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Assessment Study on Livestock Feed Resource, Feed Availability and Production Constraints in Maale Woreda in South Omo Zone

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The study was carried out in Maale Woreda, in South Western Ethiopia aimed to assess feed resource, feed resource availability and feed production constraints. Six Kebeles per Woreda were selected and one focus group discussion which comprised 12 pastoralists per kebele were identified and interviewed. For the key informants’ interview, two livestock production experts from Woreda Livestock and Fisher Resource development Office and six livestock developmental agents from representative kebeles were interviewed. The focus group discussion and key informants interview was used to collect primary data on feed resource, feed resource availability, feed conservation practices and feed resources utilization and major livestock feed constraints. The study results shown that grass from the open grazing land, indigenous browse species and crop residues were major feed resources for the livestock in to study area. The open grazing land had poorly managed and the biomass productivity generated from open grazing land has been retreated. The major livestock feeding system was free grazing and Agro pastoral communities had no trends of conserved feed and provided concentrate supplements to the livestock. There were lack of low quality feed improvement and trends of growing the cultivated fodder species production practices. The 83,783.60 tons of dry matter was produced from different feed resources in the Maale Woreda with deficit of 623,333.40 tons of dry matter per year. The climate change, expansion of cropping land, increments in human populations, lack of inputs and training were identified as livestock feed production constraints in to study area. The migration, supplementations and purchasing available feed were important coping strategies toward feed shortage in to study area. Generally, the results from this study demonstrated that the total dry matter produced from different feed resources in to the study area was not enough to satisfy the dry matter requirement of livestock to support the profitable livestock production in to the study area, which suggest that the primary focus needs to be improving the existing feed resources through rehabilitation of degraded grazing areas, introduction adaptable fodder production, improving feed utilization practices and introduce and promote the crop residue feed improvement technologies.
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Volume 6 • Issue 2 • 1000269
J Fisheries Livest Prod, an open access journal
ISSN: 2332-2608
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ISSN: 2332-2608
Hidosa and Tesfaye, J Fisheries Livest Prod 2018, 6:2
DOI: 10.4172/2332-2608.1000269
Research Article Open Access
Journal of Fisheries &
Livestock Production
*Corresponding author: Hidosa D, Departments of Livestock Research, Jinka
Agricultural Research Center, Jinka, Ethiopia, Tel: +251 46 775 0881; E-mail:
denbelahidosa@gmail.com
Received March 20, 2018; Accepted April 30, 2018; Published May 05, 2018
Citation: Hidosa D, Tesfaye Y (2018) Assessment Study on Livestock Feed
Resource, Feed Availability and Production Constraints in Maale Woreda in South
Omo Zone. J Fisheries Livest Prod 6: 269. doi: 10.4172/2332-2608.1000269
Copyright: © 2018 Hidosa D, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under
the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted
use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and
source are credited.
Keywords: Agro pastoralists; Feed resource; Feed availability, Feed
constraints
Introduction
Ethiopia is home, excluding some non-sedentary area of country
such as pastoral areas of Afar and Somali regions, to approximately
56.71 million of cattle, 29.33 million of sheep, 29.11 million of goats, 1.16
million of camels, 56.87 million of chickens, and 2.03 million of horses
7.43 million of donkey and 0.40 million of mules [1]. e livestock have
served for rural communities as sources of food, traction, manure, raw
materials, investment, cash income and social and cultural identity
[1]. Despite of these merit functions, the productivity has generated
from the livestock is in generally low [2] due to both socio-economic
and technical limitations [3]. Among the technical constraints,
shortage of feed is the major one that contributed to low productivity
performance in Ethiopia [4]. In to the study area, in general, South
Omo, livestock production system is entirely having depended on
the feed from range forages [5]. However, the productivity generated
from these feed resource is under extensive deterioration along with
ever-increasing deforestation for agriculture, fuel wood gathering and
recurrent drought [5,6]. is is recalls that the research approach may
need to focus on those areas due to currently, the information’s are
lacking mainly on livestock feed resource availability, feed productions,
feed utilization and feed production constraints. Furthermore,
understanding the existing situation regarding to the feed production
status, feed production constraints and opportunities in the study
area is one of the appealing strategies in order to call policy makers,
pastoralists and other relevant stake holders in order to diagnose
the problems and suggests interventional measures to alleviate the
problems. erefore, this study was designed to assess feed resource,
feed resource availability and feed production constraints (Table 1).
e Study Methodologies
Descriptions of the study area
Maale Woreda is one of the eight Woreda located in South Omo
Zone which covers an area of 1,432 square kilo meters. e altitude of the
Woreda ranges between 600-1500 m above sea level and astronomical
located at 5.08N-6.01N attitudinally and 36.30E-370E longitudinally.
It had comprised 40% mid-altitude which ranging from 1000-1400 m
a.s.l and whereas, 60% is low lands which has been ranging from the
605-999 m a.s.l. e mean annual rainfall which ranging from 800-
1200 mm with mean annual temperature has lain between 18-35°C.
e agro-pastoral production is the farming system has prevailed in
the study area for the last four decades. e male Woreda have 363,291
cattle, 82,916 sheep, 462,280 goats, 226,904 poultry, 12,256 equines
and 2870 donkeys [7-9].
Abstract
The study was carried out in Maale Woreda, in South Western Ethiopia aimed to assess feed resource, feed
resource availability and feed production constraints. Six Kebeles per Woreda were selected and one focus group
discussion which comprised 12 pastoralists per kebele were identied and interviewed. For the key informants’
interview, two livestock production experts from Woreda Livestock and Fisher Resource development Ofce and six
livestock developmental agents from representative kebeles were interviewed. The focus group discussion and key
informants interview was used to collect primary data on feed resource, feed resource availability, feed conservation
practices and feed resources utilization and major livestock feed constraints. The study results shown that grass from
the open grazing land, indigenous browse species and crop residues were major feed resources for the livestock in
to study area. The open grazing land had poorly managed and the biomass productivity generated from open grazing
land has been retreated. The major livestock feeding system was free grazing and Agro pastoral communities had
no trends of conserved feed and provided concentrate supplements to the livestock. There were lack of low quality
feed improvement and trends of growing the cultivated fodder species production practices. The 83,783.60 tons of
dry matter was produced from different feed resources in the Maale Woreda with decit of 623,333.40 tons of dry
matter per year. The climate change, expansion of cropping land, increments in human populations, lack of inputs
and training were identied as livestock feed production constraints in to study area. The migration, supplementations
and purchasing available feed were important coping strategies toward feed shortage in to study area. Generally, the
results from this study demonstrated that the total dry matter produced from different feed resources in to the study
area was not enough to satisfy the dry matter requirement of livestock to support the protable livestock production
in to the study area, which suggest that the primary focus needs to be improving the existing feed resources through
rehabilitation of degraded grazing areas, introduction adaptable fodder production, improving feed utilization practices
and introduce and promote the crop residue feed improvement technologies.
Assessment Study on Livestock Feed Resource, Feed Availability and
Production Constraints in Maale Woreda in South Omo Zone
Hidosa D1* and Tesfaye Y2
1Departments of Livestock Research, Jinka Agricultural Research Center, Jinka, Ethiopia
2Department of Socio Economic Research, Jinka Agricultural Research Center, Jinka, Ethiopia
Volume 6 • Issue 2 • 1000269
J Fisheries Livest Prod, an open access journal
ISSN: 2332-2608
Citation: Hidosa D, Tesfaye Y (2018) Assessment Study on Livestock Feed Resource, Feed Availability and Production Constraints in Maale Woreda
in South Omo Zone. J Fisheries Livest Prod 6: 269. doi: 10.4172/2332-2608.1000269
Page 2 of 5
Key informant interviews
Pertaining to key informant’s interview, 14 key informants
(Two livestock production experts from Woreda and 12 livestock
developmental agents from interviewed kebeles were identied and
interviewed. e livestock feed resource, livestock feed resource
availability, major livestock feed constraints, opportunities for livestock
feed production existed in to the area, feed shortage mitigation
strategies, new livestock feed technologies, adoption and dissemination
rate of new feed technologies by pastoral communities, alternative
livestock feed and extension services on livestock feed production to
pastoral communities were also an important issues that had been
discussed during the discussions with key informants in study Woreda.
Field observations
e eld observation was made by the researchers to enrich the data
about livestock feed available and communal grazing land conditions
and management of communal grazing land were monitored and
observed during their eld data collections.
Methods of Data Analysis
e qualitative information gathered from focus group discussions
on livestock feed were triangulated and analyzed. Furthermore, during
focus group discussions, proportional pilling method was used by using
piles of local materials such as stones and seeds in order to represents
the percentage shares of major livestock feed and Bar graphs used to
presented the proportional shares.
Result and Discussions
Major livestock feed resource
Agro pastoralists that the natural pasture, crop residues and
browsing species are the major livestock feed resource in to the
study area reported. e crop residues come from maize stover,
sorghum straw; te straw and nger millet stover. Furthermore, agro
pastoralists and key informants reported that Banana leaf, Banana
stem, Pumpkin and locally produced brewery called atella are also
alternative feed resource has used in to area as supplementary feed
resource for fattening purpose. Agro pastoralists ranked 45%, 32% and
21% of major livestock feed were come from the open grazing land,
crop residues and indigenous browse species respectively. In support
to present study, the study [5] in pastoral areas of Bena-Tsemay, had
shown that 80-90% major feed resources for livestock feeding was
comes from open communal grazing land. Moreover, the crop residues
have been used as the second major feed resources in to study area.
e study [11] indicated that the crop residues contributed major feed
resource next to communal grazing area which similar to idea reported
by agro pastoralists from the current study. e indigenous browse
species have donated the valuable tons of dry matter in to the study
area as being major feed resources during dry seasons. In support with
present results, the study made in Dassench Woreda [6] had shown
that the most of the Dassech pastoralists have been utilized browse
species as important feed resource next to natural pastures during dry
seasons (Figure 1).
Feed resource availability
During the focus group discussion and key informants interview,
respondents reported that there was occurrence of feed shortage for the
last 5 years. According to the respondents frequent climate variability,
deterioration in grazing land due to over grazing, expansion of farming
land and increments in human and livestock population are a major
identied shocks that has laid low availability feed to their livestock.
Study design and data collection methods
e focus group discussion (FGD), key informants interview
and eld observations were used to collect the primary data on feed
resource, feed resource availability, feed and production constraints.
Pastoralists, agro-pastoralists, local leaders, administrators, livestock
production experts and livestock extension workers were used as source
for primary data collection in this study. Moreover, the researchers also
had observed the conditions of communal grazing land in to the study
area during their eld data collection periods in to study area. e
secondary data on livestock population, feed resource and feed resource
availability were collected from Woreda Livestock and Fisher Resource
development Oce. Secondary data on annual and perennial crops
and the amount of crop residues in the selected area was also collected
from which the amount of crop residues that are used as a source of
animal feed were estimated using established conversion factors [7].
e quantity of feed DM obtained annually from dierent land use
type was determined by multiplying the hectare under each land use
type according to the recommendation of by using the conversion
factor of 2.0, 3.0, 1.8 and 0.7 t DM/ha/year were used for communal
grazing land, private grazing land, fallow land and indigenous browse
respectively. e livestock population per household was converted
to tropical livestock unit (TLU) [9] for local breed livestock. e DM
requirement was calculated based on daily DM requirement of 250 kg
(an equivalent of one TLU) for maintenance [10] recommendations for
tropical cattle (Table 2).
Focus group discussion (FGD)
Six kebeles such as Boshikoro, Woyiynsa, Tikiboko, Lemo kalendo,
Gudo and Ganto were selected in consultation with Woredas’ Livestock
and Fisher Resource Oce and BRACED project, Farm Africa of Jinka
Coordination Oce for focus group discussion. One focus group
discussions which was consisted twelve pastoralists (8 Men and 4
Women) was held at each study kebele and totally 72 pastoralists who
have better experience in livestock and feed production were selected
and interviewed. e livestock feed resource, feed resource availability,
feed conservation practice, feed conservation methods, livestock feed
resources utilization, major livestock feed constraints and opportunities
for livestock feed production existed in to the area and feed shortage
mitigation strategies were an important issues discussed during the
focus group discussions.
Grazing Land Area covered
in (ha)
Productivity t/ha Total dry matter
production
(in tons)
Private 4,948.00 3 14,844
Open grazing 15,938 2 31,876
Road Side 2948 2 5,896.00
Fallow Land 1939 1.8 3,490.20
Total Land Covered 25,773.00 - 56,106.20
Table 1: Total grazing land (ha) and estimated tons of dry matter from different
grazing land in Maale Woreda.
Crop Species Area (ha) Total DM (tons)
Maize 7,840.7 15,681
Sorghum 4,147.60 10,369
Teff 200 300
Haricot Bean 500 600
Finger Millet 193 482.5
Banana leaf 98 245
Total 12,979 27,677.40
Table 2: Total cropped land (ha) and estimated tons of DM from major crops in
Maale Woreda.
Volume 6 • Issue 2 • 1000269
J Fisheries Livest Prod, an open access journal
ISSN: 2332-2608
Citation: Hidosa D, Tesfaye Y (2018) Assessment Study on Livestock Feed Resource, Feed Availability and Production Constraints in Maale Woreda
in South Omo Zone. J Fisheries Livest Prod 6: 269. doi: 10.4172/2332-2608.1000269
Page 3 of 5
Furthermore, elders were reported that the shortages of livestock
feeds are more serious during the dry seasons which have started from
November to end in March. In supports to ndings from the current
study, the studies made from Ethiopian [5,12] indicated that the quality
and quantity of the available livestock feed resources had declined
drastically during the dry seasons due to frequent drought occurrences.
Furthermore, the conversion of communal grazing area in to cropping
farm also another hindering factor that leads the low feed availability
to the livestock feed is increments in human populations. Similar
research funding [13] conrmed that the conversion of grazing land in
to cropping land in Southern Ethiopia rangelands had a major impact
on increased forage scarcity during dry seasons.
Feed conservation and feeding practices
According to focus group discussions with elders regards to feed
conservation technologies, respondents replied that there are no any
feed conservation technologies in to the area when livestock feed
production is surplus. However, there is only trend of collection and
storages of crop residues aer grain harvesting for further use as basal
diet. is is due to lack of awareness and shortage of land to produce
the sucient feed to conserve. Regards to the feeding practices,
elders revealed that majority of agro pastoral communities had no
supplemented their livestock with supplements due to poor awareness
and lack of availability of modern inputs like commercial concentrate
in to study area. However, in some area the model agro pastoralists have
been traditionally fatten their indigenous cattle with locally available
feeds such as pumpkin aer grazing for six months. e research facts
[14-16] have demonstrated that Hamer and Dassench pastoralists do
not supply concentrate supplements to livestock which is in line with
ndings from the current study.
Feed quality improvement practices
With regard to feed quality improvement practices, the elders from
group discussions reported that the majority of communities in to the
study area have not used low quality feed improvement technologies
in order to enhance the low quality feed. However, some elders had
reported that some agro pastoralist communities have started quality
improvement techniques such as chopping, soaking with water and
cooking maize stover for 5 minutes during critical feed shortage seasons.
e lack of low quality improvement technologies in to study area is
due to having large number of livestock which made them impractical
to feed their livestock and lack of awareness toward the technologies.
Improvements low quality feed are imperative to improve feed intake
and digestibility of dry matter. As results of this study report had
indicated that generally low quality feed improvement practices are not
commonly utilized by the small holder farmers in Ethiopia due to lack
of awareness, skill gap and lack of inputs [15,16].
Improved forage production practices
During the focus group discussions, the elders reported that
majority of agro pastoral communities have no trends of growing
improved forage species. is is due to shortages of land, lack of
knowledge, lack of forage seeds, cuttings and splitting. However, in
to the study area, some agro pastoral communities has been starting
growing of improved forage species such as Rhodes, Elephant and
Sudan grass species on their backyard, around their boarder area
and on their farmland and have provided as supplements. According
to them, inputs like forage a seed provision has carried out by the
dierent non-governmental organizations. For example Farm Africa,
Jinka Branch had provided Elephant grass cutting, Sudan grass, Rhodes
grass and Cowpea seeds for Boshkoro kebele and also the established
improved forage development site for demonstration of technologies
by organizing agro pastoralists in to cooperatives. Mekoya et al. [17]
reported that improved forage species are not well developed under
the present Ethiopian conditions which are agreed with present study.
Moreover, the contribution of improved forage crops to livestock
supply in Ethiopia less than one percent which calls for further
eorts from governments, research institutes and non-governmental
organization in promotions of developing improved forage species
through lling awareness gap and input provisions [1].
Dry Matter Production and Feed Nalance
Dry matter from grazing land
According to Livestock and Fisher Resource Development oce
(2016) report indicated that around 25,773 ha of the area land is
covered by grazing land. From this area of land, the higher tons of dry
matter (31,876) are produced from open grazing land and whereas,
approximately the lowest tons of dry matter (3,490) feed is produced
from fallow land. Adapted from Livestock and Fisher Oce of Maale
Woreda.
Dry Matter from crop residues
According to the Crop and Natural Resource oce of Maale
Woreda (2016) reports had demonstrated that 12,979.30 ha of land
which covered by the cropping land. e agro pastoral communities in
to study area currently has been produced crop residues from maize,
te, haricot bean, nger millet and sorghum. e crop residues are the
second dominant feed resource in Maale Woreda next to open grazing
land with supply of 27,677.40 tons of dry matter to feed livestock.
Adapted from Crop and Natural Resource Oce of Maale Woreda
Feed balance
e open grazing land, private grazing land, indigenous browse
and crop residues were used to calculate feed supply for livestock in to
the study area. e total of 83,783.60 tons of dry matter per year was
produced (Table 3).
Based on 2015/2016 Fisher Resource oce livestock population
data Maale Woreda had on average 308,823.30 Tropical Livestock
Unit (TLU) which comprised (254,303.70 cattle, 8,291.60 sheep and
46,228 goats) in Table 4. Assuming that dry matter requirement for
maintenance of one TLU is 6.25 kg/day (2.28 ton/year/TLU) and the
total yearly requirement by the dominant livestock species (cattle, sheep
and goats) is about 704,117 tons of dry matter per year per Woreda
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
45 34 21
Figure 1: Major livestock feed resource in Maale Woreda.
Volume 6 • Issue 2 • 1000269
J Fisheries Livest Prod, an open access journal
ISSN: 2332-2608
Citation: Hidosa D, Tesfaye Y (2018) Assessment Study on Livestock Feed Resource, Feed Availability and Production Constraints in Maale Woreda
in South Omo Zone. J Fisheries Livest Prod 6: 269. doi: 10.4172/2332-2608.1000269
Page 4 of 5
Shawn in Table 4. As it had been calculated the total DM produced in
the Woreda from dierent feed resource is 83,783.60 tons in Table 3
which has been showing that a decit of 623,333.40 tons of dry matter
per year per Woreda. In generally, the feed balance data shown that
the dry matter produced in to the study area per year is imbalanced
with the minimum maintenance requirements of dominant livestock
species. is is further recalled that there is need to introduce the feed
improvement interventions in to the study area in order to save the
livestock.
Livestock feed production constraints
Climate variability: e climate change is one of the non-technical
livestock feed production constraints in to the study area which has
been aected livestock production through induce decline in pasture
availability. Agro pastoralists and experts reported that before last 10
years back there is surplus feed production due to sucient rainfall
with normal distribution and however, in this century, communities
have been faced shortage of livestock feed in to study area due to greater
variability in rainfall patterns. e pasture availability from the grazing
land is currently expected to decline due to climate change an induced
eect which corresponds to reports from the current study [18].
Expansion of cropping land: e expansion of the cropping land
was another factor that reported by the communities in to the study
area. e expansion of cropping land had put pressure on grazing land
by facilitating the shrinkage in grazing and damaging water sources.
is conversation of grazing area in to cropping land in to study area
is due to the increases human populations at alarm rate and this forced
to cultivate land to provide food to the family. In support to results
from the current study, the study [19] shown that currently shortage of
grazing land has occurred small holder communities due to expansion
of crop lands.
Lack of inputs: Agro pastoral communities in to the study area
reported that absence of any agricultural inputs which will be promoted
feed production such as forage seed, cutting and splitting materials are
identied as an important livestock feed constraints that increase the
livestock feed scarcity in to the area.
Coping Mechanism to Ward Livestock Feed Shortage
Supplementation with locally available feeds: Agro pastoral
communities in study area have supplemented cattle such as farm
oxen, milking cows and calves with locally available materials such
dierent leaf of indigenous species, Banana stems and leaf, pumpkins
and locally produced brewery called atella. study made from the South
Omo demonstrated that pastoralist in dierent parts of South Omo
supplementing their livestock such as lactating cow, sick animals,
kids and lambs with grasses, leaves of and pods of browse species as
coping strategies toward the feed shortage during dry seasons as coping
mechanism to ward feed shortage [5,6,14].
Utilization of crop residues: Agro pastoral communities have
developed trends of collecting the crop residues from maize stover,
te straw, sorghum straw, haricot bean haulms and nger millet stover
and stored for the further used to mitigated critical feed shortage by
provided either mixed each other or presented lonely as basal diets to
animals.
Migrations: Agro pastoralists’ communities have practiced
herd mobility as coping strategies toward the feed shortage. e
communities had reported that they have trends of moving their
cattle to the area where surplus pasture available such as Daramalo in
Gamgofa zone and Maze Park and back to their home when the pasture
conditions will be secured. e study [5] indicated the Hamer and Bena
pastoralist have mobilized their cattle toward the Mago Park during
the recurrent drought and deterioration of grazing lands Moreover,
Worku and Nigatu report indicated that pastoralists from Dassench
communities mobilized their livestock toward the Island (Desset) as
coping mechanism toward the feed shortage to the area during the
frequent drought occurrences.
Purchasing livestock feeds: Agro pastoralists and experts had
reported that in to the study area, the communities purchased livestock
feeds such as grass hay, straws and maize grain in order to save their
cattle populations during critical feed shortage from the local market.
For example they reported that during the 2015/20016 drought
occurrence due to Elino eect, agro pastoralists had purchased one
bale of grass hay and Te straw by the 80-160 ETB from the Senegal
kebele of South Ari Woreda. e study [16] demonstrated that small
holder farmers in Lemo and Soro woreda have trends of purchasing the
locally available supplementary feeds during the dry seasons as coping
strategies toward the feed shortage which corresponds to ndings from
the current study.
Conclusions and Recommendations
e open communal grazing land, indigenous browse species
and crop residues are major feed resources in to the study area. e
productivity generated from this open communal grazing area has been
retreated. ere were lack of low quality feed improvement and trends
of growing the cultivated fodder production strategies in to the study
area. e total dry matter produced from dierent feed resources in to
the study area was not enough to satisfy the dry matter requirement
of livestock. e climate change, expansion of cropping land, lack of
inputs were identied as livestock feed production constraints in to
study areas and whereas, migration, supplementations and stored the
crop residues were important coping strategies toward feed shortage.
Based results from the current study the following recommendation
were made.
A) e study described that the contribution of the open grazing
area is retreating from time to time and livestock may not fulll the dry
matter requirements. erefore, this is calls interventions that improve
the productivity of retreating grazing areas such as rehabilitations
of retreated grazing area through the introduction and promoting
area closures, over sown with locally adaptable legume forages and
fertilization with livestock dungs and droppings.
B) In this study it was indicated that there is no trends of growing
cultivated fodder species in to study area. erefore, it is recommended
Grazing Land Area (ha) Productivity t/ha Total DM (tons)
Private Grazing 4,948 3 14,844
Open Grazing 15,938 2 31,876
Road Side grazing 2,948 2 5,896.00
Fallow Land 1,939 1.8 3,490.20
Crop Residues 12,979 - 27,677.40
Total Land 38,752 - 83,783.60
Table 3: Total feed supply in Maale Woreda.
Livestock
Species
Livestock
population in TLU
DM requirement/h/year Total DM
(tons/year)
Cattle 2,54,303.70 2.28 579,812.44
Sheep 8,291.60 2.28 18,904.85
Goat 46,228 2.28 105,399.84
Total 308,823.30 - 704,117.10
Table 4: Annual dry matter requirement (tons) per livestock species in Maale
Woreda.
Volume 6 • Issue 2 • 1000269
J Fisheries Livest Prod, an open access journal
ISSN: 2332-2608
Citation: Hidosa D, Tesfaye Y (2018) Assessment Study on Livestock Feed Resource, Feed Availability and Production Constraints in Maale Woreda
in South Omo Zone. J Fisheries Livest Prod 6: 269. doi: 10.4172/2332-2608.1000269
Page 5 of 5
that the development and promotions of adaptable cultivated fodder
species is one appealing strategies.
C) To improve livestock feed supply by using dierent
interventions; it is also imperative in upgrading pastoralists’ skill through
the provisions of training on proper feed resource management, feed
conservation techniques and feed quality improvements techniques.
Acknowledgments
The authors would like to acknowledge the Farm Africa, Building Resilience
and Adaptation to Climate Extremes and Disasters Project in South Omo Zone,
Coordination Ofce for nancial and Vehicle supports. Finally, authors also,
grateful acknowledged the Maale Woreda Livestock and Fisher Ofce Experts and
developmental agents for their supporting and providing secondary information.
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... In Ethiopia, the livestock production has been contributing substantially to the livelihoods of the rural households, but the overall productivity from the sector is very low due to poor livestock feed supply in quantity and quality [1,2]. Similarly, in the study area livestock husbandry system is extensively based on natural-pasture, which is greatly influenced by biomass supply and nutritional dynamics of pasture-forages [3][4][5][6][7]. The animal fed on poor-quality diets could not realize the dietary nutrient requirement. ...
... The animal fed on poor-quality diets could not realize the dietary nutrient requirement. This is making livestock take too long to attain optimum production and reproduction performances [1,5,[8][9][10]. Thus, the identifying the adaptability potential of improved fodder species and demonstrating newly adaptable fodder species to the pastoral and agro-pastoral production niches is only the strategies to beat the existing feed shortage problem [4,5,11]. ...
... This is making livestock take too long to attain optimum production and reproduction performances [1,5,[8][9][10]. Thus, the identifying the adaptability potential of improved fodder species and demonstrating newly adaptable fodder species to the pastoral and agro-pastoral production niches is only the strategies to beat the existing feed shortage problem [4,5,11]. Among the improved fodder species, Sesbania sesban is a legume fodder species, which grown up to 8m above cutting height and supplied high-quality protein for livestock [12]. ...
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This study was conducted to quantify biomass yield and quality parameters of five Sesbania sesban varieties in irrigated lowland of Dassench district. The Sermemiret Kebele from Dassench district was selected for on-farm trial. The five Sesbania sesban varieties such as DZ-2002, DZ-0040, DZ-0079, DZ-0073 and DZ-32 were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications per variety. The biomass yield, plant height, branches per plant and quality parameters were analyzed by using GLM procedure of SAS and Least Significant Difference (LSD) was used for mean separation. Result from present study showed that higher biomass yield (17.66ton/ha) was obtained from DZ-32 variety, while the lower biomass yield (8.95ton/ha) recorded from DZ-0073 variety. However, DZ-0079 variety had higher (p<0.05) crude protein (268.10g/kg, DM), while DZ-32 variety had lower crude protein (186.70g/kg, DM). Based result from this study, it was concluded that DZ-32 variety was best candidate to improve biomass supply for enhanced production from livestock.
... It is obvious that the natural pasture-based livestock feeding system is greatly influenced by feed supply and nutritional dynamics of range forages (Hidosa and Tesfaye, 2018). Moreover, these feed resources could not satisfy the nutritional requirement of animals particularly in the dry seasons with the supply being inconsistently distributed over the seasons in the study districts. ...
... As a result, the total dry matter intakes are limited and barely satisfy even the maintenance requirements of animals. This triggers high mortality, longer calving intervals and substantial weight loss of livestock Berhanu Tekelyohannes et al., 2017;Hidosa and Tesfaye, 2018;Admasu Teferi et al., 2010). Therefore, testing and identifying adaptable forage species to improve natural pasturebased feeding system is the only way out to overcome the problem of feed shortage in the study districts Shapiro et al., 2015). ...
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Background: Productivity and reproductive performances of livestock in Ethiopia is low mainly due to scarcity and quality of feed. The Desho grass is indigenous to Ethiopia and belongs to the family Poaceae and has high biomass production potential that could be used to tackle the problem of scarcity and quality of feed. Objectives: This study was initiated to evaluate dry matter yield and chemical composition of four Desho grass varieties grown in irrigated lowland of Dassench and Hamer districts of South Omo Zone in southwestern Ethiopia. Material and Methods: The Sermemiret Kebele from Dassench District and Eribore Kebele from Hamer district were selected for a participatory on-farm experimental trial with active involvements of district pastoral office experts and Kebele development agents. Four Desho grass varieties, namely, Areka-DZF#590, Kulumisa-DZF#590, Kindokisha-DZF#591 and Areka local were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications per variety. Data on dry matter yield (DMY), cutting height, number of tillers per plant (NTPP) and leaf to stem ratio (LTSR) were analyzed using the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) procedures of SAS. Results: The highest (P < 0.05) dry matter yield (35.09 t ha-1) and Crude protein (CP) (129.50g kg-1 , DM) were recorded for Areka-DZF#590 whereas the lowest dry matter yield (16.96 t ha-1) and CP (90.60g kg-1 , DM) were obtained from Areka local check. Conclusion and Implication: We conclude that Areka-DZF#590 Desho grass variety was found to be the highest in dry matter and crude protein production. Pastoralists, agro-pastoralists, and farmers in the area could enhance feed availability for increased livestock production.
... Likewise, in study region the livestock feeding system is completely natural pasture based [3,4]. It is obvious that the natural pasture-based feeding system is greatly influenced by feed supply and nutritional dynamics of pasture forages [2,5]. ...
... This is triggering to increase high mortality, longer calving intervals and substantial weight loss [3,6,8,9] and will be made the communities minimum benefits from livestock production. Therefore, in this respect, it is not imagined the surplus production from the livestock unless the immediate action is undertaken in improving dry matter supply and feed quality issues into study area [5]. Therefore, testing locally adaptable and producing adequate quality forages to supplement pasture roughage-based feeding system is only way to overwhelm feed shortage into study area [3,10]. ...
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Desho grass is indigenous grass to Ethiopia and belonging to the family of Poaceae and has high biomass production potential. Therefore, this study was initiated to evaluate dry matter yield and chemical composition of four desho (Pennisetum pedicellatum)grass varieties in 2017 and 2018 cropping years at on- station of Jinka Agricultural Research Center under rain fed condition in randomized complete block design with three replications per tested variety. The data on dry matter yield, plant height, tillers per plant, leaf to stem ratio and chemical composition were analyzed using the General Linear Model procedures of SAS. The Areka-DZF#590 gave highest (P>0.001) dry matter yield (27.99t/ha) and whereas the, Kindo kisha-DZF#589 variety gave the lower dry matter yield (14.15t/ha). Likewise, higher (P>0.05) Crude protein (140.12g/Kg, DM) recorded for Areka-DZF#590 and whereas, significantly lowest (P<0.05) Crude protein (90.57g/Kg, DM) obtained for Kindo kasha-DZF#589 variety. Based on this finding, we concluded that farmers who live in comparable agro- ecologies to areas where this stu
... Likewise, in study region the livestock feeding system is completely natural pasture based feeding system [3,4]. It is obvious that the natural pasture based feeding system is greatly influenced by feed supply and nutritional dynamics of pasture forages [2,5]. This is triggering to increase high mortality, longer calving intervals and substantial weight loss in livestock [2,4,6] and will be made the herders minimum benefits from livestock production. ...
... This is triggering to increase high mortality, longer calving intervals and substantial weight loss in livestock [2,4,6] and will be made the herders minimum benefits from livestock production. In this regard, it is not imagined the surplus production from the livestock unless the immediate action undertaken to improving dry matter supply and feed quality issues in to study areas [5]. Therefore, testing locally adaptable and producing adequate quality forages to supplement pasture based feeding system is only way to overwhelm feed shortage in to study area [3,7]. ...
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The five oat varieties were evaluated for their dry matter yield, crude protein, Neutral detergent fiber, Acid detergent fiber and Ash at Geza kebele of South Ari Woreda in South Omo Zone during 2018 cropping season. The study was conducted in randomized complete block design with three replications per variety. Data on forage dry matter yield, plant height, Leaf to stem ratio and nutritional qualities were analyzed using the General Linear Model procedures of SAS and least significance difference was used for mean comparison. From the study the highest (P<0.001) dry matter yield (23.49 t ha-1) was recorded for Jassary variety and whereas, lowest dry matter yield (16.67 t/ha-1) was for CI-2806 variety. Conversely, significantly higher (P<0.01) Crude protein (103.7g/Kg, DM) recorded for CI-2291 and whereas, significantly lowest (P<0.01) Crude protein (72g/Kg, DM) for CI-8237 variety. Therefore, based on findings from this study we concluded that farmers who living in high land areas of South Omo Zone and other areas having comparable agro-ecology could plant Jassary oat variety followed by CI-8237 for higher dry matter yield and whereas, for crude protein content it was recommended that farmers could plant CI-2291 variety followed by CI-8251 and CI-2806 oat varieties respectively.
... Livestock development in Ethiopia are mainly limited by technical problem (insufficient and low quality feed sources) and institutional factors (poor linkages between research centers and end users, limited extension and financial Areas of Guji Zone, Southern Oromia services [1][2][3][4]. Due to these problems the production and productivity of livestock remains low. However, the Ethiopian government's second Growth and Transformation Program (GTP II) has envisaged to increasing by 2020 the productivity and total production of livestock through improving genetics and feed services [5]. ...
... Furthermore, drought was one of the main constraints which lead the farmers to travel a long distance in search of feed. In agreement to the results of the present study, Hidosa and Tesfaye (2018) reported that climate change is one of the non-technical livestock feed production constraints, which has been affected livestock production through induce decline in pasture availability. Furthermore, Bizelew et al. (2016), Gebreegziabher et al. (2016), Kenenisa and Melese (2016) and Amistu et al. (2017) reported that feed shortage is one of the major constrains to livestock production in Ethiopia, which is in support of the results of the present study. ...
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The deficit in quantity and quality of feed in one of the major nutritional impairments that are affecting livestock production in South Omo. Pigeon pea species is among the legume fodder species, which has been playing a pivotal role in providing a high quality protein to the livestock. This study was initiated to evaluate biomass yield and quality parameters of five feed-type pigeon pea varieties. The five feed-type pigeon pea varieties such as DZ-16555, DZ-00420, DZBS, Tsegabe and local pigeon pea were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications per variety. The agronomic parameters, biomass yield and quality parameters were analyzed by using Generalized Linear Model (GLM) procedures of SAS and Least Significance Difference (LSD) was used for mean comparison among tested varieties. The DZ-16555 variety gave higher (p<0.05) biomass yield (21.27tha-1), while local variety gave the lowest (12.54tha-1) biomass yield. Correspondingly, DZ-16555 variety had higher (p<0.05) crude protein (270.18gkg-1 , DM) over the local variety (190.91gkg-1 , DM). Based result from this study, it was concluded that DZ-16555 pigeon pea variety was best candidate to improve feed and nutritional supply for enhanced production from livestock.
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Thirteen qualitative and six quantitative variables taken from 303 adult chickens (95 cocks and 208 hens) from three locations/districts were used to phenotypically characterize the indigenous chicken populations in pastoral areas of South Omo Zone, Ethiopia. The studied traits were influenced by the effect of location and sex, where chicken populations from Hamer district and females of all districts were the smallest and lightest. Qualitative characteristics of the studied chicken populations such as normal feather morphology and distribution, plain plumage pattern, flat head shape, triangular body shape, and dominant red eye, earlobe and plumage colour suggest that they constitute previously undescribed populations. Chest circumference, wingspan and body length were the three most important morphometric traits used in discriminating the studied chicken populations. On average, 61% of the sampled populations were classified correctly into their respective locations. The multivariate analysis results discriminate the chicken populations into two groups: the Hamer group and the Omo group (chickens from Bena Tsemay and Male districts). However, such grouping should be confirmed and advanced to ecotype level using further genetic characterization studies as the observed phenotypic differences might be due to genetic or environmental variations. Such confirmation is important to design breeding programmes (for sustainable utilization) specific to each ecotype.
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The cross sectional assessment study on dairy production system and its constraints and opportunities was conducted in Hamer woreda of south omo zone with objective of assessing dairy production system, milk and milk products handling, processing and marketing systems. A total of 180 despondence households from six peasant association with 30 respondents per each peasant association were purposely selected and interviewed by using purposive sampling method. The primary data were collected through structured questionnaires form household pastoralists and focus group discussions and secondary data was collected from zonal and woreda pastoral office. In the study area around the 35%, 29 %, 35.5 %, 52 % and 28.4 % of cattle feeding, watering, dairy milking and selling of live animal activities in the study area was accomplished by house head and son whereas 45% and 64.8 % cleaning of the barn and churning of milk was performed by the wife. On the other hand, around 55.56 % and 26% respondents reported selling the milk and milk product carried out by females (wife and daughter). Pertaining to educational status around the 83.88 % of pastoralists were illiterate which unable to read and write, 10.55 % were learned the elementary school (1-4) and 4.44% grade between 5-8 and 1.11% learned grade 9 and 10 formal education. On the other hand, around 25 %, 19.44 %, 15.56% and 40 % respondent replied that the main source of income in the study area was generated from the sale of live animals, sale of animal product, live animal, crop and honey, sale of forest and forest products and mixed sale of different commodity. Similarity, around the 30 .55%, 15 %, 4.44%, and 50 % of respondent in the study area reported that they obtained milk from local dairy cow, goats, camel and both local dairy cattle and goat as milk source for human nutrition. In the study area different milking cow management attentions were implemented. Around, 36.4% respondents were replied that they have not provided any supplementary feed for their milking cows in addition to grazing on the natural pasture. However, around 63.6% of the respondents were replied that they allowed supplying feed sources for their milking cows like cutting of green grass, crop residue as supplementary feed source. On the other hand, 45.2% of the respondents were allowed their milking cows grazed with other animals in the grazing area and 32.9% respondents replied that they separately fed the milking cows from the other animals and also followed cut and carry system at home. Traditional hand milking is the only type of milking practiced and proper sanitary milking and handling practices were not followed and Docha used for milking, while Dolla and Kill used for storage and kill for milk churning and Shorka for marketing milk and milk products. The majority of the respondents around 88.2%, sell milk and milk products nearby dimeka market which the whereas around 4.2% of the respondents sell milk and milk products at home level to government workers who provide extensional and other service to communities. On the other hand, also around 0.7% sells milk and milk product to hotels at dimeka town and the rest 6.9% of the respondents sell to both at home and nearby market. A total of interviewed respondent around 33.33, 17.77, 16.67, 11.11, 8.33, 7.22, and 5.55% reported that the dairy cattle production in the study area was challenged and constrained by critical feed shortage dairy cattle diseases, recurrent drought, poor veterinary service, the lack of introduction improved dairy breed, lack of knowledge in milk and milk by product processing and lack of market channel respectively.
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A survey was conducted in North Achefer District of Amhara National Regional State in six selected watersheds with the objectives of characterizing the livestock production system and to assess the major feed resources and its management. The watersheds were selected purposively based on agro-ecology conditions (mid and low altitude). Moreover, focus group discussions and field observations were done to enrich survey data. The major feed resources biomass estimation in terms of dry matter (DM) was conducted using conversion factors. Diseases such as FMD, internal and external parasite, bloat and Newcastle (poultry diseases) are dominant in the area. Most of the respondents reported that the major water source for livestock during dry season was from well (49.6%) followed by spring water (37.5%) the remaining is from river water (12.9%). The major livestock feed resources available in the study areas were crop residues, natural pasture, hay and improved fodder harvested from backyard and soil and water conservation areas. In the study area, about 32.51% of feed dry matter deficit has been recorded. Mixed crop livestock production system was characterized as the major farming system in the study area. The major livestock production constraints of the study watersheds were shortage of grazing land, low productivity, disease, shortage of water, shortage of labor and predators in the order of importance. Watershed development is now being an important intervention for natural resource conservation in the study area and at the same time it is becoming very important to be a livestock feed source if cut and carry system is regularly applied.
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Abstract The study was carried out in Harshin woreda, Fafan zone on the cattle fattening practice and marketing system to assess cattle fattening practice and marketing system in three kabeles of the study area. 84.4% and 15.6% respondents were male and female, respectively. The average age of the respondents was found to be 39.5 out of which 55.6%, 33.3% and 11.1% were illiterate, able to read and write and primary school, respectively. The overall mean for family size house hold was 5.73 persons per household and average holding of cattle, sheep, goat, and poultry were found to be 9.08, 3.51, 1.20 and 6.17, respectively. The majority (52%) of the farmers prefer to fatten steer than bulls. the major feeds given for the fattening cattle, is natural pasture (62%), grain by product (16%) and crop residues (22%) and water sources identified in woreda were wells (73%), ponds (20%), and lakes (7%). The housing system of cattle in the woreda were 30%, 50%, 20% in living room with the family, home stead shed and barn, respectively. The cattle fatteners obtain fattening cattle from farm-gate (62.2%), primary market (33.3%) and secondary market (4.5%). The current study indicated that selling of fattened cattle was undertaken at saylada local market (86.7%), Hartasheika town (13.3%). According to the result of the household survey, overall in the study area the mean price of cattle before and after fattening were about 5,000 birr and 9,500 birr, respectively, and resulting with gross profit of about 4,500 birr per fattening cattle which comes from price margin and feed margin. Major constraints that hindered the performance of cattle fattening activity in the study area were mentioned as feed shortage, lack of capital, shortage of labor, low level of awareness towards fattening cattle and animal health problem.
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The study was conducted in Sinana Dinsho district of Bale highlands, Ethiopia. The objectives of the study were to assess the effect of moisture availability or pattern of rainfall on grass/legume composition and nutritive value of natural pasture in the district. Grass species dominated the natural pasture of the study area. Peak proportion of legume species was observed in September and October in both Sinana and Dinsho sub- districts. The proportion of grasses increased (P<0.05) with maturity of pasture on the grazing lands and a decline in rainfall from the wet to the dry season, whereas the proportion of legumes were higher (P<0.05) in the natural pasture early in the rainy season. The CP and ash contents of natural pasture were higher (P<0.05) in Dinsho sub- district than in Sinana, while IVDMD and fiber contents were similar (P>0.05) for the natural pasture in the two sub-districts. Annual metabolizable energy (ME) (P<0.001) and digestible crude protein (DCP) (P<0.001) supplied by forage from grazing lands was higher in Dinsho sub- district compared to Sinana sub- district. In vitro DM digestibility, CP, and ash contents decreased with advance in the rainy season, while the contrary was true for the contents of cell wall fibre and lignin. Therefore, it was concluded that delayed harvesting of natural pasture for hay making results in reduced nutritive value.
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Many organizations in Ethiopia have for many years promoted exotic multipurpose fodder trees (EMPFT) for livestock feed and soil improvement. Despite the apparent benefits, the number of farmers planting these trees was low. The objectives were to elucidate farmers’ perceptions about their use value, management practices and constraints to adoption in three districts representing annual (one wheat-based and one teff-based) and perennial (coffee-based) crop-livestock systems in the Ethiopian highlands. Data were collected from 235 farm households. Most farmers (95.3%) had awareness of EMPFTs and the principal information sources were development agents (75.3%). Over half of the farmers were motivated to plant EMPFTs for feed value. Motivation for other purposes depended on cropping system, vegetation cover and availability of alternative local fodder trees in the area. Farmers had positive perceptions about EMPFTs for their feed value and contribution to soil conservation. Current adopters had a mean number of 587 (SE±84) EMPFTs per farm. Major constraints to adoption of EMPFTs were agronomic problems, low multipurpose value, and land shortage. Majority of farmers (89.8%) were interested to either continue or begin fodder tree development. Of the interested respondents, 44.5% preferred local fodder trees whereas 55.5% preferred EMPFTs. We conclude that farmers are aware of use values of EMPFTs while perceived constraints suggest that introduction of EMPFTs need consideration of farmers multiple criteria, but also awareness of feeding fodder trees and resource availability. Moreover, current development approaches have to recognize the importance of involving the end-users at all stages through participatory approaches to enhance adoption.
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This study focuses on community-based knowledge to analyze the impacts of range enclosures, crop farming, fire suppression and bush encroachment on the communal rangelands of Borana, southern Ethiopia. The knowledge of local herders is the basis for decision making in the utilization and management of grazing lands. We used Borana oral history associated with the period of the gada system to reconstruct environmental change that spans a period of 48years. Our results show that the use of communities’ perceptions as a basis for evaluating the impacts of land use change on the environment makes an important methodological contribution. Communities’ responses to changing land use resulted in the development of range enclosures, the expansion of crop farming and the fragmentation of the communal rangelands, while the suppression of fire contributed to the expansion of bush encroachment. The overall impact was forage scarcity and greater vulnerability of stock during drought years. We conclude that policymakers could use communities’ knowledge of environmental change to improve the use of the rangelands. We propose that sustainable use of the southern rangelands in the future will require a greater focus on regulating the expansion of enclosures, crop farming and ranching, as well as reintroducing fire where necessary, to control the expansion of bush cover.
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A survey was conducted in Hamer and Benna-Tsemay districts of the South Omo zone of Ethiopia, with the objectives of assessing the range-livestock management practices and perceptions of the different pastoral groups (Hamer, Benna, and Tsemay) towards rangeland degradation. This information is considered to be vital to future pastoral development planning and interventions. The information was gathered through group discussions, personal observations, and using a structured questionnaire where each household was taken as a unit of analysis. The average family size per household was for Hamer = 7.05 for Benna = 7.93 and for Tsemay = 7 with nearly 98.1% of the respondents without any kind of education. All pastoral groups derived their main income from the sale of animals, which was followed by the sale of honey as in the case of Hamer and Tsemay pastoralists. The average livestock per household was 25.7, 10 and 2.8 tropical livestock unit (TLU) cattle, goat and sheep, respectively. The major livestock production constraints were drought, feed and water shortage and animal health problems. The different pastoral groups have the opinion that the condition of their rangeland is poor, mainly due to overgrazing, drought and increase in human population. Furthermore, there was also a problem of bush encroachment which is an indicator of rangeland degradation. There are no range improvement practices undertaken to improve the condition of the rangelands. Mobility is the first measure taken to solve shortage of livestock feed and water but many of the pastoralists replied that they face many problems during migrations. Because of the unfavorable climatic condition for cultivation, most of the respondents of Hamer and Tsemay pastoralists and about 35% from Benna still prefer communal land tenure, where resources are shared. In conclusion, the indigenous knowledge of the pastoralists about range-livestock management and their environment should be incorporated while planning range-livestock development projects for the study districts.
Smallholder livestock production system in Dandi district, oromia regional state
  • D Belete
  • A Tegegne
  • B P Hegde
Belete D, Tegegne A, Hegde BP (2012) Smallholder livestock production system in Dandi district, oromia regional state, Central Ethiopia. Global Veterinarian 8: 472-479.