To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.
MOOC stands for Massive Open Online Course and represents an instructional approach that permits hundreds of thousands of students to access online courses anywhere around the world and typically free of charge. There have been a number of stories in the popular press suggesting that MOOCs may revolutionize training and education, but evidence regarding the instructional effectiveness of MOOCs is primarily anecdotal and overarching statistics reveal that the vast majority of students drop out before completing these courses. We pose three questions that need to be answered about the use and effectiveness of MOOCs before MOOCs can be considered a credible and useful instructional approach: 1) Who enrolls in MOOCs and why do they enroll? 2) Are students self-aware and able to self-regulate their learning in MOOCs? 3) Are MOOCs effective and how can we maximize their effectiveness?
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.
... where hundreds of thousands of students across the globe can access an online course [7,8]. Typical characteristics of MOOCs are the courses having start and end dates, being free of charge and no limit on student enrollment . ...
... where hundreds of thousands of students across the globe can access an online course [7,8]. Typical characteristics of MOOCs are the courses having start and end dates, being free of charge and no limit on student enrollment . Some challenges to MOOCs are language barrier, access to internet and understanding the benefits of completing the course . ...
... Typical characteristics of MOOCs are the courses having start and end dates, being free of charge and no limit on student enrollment . Some challenges to MOOCs are language barrier, access to internet and understanding the benefits of completing the course . • Blogs are defined by Ref  as, "essentially online journals where an author publishes a series of chronological, updateable entries or posts on a topic, typically of personal interest to the author and often expressed in a strongly subjective voice, on which reader are invited to comment." ...
... Online education is becoming more and more popular due to the abundant education resources and convenience . Many researches are focusing on investigating the video of massive open online courses (MOOCs) to improve the education efficiency or predict the students' behaviors [3,7]. ...
... Overall environmental movement features: Recently, deep learning improves many computer vision tasks significantly. I3D is a novel deep feature that achieves good performance in activity recognition . We use pre-trained I3D models with ImageNet and Kinetics datasets to extract overall environmental movement features from the video segment. ...
This paper proposes a novel engagement intensity prediction approach, which is also applied in the EmotiW Challenge 2019 and resulted in good performance. The task is to predict the engagement level when a subject student is watching an educational video in diverse conditions and various environments. Assuming that the engagement intensity has a strong correlation with facial movements, upper-body posture movements and overall environmental movements in a time interval, we extract and incorporate these motion features into a deep regression model consisting of layers with a combination of LSTM, Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) and a Fully Connected Layer. In order to precisely and robustly predict the engagement level in a long video with various situations such as darkness and complex background, a multi-features engineering method is used to extract synchronized multi-model features in a period of time by considering both the short-term dependencies and long-term dependencies. Based on the well-processed features, we propose a strategy for maximizing validation accuracy to generate the best models covering all the model configurations. Furthermore, to avoid the overfitting problem ascribed to the extremely small database, we propose another strategy applying a single Bi-LSTM layer with only 16 units to minimize the overfitting, and splitting the engagement dataset (train + validation) with 5-fold cross validation (stratified k-fold) to train the conservative model. By ensembling the above models, our methods finally win the second place in the challenge with MSE of 0.06174 on the testing set.
... The MOOC stands for Massive Open Online Course and represents an instructional approach that provides students access to online courses from places anywhere around the world . Alhazzani  reveals that MOOCs have a significant direct impact on higher education as it improves education outcomes . ...
... However, the difficulties of monitoring the performance of MOOC is also of great concern as it requires high self-regulation and remains uncertain of students involvement via distancing education. Researchers find that good performance of MOOC requires concerns on students' engagement in the learning process as the vast majority of students may drop out before completing courses when the loose engagement undermining learning performance . ...
... . As an important type of e-leaning systems, MOOCs have been found to be an effective way for online learning [84,85]. Nowadays, many studies have focused on MOOCs evaluation through the use of different approaches and perspectives . ...
Computational intelligence approaches have proven to be effective in enhancing online learning systems. Although many studies have been conducted to reveal the learners’ satisfaction in online learning platforms, the use of machine learning in the analysis of big datasets for this aim has rarely been explored. In addition, although the analysis of online reviews on courses has been carried out in other fields, there are very few contributions in the area of online learning platforms. This study, therefore, aims to perform learner satisfaction analysis through the use of machine learning. We develop a new method using text mining and supervised learning techniques with the aid of the ensemble learning approach. A boosting approach, AdaBoost, is used in ANN for ensemble learning to improve its performance. We employ Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach, dimensionality reduction and Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) for textual data analysis. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used for data dimensionality reduction. We perform several experimental evaluations on the big datasets obtained from the online learning platforms. The accuracy and computation time of the proposed method are assessed on the obtained dataset. The method is compared with several machine learning approaches to show its effectiveness in big datasets analysis. The results showed that the method is effective in predicting learners’ satisfaction from online reviews. In addition, the proposed method outperform other classifiers, K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN), Decision Trees (DT), Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Naïve Bayes (NB), in case of accuracy. The results are discussed and research implications from different perspectives are provided for future developments of educational decision support systems.
... Online education is becoming increasingly popular due to the abundant education resources and the convenience of this way of learning . Many researchers are focusing on investigating the video of massive open online courses (MOOCs) to improve education efficiency or to predict the students' behaviors [4,9]. ...
This paper proposes an advanced multi-instance learning method with multi-features engineering and conservative optimization for engagement intensity prediction. It was applied to the EmotiW Challenge 2020  and the results demonstrated the proposed method's good performance. The task is to predict the engagement level when a subject-student is watching an educational video under a range of conditions and in various environments. As engagement intensity has a strong correlation with facial movements, upper-body posture movements and overall environmental movements in a given time interval, we extract and incorporate these motion features into a deep regression model consisting of layers with a combination of long short-term memory(LSTM), gated recurrent unit (GRU) and a fully connected layer. In order to precisely and robustly predict the engagement level in a long video with various situations such as darkness and complex backgrounds, a multi-features engineering function is used to extract synchronized multi-model features in a given period of time by considering both short-term and long-term dependencies. Based on these well-processed engineered multi-features, in the 1st training stage, we train and generate the best models covering all the model configurations to maximize validation accuracy. Furthermore, in the 2nd training stage, to avoid the overfitting problem attributable to the extremely small engagement dataset, we conduct conservative optimization by applying a single Bi-LSTM layer with only 16 units to minimize the overfitting, and split the engagement dataset (train + validation) with 5-fold cross validation (stratified k-fold) to train a conservative model. The proposed method, by using decision-level ensemble for the two training stages' models, finally win the second place in the challenge (MSE: 0.061110 on the testing set).
... Besides the controlled e-learning systems, organizations have been using environments such as social media (Qi and Chau 2016), massive open online courses (MOOCs) (Weinhardt and Sitzmann 2018) and other web-based environments to reinforce their organizational learning potential. These systems have been utilized through different types of technology (e.g., desktop applications, mobile) that leverage the various capabilities offered (e.g., social learning, VR, collaborative systems, smart and intelligent support) to reinforce the learning and knowledge flow potential of the organization. ...
E-learning systems are receiving ever increasing attention in academia, business and public administration. Major crises, like the pandemic, highlight the tremendous importance of the appropriate development of e-learning systems and its adoption and processes in organizations. Managers and employees who need efficient forms of training and learning flow within organizations do not have to gather in one place at the same time or to travel far away to attend courses. Contemporary affordances of e-learning systems allow users to perform different jobs or tasks for training courses according to their own scheduling, as well as to collaborate and share knowledge and experiences that result in rich learning flows within organizations. The purpose of this article is to provide a systematic review of empirical studies at the intersection of e-learning and organizational learning in order to summarize the current findings and guide future research. Forty-seven peer-reviewed articles were collected from a systematic literature search and analyzed based on a categorization of their main elements. This survey identifies five major directions of the research on the confluence of e-learning and organizational learning during the last decade. Future research should leverage big data produced from the platforms and investigate how the incorporation of advanced learning technologies (e.g., learning analytics, personalized learning) can help increase organizational value.
... However, in this study, we also identified that there are still challenges to be faced, especially in the development of the SDGs, and that we still need more answers through research on how to mainstream MOOCs' effectiveness from this perspective. Weinhardt and Sitzmann  are committed to a future of applied research that generates a corpus of important knowledge related to the effectiveness of instruction in MOOCs. Taking our results into account, we are also committed to this, especially today, when societies worldwide face great educational and sustainable development challenges in times of pandemic. ...
Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs) offer the opportunity to implement a quality education timetable for those who lack the means due to economic, travel, or temporary availability limitations. Because of this, some non-governmental development organizations (NGOs), working in Latin American countries, are trying to implement this type of educational model within their educational projects. This article presents a case study on the development of a MOOC within the framework of international development cooperation carried out by an NGO and the National Autonomous University of Nicaragua. The research aims to analyze the opportunities and challenges of free, open, online teaching as a tool for achieving Sustainable Development Goal 4, and explore new educational possibilities to train people and contribute to the development of the communities in which they live. From a qualitative approach, grounded theory has been used as a holistic methodology for collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data, allowing the generation of theory in a systematic way. The most effective pedagogical models are evidenced to achieve the learning objectives and observe the challenges to be faced in order to achieve the effectiveness of MOOCs in this context. In conclusion, more applied research is needed to address the challenges that today’s societies, in times of pandemic, are facing at an educational and sustainability level.
... One of the major reasons for students to enroll in MOOCs is to enhance their work-related skills . Through MOOCs, many students report learning new skills for their current jobs, finding new jobs, or otherwise reporting positive benefits for their careers . ...
Massive open online courses (MOOCs) provide anyone with an Internet connection easy access to a wealth of learning and computer training opportunities. Optics and photonics devices are frequently used in numerous academic fields and industries. Therefore, a MOOC approach to optics education would be beneficial to many students, researchers, and professionals all over the world, as this would empower personal and professional development with global reach. As part of online education, students can learn professional computer modeling tools and use them for completing course assignments. In this paper, several optical design packages are reviewed and evaluated for their applicability to MOOC optics education in terms of availability, functionality, and wealth of training resources. An example of an optics MOOC case‐study is also presented.
... Otherwise, they were allowed to reenrol in the MOOC to continue in a new cohort with new start and end dates. Therefore, the learning design described (e.g., access to all course items with little supervision and learners have control of when to learn and how to learn) implied that learning in MOOCs involved learners taking control of their learning and to a large extent by self-regulating their learning (Maldonado-Mahauad, Pérez-Sanagustín, Kizilcec, Morales, & Munoz-Gama, 2018;Weinhardt & Sitzmann, 2019). ...
The limited instructional support in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) inherently demands learners to self-regulate their learning. MOOC research shows that learners are more successful when they engage in self-regulated learning (SRL) behaviors such as planning what to study and reviewing study materials. However, many learners struggle with SRL. In this study, we examined the effect of two types of SRL prompts (i.e., questions or a combination of questions and recommendations) on SRL activities, course engagement, and performance in MOOCs. Learners either received questions supporting SRL, questions supporting SRL followed by recommendations, or neither questions supporting SRL nor recommendations. Log data was used to examine learners’ behavior in the MOOCs. Results showed the SRL prompts, in general, are effective in enhancing SRL-related activities and course engagement. However, the effectiveness of the SRL prompts may be influenced by the complexity of the MOOCs. The current study adds to the field of SRL by examining prompting as an approach to enhance SRL in MOOCs.
... Courses targeting work-related skills have the potential for higher enrollment and completion rate [15,16]. Skill training can be defined as a proposal for the development of a series of discrete elements that build complex behavior and that leads or helps build a relationship between the health professional and patients by addressing when and how to use certain communication strategies . ...
Interpersonal and technical skills are required for the care of people living with substance use disorders. Considering the applicability and usability of online courses as continuing professional education initiatives, this study aimed to describe the content design process of an introductory-level healthcare-centered Massive Open Online Course (MOOC).
The content of the course was informed through needs assessment, by using three sources: (a) narrative literature review, (b) Delphi health experts panel consensus, and (c) focus groups conducted with people living with substance use disorders. The data from the empirical research phases were analyzed through qualitative Thematic Analysis.
The product of this research project is the introductory-level Massive Open Online Course "Healthcare: Developing Relational Skills for the Assistance of People Living with Substance Use Disorders" which approaches health communication and empathetic relational professional skills as a means of reducing stigmatization of people living with substance use disorders.
Diverse strategies for designing distance education initiatives have to consider different views on the subject being approached in such courses. The product presented in this paper has the potential to be an educational tool for topics traditionally not addressed in Brazilian continuing education and can be used as a model to the design of online courses directed to the development of work-related skills for the healthcare professions.
... Over the last few years, the debate about online learning in higher education has intensified (Noroozi et al., 2016, particularly in response to the global Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) (O'Connor, 2014). MOOCs are the state-of-the-art form of ICT use in education that permits large numbers of learners to access online courses (Jung & Lee, 2018;Weinhardt & Sitzmann, 2019). MOOCs have increased in popularity in recent years (Foley et al., 2019) with the core purpose of providing opportunities for public instruction and free access to the academic training of all instruction-seeking applicants (Yuan & Powell, 2013). ...
This study investigates the effects of a developed MOOC based on Merrill’s principles of instruction on participants’ learning outcomes and satisfaction. A pre-test-post-test with a control group design was used in this study. In total, 335 participants were assigned into experimental (using Merrill’s principles of instruction) and control group (using the conventional method). However, 291 subjects (143 participants from the experimental and 148 participants from the control group condition) remained in the course up to the last session, and only 200 participants (100 participants per each condition) filled in the surveys. The results were in favour of participants in the experimental condition both in terms of learning and satisfaction compared to the participants in the control group condition. By implementing Merrill’s principles of instruction in designing MOOCs and actively engaging participants in a problem-centred learning process, their learning outcomes and satisfaction can be further improved.
... Although the websites offering online courses have been around for a long time, they have recently gained attention. Many learners choose online courses to improve their knowledge instead of traditional training centres [5,6]. Online learning is a useful method to help learners gain their knowledge quickly and conveniently, regardless of space and time . ...
Online learning is a useful method to help learners gain knowledge quickly and conveniently, regardless of space and time. As the Covid-19 pandemic is spreading and showing no signs of stopping, online learning has played an even more important role, especially when governments' social isolation order is fully applied. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), which are more and more popular worldwide, bring many benefits to the learner for improving skills and knowledge. The Uses & Gratification Theory (U&G theory) is one theory that can discover the relationship between user-centric motivation and user attitude when they use the media. Based on the Uses & Gratification theory, this study aimed to analyze the relationship between the learner's motivation and attitude when taking part in an online course. The quantitative research model was applied through a survey of 316 respondents. The result pointed out that motivational factors affect Perceived Enjoyment in online courses on the website, including Convenience, Entertainment, Socialising, and Experience Sharing. Some managerial implications were proposed.
... Las nuevas formas de currículo, los nuevos métodos de enseñanza, las formas de organización y los medios educativos son temas centrales en la mayoría de debates contemporáneos sobre la innovación educativa (Whiteside, 2019). Algunas tendencias que se consolidan en la educación superior refieren a: los ecosistemas tecnológicos (Llorens, molina, Compañ & Satorre, 2014), la analítica académica (Baepler & murdoch, 2010) y del aprendizaje (Gómez-Aguilar, Hernández-García, García-Peñalvo & Therón, 2015), la personalización del aprendizaje (Lerís, Vea y Velamazán, 2015), los Massive Open Online Courses (mOOC) (Weinhardt & Sitzmann, 2019), la gamificación (Araya, Arias, Bottan & Cristia, 2019), las prácticas virtuales (Blaine, 2019) y el desarrollo del pensamiento computacional (Cheung & Abelson, 2019). ...
Universities must adapt and anticipate emerging challenges to maintain their role in society. This article aims to propose an educational prospective framework that facilitates the analysis of alternative futures in higher education institutions. A normative prospective methodology is used, semi-structured interviews with experts are applied, as the basis for a morphological analysis that guides the definition of future scenarios. The results allow characterizing the strategic panorama of higher education in Colombia and the variables with the greatest influence on institutional accreditation processes are identified; specifically, the case of the University Institution of the National Sports School (Valle del Cauca, Colombia) is analyzed. The scenarios of inertial future, incremental development, structural change and setback are formulated, which lead to the elaboration of strategic recommendations for the best scenario. It is concluded that the proposed educational prospective analysis integrates institutional, internationalization, science, technology and innovation aspects and social projection for the construction of alternative future scenarios useful for strategic decision-making in higher education institutions.
... As previously stated, Bannier (2016) contends that MOOCs have reached their peak. Weinhardt and Sitzmann (2019) question what we know about MOOC delivery, their enrollment, the effectiveness of MOOCs on the learner and to the content area, their role in human resource development, and the benefits MOOCs can have. Government organizations, higher education institutions, and commercial organizations continue to offer MOOCs in an effort to train and educate their workforce, the general public, and to expand available educational opportunities beyond tuition-paying university students. ...
The purpose of this study is to identify the pedagogical strategies used for
instruction and assessment in leadership-oriented MOOCs and gain a more refined
understanding of the current state of MOOCs in leadership education. The study also
seeks to fill the gaps in the body of knowledge surrounding leadership MOOCs. Massive
Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are a form of distance education course used across
content areas. They have been celebrated as revolutionizing the way learners access
education and the way colleges and universities could expand the notion of education on
a global scale beyond their traditional campuses. The use of MOOCs in leadership
education attracts students for the purposes of education and professional development.
This content analysis engages the current state of leadership MOOCs through a review of
the literature, a description of the methodology, and presents the results and discussion that emerge. This study examines 96 leadership MOOCs across the MOOC platforms of
Coursera, EdX, FutureLearn, Canvas.net, and Standford Online through a content
analysis research framework. The study concludes with a discussion of leadership MOOC
pedagogy and position as a vibrant and flexible delivery method for leadership education
and professional development on a global scale.
... As previously stated, Bannier (2016) contends that MOOCs have reached their peak. Weinhardt and Sitzmann (2019) question what we know about MOOC delivery, their enrollment, the effectiveness of MOOCs on the learner and to the content area, their role in human resource development, and the benefits MOOCs can have. Government organizations, higher education institutions, and commercial organizations continue to offer MOOCs in an effort to train and educate their workforce, the general public, and to expand available educational opportunities beyond tuition-paying university students. ...
The purpose of this study is to identify the pedagogical strategies used for instruction and assessment in leadership-oriented MOOCs and gain a more refined understanding of the current state of MOOCs in leadership education. The study also seeks to fill the gaps in the body of knowledge surrounding leadership MOOCs. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are a form of distance education course used across content areas. They have been celebrated as revolutionizing the way learners access education and the way colleges and universities could expand the notion of education on a global scale beyond their traditional campuses. The use of MOOCs in leadership education attracts students for the purposes of education and professional development. This content analysis engages the current state of leadership MOOCs through a review of the literature, a description of the methodology, and presents the results and discussion that emerge. This study examines 96 leadership MOOCs across the MOOC platforms of Coursera, EdX, FutureLearn, Canvas.net, and Standford Online through a content analysis research framework. The study concludes with a discussion of leadership MOOC pedagogy and position as a vibrant and flexible delivery method for leadership education and professional development on a global scale. Advisor: L. J. McElravy
... Similar efforts have been carried out in other institutions as well (Martin-Villalba et al., 2008;Srinivasana et al., 2003). The technically enhanced nature of a course based on a process simulation can potentially be scaled to accommodate large cohorts of students (Lim, 2017), while there is also the potential to scale these types of courses to massive open online courses (MOOC) that many institutions are moving towards (Brahimi and Sarirete, 2015;Weinhardt and Sitzmann, 2019). ...
The domains of process design, operations and control are highly interdependent and thus affect operational efficiency and robustness of industrial facilities. Despite this, they are mostly kept in isolation from each other even in commercial projects, which is probably due to the perceived increase in complexity and aligned with prior experience from university education. Process design covers mostly the steady state, whereas process control is generally taught with a strong focus on classical control theory, which can be difficult to apply in industry.
A reason for not combining the three domains of process design, operations and control is the lack of simple, student friendly teaching aids that can be used within time constraints of (under-)graduate teaching. The Tennessee Eastman Process (TEP) challenge, introduced in the early 90′s, originally as a process control benchmark simulation, can be used as a teaching aid to impart practical understanding of process design, dynamics and control to students.
To this end, we will discuss the unique properties of the TEP, which make it an excellent tool to introduce process dynamics and control while reinforcing understanding of fundamentals, unit operations and the complexities and consequences of combining unit operations. We will then identify key developments that are needed to make the TEP a useful tool for teaching and discuss developments that have been carried out by the authors in this respect. Subsequently, it is shown how the modified model creates learning opportunities with respect to elementary as well as advanced control techniques and design assessments. The paper concludes with an outline of how this tool is currently used in a process design course with a strong emphasis on dynamics and control and in a classical undergraduate course on process control.
... They are directly linked to usage, user satisfaction, along and individual or organizational performance resulting from participation. Lee (2018) even believes that mass open online courses can capture students' learning behaviors in detail without interrupting their learning processes. Weinhardt & Sitzmann (2020), state that MOOCs represent an educational approach that allows hundreds of thousands of students to access online courses anywhere in the world and usually for free, and there are a number of stories that suggest that they can revolutionize training and education. For Jung & Lee (2018), massive open online courses represent a way to expand educational opportunities and improve the quality of instruction and learning. ...
The MOOCs is the century of technological transformations representing a renewal in terms of platforms and educational methodologies through a computer. The current social requirements demand an education that adapts to the needs of people in terms of availability, time, and even lifestyle. These arise as a response to the digital vortex as a training resource in which a series of tools that promote their empowerment is implicit. The objective of this study is to carry out a bibliographic review of the last five years to establish the central interference of the MOOCs, their perspectives, and implications in the process of formation and knowledge. This study is developed in horizons marked by technological transformations and precisely for this reason, nothing is definitive, since digital variations arise every second, thus constituting a limitation due to its speed. It is concluded that the MOOCs allows promoting alternative learning, able to adapt to the users' needs, with some specific thematic axes that include gamification aspects that will enable to dynamize and, therefore to optimize their development.
... Berdasarkan karakteristik dari CMOOC dan xMOOC tersebut, peluang pembelajaran menggunakan MOOC sangat terbuka lebar dalam upaya meningkatkan kualitas pembelajaran dengan memberikan akses pengetahuan dan pengalaman kepada pembelajar yang dengan mudah mengakses sumber belajar dengan didukung oleh fitur teknologi seperti interaksi, kolaborasi, refleksi diri dan sistem evaluasi (Weinhardt & Sitzmann, 2019). Alat-alat yang digunakan dalam literatur MOOC diklasifikasikan dalam tiga kategori yaitu alat kolaborasi, penilaian, dan analitik. ...
This article discusses the learning of Islamic Religious Education (PAI) in the digital era, the opportunities and challenges of MOOC through the Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) media associated with the concept of independent learning. The research method used a qualitative descriptive approach. Through the independent learning approach, learners explore knowledge and information independently and gain knowledge from learning experiences. The availability of course themes (course designs) that suit learners in the MOOC program greatly determines the success of increasing the quality of learning, especially regarding Islamic Religious Education (PAI) learning. Until now there has been no Islamic Religious College that has developed the MOOC on PAI which can be used collectively. The final result of this article is a research on the opportunities for developing adaptive MOOCs in Islamic higher education institutions, especially the PAI study program which is harmonized with the application of learning. Through the adaptive MOOC, it is hoped that the strengthening of PAI learning outcomes from the start in the form of materials can become characters and values through monitoring and assessment props using MOOC technology. AbstrakArtikel ini membahas pembelajaran Pendidikan Agama Islam (PAI) di era digital, peluang dan tantangan memanfaatkan media Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) adaptif diselaraskan dengan kurikulum merdeka belajar. Metode penelitian menggunakan pendekatan deskriptif kualitatif. Melalui pendekatan merdeka belajar, pembelajar mengeksplorasi pengetahuan dan informasi secara mandiri dan memperoleh pengetahuan dari pengalaman belajar. Ketersediaan tema kursus (course design) yang sesuai dengan pembelajar dalam MOOC sangat menentukan keberhasilan peningkatan kualitas pembelajaran khususnya tentang Pendidikan Agama Islam (PAI). Penggunaan media pembelajaran MOOC tentang PAI yang digunakan secara bersama kolaboratif antar perguruan tinggi akan memberikan dampak signifikan dalam memajukan pendidikan Islam di Indonesia. Hasil akhir dari artikel ini adalah sebuah pemikiran memanfaatkan peluang media pembelajaran MOOC yang disusun adaptif di Perguruan Tinggi Agama Islam diselaraskan dengan kurikulum merdeka belajar. Melalui konstruksi MOOC adaptif sesuai karakteristik Perguruan Tinggi Agama Islam mampu memberikan solusi dalam penguatan capaian pembelajaran khususnya ranah sikap dan tata nilai.
... A la luz de este constructo, los estudios de sobre el aprendizaje con otros individuos ha tenido diferentes énfasis. Por ejemplo, se han examinado las interacciones asincrónicas y sincrónicas entre estudiantes que aprenden colaborativamente en la plataforma Blackboard (Suárez Guerrero, 2010), en modalidades mixtas o B-learning (Han y Ellis, 2019), en modalidades de aprendizaje en cursos masivos y abiertos (MOOCS, por sus siglas en inglés) (Weinhardt y Sitzmann, 2019). Algunos de esos trabajos han analizado los procesos de construcción y negociación compartida de conocimiento, mediante las interacciones escritas en foros (Castellanos Ramírez y Niño (2018). ...
introduction. The study of collaborative learning mediated by the Internet became popular in the 1990s when the use of technological mediations, supported by the Internet, showed that learning could be possible by collaborating with the computer’s mediation. Later developments reviewed how technologies favored learning processes and how collaboration could be incorporated into virtual mode education. Objective. To establish unexplored study lines that can contribute to further works on collaborative learning in higher education processes mediated through the Internet. Analysis. It was conducted on 225 documents published in journals indexed in SCOPUS between 1995 and 2018. The use of the bibliometrix package in the R environment help to analyze the behavior of the publications in the indicated time frame, the areas of knowledge in which more is published about the topic, the most relevant documents due to their number of citations, and the thematic emphasis assumed in the studies analyzed; the analysis was carried out through networks of co-occurrence of key terms defined by the authors. Results. The results reflect dispersion in the research on the subject, presumably due to the tendency to develop isolated studies by disciplines, mostly oriented to analyzing the effectiveness of technological tools and environments to favor learning, on individual results but not group ones. Conclusions. Collaborative learning mediated through the Internet requires to be studied in interdisciplinary studies. It also needs to be structured, designed, and taught in higher education programs since technological tools are the support of the collaborative learning process, not the end of the educational process.
... Program-specific factors comprise the design of and support provided on the platform including the MOOCs offered (Reinhardt et al., 2020). The use of online offerings and especially of MOOCs as access to higher education comes with technological prerequisites such as a functioning Internet connection Weinhardt & Sitzmann, 2019), which were considered as a third category of reasons for dropping out. ...
This book discusses digital learning opportunities in higher education for refugees with different educational, social, cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Based on findings from practical studies and research projects from several countries, the book highlights the numerous challenges when it comes to the successful integration of refugees into higher education. These challenges arise at both the individual and the institutional level. The contributions included in this book show how these challenges can be effectively met using digital teaching-learning platforms. The work thus offers a comprehensive insight into the opportunities online-based learning platforms offer regarding the successful integration of refugees into higher education
Overall, the research presented in this volume is relevant for political stakeholders, university practitioners in the field of migration research, university research, and online and digital learning.
... These courses deliver 80% or more of their content via the internet (Allen et al., 2016;Simonson & Smaldino, 2014) and generally do not require face-to-face meetings (Allen et al., 2016;Bolliger & Erichsen, 2013). Moreover, other types of online courses such as MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) are free, and anyone with an internet connection can enroll in them (Weinhardt & Sitzmann, 2019). ...
Online courses have become widespread in higher education. Yet, despite their prevalence, they may not suit all learners. Personality influences learner satisfaction and therefore affects learning experience. This study explores the relation between personality traits (using Costa & McCare's Big-Five model) and student satisfaction with various of learning activities offered in online courses, called Techno-Pedagogical Learning Solutions (TPLS). The tested TPLS were discussion groups, digital books, online assignments, surveys/polls and media. Questionnaires were used to measure personality types and satisfaction of 108 university students enrolled in a credited online academic course. Significant correlations were found between all five personality traits and satisfaction with several TPLS. Cluster analysis method was applied to identify learners with similar personality traits. Four groups were formed and group’s satisfaction score was measured. It was found that learners assigned to the "neurotic" group exhibited low satisfaction with all TPLS, contrary to learners assigned to the "non-neurotic" group. The findings clearly indicate that personality plays a significant role in online learner satisfaction. Thus, personality traits should be considered when designing learning activities for online courses. Such personality-based personalization may ensure that no learner is left behind, regardless of his\ her attitude toward online learning.
... Through the Internet, students can achieve low input and high output, acquire long-lasting skills, and have a higher sense of learning achievement, satisfaction, and other better subjective experiences (Bin, 2014). The existing research results show the phenomena of low online learning performance, such as low course completion rate, low satisfaction, high dropout rate, and poor learning effect (Deng & Benckendorff, 2017;Traci, 2018). For instance, Jordan (2014) analyzed 39 MOOC courses and found that the average completion rate was 6.5%. ...
Learning performance is an important indicator of online learning, is related to the quality of online education and the performance of students. Previous studies have found that learners’ learning performance is related to learning motivation and academic emotion, but the role of non-intellectual factors such as academic emotion has received less attention in empirical research. In order to make up for this gap, this study explored the mediating effect of positive academic emotions on college students’ online learning motivation and online learning performance, as well as the differences in mediating effects under different learning methods (i.e., online learning and offline learning). The data comes from 1088 college students who participate in online courses and offline courses in China. This study adopts correlation analysis and multiple mediation analysis to analyze the intermediary effect of online and offline students and multi-group comparisons. The results showed that the (1) online learning motivation is positively affecting online learning performance and positive academic emotions, and positive academic emotions are related to online learning performance. There is also a positive correlation between the dimensions of the three; (2) positive academic emotions part of the intermediary role between college students’ online learning motivation and online learning performance; (3) the intermediary effect of positive academic emotions in offline learning is significantly greater than that of online learning. This study is not only conducive to understanding academic emotions, learning motives and learning performance, but also provides important enlightenment online learning performance management in promoting open curriculum construction.
... Applications (Learning Management System) such as google classroom have been widely used in Indonesia, the LMS google classroom application is here as support for educators who aim to improve the quality of online courses, but also as a support for students to facilitate their learning.   Syntax Online Application Service-Based Courses and Training Learning Management System (LMS) is as follows: (a) pre-learning, and Learning Management System (LMS) to Improve Student Competencies (b) presentation of material, (c) discussion; (d) assignment (e) and evaluation.  ...
... is is the probability algorithm that the platform of engineering professional online education courses  is successfully accessed by college teachers and students. e functions of the engineering professional online education platform are mainly divided into two parts, one is the client of the online education platform, and the other is the backstage management of the online education platform. ...
The problems existing in the online education courses of engineering majors in colleges and universities are studied, and the online education platform under the background of engineering certification is designed and researched. Artificial intelligence (AI) technology and wireless network technology are used in the in-depth study of online education courses. In terms of AI, the storage of data is specifically divided into three levels, namely, the source layer (operational data layer), the historical storage layer, and the data model layer. Data analysis includes the total number of data, spatial scope, and period, etc. The results show that the overall response time of the designed platform to the operation of university teachers and students is controlled within 3 s. The test results of two online education platforms show that the performance of the designed online education platform is relatively stable. It provides hardware support for online curriculum reform. In addition, in terms of the platform test pass rate, after many tests, the online education platform security test pass rate is above 98%. In the end, these conclusions are drawn: AI technology and wireless network technology can effectively improve the performance of online education platforms. Meanwhile, this can also further improve the learning efficiency of online education courses for college engineering students.
... Program-specific factors comprise the design of and support provided on the platform including the MOOCs offered (Reinhardt et al., 2020). The use of online offerings and especially of MOOCs as access to higher education comes with technological prerequisites such as a functioning Internet connection Weinhardt & Sitzmann, 2019), which were considered as a third category of reasons for dropping out. ...
In view of the significantly increasing number of individuals around the world who are forced to flee their country of origin, research discussions about integrating refugees into education are gaining relevance. A central research area is their entry into and study success in higher education, focusing on the associated challenges this learner group faces. Though the results of studies dealing with this topic often overlap, they usually focus on individual sub-areas and set specific thematic priorities. As a result, certain sub-areas such as administrative challenges are examined far more frequently than others. In this literature review, data from 14 English-language studies published between 2000 and 2018 were evaluated and systematically analyzed. Based on this analysis, the data were categorized and clustered in the following categories: systemic or structural challenges, personal factors, experiences of the learner group in higher education, and incentives to study that motivate this student group to study despite adversities.
... With delivery continuing to accelerate through the COVID-19 pandemic, it is timely to consider the challenges that faculty members have been encountering when dealing with MOOCs, given their role as front-line teachers (Annaraud & Singh, 2017). University leaders have had various motives for developing MOOCs (Weinhardt & Sitzmann, 2019). These include a desire to enhance institutional reputation, recruit prospective students, become immersed within a professional community, develop business models to support future course developments, and attract donors (Annaraud & Singh, 2017). ...
This study explores the negative disposition of many hospitality higher education faculty toward MOOCs, an increasingly prominent delivery mode in pedagogical discourse which potentially enriches student learning. Such enrichment is particularly welcome in the case of hospitality because of its diverse stakeholders and student learning needs. The researchers conducted an in-depth and qualitative exploration with faculty members in mainland China. They combined the Diffusion of Innovation (DOI) approach and theory of motivation to propose five dimensions that account for groupings of resistance to deploying MOOCs. These are attributes and complexities, perceived incompatibility, unsuitability for trial, and lack of observational capacity. The study contributes to knowledge by examining the perspectives of faculty who have the capacity to constrain the deployment of MOOCs. The authors suggest that faculty members should be encouraged to embrace MOOCs as an innovative medium for learning and teaching.
This monograph reports on the strategic and operational roles of learning and development (L&D) professionals in Irish, UK European and US organisations including multinational corporations, small to medium enterprises, the public sector and not for profit organisations. This paper aims to investigate the contextual factors influencing L&D roles in organisations, the strategic and operational roles that L&D professionals play in organisations, the competencies and career trajectories of L&D professionals, the perceptions of multiple internal stakeholders of the effectiveness of L&D roles and the relationships between context, L&D roles, competencies/expertise and perceived organisational effectiveness.
The study findings are based on the use of multiple methods. The authors gathered data from executives, senior managers, line managers, employee and L&D professionals using multiple methods: a survey ( n = 440), Delphi study ( n = 125) and semi-structured interviews ( n = 30).
The analysis revealed that L&D professionals increasingly respond to a multiplicity of external and internal contextual influences and internal stakeholders perceived the effectiveness of L&D professionals differently with significant gaps in perceptions of what L&D contributes to organisational effectiveness. L&D professionals perform both strategic and operational roles in organisations and they progress through four career levels. Each L&D role and career level requires a distinct and unique set of foundational competencies and L&D expertise. The authors found that different contextual predictors were important in explaining the perceived effectiveness of L&D roles and the importance attached to different foundational competencies and areas of L&D expertise.
This is one of the few studies to have investigated the L&D professional role in organisations from the perspective of multiple stakeholders using multiple research methods.
Higher educational institutions (HEIs) are going through a process of structural transformation in which policies based on sound management are of growing importance. A process of change observed when the student had become a client, HEIs desire being at the top of international rankings, impulse relations with organizations outside the HEI to search new opportunities focused on socioeconomic change, and the HEI strives to achieve continuous improvement. Quality management has a fundamental role to play in this transformation process. The objective of this chapter is to reason about the application of the eight quality management principles into HEIs.
Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has increased the importance of Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) instigating students to study from their homes. Every day a tremendous amount of data is generated when students interact with VLEs to perform different activities and access learning material. To make the generated data useful, it must be processed and managed by the proper machine learning (ML) algorithm. ML algorithms’ applications are many folds with Education Data Mining (EDM) and Learning Analytics (LA) as their major fields. ML algorithms are commonly used to process raw data to discover hidden patterns and construct a model to make future predictions, such as predicting students’ performance, dropouts, engagement, etc . However, in VLE, it is important to select the right and most applicable ML algorithm to give the best performance results. In this study, we aim to improve those ML and DL algorithms’ performance that give an inferior performance in terms of performance, accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 score. Several ML algorithms were applied on Open University Learning Analytics (OULA) dataset to reveal which one offers the best results in terms of performance, accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 score. Two popular ML algorithms called Decision Tree (DT) and Feed-Forward Neural Network (FFNN) provided unsatisfactory results. They were selected and experimented with various techniques such as grid search cross-validation, adaptive boosting, extreme gradient boosting, early stopping, feature engineering, and dropping inactive neurons to improve their performance scores. Moreover, we also determined the feature weights/importance in predicting the students’ study performance, leading to the design and development of the adaptive learning system. The ML techniques and the methods used in this research study can be used by instructors/administrators to optimize learning content and provide informed guidance to students, thus improving their learning experience and making it exciting and adaptive.
Employers are increasingly making investments in formal education in order to impart explicit knowledge to employees. However, employers rarely match the explicit knowledge sought with the delivery platforms available in formal education when making such investments. Due to inconclusive prior validation of such a match, this study explores the association between three explicit knowledge characteristics (conceptual, applied, and contextual), three delivery platforms (face-to-face, video-based, and blended), and learners’ reactions to video-based versus traditional instructor-led face-to-face lectures. Quantitative analysis of learners’ assessment data and qualitative content analysis of learners’ reactions from a survey of learning conditions revealed conclusive matches. The face-to-face delivery platform was salient for conceptual and applied explicit knowledge characteristics and its engaging, informative quality, but was faulted for being unreviewable. Technology-enabled video-based and blended were salient for the explicit knowledge characteristic that required review for contextualization, but were tempered by video-viewing fatigue due to loss of motivation over time.
Constantly high numbers of refugees, particularly among young individuals, require effective approaches to providing this group with access to higher education. Findings from studies with refugees and comparison groups, such as migrants or international students, indicate that refugees are characterized by specific factors that distinguish them and their educational challenges from other student groups. In the tertiary sector, attempts are being made to support refugees’ access to higher education through online study platforms. However, there are hardly any findings on how effective these platforms are, nor what requirements they have to meet to effectively address the needs of the target group. The SUCCESS project, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, investigated the effectiveness of the digital study platform Kiron Open Higher Education over the course of three years. The central findings are presented and discussed in this article.
Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have gained traction as resources for professional development. This article presents the method that we used to evaluate a professional development MOOC for postdoctoral trainees that was created by a university consortium in the US. Most approaches to evaluating MOOCs focus on analysis of participation, outcomes from course assignments, self-reported learning outcomes, course completion and user pathways through the online content or clickstream data. Few published evaluations describe in detail how learning happens within online courses and the anticipated medium and longer term cognitive and behavioral outcomes on participants. This work aims to guide those who are designing, implementing and evaluating MOOCs through applying theories of change to focus evaluation on the process of learning. This approach can be used as a complement to traditional approaches for evaluating MOOCs. We described how we worked with the MOOC team building the content to develop a theory of change for each module (or lesson) within the MOOC and used the theory of change to guide evaluation of short and medium term participant cognitive, affective and attitudinal, and behavioral outcomes. Finally, we share lessons learned and suggestions for implementing theories of change in both the design and evaluation phases of MOOC development.
The purpose of the study was addressing the challenge of integrating and managing complex technology-oriented advancements regarding the developing Internet of Things and in the daily lives of people. The research question was: How does digital transformation implemented through Unified Communication and Collaboration (UC&C) technologies impact productivity and innovation within a global automotive organization? A framework for the implementation of UC&C was developed and implemented in one of the world’s largest automotive organizations. Following development and implementation of the framework, qualitative and quantitative research were conducted, establishing observational and metric driven data support analysis. A critical realist interpretation of the authoritative research results suggested that digitally transformed UC&C technologies enhance employees’ work practices. The study concluded that transformation delivered via a digital framework such as UC&C technologies can impact productivity and create opportunities for driving innovation within a global automotive organization.
Geospatial information plays an important role in managing location dependent pandemic situations across different communities and domains. Geospatial information and technologies are particularly critical to strengthening urban and rural resilience, where economic, agricultural, and various social sectors all intersect. Examining the United Nations' SDGs from a geospatial lens will ensure that the challenges are addressed for all populations in different locations. This book, with worldwide contributions focused on COVID-19 pandemic, provides interdisciplinary analysis and multi-sectoral expertise on the use of geospatial information and location intelligence to support community resilience and authorities to manage pandemics.
The purpose of this research is to investigate the factors affecting the Behavioral Intention (BI) to use Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) in Thailand. The study adopted the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) Model with an extension to include two variables of Perceived Autonomy (PA) and Absorptive Capacity (AC). The study has also investigated the moderating effects of Culture (CUL) on the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. The study was conducted using primary data collected from 490 respondents, who were university students and intended to use MOOCs. The study used structural equation modelling (SEM) to evaluate the relationship between study variables in AMOS 26. The findings of the study indicated that Perceived Autonomy (PA) was found to have a positive and significant effect on Behavioral intention to use MOOCs (BI); Facilitating Conditions (FCS) has a positive and significant effect on Behavioral intention to use MOOCs (BI). Absorptive capacity (AC) has a positive and significant effect on Behavioral intention to use MOOCs (BI); Social Influence (SI) has a positive and significant effect on Behavioral intention to use MOOCs (BI). However, the results indicated that Performance Expectancy (PE) and Effort Expectancy (EE) have a non-significant effect on BI. Additionally, Perceived Autonomy has a positive and significant effect on Performance Expectancy and Effort Expectancy. The results of interaction between Culture and independent variables (PE, EE, SI, FC, AC, & PA) indicated that CUL does not moderate any relationship with dependent variable (BI). This research is considered very critical during the period of COVID-19 pandemics, where most learning is being conducted online. Therefore, the policymakers in the education sector in Thailand, and the heads and management of institutions of higher learning could benefit from the findings of this research.
This chapter reports on a national study of COVID-19 using remote sensing (RS)
indicators in Iran. Time-series analysis is performed on RS indicators (n=12) including
wind speed, temperature, evaporation, carbon monoxide(CO), nitrogen dioxide(NO2),
Sulphur dioxide(SO2), ozone(O3), formaldehyde(HCHO), cloud cover, precipitation, air
pressure and soil moisture (SM) to identify remotely sensed products that may contribute
to COVID-19 transmission. Mann-Kendall test is employed to summarize time-series
observations. Further, a correlation analysis is performed between Z-scores obtained from the Mann-Kendall test and the number of COVID-19 cases. Findings indicated that the precipitation, NO2, and SO2 have high correlations with number of COVID-19 cases with Spearman correlation coefficient of -0.39, -0.33, and -0.31, respectively. Findings may
provide useful insights for public health decision makers by improving the accuracy of
With rapidly changing work environment and digitalization in social life, it is easier and effective to use electronic learning (E-learning) systems to train human resource. This training can cover various dimensions like technologies, product, services, culture and policies. This study examined the influence of E-Learning on employee training and development. Two research questions were posed for the study and two hypotheses formulated in line with the objectives. As such, the objectives of the study were to examine whether the employees with less workload spend more time on E-learning than employees with higher workload, thus handle larger responsibilities and how the trainings imparted through E-learning has influence on performance of the employees and service quality. The study employed survey research, the experimental research and the ex-post facto. For this research, the quantitative research design was used. Questionnaires were administered to a sample size of two hundred and sixty (260) employees out of the seven hundred and twenty six (726) employee population of Non Academic Staffs of Kwara State University Nigeria. The simple random sampling and the test re-test reliability approach was adopted. The research found out that E-learning is a facilitating step for improving the pace of learning and reducing employee down-time thus enabling employees to handle greater responsibilities. Thus it concluded that employees with less workload can be made more responsible by providing training through E-learning. And it was also revealed that E-learning improves performance of employees by enhancing their productivity which influences quality of work thus improves employee performance. Based on the results of findings, the study recommends that Learning interactivities designed to accomplish knowledge transfer with a heavy emphasis on skills development on online learning platform can be used for new hires and market including: Business operations, auxiliary services, guidelines and future markets which will enhance employees performance and service quality. Other e-learning solutions are important as they are self-directed and much easy than any other methods of training.
Los cursos online, masivos y abiertos (massive open online courses [MOOC]) representan uno de los máximos exponentes del uso de las nuevas tecnologías en la educación, pues eliminan las barreras físicas y permiten acceder a estudios de altísima calidad de manera gratuita a alumnos procedentes de cualquier rincón del mundo.
Con el objetivo de estudiar si, en este sentido, los MOOC pueden llegar a constituir una amenaza para las universidades tradicionales, o si por el contrario pueden convertirse en una herramienta que permita mejorar la docencia universitaria y facilitar el empleo de metodologías docentes activas, creamos cuatro MOOC de áreas de conocimiento afines y los utilizamos como herramienta para el uso de metodologías como la clase invertida (flipped learning) en estudiantes de una misma titulación.
Los resultados muestran una mejora muy notable de las calificaciones de los alumnos debido al uso de los MOOC, y, como usuarios habituales de las nuevas tecnologías que son, valoran muy positivamente el uso de herramientas digitales en la encuesta realizada. Sin embargo, cuestionados acerca de la forma ideal de docencia, los alumnos prefirieron casi unánimemente el uso conjunto de los MOOC y de la docencia presencial, mostrando reticencias a la docencia llevada a cabo únicamente de forma online a través de los MOOC.
This paper provides an overview of the perceptions held by 623 Colombian students and graduates regarding the learning of IFRS through a MOOC. Data was collected through an online survey and the results were examined via factor analysis. Three main factors were identified: perceived utility; design; and disadvantages. Using multivariate techniques, significant differences regarding gender were found among the respondents’ perceptions, women holding a more positive opinion towards learning IFRS via a MOOC. A logit model was implemented to determine how these factors could forecast the demand for an IFRS MOOC by respondents. The research findings deliver interesting insights, especially for researchers and providers of academic offerings in accounting education. This research enables the identification and further prediction of the most relevant features within an IFRS MOOC, considering the context of Southern American countries like Colombia where the training of IFRS via MOOC is not currently widespread.
Training and development research has a long tradition within applied psychology dating back to the early 1900s. Over the years, not only has interest in the topic grown but there have been dramatic changes in both the science and practice of training and development. In the current article, we examine the evolution of training and development research using articles published in the Journal of Applied Psychology (JAP) as a primary lens to analyze what we have learned and to identify where future research is needed. We begin by reviewing the timeline of training and development research in JAP from 1918 to the present in order to elucidate the critical trends and advances that define each decade. These trends include the emergence of more theory-driven training research, greater consideration of the role of the trainee and training context, examination of learning that occurs outside the classroom, and understanding training’s impact across different levels of analysis. We then examine in greater detail the evolution of 4 key research themes: training criteria, trainee characteristics, training design and delivery, and the training context. In each area, we describe how the focus of research has shifted over time and highlight important developments. We conclude by offering several ideas for future training and development research.
Many MOOCs initiatives continue to report high attrition rates among distance education students. This study investigates why students dropped out or failed their MOOCs. It also provides strategies that can be implemented to increase the retention rate as well as increasing overall student satisfaction. Through studying literature, accurate data analysis and personal observations, the most significant factors that cause high attrition rate of MOOCs are identified. The reasons found are lack of time, lack of learners’ motivation, feelings of isolation and the lack of interactivity in MOOCs, insufficient background and skills, and finally hidden costs. As a result, some strategies are identified to increase the online retention rate, and will allow more online students to graduate.
As we write this chapter, the field of industrial– organizational psychology in the United States has survived its third attempt at a name change. To provide a little perspective, the moniker industrial psychology became popular after World War I, and described a field that was characterized by ability testing and vocational assessment (Koppes, 2003). The current label, industrial– organizational (I-O) psychology, was made official in 1973. The addition of organizational reflected the grow-ing influence of social psychologists and organizational development consultants, as well as the intellectual and social milieu of the period (see Highhouse, 2007). The change to I-O psychology was more of a compromise than a solution—which may have succeeded only to the extent that everyone was equally dissatisfied. The first attempt to change this clunky label, therefore, occurred in 1976. Popular alternatives at the time were personnel psy-chology, business psychology, and psychology of work . The leading contender, however, was organizational psy-chology because, according to then-future APA Division 14 president Arthur MacKinney, "all of the Division's work is grounded in organizational contexts" (MacKin-ney 1976, p. 2). The issue stalled before ever making it Author Note: We are very grateful to the following people who took the time to provide their thoughtful contributions to this chapter: to a vote of the full membership, but it simmered for nearly 30 years. Although a name change initiative finally went to a vote in 2004, many were not satisfied with a process in which none of the alternatives garnered more than 50% of the ballots. Landy (2008) argued persuasively that he and many past division presidents were dissatisfied with an I-O moniker that seemed old-fashioned, too long, and out of step with international labels. As such, after a runoff of possible names, I-O psychology was pitted against organi-zational psychology in a 2010 vote of the membership of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP). It seemed that the nearly 40 years of discontent would finally be resolved with a name with which every-one could live. Alas, industrial-organizational psychology prevailed by a mere 15 votes (over 1,000 votes were cast)! Perhaps it is fitting that our name remains a source of tension, as our field is filled with many fundamental tensions. In this chapter, we briefly discuss some of the tensions that have characterized I-O psychology and continue to exist at different degrees of force. It is important to keep in mind that tensions are not necessarily bad. Kurt Lewin contended that tensions reflect a body that is alive and well, and, without tensions, we are not learning or accomplishing things.
We conducted a meta-analysis to determine whether the within-person self-efficacy/performance relationship is positive, negative, or null and to compare the strength of the self-efficacy/performance and past performance/self-efficacy within-person relationships. The self-efficacy/performance within-person corrected correlation was .23 but was weak and nonsignificant (ρ = .06) when controlling for the linear trajectory, revealing that the main effect was spurious. The past performance/self-efficacy within-person corrected correlation was .40 and remained positive and significant (ρ = .30) when controlling for the linear trajectory. The moderator results revealed that at the within-person level of analysis: (a) self-efficacy had at best a moderate, positive effect on performance and a null effect under other moderating conditions (ρ ranged from –.02 to .33); (b) the main effect of past performance on self-efficacy was stronger than the effect of self-efficacy on performance, even in the moderating conditions that produced the strongest self-efficacy/performance relationship; (c) the effect of past performance on self-efficacy ranged from moderate to strong across moderating conditions and was statistically significant across performance tasks, contextual factors, and methodological moderators (ρ ranged from .18 to .52). Overall, this suggests that self-efficacy is primarily a product of past performance rather than the driving force affecting future performance.
The singular focus of public debate on the “top 1 percent” of households overlooks the component of earnings inequality that
is arguably most consequential for the “other 99 percent” of citizens: the dramatic growth in the wage premium associated
with higher education and cognitive ability. This Review documents the central role of both the supply and demand for skills
in shaping inequality, discusses why skill demands have persistently risen in industrialized countries, and considers the
economic value of inequality alongside its potential social costs. I conclude by highlighting the constructive role for public
policy in fostering skills formation and preserving economic mobility.
Self-regulated learning (SRL) has become a pivotal construct in contemporary accounts of effective academic learning. I examine several areas of theory and empirical research, which are not prominently cited in educational psychology's research into SRL, that reveal new details of what SRL is and how students develop productive SRL. I interpret findings from these investigations to suggest that nondeliberative, knowledge-based elements are inherent in the processes of SRL, and in learning more generally. Several topics for future research are sketched based on an assumption that learning effectively by oneself will remain a goal of education and can be an especially revealing context in which to research SRL.
“Circuits and Electronics” (6.002x), which began in March 2012, was the first MOOC developed by edX, the consortium led by MIT and Harvard. Over 155,000 students initially registered for 6.002x, which was composed of video lectures, interactive problems, online laboratories, and a discussion forum. As the course ended in June 2012, researchers began to analyze the rich sources of data it generated. This article describes both the first stage of this research, which examined the students’ use of resources by time spent on each, and a second stage that is producing an in-depth picture of who the 6.002x students were, how their own background and capabilities related to their achievement and persistence, and how their interactions with 6.002x’s curricular and pedagogical components contributed to their level of success in the course.
Tested 3 hypotheses concerning people's predictions of task completion times: (1) people underestimate their own but not others' completion times, (2) people focus on plan-based scenarios rather than on relevant past experiences while generating their predictions, and (3) people's attributions diminish the relevance of past experiences. Five studies were conducted with a total of 465 undergraduates. Results support each hypothesis. Ss' predictions of their completion times were too optimistic for a variety of academic and nonacademic tasks. Think-aloud procedures revealed that Ss focused primarily on future scenarios when predicting their completion times. The optimistic bias was eliminated for Ss instructed to connect relevant past experiences with their predictions. Ss attributed their past prediction failures to external, transient, and specific factors. Observer Ss overestimated others' completion times and made greater use of relevant past experiences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Two experiments examine the process by which free gift promotions serve as a source of information about the underlying value of the product offered as a free gift. The value-discounting hypothesis argues that by virtue of being offered as a free gift, products will be valued less as evinced by lower purchase intentions and a lower price that consumers are willing to pay for them. Conditions that inhibit the value-discounting effect include the (a) presence of alternate price information to make judgments about the value of the gift, and (b) contextual information about the value of the promoted brand.
Although ecological momentary assessment and experience sampling methods have been in use in other areas of the social and medical sciences for many years, organizational researchers have not taken advantage of these techniques. To rectify this situation, the authors examine the benefits and difficulties of ecological momentary assessment and offer suggestions for how it can be used effectively in organizations. In addition, the authors discuss the analysis of these data from a multilevel framework and place particular emphasis on procedures that examine the temporal nature of momentary data.
Meta-analytic techniques were used to examine the effectiveness of Web-based instruction (WBI) relative to classroom instruction (CI) and to examine moderators of the comparative effectiveness of the 2 delivery media. The overall results indicated WBI was 6% more effective than CI for teaching declarative knowledge, the 2 delivery media were equally effective for teaching procedural knowledge, and trainees were equally satisfied with WBI and CI. However, WBI and CI were equally effective for teaching declarative knowledge when the same instructional methods were used to deliver both WBI and CI, suggesting media effects are spurious and supporting Clark's (1983, 1994) theory. Finally, WBI was 19% more effective than CI for teaching declarative knowledge when Web-based trainees were provided with control, in long courses, and when trainees practiced the training material and received feedback during training. Study limitations and directions for future research are discussed.
Planning plays an instrumental role in prominent self-regulation theories (e.g., action regulation, control, goal setting), yet as a scientific community we know little about how people carry out their learning plans. Using an experimental field study, we implemented a repeated-measures intervention requiring trainees to create a plan for when, where, and how much time they intended to devote to training before each of 4 online modules and examined the conditions under which the planning intervention improved learning and reduced attrition. Trainees benefited from the planning intervention when it was paired with another intervention-prompting self-regulation-targeting self-regulatory processes that occur subsequent to planning (e.g., monitoring, concentration, learning strategies). Trainees' learning performance was highest and attrition lowest when they received both interventions. The planning intervention was also advantageous for enhancing learning and reducing attrition when trainees followed through on the amount of time that they planned to devote to training. Finally, the relationship between planned study time, time on task, and learning performance was cyclical. Planned study time had a positive effect on time on task, which, in turn, had a positive effect on learning performance. However, trainees planned to devote less time to training following higher rather than lower learning performance. The current study contributes to our theoretical understanding of self-regulated learning by researching one of the most overlooked components of the process-planning-and examining the conditions under which establishing a learning plan enhances training outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Although training evaluation is recognized as an important component of the instructional design model, there are no theoretically based models of training evaluation. This article attempts to move toward such a model by developing a classification scheme for evaluating learning outcomes. Learning constructs are derived from a variety of research domains, such as cognitive, social, and instructional psychology and human factors. Drawing from this research, the authors propose cognitive, skill-based, and affective learning outcomes (relevant to training) and recommend potential evaluation measures. The learning outcomes and associated evaluation measures are organized into a classification scheme. Requirements for providing construct-oriented evidence of validity for the scheme are also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Researchers have been applying their knowledge of goal-oriented behavior to the self-regulated learning domain for more than 30 years. This review examines the current state of research on self-regulated learning and gaps in the field's understanding of how adults regulate their learning of work-related knowledge and skills. Self-regulation theory was used as a conceptual lens for deriving a heuristic framework of 16 fundamental constructs that constitute self-regulated learning. Meta-analytic findings (k=430, N=90,380) support theoretical propositions that self-regulation constructs are interrelated-30% of the corrected correlations among constructs were .50 or greater. Goal level, persistence, effort, and self-efficacy were the self-regulation constructs with the strongest effects on learning. Together these constructs accounted for 17% of the variance in learning, after controlling for cognitive ability and pretraining knowledge. However, 4 self-regulatory processes-planning, monitoring, help seeking, and emotion control-did not exhibit significant relationships with learning. Thus, a parsimonious framework of the self-regulated learning domain is presented that focuses on a subset of self-regulatory processes that have both limited overlap with other core processes and meaningful effects on learning. Research is needed to advance the field's understanding of how adults regulate their learning in an increasingly complex and knowledge-centric work environment. Such investigations should capture the dynamic nature of self-regulated learning, address the role of self-regulation in informal learning, and investigate how trainees regulate their transfer of training.
Prompting self-regulation involves asking trainees reflective questions to stimulate self-regulatory engagement. Research has found positive effects for prompting self-regulation on learning, but a scarcity of evidence exists regarding whether self-regulatory processes mediate the effect of prompting self-regulation, whether the intervention reduces attrition, and the optimal timing of implementing the intervention. Using a longitudinal design, we found that prompting self-regulation throughout training increased learning and reduced attrition, relative to the control condition. Moreover, the effect on learning was fully mediated by time on task. The intervention also moderated the effect of learning on subsequent self-regulatory activity and attrition. Learning performance had less of a positive effect on subsequent self-regulatory activity and less of a negative effect on subsequent attrition when trainees were prompted to self-regulate. These results highlight the importance of adopting a longitudinal design to examine how self-regulatory interventions affect the cyclical relationships among self-regulatory processes, learning, and attrition.
Holding a strong goal intention ("I intend to reach Z!") does not guarantee goal achievement, because people may fail to deal effectively with selfregulatory problems during goal striving. This review analyzes wether realization of goal intentions is facilitated by forming an implementation intention that spells out the when, where, and how of goal striving in advance ("If situation Y is encountered, then I will initiate goal-directed behavior X!"). Findings from 94 independent tests showed that implementation intentions had a positive effect of medium-to-large magnitude (d= .65) on goal attainment. Implementation intentions were effective in promoting the initiation of goal striving, the shielding of ongoing goal pursuit from unwanted influences, disengagement from failing courses of action, and conservation of capability for future goal striving. There was also strong support for postulatad component processes: Implementation intention formation both enhanced the accessibility of specified opportunities and automated respective goal-directed responses. Several directions for future research are outlined.
The resource-based view (RBV) of the firm has influenced the field of strategic human resource management (SHRM) in a number of ways. This paper explores the impact of the RBV on the theoretical and empirical development of SHRM. It explores how the fields of strategy and SHRM are beginning to converge around a number of issues, and proposes a number of implications of this convergence.
We propose a multilevel framework that addresses the criteria that can be used to assess training effectiveness at the within-person, between-person, and macro levels of analysis. Specifically, we propose four evaluation taxa—training utilization, affect, performance, and financial impact—as well as the specific evaluation metrics that can be captured to examine the facets of each taxon. Our multilevel framework also clarifies the appropriate level of analysis for assessing each criterion variable and articulates when it appropriate to aggregate responses from a lower level of analysis to assess training effectiveness at a higher level of analysis. Finally, we illustrate how training evaluation criteria are interrelated because understanding constructs' nomological network is essential for gauging the depth of knowledge that can be inferred by any evaluation effort.
Advocates for free massive open online courses (MOOCs) have heralded them as vehicles for democratizing education and bridging divides within and across countries (1). More than 25 million people enrolled in MOOCs between 2012 and 2015, including 39% from less-developed countries (LDCs) (2). But the educated and affluent in all countries enroll in and complete MOOCs at relatively higher rates (3, 4). Judged by completion rates, MOOCs do not spread benefits equitably across global regions. Rather, they reflect prevailing educational disparities between nations (see the first chart) (5). Although the global achievement gap could be caused by barriers in LDCs, such as less broadband Internet access, formal education, and English proficiency, we explore another potential but underappreciated cause. Members of LDCs may suffer from the cognitive burden of wrestling with feeling unwelcome while trying to learn and, therefore, underperform. This can be exacerbated by social identity threat, which is the fear of being seen as less capable because of one's group (6). We discuss field experiments with interventions that targeted social identity threat and caused substantial improvements in MOOC persistence and completion rates among learners in LDCs, eliminating the global achievement gap.
Massive open online courses (MOOCs) require individual learners to be able to self-regulate their learning, determining when and how they engage. However, MOOCs attract a diverse range of learners, each with different motivations and prior experience. This study investigates the self-regulated learning (SRL) learners apply in a MOOC, in particular focusing on how learners' motivations for taking a MOOC influence their behaviour and employment of SRL strategies. Following a quantitative investigation of the learning behaviours of 788 MOOC participants, follow-up interviews were conducted with 32 learners. The study compares the narrative descriptions of behaviour between learners with self-reported high and low SRL scores. Substantial differences were detected between the self-described learning behaviours of these two groups in five of the sub-processes examined. Learners' motivations and goals were found to shape how they conceptualised the purpose of the MOOC, which in turn affected their perception of the learning process.
Through a quantitative meta-analysis of 40 studies of realistic job previews (RJPs), 26 of which were published, the effects of RJPs on attrition from the job recruitment process, the level and accuracy of initial job expectations, affective reactions, job performance, and turnover were assessed. In general, RJPs were related to higher performance and to lower attrition from the recruitment process, initial expectations, voluntary turnover, and all turnover. Moderating effects of the timing and medium of an RJP and of whether a study was conducted in the laboratory or the field indicated that the effectiveness of RJPs can be enhanced through properly matching RJP methods with the organizational outcomes of interest.
Training engagement theory depicts the temporal sequence of events at multiple levels of analysis that contribute to training effectiveness. The temporal nature of the theory advocates for examining the processes that occur from before training is conceptualized until after the completion of training programs. As such, training engagement theory proposes a sequence model of the independent and joint effects of establishing training goals, prioritizing those goals, and persisting during goal striving on training effectiveness. Moreover, the theory is multilevel such that each phase of the goal striving process is conceptualized from the organizational, between-person, and within-person levels of analysis. Together the temporal and multilevel nature of training engagement theory provides a broad account of how factors at various levels in the organizational hierarchy influence one another and contribute to the success or failure of organizational training programs. We also propose two critical extensions of current conceptualizations of training effectiveness by adding attrition as an additional indicator of training effectiveness and by clarifying how indicators of training effectiveness—including course satisfaction, attrition, learning performance, and training transfer —may be operationalized differently at various levels in the organization. Finally, we offer testable multilevel propositions derived from training engagement theory to spur future research.
Massive open online courses (MOOCs) have been heralded as an education revolution, but they suffer from low retention, calling into question their viability as a means of promoting education for all. In addition, numerous gaps remain in the research literature, particularly concerning predictors of retention and achievement. In this study, we used survival analysis to examine the degree to which student characteristics, relevance, prior experience with MOOCs, self-reported commitment, and learners’ implicit theory of intelligence predicted retention and achievement. We found that learners’ expected investment, including level of commitment, expected number of hours devoted to the MOOC, and intention to obtain a certificate, related to retention likelihood. Prior level of schooling and expected hours devoted to the MOOC predicted achievement.
The purpose of this study is to examine the motivation to transfer training in a multidimensional way. It investigates autonomous and controlled motivation and explores the difference in motivation to transfer according to whether the employee is enrolled in training on a voluntary or mandatory basis. This is a cross-sectional hypotheses-testing study. Data were collected at a large insurance company involving employees who had participated in training programs in the previous 6 months. Findings show that when considering autonomous motivation to transfer, results support the argument that being voluntarily enrolled in the training program shows a higher impact on motivation to transfer than being mandatorily enrolled. When considering controlled motivation to transfer, results do not support such an argument, probably because of the nature of controlled motivation to transfer that in practice reduces the difference in results between the two types of enrollment.
We conducted a meta-analysis to clarify the construct validity of self-assessments of knowledge in education and workplace training. Self-assessment's strongest correlations were with motivation and satisfaction, two affective evaluation outcomes. The relationship between self-assessment and cognitive learning was moderate. Even under conditions that optimized the self-assessment-cognitive learning relationship (e.g., when learners practiced self-assessing and received feedback on their self-assessments), the relationship was still weaker than the self-assessment-motivation relationship. We also examined how researchers interpreted self-assessed knowledge, and discovered that nearly a third of evaluation studies interpreted self-assessed knowledge data as evidence of cognitive learning. Based on these findings, we offer recommendations for evaluation practice that involve a more limited role for self-assessment.
Massive open online courses (MOOCs) have commanded considerable public attention due to their sudden rise and disruptive potential. But there are no robust, published data that describe who is taking these courses and why they are doing so. As such, we do not yet know how transformative the MOOC phenomenon can or will be. We conducted an online survey of students enrolled in at least one of the University of Pennsylvania’s 32 MOOCs offed on the Coursera platform. The student population tends to be young, well educated, and employed, with a majority from developed countries. There are significantly more males than females taking MOOCs, especially in BRIC and other developing countries. Students’ main reasons for taking a MOOC are advancing in their current job and satisfying curiosity. The individuals the MOOC revolution is supposed to help the most — those without access to higher education in developing countries — are underrepresented among the early adopters.
Inequality among different socioeconomic and racial groups was a salient subject for sociology of education in the 20th century. What will happen to educational inequality in the 21st century? On the basis of past trends and the assumption that the American educational system will remain largely stable, this article offers predictions about educational inequality over the next hundred years. First, it foresees a decline in black-white racial inequality. This prediction would continue a trend that occurred during the past hundred years and is consistent with current knowledge about the sources of racial inequality in educational outcomes. Although racial inequality in education is expected to decline, corresponding changes in labor market inequality may be much weaker. Second, educational inequality by socioeconomic background is expected to persist at current levels throughout the next century. This prediction is also based on past trends, which indicate that socioeconomic inequality is "maximally maintained": Privileged groups protect their advantages until virtually all members reach a given status, at which point the axis of inequality shifts upward to another level of educational outcome. Relaxing the overall assumption of stability raises questions about the predictions.
More than 4 decades of research and 9 meta-analyses have focused on the undermining effect: namely, the debate over whether the provision of extrinsic incentives erodes intrinsic motivation. This review and meta-analysis builds on such previous reviews by focusing on the interrelationship among intrinsic motivation, extrinsic incentives, and performance, with reference to 2 moderators: performance type (quality vs. quantity) and incentive contingency (directly performance-salient vs. indirectly performance-salient), which have not been systematically reviewed to date. Based on random-effects meta-analytic methods, findings from school, work, and physical domains (k = 183, N = 212,468) indicate that intrinsic motivation is a medium to strong predictor of performance (ρ = .21-45). The importance of intrinsic motivation to performance remained in place whether incentives were presented. In addition, incentive salience influenced the predictive validity of intrinsic motivation for performance: In a "crowding out" fashion, intrinsic motivation was less important to performance when incentives were directly tied to performance and was more important when incentives were indirectly tied to performance. Considered simultaneously through meta-analytic regression, intrinsic motivation predicted more unique variance in quality of performance, whereas incentives were a better predictor of quantity of performance. With respect to performance, incentives and intrinsic motivation are not necessarily antagonistic and are best considered simultaneously. Future research should consider using nonperformance criteria (e.g., well-being, job satisfaction) as well as applying the percent-of-maximum-possible (POMP) method in meta-analyses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
This study integrates research from strategy, economics, and applied psychology to examine how organizations may leverage their human resources to enhance firm performance and competitive advantage. Staffing and training are key human resource management practices used to achieve firm performance through acquiring and developing human capital resources. However, little research has examined whether and why staffing and training influence firm-level financial performance (profit) growth under different environmental (economic) conditions. Using 359 firms with over 12 years of longitudinal firm-level profit data, we suggest that selective staffing and internal training directly and interactively influence firm profit growth through their effects on firm labor productivity, implying that staffing and training contribute to the generation of slack resources that help buffer and then recover from the effects of the Great Recession. Further, internal training that creates specific human capital resources is more beneficial for prerecession profitability, but staffing is more beneficial for postrecession recovery, apparently because staffing creates generic human capital resources that enable firm flexibility and adaptation. Thus, the theory and findings presented in this article have implications for the way staffing and training may be used strategically to weather economic uncertainty (recession effects). They also have important practical implications by demonstrating that firms that more effectively staff and train will outperform competitors throughout all pre- and postrecessionary periods, even after controlling for prior profitability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
A theoretical model is presented that examines self-regulatory processes and trainee characteristics as predictors of attrition from voluntary online training in order to determine who is at risk of dropping out and the processes that occur during training that determine when they are at risk of dropping out. Attrition increased following declines in trainees' commitment to training and self-efficacy. Trainees lower in conscientiousness were more vulnerable to dropping out than those higher in conscientiousness, and this effect was fully mediated by self-regulatory processes. Conscientiousness also moderated the effects of commitment and self-efficacy on attrition—a high level of conscientiousness provided a buffer against dropping out when trainees' commitment and self-efficacy declined during training. The number of hours that trainees worked per week moderated the effort/attrition relationship; spending extra time reviewing increased attrition for trainees who worked longer hours and decreased attrition for trainees who worked shorter hours.
African American college students tend to obtain lower grades than their White counterparts, even when they enter college with equivalent test scores. Past research suggests that negative stereotypes impugning Black students' intellectual abilities play a role in this underperformance. Awareness of these stereotypes can psychologically threaten African Americans, a phenomenon known as “stereotype threat” (Steele & Aronson, 1995), which can in turn provoke responses that impair both academic performance and psychological engagement with academics. An experiment was performed to test a method of helping students resist these responses to stereotype threat. Specifically, students in the experimental condition of the experiment were encouraged to see intelligence—the object of the stereotype—as a malleable rather than fixed capacity. This mind-set was predicted to make students' performances less vulnerable to stereotype threat and help them maintain their psychological engagement with academics, both of which could help boost their college grades. Results were consistent with predictions. The African American students (and, to some degree, the White students) encouraged to view intelligence as malleable reported greater enjoyment of the academic process, greater academic engagement, and obtained higher grade point averages than their counterparts in two control groups.
Vocational researchers interested in the career development of women and people of color have noted the potentially strong influence of perceived barriers in the formulation and pursuit of educational and career goals. In this study, ethnic and gender differences in perceived educational and career barriers were investigated in a sample of 1139 Mexican-American and Euro-American high school juniors and seniors. Differences in perceived barriers were assessed using MANOVA and ANOVA procedures. Results were consistent with the hypotheses, suggesting that (1) female participants anticipated more barriers than male participants; (2) Mexican-American participants anticipated more barriers than Euro-Americans; and (3) these differences were consistent within ethnic and gender groups. Implications for future research are discussed.
Realistic Job Previews (RJPs) have been studied by researchers and utilized by practitioners to attenuate early turnover by providing both positive and negative information about a job and organization to job applicants. Historically, RJPs have suffered from several criticisms including modest effect sizes, cost of development, and potential self-selection effects. Recently, the expectancy lowering procedure (ELP: Buckley, Fedor, Veres, Wiese, & Carraher has been developed and tested to address these limitations of the RJP. The purpose of this review is to provide historical foundations and persistent limitations of the RJP, and to extend propositions supporting the ELP as an effective alternative procedure.
The construct of self-efficacy has received increasing empirical attention in the organizational behavior literature. People who think they can perform well on a task do better than those who think they will fail. Differences in self-efficacy are associated with bona fide differences in skill level; however, efficacy perceptions also may be influenced by differences in personality, motivation, and the task itself. This article reviews theoretically the antecedent processes and information cues involved in the formation of self-efficacy. A model of the determinants of self-efficacy is proposed that enhances understanding of both the complexity and malleability of the construct. Determinants that facilitate the most immediate change in self-efficacy are identified, and appropriate change strategies are highlighted. Implications and propositions pertaining to future research are discussed at the end of the article.
A meta-analytic path analysis with k = 52 studies and sample size of roughly 17,000 showed that enhanced perceptions of organizational honesty is the primary mechanism by which realistic job previews (RJPs) influence voluntary turnover. This suggests revisions to RJP theory to incorporate social exchange and the way RJPs lead individuals to feel about the organization. Results assessing several new potential moderators of relationships between RJPs and turnover found that the most effective RJP design may be an oral or written RJP delivered posthire and designed to signal organizational honesty. We discuss several key theoretical and practical implications of the results based on a novel signaling theory perspective on RJPs.
Research from numerous corners of psychological inquiry suggests that self-assessments of skill and character are often flawed in substantive and systematic ways. We review empirical findings on the imperfect nature of self-assessment and discuss implications for three real-world domains: health, education, and the workplace.
In general, people's self-views hold only a tenuous to modest relationship with their actual behavior and performance. The correlation between self-ratings of skill and actual performance in many domains is moderate to meager—indeed, at times, other people's predictions of a person's outcomes prove more accurate than that person's self-predictions. In addition, people overrate themselves. On average, people say that they are “above average” in skill (a conclusion that defies statistical possibility), overestimate the likelihood that they will engage in desirable behaviors and achieve favorable outcomes, furnish overly optimistic estimates of when they will complete future projects, and reach judgments with too much confidence. Several psychological processes conspire to produce flawed self-assessments.
Research focusing on health echoes these findings. People are unrealistically optimistic about their own health risks compared with those of other people. They also overestimate how distinctive their opinions and preferences (e.g., discomfort with alcohol) are among their peers—a misperception that can have a deleterious impact on their health. Unable to anticipate how they would respond to emotion-laden situations, they mispredict the preferences of patients when asked to step in and make treatment decisions for them. Guided by mistaken but seemingly plausible theories of health and disease, people misdiagnose themselves—a phenomenon that can have severe consequences for their health and longevity.
Similarly, research in education finds that students' assessments of their performance tend to agree only moderately with those of their teachers and mentors. Students seem largely unable to assess how well or poorly they have comprehended material they have just read. They also tend to be overconfident in newly learned skills, at times because the common educational practice of massed training appears to promote rapid acquisition of skill—as well as self-confidence—but not necessarily the retention of skill. Several interventions, however, can be introduced to prompt students to evaluate their skill and learning more accurately.
In the workplace, flawed self-assessments arise all the way up the corporate ladder. Employees tend to overestimate their skill, making it difficult to give meaningful feedback. CEOs also display overconfidence in their judgments, particularly when stepping into new markets or novel projects—for example, proposing acquisitions that hurt, rather then help, the price of their company's stock. We discuss several interventions aimed at circumventing the consequences of such flawed assessments; these include training people to routinely make cognitive repairs correcting for biased self-assessments and requiring people to justify their decisions in front of their peers.
The act of self-assessment is an intrinsically difficult task, and we enumerate several obstacles that prevent people from reaching truthful self-impressions. We also propose that researchers and practitioners should recognize self-assessment as a coherent and unified area of study spanning many subdisciplines of psychology and beyond. Finally, we suggest that policymakers and other people who makes real-world assessments should be wary of self-assessments of skill, expertise, and knowledge, and should consider ways of repairing self-assessments that may be flawed.
Presents a critique of published learner control studies that highlights problems with definitions of learner control, theoretical foundations, treatment duration, outcome measures, sample sizes, and conclusions. Recommendations are made concerning the exploration of alternative models for research focused on learner control and other aspects of computer-based instruction. (Contains 40 references.) (LRW)
Although organizations invest billions of dollars in training every year, many trained competencies reportedly fail to transfer to the workplace. Researchers have long examined the transfer problem, uncovering a wealth of information regarding the transfer of training. Inconsistencies remain, however, and organizations may find it difficult to pinpoint exactly which factors are most critical. Using Baldwin and Ford's model of transfer, we identify the factors relating to trainee characteristics (cognitive ability, self-efficacy, motivation, perceived utility of training), training design (behavioral modeling, error management, realistic training environments) and the work environment (transfer climate, support, opportunity to perform, follow-up) that have exhibited the strongest, most consistent relationships with the transfer of training. We describe our reasoning for extracting such variables from the literature and conclude by discussing potential implications for practice and future research.
This article deals with costs and benefits related to on-the-job training. For calculating costs and benefits of on-the-job training at the sector and macroeconomic levels, a model is developed. Model parameters are estimated using information from a survey of employers and employees in the Netherlands. Exogenous model variables are taken from the survey as well as from several official statistical sources.
The model is used for running a baseline scenario and several policy scenarios. The policy scenarios describe proposed policy measures for stimulating lifelong learning in the Netherlands. The model calculates detailed costs and benefits for players in the market for on-the-job training and the macroeconomic consequences.
It is shown that the differences in cost-effectiveness of policy measures can be large. Another important conclusion is that the results may differ strongly among employers, employees, and the government.
In our response to the 28 (largely positive) commentaries from an esteemed collection of researchers, we (1) consolidate additional evidence, extensions, and amplifications offered by, our commentators; (2) emphasize the value of integrating experimental and ethnographic methods, and show how researchers using behavioral games have done precisely this; (3) present our concerns with arguments from several commentators that separate variable "content" from "computations" or "basic processes"; (4) address concerns that the patterns we highlight marking WEIRD people as psychological outliers arise from aspects of the researchers and the research process; (5) respond to the claim that as members of the same species, humans must have the same invariant psychological processes; (6) address criticisms of our telescoping contrasts; and (7) return to the question of explaining why WEIRD people are psychologically unusual. We believe a broad-based behavioral science of human nature needs to integrate a variety of methods and apply them to diverse populations, well beyond the WEIRD samples it has largely relied upon.