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Revolutionizing training and education? Three questions regarding massive open online courses (MOOCs)

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Abstract

MOOC stands for Massive Open Online Course and represents an instructional approach that permits hundreds of thousands of students to access online courses anywhere around the world and typically free of charge. There have been a number of stories in the popular press suggesting that MOOCs may revolutionize training and education, but evidence regarding the instructional effectiveness of MOOCs is primarily anecdotal and overarching statistics reveal that the vast majority of students drop out before completing these courses. We pose three questions that need to be answered about the use and effectiveness of MOOCs before MOOCs can be considered a credible and useful instructional approach: 1) Who enrolls in MOOCs and why do they enroll? 2) Are students self-aware and able to self-regulate their learning in MOOCs? 3) Are MOOCs effective and how can we maximize their effectiveness?

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... where hundreds of thousands of students across the globe can access an online course [7,8]. Typical characteristics of MOOCs are the courses having start and end dates, being free of charge and no limit on student enrollment [8]. ...
... where hundreds of thousands of students across the globe can access an online course [7,8]. Typical characteristics of MOOCs are the courses having start and end dates, being free of charge and no limit on student enrollment [8]. Some challenges to MOOCs are language barrier, access to internet and understanding the benefits of completing the course [8]. ...
... Typical characteristics of MOOCs are the courses having start and end dates, being free of charge and no limit on student enrollment [8]. Some challenges to MOOCs are language barrier, access to internet and understanding the benefits of completing the course [8]. • Blogs are defined by Ref [9] as, "essentially online journals where an author publishes a series of chronological, updateable entries or posts on a topic, typically of personal interest to the author and often expressed in a strongly subjective voice, on which reader are invited to comment." ...
... Online education is becoming more and more popular due to the abundant education resources and convenience [9]. Many researches are focusing on investigating the video of massive open online courses (MOOCs) to improve the education efficiency or predict the students' behaviors [3,7]. ...
... Overall environmental movement features: Recently, deep learning improves many computer vision tasks significantly. I3D is a novel deep feature that achieves good performance in activity recognition [9]. We use pre-trained I3D models with ImageNet and Kinetics datasets to extract overall environmental movement features from the video segment. ...
Conference Paper
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This paper proposes a novel engagement intensity prediction approach, which is also applied in the EmotiW Challenge 2019 and resulted in good performance. The task is to predict the engagement level when a subject student is watching an educational video in diverse conditions and various environments. Assuming that the engagement intensity has a strong correlation with facial movements, upper-body posture movements and overall environmental movements in a time interval, we extract and incorporate these motion features into a deep regression model consisting of layers with a combination of LSTM, Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) and a Fully Connected Layer. In order to precisely and robustly predict the engagement level in a long video with various situations such as darkness and complex background, a multi-features engineering method is used to extract synchronized multi-model features in a period of time by considering both the short-term dependencies and long-term dependencies. Based on the well-processed features, we propose a strategy for maximizing validation accuracy to generate the best models covering all the model configurations. Furthermore, to avoid the overfitting problem ascribed to the extremely small database, we propose another strategy applying a single Bi-LSTM layer with only 16 units to minimize the overfitting, and splitting the engagement dataset (train + validation) with 5-fold cross validation (stratified k-fold) to train the conservative model. By ensembling the above models, our methods finally win the second place in the challenge with MSE of 0.06174 on the testing set.
... The MOOC stands for Massive Open Online Course and represents an instructional approach that provides students access to online courses from places anywhere around the world [10]. Alhazzani [11] reveals that MOOCs have a significant direct impact on higher education as it improves education outcomes [11]. ...
... However, the difficulties of monitoring the performance of MOOC is also of great concern as it requires high self-regulation and remains uncertain of students involvement via distancing education. Researchers find that good performance of MOOC requires concerns on students' engagement in the learning process as the vast majority of students may drop out before completing courses when the loose engagement undermining learning performance [10]. ...
... [80][81][82][83]. As an important type of e-leaning systems, MOOCs have been found to be an effective way for online learning [84,85]. Nowadays, many studies have focused on MOOCs evaluation through the use of different approaches and perspectives [86][87][88]. ...
Article
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Computational intelligence approaches have proven to be effective in enhancing online learning systems. Although many studies have been conducted to reveal the learners’ satisfaction in online learning platforms, the use of machine learning in the analysis of big datasets for this aim has rarely been explored. In addition, although the analysis of online reviews on courses has been carried out in other fields, there are very few contributions in the area of online learning platforms. This study, therefore, aims to perform learner satisfaction analysis through the use of machine learning. We develop a new method using text mining and supervised learning techniques with the aid of the ensemble learning approach. A boosting approach, AdaBoost, is used in ANN for ensemble learning to improve its performance. We employ Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach, dimensionality reduction and Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) for textual data analysis. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used for data dimensionality reduction. We perform several experimental evaluations on the big datasets obtained from the online learning platforms. The accuracy and computation time of the proposed method are assessed on the obtained dataset. The method is compared with several machine learning approaches to show its effectiveness in big datasets analysis. The results showed that the method is effective in predicting learners’ satisfaction from online reviews. In addition, the proposed method outperform other classifiers, K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN), Decision Trees (DT), Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Naïve Bayes (NB), in case of accuracy. The results are discussed and research implications from different perspectives are provided for future developments of educational decision support systems.
... Online education is becoming increasingly popular due to the abundant education resources and the convenience of this way of learning [13]. Many researchers are focusing on investigating the video of massive open online courses (MOOCs) to improve education efficiency or to predict the students' behaviors [4,9]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper proposes an advanced multi-instance learning method with multi-features engineering and conservative optimization for engagement intensity prediction. It was applied to the EmotiW Challenge 2020 [1] and the results demonstrated the proposed method's good performance. The task is to predict the engagement level when a subject-student is watching an educational video under a range of conditions and in various environments. As engagement intensity has a strong correlation with facial movements, upper-body posture movements and overall environmental movements in a given time interval, we extract and incorporate these motion features into a deep regression model consisting of layers with a combination of long short-term memory(LSTM), gated recurrent unit (GRU) and a fully connected layer. In order to precisely and robustly predict the engagement level in a long video with various situations such as darkness and complex backgrounds, a multi-features engineering function is used to extract synchronized multi-model features in a given period of time by considering both short-term and long-term dependencies. Based on these well-processed engineered multi-features, in the 1st training stage, we train and generate the best models covering all the model configurations to maximize validation accuracy. Furthermore, in the 2nd training stage, to avoid the overfitting problem attributable to the extremely small engagement dataset, we conduct conservative optimization by applying a single Bi-LSTM layer with only 16 units to minimize the overfitting, and split the engagement dataset (train + validation) with 5-fold cross validation (stratified k-fold) to train a conservative model. The proposed method, by using decision-level ensemble for the two training stages' models, finally win the second place in the challenge (MSE: 0.061110 on the testing set).
... Besides the controlled e-learning systems, organizations have been using environments such as social media (Qi and Chau 2016), massive open online courses (MOOCs) (Weinhardt and Sitzmann 2018) and other web-based environments to reinforce their organizational learning potential. These systems have been utilized through different types of technology (e.g., desktop applications, mobile) that leverage the various capabilities offered (e.g., social learning, VR, collaborative systems, smart and intelligent support) to reinforce the learning and knowledge flow potential of the organization. ...
Article
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E-learning systems are receiving ever increasing attention in academia, business and public administration. Major crises, like the pandemic, highlight the tremendous importance of the appropriate development of e-learning systems and its adoption and processes in organizations. Managers and employees who need efficient forms of training and learning flow within organizations do not have to gather in one place at the same time or to travel far away to attend courses. Contemporary affordances of e-learning systems allow users to perform different jobs or tasks for training courses according to their own scheduling, as well as to collaborate and share knowledge and experiences that result in rich learning flows within organizations. The purpose of this article is to provide a systematic review of empirical studies at the intersection of e-learning and organizational learning in order to summarize the current findings and guide future research. Forty-seven peer-reviewed articles were collected from a systematic literature search and analyzed based on a categorization of their main elements. This survey identifies five major directions of the research on the confluence of e-learning and organizational learning during the last decade. Future research should leverage big data produced from the platforms and investigate how the incorporation of advanced learning technologies (e.g., learning analytics, personalized learning) can help increase organizational value.
... However, in this study, we also identified that there are still challenges to be faced, especially in the development of the SDGs, and that we still need more answers through research on how to mainstream MOOCs' effectiveness from this perspective. Weinhardt and Sitzmann [65] are committed to a future of applied research that generates a corpus of important knowledge related to the effectiveness of instruction in MOOCs. Taking our results into account, we are also committed to this, especially today, when societies worldwide face great educational and sustainable development challenges in times of pandemic. ...
Article
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Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs) offer the opportunity to implement a quality education timetable for those who lack the means due to economic, travel, or temporary availability limitations. Because of this, some non-governmental development organizations (NGOs), working in Latin American countries, are trying to implement this type of educational model within their educational projects. This article presents a case study on the development of a MOOC within the framework of international development cooperation carried out by an NGO and the National Autonomous University of Nicaragua. The research aims to analyze the opportunities and challenges of free, open, online teaching as a tool for achieving Sustainable Development Goal 4, and explore new educational possibilities to train people and contribute to the development of the communities in which they live. From a qualitative approach, grounded theory has been used as a holistic methodology for collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data, allowing the generation of theory in a systematic way. The most effective pedagogical models are evidenced to achieve the learning objectives and observe the challenges to be faced in order to achieve the effectiveness of MOOCs in this context. In conclusion, more applied research is needed to address the challenges that today’s societies, in times of pandemic, are facing at an educational and sustainability level.
... One of the major reasons for students to enroll in MOOCs is to enhance their work-related skills [47]. Through MOOCs, many students report learning new skills for their current jobs, finding new jobs, or otherwise reporting positive benefits for their careers [50]. ...
Article
Massive open online courses (MOOCs) provide anyone with an Internet connection easy access to a wealth of learning and computer training opportunities. Optics and photonics devices are frequently used in numerous academic fields and industries. Therefore, a MOOC approach to optics education would be beneficial to many students, researchers, and professionals all over the world, as this would empower personal and professional development with global reach. As part of online education, students can learn professional computer modeling tools and use them for completing course assignments. In this paper, several optical design packages are reviewed and evaluated for their applicability to MOOC optics education in terms of availability, functionality, and wealth of training resources. An example of an optics MOOC case‐study is also presented.
... Otherwise, they were allowed to reenrol in the MOOC to continue in a new cohort with new start and end dates. Therefore, the learning design described (e.g., access to all course items with little supervision and learners have control of when to learn and how to learn) implied that learning in MOOCs involved learners taking control of their learning and to a large extent by self-regulating their learning (Maldonado-Mahauad, Pérez-Sanagustín, Kizilcec, Morales, & Munoz-Gama, 2018;Weinhardt & Sitzmann, 2019). ...
Article
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The limited instructional support in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) inherently demands learners to self-regulate their learning. MOOC research shows that learners are more successful when they engage in self-regulated learning (SRL) behaviors such as planning what to study and reviewing study materials. However, many learners struggle with SRL. In this study, we examined the effect of two types of SRL prompts (i.e., questions or a combination of questions and recommendations) on SRL activities, course engagement, and performance in MOOCs. Learners either received questions supporting SRL, questions supporting SRL followed by recommendations, or neither questions supporting SRL nor recommendations. Log data was used to examine learners’ behavior in the MOOCs. Results showed the SRL prompts, in general, are effective in enhancing SRL-related activities and course engagement. However, the effectiveness of the SRL prompts may be influenced by the complexity of the MOOCs. The current study adds to the field of SRL by examining prompting as an approach to enhance SRL in MOOCs.
... Courses targeting work-related skills have the potential for higher enrollment and completion rate [15,16]. Skill training can be defined as a proposal for the development of a series of discrete elements that build complex behavior and that leads or helps build a relationship between the health professional and patients by addressing when and how to use certain communication strategies [17]. ...
Article
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Background: Interpersonal and technical skills are required for the care of people living with substance use disorders. Considering the applicability and usability of online courses as continuing professional education initiatives, this study aimed to describe the content design process of an introductory-level healthcare-centered Massive Open Online Course (MOOC). Methods: The content of the course was informed through needs assessment, by using three sources: (a) narrative literature review, (b) Delphi health experts panel consensus, and (c) focus groups conducted with people living with substance use disorders. The data from the empirical research phases were analyzed through qualitative Thematic Analysis. Results: The product of this research project is the introductory-level Massive Open Online Course "Healthcare: Developing Relational Skills for the Assistance of People Living with Substance Use Disorders" which approaches health communication and empathetic relational professional skills as a means of reducing stigmatization of people living with substance use disorders. Conclusions: Diverse strategies for designing distance education initiatives have to consider different views on the subject being approached in such courses. The product presented in this paper has the potential to be an educational tool for topics traditionally not addressed in Brazilian continuing education and can be used as a model to the design of online courses directed to the development of work-related skills for the healthcare professions.
... Over the last few years, the debate about online learning in higher education has intensified (Noroozi et al., 2016, particularly in response to the global Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) (O'Connor, 2014). MOOCs are the state-of-the-art form of ICT use in education that permits large numbers of learners to access online courses (Jung & Lee, 2018;Weinhardt & Sitzmann, 2019). MOOCs have increased in popularity in recent years (Foley et al., 2019) with the core purpose of providing opportunities for public instruction and free access to the academic training of all instruction-seeking applicants (Yuan & Powell, 2013). ...
Article
This study investigates the effects of a developed MOOC based on Merrill’s principles of instruction on participants’ learning outcomes and satisfaction. A pre-test-post-test with a control group design was used in this study. In total, 335 participants were assigned into experimental (using Merrill’s principles of instruction) and control group (using the conventional method). However, 291 subjects (143 participants from the experimental and 148 participants from the control group condition) remained in the course up to the last session, and only 200 participants (100 participants per each condition) filled in the surveys. The results were in favour of participants in the experimental condition both in terms of learning and satisfaction compared to the participants in the control group condition. By implementing Merrill’s principles of instruction in designing MOOCs and actively engaging participants in a problem-centred learning process, their learning outcomes and satisfaction can be further improved.
... Although the websites offering online courses have been around for a long time, they have recently gained attention. Many learners choose online courses to improve their knowledge instead of traditional training centres [5,6]. Online learning is a useful method to help learners gain their knowledge quickly and conveniently, regardless of space and time [7]. ...
Conference Paper
Online learning is a useful method to help learners gain knowledge quickly and conveniently, regardless of space and time. As the Covid-19 pandemic is spreading and showing no signs of stopping, online learning has played an even more important role, especially when governments' social isolation order is fully applied. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), which are more and more popular worldwide, bring many benefits to the learner for improving skills and knowledge. The Uses & Gratification Theory (U&G theory) is one theory that can discover the relationship between user-centric motivation and user attitude when they use the media. Based on the Uses & Gratification theory, this study aimed to analyze the relationship between the learner's motivation and attitude when taking part in an online course. The quantitative research model was applied through a survey of 316 respondents. The result pointed out that motivational factors affect Perceived Enjoyment in online courses on the website, including Convenience, Entertainment, Socialising, and Experience Sharing. Some managerial implications were proposed.
... Las nuevas formas de currículo, los nuevos métodos de enseñanza, las formas de organización y los medios educativos son temas centrales en la mayoría de debates contemporáneos sobre la innovación educativa (Whiteside, 2019). Algunas tendencias que se consolidan en la educación superior refieren a: los ecosistemas tecnológicos (Llorens, molina, Compañ & Satorre, 2014), la analítica académica (Baepler & murdoch, 2010) y del aprendizaje (Gómez-Aguilar, Hernández-García, García-Peñalvo & Therón, 2015), la personalización del aprendizaje (Lerís, Vea y Velamazán, 2015), los Massive Open Online Courses (mOOC) (Weinhardt & Sitzmann, 2019), la gamificación (Araya, Arias, Bottan & Cristia, 2019), las prácticas virtuales (Blaine, 2019) y el desarrollo del pensamiento computacional (Cheung & Abelson, 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Universities must adapt and anticipate emerging challenges to maintain their role in society. This article aims to propose an educational prospective framework that facilitates the analysis of alternative futures in higher education institutions. A normative prospective methodology is used, semi-structured interviews with experts are applied, as the basis for a morphological analysis that guides the definition of future scenarios. The results allow characterizing the strategic panorama of higher education in Colombia and the variables with the greatest influence on institutional accreditation processes are identified; specifically, the case of the University Institution of the National Sports School (Valle del Cauca, Colombia) is analyzed. The scenarios of inertial future, incremental development, structural change and setback are formulated, which lead to the elaboration of strategic recommendations for the best scenario. It is concluded that the proposed educational prospective analysis integrates institutional, internationalization, science, technology and innovation aspects and social projection for the construction of alternative future scenarios useful for strategic decision-making in higher education institutions.
... As previously stated, Bannier (2016) contends that MOOCs have reached their peak. Weinhardt and Sitzmann (2019) question what we know about MOOC delivery, their enrollment, the effectiveness of MOOCs on the learner and to the content area, their role in human resource development, and the benefits MOOCs can have. Government organizations, higher education institutions, and commercial organizations continue to offer MOOCs in an effort to train and educate their workforce, the general public, and to expand available educational opportunities beyond tuition-paying university students. ...
Thesis
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The purpose of this study is to identify the pedagogical strategies used for instruction and assessment in leadership-oriented MOOCs and gain a more refined understanding of the current state of MOOCs in leadership education. The study also seeks to fill the gaps in the body of knowledge surrounding leadership MOOCs. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are a form of distance education course used across content areas. They have been celebrated as revolutionizing the way learners access education and the way colleges and universities could expand the notion of education on a global scale beyond their traditional campuses. The use of MOOCs in leadership education attracts students for the purposes of education and professional development. This content analysis engages the current state of leadership MOOCs through a review of the literature, a description of the methodology, and presents the results and discussion that emerge. This study examines 96 leadership MOOCs across the MOOC platforms of Coursera, EdX, FutureLearn, Canvas.net, and Standford Online through a content analysis research framework. The study concludes with a discussion of leadership MOOC pedagogy and position as a vibrant and flexible delivery method for leadership education and professional development on a global scale.
... As previously stated, Bannier (2016) contends that MOOCs have reached their peak. Weinhardt and Sitzmann (2019) question what we know about MOOC delivery, their enrollment, the effectiveness of MOOCs on the learner and to the content area, their role in human resource development, and the benefits MOOCs can have. Government organizations, higher education institutions, and commercial organizations continue to offer MOOCs in an effort to train and educate their workforce, the general public, and to expand available educational opportunities beyond tuition-paying university students. ...
Article
The purpose of this study is to identify the pedagogical strategies used for instruction and assessment in leadership-oriented MOOCs and gain a more refined understanding of the current state of MOOCs in leadership education. The study also seeks to fill the gaps in the body of knowledge surrounding leadership MOOCs. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are a form of distance education course used across content areas. They have been celebrated as revolutionizing the way learners access education and the way colleges and universities could expand the notion of education on a global scale beyond their traditional campuses. The use of MOOCs in leadership education attracts students for the purposes of education and professional development. This content analysis engages the current state of leadership MOOCs through a review of the literature, a description of the methodology, and presents the results and discussion that emerge. This study examines 96 leadership MOOCs across the MOOC platforms of Coursera, EdX, FutureLearn, Canvas.net, and Standford Online through a content analysis research framework. The study concludes with a discussion of leadership MOOC pedagogy and position as a vibrant and flexible delivery method for leadership education and professional development on a global scale. Advisor: L. J. McElravy
... Similar efforts have been carried out in other institutions as well (Martin-Villalba et al., 2008;Srinivasana et al., 2003). The technically enhanced nature of a course based on a process simulation can potentially be scaled to accommodate large cohorts of students (Lim, 2017), while there is also the potential to scale these types of courses to massive open online courses (MOOC) that many institutions are moving towards (Brahimi and Sarirete, 2015;Weinhardt and Sitzmann, 2019). ...
Article
The domains of process design, operations and control are highly interdependent and thus affect operational efficiency and robustness of industrial facilities. Despite this, they are mostly kept in isolation from each other even in commercial projects, which is probably due to the perceived increase in complexity and aligned with prior experience from university education. Process design covers mostly the steady state, whereas process control is generally taught with a strong focus on classical control theory, which can be difficult to apply in industry. A reason for not combining the three domains of process design, operations and control is the lack of simple, student friendly teaching aids that can be used within time constraints of (under-)graduate teaching. The Tennessee Eastman Process (TEP) challenge, introduced in the early 90′s, originally as a process control benchmark simulation, can be used as a teaching aid to impart practical understanding of process design, dynamics and control to students. To this end, we will discuss the unique properties of the TEP, which make it an excellent tool to introduce process dynamics and control while reinforcing understanding of fundamentals, unit operations and the complexities and consequences of combining unit operations. We will then identify key developments that are needed to make the TEP a useful tool for teaching and discuss developments that have been carried out by the authors in this respect. Subsequently, it is shown how the modified model creates learning opportunities with respect to elementary as well as advanced control techniques and design assessments. The paper concludes with an outline of how this tool is currently used in a process design course with a strong emphasis on dynamics and control and in a classical undergraduate course on process control.
... They are directly linked to usage, user satisfaction, along and individual or organizational performance resulting from participation. Lee (2018) even believes that mass open online courses can capture students' learning behaviors in detail without interrupting their learning processes. Weinhardt & Sitzmann (2020), state that MOOCs represent an educational approach that allows hundreds of thousands of students to access online courses anywhere in the world and usually for free, and there are a number of stories that suggest that they can revolutionize training and education. For Jung & Lee (2018), massive open online courses represent a way to expand educational opportunities and improve the quality of instruction and learning. ...
Article
Full-text available
The MOOCs is the century of technological transformations representing a renewal in terms of platforms and educational methodologies through a computer. The current social requirements demand an education that adapts to the needs of people in terms of availability, time, and even lifestyle. These arise as a response to the digital vortex as a training resource in which a series of tools that promote their empowerment is implicit. The objective of this study is to carry out a bibliographic review of the last five years to establish the central interference of the MOOCs, their perspectives, and implications in the process of formation and knowledge. This study is developed in horizons marked by technological transformations and precisely for this reason, nothing is definitive, since digital variations arise every second, thus constituting a limitation due to its speed. It is concluded that the MOOCs allows promoting alternative learning, able to adapt to the users' needs, with some specific thematic axes that include gamification aspects that will enable to dynamize and, therefore to optimize their development.
... Berdasarkan karakteristik dari CMOOC dan xMOOC tersebut, peluang pembelajaran menggunakan MOOC sangat terbuka lebar dalam upaya meningkatkan kualitas pembelajaran dengan memberikan akses pengetahuan dan pengalaman kepada pembelajar yang dengan mudah mengakses sumber belajar dengan didukung oleh fitur teknologi seperti interaksi, kolaborasi, refleksi diri dan sistem evaluasi (Weinhardt & Sitzmann, 2019). Alat-alat yang digunakan dalam literatur MOOC diklasifikasikan dalam tiga kategori yaitu alat kolaborasi, penilaian, dan analitik. ...
Article
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This article discusses the learning of Islamic Religious Education (PAI) in the digital era, the opportunities and challenges of MOOC through the Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) media associated with the concept of independent learning. The research method used a qualitative descriptive approach. Through the independent learning approach, learners explore knowledge and information independently and gain knowledge from learning experiences. The availability of course themes (course designs) that suit learners in the MOOC program greatly determines the success of increasing the quality of learning, especially regarding Islamic Religious Education (PAI) learning. Until now there has been no Islamic Religious College that has developed the MOOC on PAI which can be used collectively. The final result of this article is a research on the opportunities for developing adaptive MOOCs in Islamic higher education institutions, especially the PAI study program which is harmonized with the application of learning. Through the adaptive MOOC, it is hoped that the strengthening of PAI learning outcomes from the start in the form of materials can become characters and values through monitoring and assessment props using MOOC technology. AbstrakArtikel ini membahas pembelajaran Pendidikan Agama Islam (PAI) di era digital, peluang dan tantangan memanfaatkan media Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) adaptif diselaraskan dengan kurikulum merdeka belajar. Metode penelitian menggunakan pendekatan deskriptif kualitatif. Melalui pendekatan merdeka belajar, pembelajar mengeksplorasi pengetahuan dan informasi secara mandiri dan memperoleh pengetahuan dari pengalaman belajar. Ketersediaan tema kursus (course design) yang sesuai dengan pembelajar dalam MOOC sangat menentukan keberhasilan peningkatan kualitas pembelajaran khususnya tentang Pendidikan Agama Islam (PAI). Penggunaan media pembelajaran MOOC tentang PAI yang digunakan secara bersama kolaboratif antar perguruan tinggi akan memberikan dampak signifikan dalam memajukan pendidikan Islam di Indonesia. Hasil akhir dari artikel ini adalah sebuah pemikiran memanfaatkan peluang media pembelajaran MOOC yang disusun adaptif di Perguruan Tinggi Agama Islam diselaraskan dengan kurikulum merdeka belajar. Melalui konstruksi MOOC adaptif sesuai karakteristik Perguruan Tinggi Agama Islam mampu memberikan solusi dalam penguatan capaian pembelajaran khususnya ranah sikap dan tata nilai.
... A la luz de este constructo, los estudios de sobre el aprendizaje con otros individuos ha tenido diferentes énfasis. Por ejemplo, se han examinado las interacciones asincrónicas y sincrónicas entre estudiantes que aprenden colaborativamente en la plataforma Blackboard (Suárez Guerrero, 2010), en modalidades mixtas o B-learning (Han y Ellis, 2019), en modalidades de aprendizaje en cursos masivos y abiertos (MOOCS, por sus siglas en inglés) (Weinhardt y Sitzmann, 2019). Algunos de esos trabajos han analizado los procesos de construcción y negociación compartida de conocimiento, mediante las interacciones escritas en foros (Castellanos Ramírez y Niño (2018). ...
Article
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introduction. The study of collaborative learning mediated by the Internet became popular in the 1990s when the use of technological mediations, supported by the Internet, showed that learning could be possible by collaborating with the computer’s mediation. Later developments reviewed how technologies favored learning processes and how collaboration could be incorporated into virtual mode education. Objective. To establish unexplored study lines that can contribute to further works on collaborative learning in higher education processes mediated through the Internet. Analysis. It was conducted on 225 documents published in journals indexed in SCOPUS between 1995 and 2018. The use of the bibliometrix package in the R environment help to analyze the behavior of the publications in the indicated time frame, the areas of knowledge in which more is published about the topic, the most relevant documents due to their number of citations, and the thematic emphasis assumed in the studies analyzed; the analysis was carried out through networks of co-occurrence of key terms defined by the authors. Results. The results reflect dispersion in the research on the subject, presumably due to the tendency to develop isolated studies by disciplines, mostly oriented to analyzing the effectiveness of technological tools and environments to favor learning, on individual results but not group ones. Conclusions. Collaborative learning mediated through the Internet requires to be studied in interdisciplinary studies. It also needs to be structured, designed, and taught in higher education programs since technological tools are the support of the collaborative learning process, not the end of the educational process.
... Program-specific factors comprise the design of and support provided on the platform including the MOOCs offered (Reinhardt et al., 2020). The use of online offerings and especially of MOOCs as access to higher education comes with technological prerequisites such as a functioning Internet connection Weinhardt & Sitzmann, 2019), which were considered as a third category of reasons for dropping out. ...
Book
This book discusses digital learning opportunities in higher education for refugees with different educational, social, cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Based on findings from practical studies and research projects from several countries, the book highlights the numerous challenges when it comes to the successful integration of refugees into higher education. These challenges arise at both the individual and the institutional level. The contributions included in this book show how these challenges can be effectively met using digital teaching-learning platforms. The work thus offers a comprehensive insight into the opportunities online-based learning platforms offer regarding the successful integration of refugees into higher education Overall, the research presented in this volume is relevant for political stakeholders, university practitioners in the field of migration research, university research, and online and digital learning.
... These courses deliver 80% or more of their content via the internet (Allen et al., 2016;Simonson & Smaldino, 2014) and generally do not require face-to-face meetings (Allen et al., 2016;Bolliger & Erichsen, 2013). Moreover, other types of online courses such as MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) are free, and anyone with an internet connection can enroll in them (Weinhardt & Sitzmann, 2019). ...
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... Through the Internet, students can achieve low input and high output, acquire long-lasting skills, and have a higher sense of learning achievement, satisfaction, and other better subjective experiences (Bin, 2014). The existing research results show the phenomena of low online learning performance, such as low course completion rate, low satisfaction, high dropout rate, and poor learning effect (Deng & Benckendorff, 2017;Traci, 2018). For instance, Jordan (2014) analyzed 39 MOOC courses and found that the average completion rate was 6.5%. ...
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... Applications (Learning Management System) such as google classroom have been widely used in Indonesia, the LMS google classroom application is here as support for educators who aim to improve the quality of online courses, but also as a support for students to facilitate their learning. [17] [18] Syntax Online Application Service-Based Courses and Training Learning Management System (LMS) is as follows: (a) pre-learning, and Learning Management System (LMS) to Improve Student Competencies (b) presentation of material, (c) discussion; (d) assignment (e) and evaluation. [19] ...
... is is the probability algorithm that the platform of engineering professional online education courses [22][23][24] is successfully accessed by college teachers and students. e functions of the engineering professional online education platform are mainly divided into two parts, one is the client of the online education platform, and the other is the backstage management of the online education platform. ...
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... Program-specific factors comprise the design of and support provided on the platform including the MOOCs offered (Reinhardt et al., 2020). The use of online offerings and especially of MOOCs as access to higher education comes with technological prerequisites such as a functioning Internet connection Weinhardt & Sitzmann, 2019), which were considered as a third category of reasons for dropping out. ...
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... With delivery continuing to accelerate through the COVID-19 pandemic, it is timely to consider the challenges that faculty members have been encountering when dealing with MOOCs, given their role as front-line teachers (Annaraud & Singh, 2017). University leaders have had various motives for developing MOOCs (Weinhardt & Sitzmann, 2019). These include a desire to enhance institutional reputation, recruit prospective students, become immersed within a professional community, develop business models to support future course developments, and attract donors (Annaraud & Singh, 2017). ...
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More than 4 decades of research and 9 meta-analyses have focused on the undermining effect: namely, the debate over whether the provision of extrinsic incentives erodes intrinsic motivation. This review and meta-analysis builds on such previous reviews by focusing on the interrelationship among intrinsic motivation, extrinsic incentives, and performance, with reference to 2 moderators: performance type (quality vs. quantity) and incentive contingency (directly performance-salient vs. indirectly performance-salient), which have not been systematically reviewed to date. Based on random-effects meta-analytic methods, findings from school, work, and physical domains (k = 183, N = 212,468) indicate that intrinsic motivation is a medium to strong predictor of performance (ρ = .21-45). The importance of intrinsic motivation to performance remained in place whether incentives were presented. In addition, incentive salience influenced the predictive validity of intrinsic motivation for performance: In a "crowding out" fashion, intrinsic motivation was less important to performance when incentives were directly tied to performance and was more important when incentives were indirectly tied to performance. Considered simultaneously through meta-analytic regression, intrinsic motivation predicted more unique variance in quality of performance, whereas incentives were a better predictor of quantity of performance. With respect to performance, incentives and intrinsic motivation are not necessarily antagonistic and are best considered simultaneously. Future research should consider using nonperformance criteria (e.g., well-being, job satisfaction) as well as applying the percent-of-maximum-possible (POMP) method in meta-analyses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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This study integrates research from strategy, economics, and applied psychology to examine how organizations may leverage their human resources to enhance firm performance and competitive advantage. Staffing and training are key human resource management practices used to achieve firm performance through acquiring and developing human capital resources. However, little research has examined whether and why staffing and training influence firm-level financial performance (profit) growth under different environmental (economic) conditions. Using 359 firms with over 12 years of longitudinal firm-level profit data, we suggest that selective staffing and internal training directly and interactively influence firm profit growth through their effects on firm labor productivity, implying that staffing and training contribute to the generation of slack resources that help buffer and then recover from the effects of the Great Recession. Further, internal training that creates specific human capital resources is more beneficial for prerecession profitability, but staffing is more beneficial for postrecession recovery, apparently because staffing creates generic human capital resources that enable firm flexibility and adaptation. Thus, the theory and findings presented in this article have implications for the way staffing and training may be used strategically to weather economic uncertainty (recession effects). They also have important practical implications by demonstrating that firms that more effectively staff and train will outperform competitors throughout all pre- and postrecessionary periods, even after controlling for prior profitability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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A theoretical model is presented that examines self-regulatory processes and trainee characteristics as predictors of attrition from voluntary online training in order to determine who is at risk of dropping out and the processes that occur during training that determine when they are at risk of dropping out. Attrition increased following declines in trainees' commitment to training and self-efficacy. Trainees lower in conscientiousness were more vulnerable to dropping out than those higher in conscientiousness, and this effect was fully mediated by self-regulatory processes. Conscientiousness also moderated the effects of commitment and self-efficacy on attrition—a high level of conscientiousness provided a buffer against dropping out when trainees' commitment and self-efficacy declined during training. The number of hours that trainees worked per week moderated the effort/attrition relationship; spending extra time reviewing increased attrition for trainees who worked longer hours and decreased attrition for trainees who worked shorter hours.
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African American college students tend to obtain lower grades than their White counterparts, even when they enter college with equivalent test scores. Past research suggests that negative stereotypes impugning Black students' intellectual abilities play a role in this underperformance. Awareness of these stereotypes can psychologically threaten African Americans, a phenomenon known as “stereotype threat” (Steele & Aronson, 1995), which can in turn provoke responses that impair both academic performance and psychological engagement with academics. An experiment was performed to test a method of helping students resist these responses to stereotype threat. Specifically, students in the experimental condition of the experiment were encouraged to see intelligence—the object of the stereotype—as a malleable rather than fixed capacity. This mind-set was predicted to make students' performances less vulnerable to stereotype threat and help them maintain their psychological engagement with academics, both of which could help boost their college grades. Results were consistent with predictions. The African American students (and, to some degree, the White students) encouraged to view intelligence as malleable reported greater enjoyment of the academic process, greater academic engagement, and obtained higher grade point averages than their counterparts in two control groups.
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Vocational researchers interested in the career development of women and people of color have noted the potentially strong influence of perceived barriers in the formulation and pursuit of educational and career goals. In this study, ethnic and gender differences in perceived educational and career barriers were investigated in a sample of 1139 Mexican-American and Euro-American high school juniors and seniors. Differences in perceived barriers were assessed using MANOVA and ANOVA procedures. Results were consistent with the hypotheses, suggesting that (1) female participants anticipated more barriers than male participants; (2) Mexican-American participants anticipated more barriers than Euro-Americans; and (3) these differences were consistent within ethnic and gender groups. Implications for future research are discussed.
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Realistic Job Previews (RJPs) have been studied by researchers and utilized by practitioners to attenuate early turnover by providing both positive and negative information about a job and organization to job applicants. Historically, RJPs have suffered from several criticisms including modest effect sizes, cost of development, and potential self-selection effects. Recently, the expectancy lowering procedure (ELP: Buckley, Fedor, Veres, Wiese, & Carraher has been developed and tested to address these limitations of the RJP. The purpose of this review is to provide historical foundations and persistent limitations of the RJP, and to extend propositions supporting the ELP as an effective alternative procedure.
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The construct of self-efficacy has received increasing empirical attention in the organizational behavior literature. People who think they can perform well on a task do better than those who think they will fail. Differences in self-efficacy are associated with bona fide differences in skill level; however, efficacy perceptions also may be influenced by differences in personality, motivation, and the task itself. This article reviews theoretically the antecedent processes and information cues involved in the formation of self-efficacy. A model of the determinants of self-efficacy is proposed that enhances understanding of both the complexity and malleability of the construct. Determinants that facilitate the most immediate change in self-efficacy are identified, and appropriate change strategies are highlighted. Implications and propositions pertaining to future research are discussed at the end of the article.
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A meta-analytic path analysis with k = 52 studies and sample size of roughly 17,000 showed that enhanced perceptions of organizational honesty is the primary mechanism by which realistic job previews (RJPs) influence voluntary turnover. This suggests revisions to RJP theory to incorporate social exchange and the way RJPs lead individuals to feel about the organization. Results assessing several new potential moderators of relationships between RJPs and turnover found that the most effective RJP design may be an oral or written RJP delivered posthire and designed to signal organizational honesty. We discuss several key theoretical and practical implications of the results based on a novel signaling theory perspective on RJPs.
Research from numerous corners of psychological inquiry suggests that self-assessments of skill and character are often flawed in substantive and systematic ways. We review empirical findings on the imperfect nature of self-assessment and discuss implications for three real-world domains: health, education, and the workplace. In general, people's self-views hold only a tenuous to modest relationship with their actual behavior and performance. The correlation between self-ratings of skill and actual performance in many domains is moderate to meager—indeed, at times, other people's predictions of a person's outcomes prove more accurate than that person's self-predictions. In addition, people overrate themselves. On average, people say that they are “above average” in skill (a conclusion that defies statistical possibility), overestimate the likelihood that they will engage in desirable behaviors and achieve favorable outcomes, furnish overly optimistic estimates of when they will complete future projects, and reach judgments with too much confidence. Several psychological processes conspire to produce flawed self-assessments. Research focusing on health echoes these findings. People are unrealistically optimistic about their own health risks compared with those of other people. They also overestimate how distinctive their opinions and preferences (e.g., discomfort with alcohol) are among their peers—a misperception that can have a deleterious impact on their health. Unable to anticipate how they would respond to emotion-laden situations, they mispredict the preferences of patients when asked to step in and make treatment decisions for them. Guided by mistaken but seemingly plausible theories of health and disease, people misdiagnose themselves—a phenomenon that can have severe consequences for their health and longevity. Similarly, research in education finds that students' assessments of their performance tend to agree only moderately with those of their teachers and mentors. Students seem largely unable to assess how well or poorly they have comprehended material they have just read. They also tend to be overconfident in newly learned skills, at times because the common educational practice of massed training appears to promote rapid acquisition of skill—as well as self-confidence—but not necessarily the retention of skill. Several interventions, however, can be introduced to prompt students to evaluate their skill and learning more accurately. In the workplace, flawed self-assessments arise all the way up the corporate ladder. Employees tend to overestimate their skill, making it difficult to give meaningful feedback. CEOs also display overconfidence in their judgments, particularly when stepping into new markets or novel projects—for example, proposing acquisitions that hurt, rather then help, the price of their company's stock. We discuss several interventions aimed at circumventing the consequences of such flawed assessments; these include training people to routinely make cognitive repairs correcting for biased self-assessments and requiring people to justify their decisions in front of their peers. The act of self-assessment is an intrinsically difficult task, and we enumerate several obstacles that prevent people from reaching truthful self-impressions. We also propose that researchers and practitioners should recognize self-assessment as a coherent and unified area of study spanning many subdisciplines of psychology and beyond. Finally, we suggest that policymakers and other people who makes real-world assessments should be wary of self-assessments of skill, expertise, and knowledge, and should consider ways of repairing self-assessments that may be flawed.
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Presents a critique of published learner control studies that highlights problems with definitions of learner control, theoretical foundations, treatment duration, outcome measures, sample sizes, and conclusions. Recommendations are made concerning the exploration of alternative models for research focused on learner control and other aspects of computer-based instruction. (Contains 40 references.) (LRW)
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Although organizations invest billions of dollars in training every year, many trained competencies reportedly fail to transfer to the workplace. Researchers have long examined the transfer problem, uncovering a wealth of information regarding the transfer of training. Inconsistencies remain, however, and organizations may find it difficult to pinpoint exactly which factors are most critical. Using Baldwin and Ford's model of transfer, we identify the factors relating to trainee characteristics (cognitive ability, self-efficacy, motivation, perceived utility of training), training design (behavioral modeling, error management, realistic training environments) and the work environment (transfer climate, support, opportunity to perform, follow-up) that have exhibited the strongest, most consistent relationships with the transfer of training. We describe our reasoning for extracting such variables from the literature and conclude by discussing potential implications for practice and future research.
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This article deals with costs and benefits related to on-the-job training. For calculating costs and benefits of on-the-job training at the sector and macroeconomic levels, a model is developed. Model parameters are estimated using information from a survey of employers and employees in the Netherlands. Exogenous model variables are taken from the survey as well as from several official statistical sources. The model is used for running a baseline scenario and several policy scenarios. The policy scenarios describe proposed policy measures for stimulating lifelong learning in the Netherlands. The model calculates detailed costs and benefits for players in the market for on-the-job training and the macroeconomic consequences. It is shown that the differences in cost-effectiveness of policy measures can be large. Another important conclusion is that the results may differ strongly among employers, employees, and the government.
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In our response to the 28 (largely positive) commentaries from an esteemed collection of researchers, we (1) consolidate additional evidence, extensions, and amplifications offered by, our commentators; (2) emphasize the value of integrating experimental and ethnographic methods, and show how researchers using behavioral games have done precisely this; (3) present our concerns with arguments from several commentators that separate variable "content" from "computations" or "basic processes"; (4) address concerns that the patterns we highlight marking WEIRD people as psychological outliers arise from aspects of the researchers and the research process; (5) respond to the claim that as members of the same species, humans must have the same invariant psychological processes; (6) address criticisms of our telescoping contrasts; and (7) return to the question of explaining why WEIRD people are psychologically unusual. We believe a broad-based behavioral science of human nature needs to integrate a variety of methods and apply them to diverse populations, well beyond the WEIRD samples it has largely relied upon.