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Mobile Phone Distance from Head and Temperature Changes of Radio Frequency Waves on Brain Tissue

Authors:

Abstract

Background Analyzing the possible negative effects of using cell phones on the users’ health is an important and vital affair due to rapid growth and extensive use of these devices on human communications and interactions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of increasing the distance of cell phones to brain tissue on the temperature of the central and gray matters of brain due to the heat generated by radio frequency waves. Methods This study was an experimental study. A cow's brain tissue was analyzed in a compartment with three thicknesses of 2, 12, and 22 mm, in the distances of 4 mm and 4 cm from a cell phone for 15 min. Lutron thermometer was used to measure the tissue temperature, and the data analysis were done by Lutron and MATLAB software packages. Results The tissue temperature was increased while confronting with a cell phone in distances of 4 mm and 4 cm in all the three thicknesses of 2, 12, and 22 mm. The tissue temperature was higher after removing the confrontation at 4 mm distance as compared to the distance of 4 cm. Conclusions During confrontation and after that with the cell phone, reducing the distance of brain tissue and the cell phone increased the tissue temperature intensely. In fact, by increasing the cell phone distance from brain tissue, the thermal effect of radiofrequency waves was reduced.
1© 2018 International Journal of Preventive Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Introduction
It is just to say that we live in a modern
world with advanced technology. Requiring
access to information and communications
everywhere has created a new
world.[1] A device such as a cell phone has
been used extensively due to having supreme
communicative technology, but a cell phone
is the main source of electromagnetic
waves, which can inuence human tissues.[2]
The World Health Organization has reported
dispersion of radiofrequency waves as one
of the most polluting sources, which are
hazardous for human beings.[3] Cell phones
are considered as an important invention
that has changed communication ways in
this modern world.[4] However, using cell
phones has had irregular growing rate in
recent years.[5] This rapid increase of using
cell phones has provided worries about
radiated radiofrequency waves from them.
One of the effects of radiofrequency waves
resulted from cell phones is increasing
the temperature of body tissues.[6] Using
cell phones near the head has provided
general worries about damaging effects
on the central nervous system both in
Address for correspondence:
Dr. Siamak Pourabdian,
Department of Occupational
Health Engineering, School
of Public Health, Isfahan
University of Medical
Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
E‑mail: pourabdian@hlth.mui.
ac.ir
Abstract
Background: Analyzing the possible negative effects of using cell phones on the users’ health
is an important and vital affair due to rapid growth and extensive use of these devices on human
communications and interactions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of increasing the
distance of cell phones to brain tissue on the temperature of the central and gray matters of brain due
to the heat generated by radio frequency waves. Methods: This study was an experimental study.
A cow’s brain tissue was analyzed in a compartment with three thicknesses of 2, 12, and 22 mm,
in the distances of 4 mm and 4 cm from a cell phone for 15 min. Lutron thermometer was used to
measure the tissue temperature, and the data analysis were done by Lutron and MATLAB software
packages. Results: The tissue temperature was increased while confronting with a cell phone in
distances of 4 mm and 4 cm in all the three thicknesses of 2, 12, and 22 mm. The tissue temperature
was higher after removing the confrontation at 4 mm distance as compared to the distance of 4 cm.
Conclusions: During confrontation and after that with the cell phone, reducing the distance of brain
tissue and the cell phone increased the tissue temperature intensely. In fact, by increasing the cell
phone distance from brain tissue, the thermal effect of radiofrequency waves was reduced.
Keywords: Brain tissue, cell phone distance, radiofrequency waves, temperature
Mobile Phone Distance from Head and Temperature Changes of Radio
Frequency Waves on Brain Tissue
Original Article
Farhad
Forouharmajd,
Hossein Ebrahimi,
Siamak Pourabdian
Department of Occupational
Health Engineering, School
of Public Health, Isfahan
University of Medical Sciences,
Isfahan, Iran
children and in adults.[7] Brain is specically
confronting with radiofrequency waves
during conversation with the phone.[8] In
a study, after a 30‑min confrontation of
a cell phone with brain tissue, the brain
temperature increased by 4.5°C.[6] Cell
phone users often complain about warming
of their ears due to having contact with cell
phones. This temperature increase may be
due to radiofrequency and electromagnetic
waves absorbed by the user’s head.[9]
Since the cell phone antenna is placed
near the ear and head during contacts, the
head is necessarily facing radio frequency
waves, and this has caused anxieties in
this regard.[10] Lindholm et al. stated that
the temperature of ear canals in users
increased up to 1.5°C in confronting with
the radiofrequency waves of cell phones
for 35 min.[7] A research (2001) reported
that skin temperature during confrontation
with a cell phone increases by 0.01°C.[11]
Another study has shown that negligible
increase of temperature (about 0.2°C–0.3°C)
in hypothalamus leads to behavioral change
in regulating the body temperature.[12]
Since during contacts, cell phones are
placed near the ear and head and also
because the sensitivity of brain tissue
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DOI:
10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_70_17
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How to cite this article: Forouharmajd F, Ebrahimi H,
Pourabdian S. Mobile phone distance from head and
temperature changes of radio frequency waves on
brain tissue. Int J Prev Med 2018;9:61.
[Downloaded free from http://www.ijpvmjournal.net on Saturday, July 28, 2018, IP: 80.191.140.51]
Forouharmajd, et al.: Mobile phone distance and temperature changes of brain tissue
International Journal of Preventive Medicine 2018, 9: 612
to changing of the temperature, the aim of this study
was determining the effect of cell phone distance on the
temperature of central and gray matters of brain due to the
heat generated by radiofrequency waves.
Methods
This study was an experimental study. A cow’s brain
tissue without the brain covered with cranium was used to
evaluate the effect of cell phone distance with the tissue.
The brain was transferred by heat insulating box to the
laboratory immediately after slaughtering the cow.
Laboratory equipment
To promote the measurement accuracy and reducing errors
due to temperature, humidity, and ventilation systems during
the measurement, a compartment with height of 40 cm,
length of 80 cm, and width of 30 cm of Plexiglas material
was designed and made, where the tissue is placed in it,
not to have any contacts with the laboratory environmental
conditions. The compartment door was closed after
the required adjustments. Lutron thermometer (Model:
MT‑917) with precision of +0.1 was used for measuring
the tissue temperature. The thermometer had 5 probes for
measurements and the probe “TP100”) was used for the
current study. This probe is applied for measuring different
depths and thicknesses with temperature range −199.99°C
to +199.99°C, and it was made of platinum. Lutron
thermometer could measure in both Fahrenheit and Celsius
units, and Celsius unit was used for this study. The
thermometer was connected by a cable (Model: USB‑01)
to a computer. The temperature range of this cable was
between 0°C and 50°C and could be applied in humidity
under 80%. The temperature changes were measured
and recorded in momentary basis after installing Lutron
software (Lutron Electronic, Taiwan).
Preparation and confrontation
Brain tissue was placed in the compartment. Then, probe
“TP100” was placed in thicknesses of 2, 12, and 22 mm
of the tissue for measuring the temperature of the gray and
white matters of the brain, where the precise thicknesses
were determined by a digital caliper. The rst case was
related to the gray matter of the brain with the thickness
of 2 mm. A smart cell phone was used to investigate the
thermal effect of the cell phone radio frequency, placed on
a pod in 4 mm distance on the left of the brain tissue, as
if a person is talking on a cell phone. After adjustments,
the thermometer was turned on and connected by the
USB cable to the computer, and the related software was
operated.
The temperature balance between the environment inside
the compartment and the tissue for reducing the errors
regarding the contact between the tissue and the cell phone
was not fullled at the beginning, until the temperature of
the tissue and the compartment became similar, and the
thermometer showed a xed temperature, such that after
15 min of tissue temperature stabilization, the stabled
temperature was recorded, and this temperature was
called the base temperature (tissue temperature before
confronting with the cell phone). Then, the contact was
made between the tissue and the cell phone, as if a person
was talking on the phone. The confrontation time was
considered 15 min. After nishing the confrontation time,
the contact was cut off. For the next stage, the tissue was
kept in the compartment for 15 min for its temperature
to be reduced without confrontation and the presence of
radiofrequency waves. In all the stages, before, during, and
after confrontation with the radiofrequency waves of the
cell phone, the thermometer was connected to the computer
system, and the temperature variations of the tissue were
recorded by the software. After each test, the brain tissue
was not used and requires no maintenance. This study
was done at 4 mm and 4 cm distances between the cell
phone and the brain tissue, for the thicknesses of 2, 12, and
22 mm. The following equation was used to calculate the
specic absorption electric:
SAR = σE2/ρ
SAR: Specic absorption rate, σ: Guided tissue of the head,
E: Root average electrical energy, ρ: The mass density of the
head. The amount of electrical energy in this mobile phone
(900 MHz) was 1.18 v/m. Field nally, the temperature
variations relative to the time were transferred to MATLAB
2012 software (2012 version, MathWorks company), and
the related graphs for each thickness were drawn.
Results
A cow’s brain tissue was used to evaluate the effect of
cell phone distance with the tissue on the temperature
increase of the brain due to radiofrequency waves, at three
different depths of 2, 12, and 22 mm and in 4 mm and
4 cm distances, before, during, and after the considered
confrontations.
The base temperature was 17.94°C at the depth of
2 mm (gray matter of the brain) in both 4 mm and 4 cm
distances, but after 15 min of confrontation, the tissue
temperature for the distance of 4 mm reached to 18.23°C
and reached 18.13°C for the distance of 4 cm. According
to Figure 1, the temperature of the gray matter of brain
for the distance of 4 mm increased by 0.29°C, and for the
distance of 4 cm, it increased by 0.19°C. Figure 1 shows
the temperature changes for the mentioned distances.
The base temperature was 18.85°C at the depth of
12 mm (white matter of the brain) in both 4 mm and 4 cm
distances, after 15 min of confrontation. After confrontation
of the brain tissue and the cell phone, the tissue
temperatures for the distances of 4 mm and 4 cm increased
to 19.16°C, and 18.90°C, respectively. In fact, it showed
an increase of 0.31°C compared to the base temperature
for the distance of 4 mm, and the increase relative to the
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Forouharmajd, et al.: Mobile phone distance and temperature changes of brain tissue
International Journal of Preventive Medicine 2018, 9: 61 3
base temperature was only 0.05°C for the distance of 4 cm.
Figure 1 shows the temperature changes in the considered
distances in the depth of 12 mm.
Tissue temperature at the depth of 22 mm (white matter of
brain) was 19.83°C and 19.63°C for the distances of 4 mm
and 4 cm, respectively, during 15 min of confrontation with
cell phone contacts. The base temperature in this depth
was 19.46°C, indicating the increase in temperature by
0.37°C and 0.17°C for the distances of 4 mm and 4 cm,
respectively. Figure 1 shows the temperature changes in the
considered distances in the depth of 22 mm.
At the time of confronting with the cell phone, temperature
increase in the tissue for the distance of 4 mm at the three
thicknesses of 2, 12, and 22 mm was higher than that for
the distance of 4 cm. According to Figure 1, the gradients
of B2, B12, and B22 curves (for thicknesses of 2, 12,
and 22 mm, respectively) were higher for the distance
of 4 mm than the gradients of the curves A2, A12, and
A22 (for thicknesses of 2, 12, and 22 mm, respectively)
for the distance of 4 cm. In other words, the gradients of
the curves for the three thicknesses increased with higher
speed for the distance of 4 mm. In particular, the increase
in gradient was quite apparent for the distance of 4 mm in
the thicknesses of 12 mm and 22 mm (B12 and B22) in the
brain white matter.
Brain tissue temperatures for the distances of 4 mm and
4 cm away from a cell phone were evaluated for the three
considered thicknesses, for 15 min after disconnecting the
confrontation aspect. Brain tissue temperatures reduced
for the distances of 4 mm and 4 cm as compared to the
time when confrontation occurred for the three considered
thicknesses, but they were higher in comparison with the
base temperature. In other words, after the disconnecting
confrontation of the brain tissue and the cell phone, the
tissue temperature did not return to the base temperature
after 15 min, and this temperature was higher than the base
temperature, even after disconnecting the confrontation
purpose. The higher rate referred to the 4 mm distance
as compared to the distance of 4 cm. For instance at the
thickness of 22 mm, the temperatures were 0.22°C and
0.08°C higher than the base temperature for the distances of
4 mm and 4 cm, respectively. The tissue temperature after
the confrontation became equal to the base temperature for
the distance of 4 cm, in the thickness of 12 mm while it
was 0.19°C higher than the base temperature for the 4 mm
distance. The rates of increasing tissue temperatures
relative to the base temperature, after the confrontation,
at the thicknesses of 2, 12, and 22 mm from the tissue
surface, for 4 mm and 4 cm distances.
Discussion
The present study evaluated the effect of increasing the
distance of cell phones to brain tissue on the temperature
of the central and gray matters of brain, due to the heat
generated by radio frequency waves. In practice, the
probe was placed for 30 min in an empty box with the
cell phone and we have not seen a rise in temperature
after half an hour. According to the obtained results,
confronting brain tissues and cell phones for 15 min led
in increasing temperature in the tissue. In fact, increasing
the temperatures was observed in the three considered
tissue thickness of 2, 12, and 22 mm as compared to the
base temperature, during the confrontation. Rusnani et al.
reported that in 15 and 20 min of confrontation with cell
phones, the temperatures are increased in the head and ears
of the users, and this rate is further increased by increasing
the contact time. They showed that confronting head with
cell phones for 15–30 min increased the temperatures
in that part by 0.3°C–2.9°C.[9] Tissue temperatures at the
distance of 4 mm had higher increases than the distance
of 4 cm, by the confrontation of brain tissue and cell
phones, for the three considered tissue depths of 2, 12,
and 22 mm. For instance, brain tissue had temperature
increases of 0.31°C and 0.05°C at the depth of 12 mm,
for the distances of 4 mm and 4 cm, respectively. Not
only the brain tissue temperature for the distance of 4 mm
was higher than that for the distance of 4 cm but also the
gradient of temperature increase was higher for the distance
of 4 mm than that for the distance of 4 cm. Hossain et al.
reported that by increasing the distance of the head from
the cell phone antenna, the rate of SAR is decreased.[13] In
analyzing the internal functioning of cell phones and the
relation between the distance of cell phone antenna from
the human body and SAR, Kivekas et al. reported that
the easiest way for reducing the SAR is increasing the
distance of users from cell phone antennas.[14] The rates of
brain tissue temperatures at the thicknesses of 2, 12, and
22 mm showed reductions after 15 min from nishing
the confrontation with the cell phone as compared to the
tissue temperature during the confrontation, but despite the
temperature reduction, the temperatures of brain tissue for
the three considered thicknesses were high in comparison
to the base temperature for the distances of 4 mm and
Figure 1: Comparison of temperature increase in brain tissue, during
confrontations with a cell phone for the distances of 4 mm and 4 cm:
(A2) 2‑mm thickness and the distance of 4 cm; (A12) 12‑mm thickness
and the distance of 4 cm; (A22) 22‑mm thickness and the distance of 4 cm;
(B2) 2‑mm thickness and the distance of 4 mm; (B12) 12‑mm thickness and
the distance of 4 mm; (B22) 22‑mm thickness and the distance of 4 cm
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Forouharmajd, et al.: Mobile phone distance and temperature changes of brain tissue
International Journal of Preventive Medicine 2018, 9: 614
4 cm, after confrontation with the cell phone. In other
words, not only temperature increase was observed in the
brain tissue during the confrontation with the cell phone but
also increasing the temperature even had an accumulation
status and it was high for some time after the confrontation
with the cell phone, as compared to previous situations.
The rate of tissue temperature after the confrontation with
the cell phone was higher for the distance of 4 mm as
compared to that for 4 cm distance. The important point
is that the temperature showed increases in all the stages
of investigations, before and after the confrontations with
the cell phone, and also by increasing the depths and
thicknesses of the brain tissue. The results showed that the
more the layers of the tissue, the accumulated temperature
in the tissue would be higher. Hence, it is possible that the
effects created due to using cell phones are more intensive
in deeper tissues. On the other hand, it is possible that deep
tissues (white matter of the brain) have higher sensitivity in
confrontation with cell phones, and the sensitivity emerges
by higher absorption of energy, and hence increasing the
temperature. The results of the present study showed that
in the cases of during and after the confrontation with the
cell phone, the lower distance of the brain tissue and cell
phone increases the tissue temperature. In other words, by
increasing the distance of brain tissue and the cell phone,
the thermal effects of radiofrequency waves of the mobile
phone was reduced. The distance of brain tissue to the cell
phone had inverse relations with the increasing rate of tissue
temperature, and by increasing the distance, less amount
of increase in the brain tissue temperature was observed.
Hirata et al. stated that there are some effective factors on
the absorption rate of electromagnetic waves, among which
are the size of the confronting tissue, electrical properties
of the tissue, and the distance between the electromagnetic
wave source and human body.[15]
Most of the hazardous biologic effects about the cell phone
waves on humans are considered to be due to the effects
of temperature increase, such that some of the cell phone
waves are transferred to human body as heat by current
activated hyperpolarization induced by the electric eld
and vibration of polar molecules, in going through an
environment.[16] Wessapan et al. showed in their studies that
due to confrontation with cell phones, the generated heat in
brain tissue is greater than that in the skin since brain is a
tissue with high rate of metabolic aspect in generating heat.
Hence, temperature is higher in brain tissue as compared
to other tissues with low metabolic aspects in generating
heat.[12]
By increasing the temperature of the brain, the blood
circulation is rapidly increased, and the thermal
self‑adjusting reactions are activated. Measuring heart
automatic responses and evaluation of brain blood ow
are used as the indirect evidences of the interactions of
blood circulation and adjusting the temperature during
confrontation with radio frequency waves. Thus, repeating
confrontations with cell phones increasing the tissue
temperature during confrontation, and high temperature of
the brain tissue even after some time from the confrontation
would make undesirable effects on brain health after a
passage of time.[7] In the studies by Beason et al., about
the electromagnetic effects on brain, they showed that
the similar waves to the cell phone telecommunication
system could lead in 52% of case in increasing brain
neuron activities, and in 17% of the cases reduce brain
neuron activities.[17] The results obtained from some
epidemiologic studies show that even with lower densities
than the permissible limits, cell phone waves can cause
signs and symptoms such as a headache, feeling of high
temperature in ears, weakness of memory, and fatigue.[18]
In a study regarding the effects of waves due to radiation
generated by cell phones on vital signs in users, Mortazavi
and Ate obtained signicant relations between using cell
phones and disorders in paying attention, learning, and
concentration in users.[19] Negative effects of waves resulted
from cell phones on the brain activities, and capabilities are
conrmed in some studies.[19‑21] Saikhedkar et al. studied
about the effects of radiation of cell phone waves on the
structure and performance of brain in rats. They showed
that cell phone waves could increase anxiety and amount of
learning in rats.[22] It was reported in a study that cell phone
waves provide considerable changes in the density of
dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin in hippocampus,
hypothalamus, cerebellum, and medulla in the brains of
mature mice. This change in the rate of the densities of
neural intermediates can be effective in creating anxiety
and problems regarding memory and learning.[23]
Conclusions
Brain tissue temperature in 4 mm distance from a cell
phone was not only higher than the base temperature
but also from the 4 cm distance from the cell phone, but
the temperature was higher for the 4 mm distance by
increasing the tissue thickness. In fact, the temperature had
accumulating status in gray and white matters of the brain
in the distance of 4 mm, even after confrontation aspect,
and increasing the temperature was higher in greater
thicknesses, which include the white matter of the brain.
On the other hand, the distance of brain tissue with the cell
phone had clear and denite effects in increasing the tissue
temperature, such that by increasing the distance, the tissue
temperature showed a reduction. The distance of brain and
cell phones was considered in this study as an important
parameter in reducing the thermal effects due to cell phone
waves.
The temperature difference could be related on one side
to heterogeneity of brain tissue during movement from the
brain membrane to its depth, which is due to changing of
gray matter of brain to white matter. The gray matter has
higher rate of water and less fat and in comparison, the
white matter has higher amount of fat. From another point
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Forouharmajd, et al.: Mobile phone distance and temperature changes of brain tissue
International Journal of Preventive Medicine 2018, 9: 61 5
of view, the differences in building and temperature in
various depths could be related to the aspect of generating
optimum induced temperature in different depths, with
regards to different variables such as frequency of waves
and the direction of radiations, all of which should be
considered in the future studies.
This study shows that the temperature of brain tissue
is increased after contacts with electromagnetic waves
generated by cell phones. However, this increased
temperature could create problems in brain functions,
similar to the increased temperature due to hyperthermia
that is emerged as fever or heatstroke. The more important
point according to the authors of this study is using the
index of tissue temperature as an index due to contacts
with electromagnetic elds since the certain point is that
electromagnetic waves have different effects on live tissues,
in physical, electrophysiological, or electrochemical forms,
which are because of the mutual effects of these waves on
matters and are inevitable. The fact that the effects of these
waves, or in a more precise term, the contacts with the
waves could be observed and recorded is an introductory
for predicting the mentioned effects and the probable
effects due to them.
Ethical considerations
The protocol of this study was approved by the Medical
Committee of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences at
IR.MUI.REC.1394.3.1047.
This article was the result of a master's degree dissertation
at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences at 3941047. The
authors would like to express their gratitude to the Vice‑
Chancellor for Research in Isfahan University of Medical
Sciences and to the lab of the harmful physical agents of
the School of Public Health.
Financial support and sponsorship
Nil.
Conicts of interest
There are no conicts of interest.
Received: 05 Feb 17 Accepted: 03 Jul 17
Published: 20 Jul 18
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2013;17:1782‑8.
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... An extremely important observation is the intense opposition between the results of experimental studies that employ real exposures from commercially available devices (mobile phones or other telecommunication devices), and studies employing simulated exposures from generators or "test" phones with similar but invariant parameters such as intensity, frequency etc. While ∼50% of the studies employing simulated exposures do not find any effects, studies employing real-life exposures from commercially available devices display an almost 100% consistency in showing adverse effects [34][35][36]84,[100][101][102][103][104][105][106][107][108][109][110][111][112][113][114][115][116][117][118]. A wide variety of biological and clinical effects are already found to be induced by real-life exposures on a similarly wide variety of animals/biological samples including human volunteers exposed in vivo (19 studies) [19,34,35,100,104,[106][107][108][109]114,116], human sperm in vitro (2 studies) [23,100], mice or rats or guinea pigs or rabbits in vivo (24 studies) [100,102,103,105,110,111,115,117], Drosophila (11 studies) [15,16,26,31,41,42,100,101,140,141], bees (4 studies) [47,100,118], ants (1 study) [100], chick embryos (3 studies) [36,45,100], quails (1 study) [100], human cells in vitro (2 studies) [100,112], cow brain tissue in vitro (1 study) [113], mouse cells in vitro (1 study), protozoa (1 study), and even purified proteins in vitro (1 study) [100]. ...
... While ∼50% of the studies employing simulated exposures do not find any effects, studies employing real-life exposures from commercially available devices display an almost 100% consistency in showing adverse effects [34][35][36]84,[100][101][102][103][104][105][106][107][108][109][110][111][112][113][114][115][116][117][118]. A wide variety of biological and clinical effects are already found to be induced by real-life exposures on a similarly wide variety of animals/biological samples including human volunteers exposed in vivo (19 studies) [19,34,35,100,104,[106][107][108][109]114,116], human sperm in vitro (2 studies) [23,100], mice or rats or guinea pigs or rabbits in vivo (24 studies) [100,102,103,105,110,111,115,117], Drosophila (11 studies) [15,16,26,31,41,42,100,101,140,141], bees (4 studies) [47,100,118], ants (1 study) [100], chick embryos (3 studies) [36,45,100], quails (1 study) [100], human cells in vitro (2 studies) [100,112], cow brain tissue in vitro (1 study) [113], mouse cells in vitro (1 study), protozoa (1 study), and even purified proteins in vitro (1 study) [100]. From a total of 71 studies reviewed above that employed real exposures 68 recorded significant adverse effects (95.8%) ranging from loss of orientation, kinetic, behavioural, or EEG changes, heart rate changes, effect on cognitive function and memory impairment, effect on cell growth and proliferation, temperature increases in brain tissue, to decrease in male and female reproductive capacity, reproductive declines, molecular changes, changes in enzymatic activity, biochemical changes in the pregnant women and their embryos, DNA damage and cell death, protein damage, and histopathological changes in the brain [34][35][36]84,[100][101][102][103][104][105][106][107][108][109][110][111][112][113][114][115][116][117][118]. ...
... A wide variety of biological and clinical effects are already found to be induced by real-life exposures on a similarly wide variety of animals/biological samples including human volunteers exposed in vivo (19 studies) [19,34,35,100,104,[106][107][108][109]114,116], human sperm in vitro (2 studies) [23,100], mice or rats or guinea pigs or rabbits in vivo (24 studies) [100,102,103,105,110,111,115,117], Drosophila (11 studies) [15,16,26,31,41,42,100,101,140,141], bees (4 studies) [47,100,118], ants (1 study) [100], chick embryos (3 studies) [36,45,100], quails (1 study) [100], human cells in vitro (2 studies) [100,112], cow brain tissue in vitro (1 study) [113], mouse cells in vitro (1 study), protozoa (1 study), and even purified proteins in vitro (1 study) [100]. From a total of 71 studies reviewed above that employed real exposures 68 recorded significant adverse effects (95.8%) ranging from loss of orientation, kinetic, behavioural, or EEG changes, heart rate changes, effect on cognitive function and memory impairment, effect on cell growth and proliferation, temperature increases in brain tissue, to decrease in male and female reproductive capacity, reproductive declines, molecular changes, changes in enzymatic activity, biochemical changes in the pregnant women and their embryos, DNA damage and cell death, protein damage, and histopathological changes in the brain [34][35][36]84,[100][101][102][103][104][105][106][107][108][109][110][111][112][113][114][115][116][117][118]. From the remaining three studies, two reported no effect and one reported an increase in short-term memory of children which we did not count as an adverse effect although it may be [100,106]. ...
... Mobile phone usage related RF-EMF exposure and likely human health effects have long been of concern internationally [3,4]. RF-EMF exposure from mobile phones may induce some heating effect and/or a sensation of warmth, depending upon a range of factors, including the distance between the mobile phone and part of the body exposed during active use [5,6]. A recent systematic review reported that studies speculated that scrotal overheating might affect male fertility [7]. ...
... In view of this, understanding of people's habits of placing/carrying a mobile phone becomes important. Though the extent of mobile phone carrying habits have not been adequately assessed, some data showed that people tend to place or carry their mobile phone close to the body [5][6][7]. ...
Article
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Little was known about the relationship between carrying mobile phone handsets by men and their risk perception of radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure due to carrying handsets close to the body. This study aimed to determine where men usually carried their handsets and to assess the relationship to risk perception of RF-EMF. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire about mobile phone use, handset carrying locations, and levels of risk perception to RF-EMF. Data were analysed using linear regression models to examine if risk perception differed by mobile phone carrying location. The participants were 356 men, aged 18–72 years. They owned a mobile phone for 2–29 years, with over three quarters (78.7%) having a mobile phone for over 20 years. The most common locations that men kept their handsets when they were ‘indoors’ were: on a table/desk (54.0%) or in close contact with the body (34.7%). When outside, 54.0% of men kept the handset in the front trouser pocket. While making or receiving calls, 85.0% of men held their mobile phone handset against the head and 15.0% either used earphones or loudspeaker. Men who carried their handset in close contact with the body perceived higher risks from RF-EMF exposure compared to those who kept it away from the body (p<0.01). A substantial proportion of men carried their mobile phone handsets in close proximity to reproductive organs i.e. front pocket of trousers (46.5%). Men who kept their handset with the hand (p < .05), and those who placed it in the T-shirt pocket (p < .05), while the phone was not in use, were more likely to perceive health risks from their behaviour, compared to those who kept it away from the body. However, whether this indicates a causal relationship, remains open.
... This is of particular clinical significance as the proximity and the position of the mobile phones directly influence the exposure of our body to the electromagnetic field and its associated health hazards. Mobile phone radiation increased the temperature of brain tissue when confronted with a mobile phone at a distance of 4 mm in an in vitro experiment setup [23]. Almost two-thirds of the respondents were not aware that 5G causes an immense threat to human health and more than 70% are unaware of EMF blocking mobile phone case availability in the market. ...
... Surprisingly, 38.2% of students and 33.7% working professionals agreed to prefer faster, non-buffering network to their health ( Table 2). In a study that investigated the effect of increasing distance of cell phones on the temperature of central matter and gray matter of the brain tissue due to heat generated by RF waves reported significant negative correlation [23]. Recent researches demonstrate that exposure of RF-EMF in the brains of foetuses and children is a major concern as it inhibits the formation and differentiation of neural stem cells during neural development. ...
Article
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COVID-19 pandemic has caused an increased dependence on mobile phones by students and working professionals. Mobile phones are indispensable gadgets with a wide range of applications. However, there are potential risks associated with its usage in terms of radiofrequency radiation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of radiation and its biological adverse effects caused due to the usage of mobile phones among students and working professionals. An online awareness survey was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic among 351 participants using Google forms. The questionnaire was disseminated to the WhatsApp groups of students and working professionals and the data was statistically analysed. Among the 351 subjects, 72% of the respondents used their mobile phones for more than 4 hours per day. However, less than 20% were fully aware of mobile phone radiation being listed in the possible carcinogen list by the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition, only half of the respondents considered the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) value and information on radiation emission while purchasing a new phone. To conclude, the need for awareness of potential hazards associated with the mobile phone radiation seems crucial, especially during this time when everyone in the world and especially school and college students are highly dependent on mobile phones.
... When human tissue absorbs the energy from the electromagnetic waves, the tissue increases in temperature. The temperature increase of biological tissues is considered by many to be the largest health risk from mobile phones and mobile phone exposure limits are set to reduce these thermal effects [6]. Safety Code 6 is Health Canada's guideline for RF exposure. ...
... Forouharmajd et. al [6] conducted a study to experimentally determine the effect of increasing cell phone distances on brain tissue temperature. The study used the brain tissue of a cow and placed a mobile phone 4mm and 4cm away from the tissue for 15min periods. ...
Article
Human exposure to mobile phone radio frequency (RF) radiation has caused public concern for human health. Mobile phone RF exposure depends on many different parameters. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of both the RF source distance from a human head and of output power levels on the temperature change and the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in the head. The peak spatially-averaged SAR over 1 g of tissue is also identified to compare the study results to Health Canada’s Safety Code 6 exposure limits. The SAR and temperature change in the head are simulated in this study using a Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin (SAM) head model with heterogeneous dielectric properties and a microstrip patch antenna operating at a frequency of 835 MHz. The microstrip patch antenna distance from the head is varied from 0-15mm and it is operated at three different time-averaged output power levels. The simulation is performed using COMSOL Multiphysics software and is solved with the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) method. The results show that both SAR and temperature change in the head model increase as the distance between the head model and the patch antenna decreases. The peak spatially-averaged SAR over 1 g of tissue is found to triple as the phone moves from 4mm from the head to 0mm from the head. The results from this study indicate that to mitigate possible health risks from RF radiation mobile phones should be kept at least 4mm from the head.
... Sleep quality improved after disruption of the EMF exposure [24] and limiting cell phone use before bedtime was effective in dropping sleep latency and increasing sleep duration [25]. However, an increase in the brain tissue temperature generated by a cell phone EMF similar to the increased temperature due to hyperthermia or fever could create brain dysfunction [26]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Despite the two decades of using cell phones, there are still considerable controversies about the biological effects of the Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) produced by cell phones. Sleep disorder among hospital staff is an important issue for the health care system not only due to the health of its employees but also to the reduction of the staff performance quality and the increase in medical errors. This study aimed to explore factors that may affect the sleep quality of hospital staff and to examine the association between sleep quality and cell phone usage. Materials and Methods: In this study, participants consisted of 288 employees (35.51 ± 8.42 years old) of two hospitals, and their sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh sleep quality index. Results: Sixty-six percent of participants had good sleep quality and nearly 68% of the employees worked in shifts. The cell phone use among participants averaged 10.74 ± 3.03 years, and less than half of the staff stated that call durations of their cell phones were less than 5 h/day. More than 90% of the staff mentioned no use of hands-free. There were no statistically significant differences between job characteristics, sleep quality, and items related to cell phones, except the use of hands-free. Conclusion: In our study, using hands-free during phone calls was associated with poor quality sleep. Different factors, such as decreased levels of electromagnetic fields reaching the brain, can be involved in this effect. These results must be interpreted with caution due to the low number of subjects and the limitations of our study.
... An earlier study by Wyde et al. (2018) also observed non-significant elevated body temperature in some rats exposed to mobile phone EMR. However, Forouharmajd et al. (2018) and Mai et al. (2020) reported a significantly elevated body temperature in some mice exposed to mobile phones EMR. Changes in the body temperature could result from an interaction between EMR and a primary cold sensor in mammals known as transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily melastatin member 8 (TRPM8) receptors (Mai et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The safety of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) from modern telecommunication devices is controversial as some studies reported negative effects, while others reported no effects. Thus, more studies are necessary to clear the controversy, so as to design appropriate precautionary and palliative measures if found toxic. Objective: This study was conducted to determine the effects of telecommunication mast EMR on selected health indices of rats (Rattus norvegicus). Materials and Methods: Twenty-four (24) rats were divided into two groups of 12 rats each. Group 1 was made the control, while group 2 was exposed to 18000 MHz EMR at 50 m from a telecommunication mast. The weight, body temperature, reproductive activities, and reactions of the rats were observed for 60 days. Thereafter, the rats were sacrificed and their blood parameters, liver function, and histology were examined. Results: The exposed rats were less active, weighed and reproduced less, had lower offspring survival rates and insignificantly (P > 0.05) elevated body temperature. The white blood cells (WBC) of the exposed rats were significantly increased (P < 0.05), while the packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cells (RBC), and lymphocytes were reduced. The aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and total protein (TP) of the exposed rats were significantly increased, while the albumin (ALB) was significantly reduced. The ovary, lung, and kidney tissues of the exposed rats showed no abnormalities, but necrosis of the hepatocytes and fat were observed in their livers and the skins, respectively. Conclusion and Recommendation: It is concluded that electromagnetic radiation (EMR) from modern telecommunication devices harmed the health of exposed rats. It is inferred from the results that EMR has negative effects on the health of mammals. Hence, it is advisable not to site telecommunication masts close to dwelling places.
... 7,8 Moreover, literature also acknowledge the adverse effects of smartphone. [9][10][11][12][13] Although limited research has been conducted concerning the potential cognitive impacts of smartphone use in the Saudi society, the present study aim was to determine the association of use of smart mobile phone with cognitive function impairment in Saudi adult population. ...
Article
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Background & objectives: Excessive use of mobile phones has raised a great concern about adverse health effects on human health. The present study's aim was to investigate the association of the usage of smartphones with cognitive function impairment in the Saudi adult population. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during September 2019 to January 2020. A total of 251 Saudi adults who were using mobile phones were recruited, and knowledge, attitude and practices were assessed by interview using a predesigned proforma. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA) tool was employed to assess the cognitive functions, comparison was made between daily mobile phone usage group and their correlated Montreal Cognitive Score (MOCA). Results: The mean age for 251 Saudi adult participants was 32.43 ± 12.8 years. More than 80% of the participants used their mobile phone for more than two hours daily. About 61% of the participants were not aware of the side effect of the radiation generated from mobile phone. The participants showed a decrease in MOCA score with increased daily mobile phone usage (MOCA=26.8 for <1 hour daily usage, 26.1 for 1-2 hours, and 24.6 for >2 hours with P< 0.05). In addition, participants showed decreased MOCA score by keeping their mobile phone near their pillow while sleeping; MOCA=24.35 for near pillow groups and >25.5 for the groups that placed their mobile phone away from the pillow. Conclusions: Excessive use of mobile phones can cause cognitive function impairment. Strict policies must be implemented to control the use of smartphones in order to minimize the effects on mobile phone radiation on cognition. The media has to be on the forefront in educating the public about the proper usage of mobile phones.
... On the other hand, from the obtained SAR estimates, it was observed that the radiation from the handsets are within this safety limit recommended by ICNIRP but exceeds the limits of 0.001 Wkg -1 (BioInitiative Report, 2012) for the initiation of biological effects. Most of the hazardous biological effects on humans via the cell phone radiofrequency waves are considered to be due to the effects of temperature increase, such that some of the cell phone waves are transferred to the human body as heat by current activated hyperpolarization induced by the electric field and vibration of polar molecules, in going through an environment (Wessapan et al., 2012;Forouharmajd et al., 2018). However, Hirata et al. (2009) identified a number of factors such as the size of the confronting tissue, electrical properties of the tissue, and the distance between the cell phone and human body etc. effects the absorption rate of electromagnetic waves. ...
Article
Exposures to electromagnetic radiation mainly from the extended use of mobile phones may initiate biological damages in the human body at the macromolecular level. Several studies on human and animal models have shown significant changes in the functions of neural cells. Present empirical study analyses the thermal changes and the specific absorption rates (SAR) of brain, eye and skin tissues due to prolonged exposure to mobile phone radiation. A phantom, simulating human head with skin, skull and brain was used for the study. The Phantom was exposed to radiation for longer durations (600 s and more) and the temperature variations at different specific points were studied with sensitive thermocouple probes. SAR (1 g of contiguous tissue) values were determined using the variations of temperature and other parameters. The average rise in brain temperature was found to be 0.10 ± 0.05 °C at 30 mm deep in the brain and the estimated SAR was 0.66 ± 0.35 Wkg⁻¹. The increase in temperature for the eye socket was 0.03 ± 0.02 °C with SAR 0.15 ± 0.08 Wkg⁻¹. The average rise in temperature for skin was 0.14 ± 0.05 °C and the SAR was 0.66 ± 0.42 Wkg⁻¹. Although the measured SAR lie within the safe limit of 2 Wkg⁻¹ recommended by the international regulatory body, considering the tremendous growth in the number of mobile phone users and prolonged use of mobile phone in communication purposes, the cumulative effects could be a real concern for human health.
... Dependence on technology may contribute to brain changes over time. 2,3 A relationship between personal CDU (e.g., cellular phones, video/computer games, two-way pagers, desktop/laptop computers) and psychiatric traits (i.e., inattention, 4 attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 5 anxiety disorders, 6 and schizophrenia (SCZ)) has been defined by epidemiological studies. While these relationships are often explored as being potentially detrimental to human health, [4][5][6] there are data suggesting that CDUs also may be beneficial to certain psychiatric conditions; for example video games seem to have a therapeutic effect on SCZ. 7 Though strong correlations between CDUs and psychiatric disorders have been documented, causality has been difficult to determine due to psychiatric disorder heterogeneity and sample size constraints 8and more importantly, the inability to use conventional designs in a single-ascertainment context to draw such conclusions. ...
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The societal health effects of ubiquitous computerized device use (CDU) is mostly unknown. Epidemiological evidence supports associations between CDU and psychiatric traits, but the underlying biological mechanisms are unclear. We investigated genetic overlaps, causal relationships, and molecular pathways shared between these traits using genome-wide data regarding CDU (UK Biobank; up to N=361,194 individuals) and Psychiatric Genomics Consortium phenotypes (14,477<N<150,064). The strongest genetic correlations were between weekly usage of mobile phone in last 3 months ( PhoneUse ) vs. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (r g =0.425, p=4.59x10 ⁻¹¹ ) and plays computer games ( CompGaming ) vs. schizophrenia (SCZ) (r g =-0.271, p=7.16x10 ⁻²⁶ ). Latent causal variable analysis did not support causal relationships between these traits, but the observed genetic overlap was related to shared molecular pathways, including: dopamine transport (Gene Ontology:0015872, p SCZvsCompGaming =2.74x10 ⁻¹⁰ ) and DRD2 association (p SCZ =7.94x10 ⁻⁸ ; p CompGaming =3.98x10 ⁻²⁵ ), and FOXP2 association (p ADHD =9.32x10 ⁻⁷ ; p PhoneUse =9.00x10 ⁻¹¹ ). Our results support epidemiological observations with genetic data, and uncover biological mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders contribution to CDUs.
Article
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A discriminant classification of human brainwave signals influenced by mobile phone radiofrequency (RF) emission is proposed in this paper. Brainwave signals were recorded using electroencephalograph (EEG) focusing on the alpha sub-band with frequency range from 8 to 12 Hz. The EEG test was divided into 3 sessions; Before, During and After with 5 minutes duration for each session. Analysis involved 95 participants from engineering students. The students were grouped into 3 groups according to the side of exposure; Left Exposure (LE), Right Exposure (RE) and Sham Exposure (SE). This work suggested that RF emit by the mobile phone give several effects to brainwave signals and there are significant different between the session of exposure. As result, the highest classification rate as high as 94.7% is achieved in session During.
Article
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The constant evolution of wireless handheld devices together with the apparition of multiple wireless communication systems fosters the antenna community to design new radiating and measurements systems capable of satisfying the market demands. It is an object of the present paper to provide an overview of the evolution that wireless handheld technology has experienced in the last years. In this sense, a description of the evolution of wireless handheld devices, regulations, challenges in today’s smartphones, and handset characterization is reviewed. Finally, recent advances in antenna technology for wireless handheld or portable devices are presented.
Article
This paper represents the numerical analysis of Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) and temperature distribution within a real child head model exposed to mobile phone radiation at the frequency of f = 900 MHz. In this research the SAR and temperature distribution are obtained by numerical solutions of the equation of electromagnetic waves propagation and by bioheat equation, respectively, and are shown inside different biological tissues and organs during exposure to electromagnetic radiation from a mobile phone. As electromagnetic properties of tissues depend on the electromagnetic waves frequency, the value of SAR and temperature will be different for different tissues and organs. The maximum absorption of electromagnetic energy is in the surface layers of the model, whereby this value is greater than the maximum allowed value defined by standards. Furthermore, the increase in temperature is the highest in those biological tissues and organs that are closest to the source of radiation i.e. a mobile phone. Moving away from a mobile phone, the temperature decreases, but more slowly than the SAR values. In the analysis of the temperature rise resulting from tissues and organs heating due to the effects of electromagnetic fields on a child’s head, special attention will be given to the maximum temperature increase in the brain.
Article
With the rapid development of electronic technologies, the public concern about the potential health hazards induced by radiofrequency (RF) radiation has been grown. To investigate the effect of 1800MHz RF radiation emitted from mobile phone on the rat's brain, the present study was performed. Forty male rats were randomly divided into two equal groups; control and exposed group. The later one exposed to 1800MHz emitted from mobile phone with an SAR value of 0.6W/Kg for two hours/day for three months. The brain tissues were collected at the end of the experimental period and separated into hippocampus and cerebellum for subsequent biochemical, histological, immunohistochemical and electron microscopic investigations. The rats that were exposed to RF- radiation had a significant elevation in MDA content and a significant reduction in antioxidant parameters (glutathione, super oxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) in both regions. Degenerative changes were observed in the hippocampus pyramidal cells, dark cells and cerebellar Purkinje cells with vascular congestion. In addition a significant DNA fragmentation and over expression of cyclooxygenase-2 apoptotic gene was detected. Those results suggested that, direct chronic exposure to mobile phone caused severe biochemical and histopathological changes in the brain.
Article
In this paper, an application of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for the prediction of temperature distribution in a human brain equivalent liquid (BEL), resulting from exposure to electromagnetic radiation, is presented. In the first phase of the study, temperature distributions, resulting from different exposure conditions of electromagnetic (EM) fields, are experimentally determined. Since experimental determination of temperature distribution in each point of the BEL is time-consuming and hard to implement, ANFIS is employed to determine the distribution without new measurements. The use of ANFIS is found to be very useful in terms of the prediction of temperature distribution within the BEL after exposure to radiation. Numerical results show that the proposed method can be employed for the prediction of temperature distribution in a human BEL with high accuracy without requiring any experimental measurements.
Article
The aim of this paper is to investigate the effects of the distances between the human head and internal cellular device antenna on the specific absorption rate (SAR). This paper also analyzes the effects of inclination angles between user head and mobile terminal antenna on SAR values. The effects of the metal-glass casing of mobile phone on the SAR values were observed in the vicinity of the human head model. Moreover, the return losses were investigated in all cases to mark antenna performance. This analysis was performed by adopting finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method on Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio. The results indicate that by increasing the distance between the user head and antenna, SAR values are decreased. But the increase in inclination angle does not reduce SAR values in all cases. Additionally, this investigation provides some useful indication for future design of low SAR mobile terminal antenna. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Article
The increased use of microwaves raises concerns about its impact on health including cognitive function in which neurotransmitter system plays an important role. In this study, we focused on the serotonergic system and evaluated the long term effects of chronic microwave radiation on cognition and correlated items. Wistar rats were exposed or sham exposed to 2.856GHz microwaves with the average power density of 5, 10, 20 or 30mW/cm(2) respectively for 6minutes three times a week up to 6weeks. At different time points after the last exposure, spatial learning and memory function, morphology structure of hippocampus, electroencephalogram (EEG) and neurotransmitter content (amino acid and monoamine) of rats were tested. Above results raised our interest in serotonin system. Tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) and monoamine oxidase (MAO), two important rate-limiting enzymes in serotonin synthesis and metabolic process respectively, were detected. Expressions of serotonin receptors including 5-HT1A, 2A, 2C receptors were measured. We demonstrated that chronic exposure to microwave (2.856GHz, with the average power density of 5, 10, 20 and 30mW/cm(2)) could induce dose-dependent deficit of spatial learning and memory in rats accompanied with inhibition of brain electrical activity, the degeneration of hippocampus neurons, the disturbance of neurotransmitters, among which the increase of 5-HT occurred as the main long-term change that the decrease of its metabolism partly contributed to. Besides, the variations of 5-HT1AR and 5-HT2CR expressions were also indicated. The results suggested that in long-term way, chronic microwave exposure could induce cognitive deficit and 5-HT system may be involved in it. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Article
Objectives: The goals of this study were: (1) to obtain basic information about the effects of long-term use of mobile phones on cytological makeup of the hippocampus in rat brains (2) to evaluate the effects on antioxidant status, and (3) to evaluate the effects on cognitive behavior particularly on learning and memory. Methods: Rats (age 30 days, 120 ± 5 g) were exposed to 900 MHz radio waves by means of a mobile hand set for 4 hours per day for 15 days. Effects on anxiety, spatial learning, and memory were studied using the open field test, the elevated plus maze, the Morris water maze (MWM), and the classic maze test. Effects on brain antioxidant status were also studied. Cresyl violet staining was done to assess the neuronal damage. Result: A significant change in behavior, i.e., more anxiety and poor learning was shown by test animals as compared to controls and sham group. A significant change in the level of antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidants, and an increase in lipid peroxidation were observed in the test rats. Histological examination showed neurodegenerative cells in hippocampal sub regions and the cerebral cortex. Discussion: Thus our findings indicate extensive neurodegeneration on exposure to radio waves. Increased production of reactive oxygen species due to exhaustion of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and increased lipid peroxidation indicate extensive neurodegeneration in selective areas of CA1, CA3, DG, and the cerebral cortex. This extensive neuronal damage results in alterations in behavior related to memory and learning.
Article
This study presents a numerical analysis of specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature distributions in the realistic human head model exposed to mobile phone radiation at 900 MHz and 1800 MHz. In the realistic human head model, the effects of operating frequency and gap distance between the mobile phone and the human head on distributions of specific absorption rate and temperature profile within the human head are systematically investigated. This study focuses attention on each tissue in the human head in order to investigate the effects of mobile phone radiation on the human head. The SAR and the temperature distribution in various tissues in human head during exposed to mobile phone radiation, obtained by numerical solution of electromagnetic wave propagation and unsteady bioheat transfer equations, are presented. For both frequencies, the highest SAR values are obtained in the region of the skin near the antenna. It is found that the highest SAR values are 0.823 W/kg and 1.187 W/kg for the frequencies of 900 MHz and 1800 MHz, respectively. The SAR values obtained from this study are well below ICNIRP limit for all cases. In addition, it is found that the temperature distributions are not directly proportional to the local SAR values. Moreover, the experimental validation has been carried out by using the infrared camera in order to complement the simulation results.