circular pivots, minimal viable circular configuration, continuous improvement of circular configurations and interactions between circular strategies as particularly important phenomena and the importance of taking a longer time horizon to understand circular phenomena in business. Moreover, we identify a lack of application of structured approaches in practice—to complexity, to circular strategies and to value network development—which, if left unaddressed, pose a risk that CE will not achieve a positive systemic impact.
Article
Full-text available
Over the last decade, the concept of the circular economy has regained attention, especially related to efforts to achieve a more sustainable society. The ‘revival’ of the circular economy has been accompanied by controversies and confusions across different actors in science and practice. With this article we attempt at contributing to advanced clarity in the field and providing a heuristic that is useful in practice. Initially, we take a focus on the historical development of the concept of circular economy and value retention options (ROs) for products and materials aiming for increased circularity. We propose to distinguish three phases in the evolution of the circular economy and argue that the concept – in its dominant framing – is not as new as frequently claimed. Having established this background knowledge, we give insights into ‘how far we are’ globally, with respect to the implementation of circularity, arguing that high levels of circularity have already been reached in different parts of the globe with regard to longer loop value retention options, such as energy recovery and recycling. Subsequently, we show that the confusion surrounding the circular economy is more far-reaching the divergent scholarly perspectives on retention options and unite the most common views a 10Rtypology. e conclude that policymakers and businesses should focus their efforts on realization of the more desirable, shorter loop retention options, like remanufacturing, refurbishing and repurposing – yet with a view on feasibility and overall system effects. Scholars, on the other hand, should assist the parties contributing to an increased circular economy in practice by taking up a more active role in attaining consensus in conceptualizing the circular economy.
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