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Chapter 4
Quality of Chicken Meat
Gordana Kralik, Zlata Kralik, Manuela Grčević and
Danica Hanžek
Additional information is available at the end of the chapter
http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.72865
© 2016 The Author(s). Licensee InTech. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons
Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution,
and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
GordanaKralik, ZlataKralik, ManuelaGrčević and
DanicaHanžek
Additional information is available at the end of the chapter
Abstract
Chicken meat is considered as an easily available source of high-quality protein and other
nutrients that are necessary for proper body functioning. In order to meet the consumers’
growing demands for high-quality protein, the poultry industry focused on selection of
fast-growing broilers, which reach a body mass of about 2.5 kg within 6-week-intensive
    
meat, speak in favor of the increased chicken meat consumption. In addition, chicken

and easily digestible protein and a low portion of saturated fat. Therefore, chicken meat
is recommended for consumption by all age groups. The technological parameters of
chicken meat quality are related to various factors (keeping conditions, feeding treatment,
feed composition, transport, stress before slaughter, etc.). Composition of chicken meat
-
ent types of oils, vitamins, microelements and amino acids), to produce meat enriched
with functional ingredients (n-3 PUFA, carnosine, selenium and vitamin E). By this way,


Keywords: chicken meat, nutritive value, meat quality, n-3 PUFA, carnosine, selenium,

1. Introduction
Throughout the world, poultry meat consumption continues to grow, both in developed and
in the developing countries. In 1999, global production of chickens reached 40 billion, and by
2020 this trend is expected to continue to grow, so that poultry meat will become the consum-
1]. Fresh chicken meat and chicken products are universally popular. This
© 2018 The Author(s). Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use,
distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
occurrence can be explained by the fact that this meat is not a subject of culturally or reli-


2, 3
4]. If referring to overall consumption of all types of meat,
poultry meat consumption takes one of the leading places in all countries throughout the
3-
tening duration, excellent space utilization, high reproductive ability of poultry, excellent feed
conversion, satisfactory nutritional value of poultry meat and relatively low sales prices. The
-
     
5–11
in an intensive way, so the stress is an inevitable factor, and the feed, with increased content

1114]. The same as designed poultry feed mixtures with
increased microalgae or oil content, poultry products (meat and eggs) enriched with omega-3
-
essary to supplement it with some antioxidants, such as selenium or vitamin E. Such chicken
meat is considered as “functional food”, as it has the increased content of bioactive substances,

to enrich chicken meat are conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), vitamins, microelements, amino
1419].
The aim of this research was to present the nutritive value of chicken meat, as well as to
            

    
chicken meat has on human health.
2. Nutritional value of chicken meat
-

modern lifestyle. When compared to other types of meat (Table 1), it is proved that chicken
meat (breasts) contains more protein and less fat than red meat, thus making it a dietetic
product.
It is important to mention that chicken with skin contains 2–3 times more fat than chicken
without skin, so it should be eaten without skin to ensure the intake of high-quality protein
without extra calories and fat. When compared to red meat, the main advantage of white
chicken meat is in its low caloric value and a low portion of saturated fat, so consumption of
white chicken meat is recommended to people who want to reduce the fat intake, as well as
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition64


  
nutritional quality and therefore, it is recommended for consumption to anyone who takes

consumers who need high-quality, easily degradable protein (athletes, children, the elderly).
           
         
body weight). Pregnant women’s needs for protein are considerably higher and they depend

21]. Because of all stated above, chicken meat is recommended as a rich source of
high-quality protein in human nutrition. Chicken meat contains low collagen levels, which is
another positive characteristic. Collagen is a structural protein that reduces meat digestibility,
so chicken meat is easier to digest than other types of meat22].
Chicken meat is also a good source of some minerals and vitamins (Table 2). When com-
pared to red meat (except for pork meat), it contains more calcium, magnesium, phosphorus
and sodium. Content of iron is almost the same as in pork. Iron is necessary for creation of
hemoglobin, for prevention of anemia, as well as for normal muscle activity. Calcium and
phosphorus are important for healthy bones and teeth. Sodium is an electrolyte, and mag-
nesium is important for normal synthesis of protein and proper muscle activity. Out of the
total content of vitamin in chicken meat, niacin (vitamin B3) is contained in highest portion,
and content of vitamins A and B6 is also higher than in other types of meat. Niacin is very
important for proper metabolism of carbohydrates and for energy creation. It is also important
for healthy skin, hair and eyes, as well as for nervous system. It plays a role in the synthesis
Nutrient Chicken1Pork2Beef3Lamb4
 165 165 185 180
 65.26 65.75 64.83 64.92
 31.02 28.86 27.23 28.17
 3.57 4.62 7.63 6.67
 1.010 1.451 2.661 2.380
 1.240 1.878 3.214 2.920
 0.770 1.066 0.285 0.440
Cholesterol (mg) 85 86 78 87
20].1Chicken, broilers or fryers, breast, meat only, cooked, roasted.
2Pork, fresh, leg (ham), rump half, separable lean only, cooked, roasted.
3
4
Table 1.
Quality of Chicken Meat
http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.72865
65
of sex hormones and in improving circulation and reducing cholesterol level. Niacin is often
used as an additional therapy in patients that take drugs for lowering of blood lipids. In this

23, 24].
When niacin is taken as an independent therapy, it reduces the development of cardiovascular
25, 26].
The chronic lack of niacin in the organism causes pelagic disease, which is characterized by
uneven skin pigmentation (skin redness), gastrointestinal disorders (diarrhea) and brain func-
27]. In light of the abovementioned, chicken meat is considered as
-
sary for proper body functioning.
Chicken1Pork2Beef3Lamb4
Minerals
Calcium (mg) 15 16 6 8
Iron (mg) 1.04 0.97 2.40 2.06
Magnesium (mg) 29 27 18 26
Phosphorus (mg) 228 273 172 208
Potassium (mg) 256 425 222 342
Sodium (mg) 74 80 36 66
Zinc (mg) 1.00 2.48 4.74 5.02
Vitamins
Vitamin C (mg) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0,0
Thiamin (mg) 0.070 0.523 0.057 0.110
 0.114 0,408 0.170 0,280
Niacin (mg) 13.712 7.940 5.232 6.390
Vitamin B6 (mg) 0.600 0.538 0.380 0.170
Folate (μg) 4 0 9 24
Vitamin B12 (μg) 0.34 0.67 1.61 2.71
Vitamin A (μg) 6 1 0 0
Vitamin E (mg) 0.27 0.26 0.37 0.18
 0.1 0.3  
Vitamin K (μg) 0.3 0.0 1.3
20].1Chicken, broilers or fryers, breast, meat only, cooked, roasted.
2Pork, fresh, leg (ham), rump half, separable lean only, cooked, roasted.
3
4
Table 2.
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition66

-
 

The possibilities of enriching chicken meat with


In present times, emphasis is put on importance of chicken meat consumption for maintaining
-
ing body weight, so the chicken meat is often a part of the diet aimed to reduce body weight,
because of its high protein and low fat content. The studies have shown that weight loss was
higher in people who consumed low calorie meals rich in protein in comparison with low
calorie meals with low protein content. This is due to the fact that protein provides a greater
sense of satiety, so that people consume less calories during the day, thus reducing the intake
28, 29].
 
Saturated fat, cholesterol and heme iron, which is more contained in red than in white meat,
are very important factors in development of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, hyper-
30]. According to the data of Bernstein et al., by
replacing meals with red meat with white chicken meat, the risk of cardiovascular disease
  31]. The authors assumed that this was a consequence
    

of cardiovascular disease development.

or the decrease of disease risk occurrence, such as diabetes. Changes in our lifestyle and nutri-
-
oping diabetes is related to various factors, of which the intake of saturated animal fat is among
32]. The authors stated a positive correlation between the intake of
saturated fat intake and the resistance to insulin. The research results of Pan et al. pointed out
that consumption of red meat, especially of red meat products, was associated with increased
33]. Although the increased intake of protein of animal
origin represents a risk of developing diabetes, consumption of chicken meat, as a part of bal-
34]. Healthy
lifestyle, which includes consumption of chicken meat, fruit, legumes, nuts, whole grains and
35].
The results of these studies encourage the change of lifestyle and dietary habits, within which
white chicken meat with low content of saturated fat serves as a healthier alternative to animal
protein intake in daily meals, so it is recommended as a part of a healthy diet.
As stated above, excessive intake of proteins of animal origin is associated with the risk of devel-

Quality of Chicken Meat
http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.72865
67
-
tains more potentially harmful ingredients than white meat. These potentially harmful ingredi-
ents are saturated fat, heme iron, sodium, N-nitroso compounds and aromatic amines produced
by high temperature cooking, so the consumption of red meat represents a risk of developing
cancers. Therefore, red meat is associated with a higher risk of cancers, while white meat shows
36, 37]. Cancers in digestive
system are usually associated with consumption of animal products. This conclusion was con-

meat than recommended. It is assumed that myoglobin from red meat activates pre-cancerous
        
compounds and by developing cytotoxic and genotoxic aldehydes through the lipid peroxida-
38]. These facts are in favor of supporting consumption of white chicken meat.
Zhu et al. carried out a comprehensive review of literature on the occurrence of esophageal
cancer, and concluded that there was a reverse correlation between the number of chicken meat
39]. The authors stated researches
showed the decreasing risk of developing esophageal cancer by about 53% in Europe in cases of
increased consumption of chicken meat. Of course, such research conclusions should be inter-
preted cautiously, because it cannot be stated with full certainty that red meat causes cancers
and white meat does not, yet there is a lot of evidence that consumption of white meat is more
favorable than consumption of red meat.
3. Parameters of chicken meat quality
When considering nutritional aspects, poultry meat is good for consumers because it is rich in

 2]. Changes in consumers’ lifestyle in developed countries

which the food industry used as an advantage to market so called “fast food” and more recently
3]. This grow-
-

and less abdominal fat), lower mortality, etc. However, all of these positive changes in new
chicken genotypes cause greater stress, and many researchers point out that this fast growth of
40, 41, 42]. The


43, 44]. In
addition to the mentioned factors, the available literature states that parameters of chicken meat

and sex of chickens, pre-slaughter handling, transport to slaughterhouse, etc.
An important factor for consumers when deciding on the purchase of meat is its appearance,
therefore, in this chapter are described some technological features such as color, pH value,
drip loss, cooking loss and water holding capacity (WHC), that have a direct impact on meat
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition68
appearance. Consumers connect the color of meat with its freshness. The color of meat can be
determined visually or using instruments (colorimeters). For the visual evaluation of the meat
color, it is necessary to have trained panelists, who evaluate the appearance of meat by using
-




    
meat color comparison in regard to standard color values. The International Commission on

-



45

 (P > 0.05). Furthermore, the authors stated that
    

the quality of fresh and cooked meat, Salakova et al. also determined the negative correla-

46]. The authors stated that male



          
while in feeding treatments with lower portion of crude protein in feeding mixture the value
of pH in breast meat of both sexes decreased (
-




47
by sex in control and experimental group. The control group (C) consumed the commercial
mixture and the experimental group (E) had mixture supplemented with 6% of extruded lin-


Experimental group of chickens had lighter breast meat color

 m. pectoralis profundus, and

Quality of Chicken Meat
http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.72865
69
(m. biceps femoris
  
-


48]. Hubbard Classic chickens had
45min-
est pH45min was determined in Cobb 500 chickens, while the values for pH45min
   
24h


12
49]. The values of pH were mea-
sured 45 minutes after slaughtering (pH1) and 24 h after slaughtering and cooling of chickens
(pH2

and -
tion between genotype and sex was observed in breast texture values  In the research


 50]. Male chickens had statistically
-

15min24h
and pH48h51]. Older chickens had
higher pH values of breast meat than younger ones. Interaction of chicken genotype and age
15min


            
52]. The authors indicated that the portion of muscle tissue in chickens kept in semi-

       

production parameters and meat quality and they reported that the keeping system had statisti-
 of chickens and feed consumption, as well as on
53]. However, chicken
54]


breast and thigh meat of chickens kept in organic production had lower WHC values and pH24h

Animal Husbandry and Nutrition70
K56 days81 days56 days81 days
56 days81 days56 days
and O81 days56 days and
K81 days56 days and O81 days
-
ity parameters of both tested tissue (breasts and thighs), chicken meat from organic production

2).

When animals are exposed to long-lasting stress (long-distance transport, lack of feed before
transport and slaughter, overcrowded transport cages, high or low temperatures in the produc-
tion facility or during transport, etc.), they will be exhausted and the glycogen stored in muscles
will turn into lactic acid, which will then lead to a sudden lowering of pH value in muscles
after slaughter, while the carcass is still warm. High temperature and low pH in chicken meat

capacity in meat. Low pH values stimulate the oxidation of myoglobin (pink color) and oxyhe-
moglobin (red color) to metamyoglobin (brown meat color ). If animals are exposed to longer
stress before slaughtering, they will have less stored glycogen in muscles because of exhaustion.

-
41
55] stated that after 42 days of
-
1, while other meat quality parameters
2

on the chicken meat quality and determined that chickens exposed to high daily temperatures
(ambient temperature 30°C) had higher cooking loss measured in breast meat when compared
56].

-
ers’ preferences at purchase, it is important to achieve “normal” meat color with the odor typ-
57]. The stated authors assessed the consumers’ opinions toward pale, soft

is, the meat color that was considered as normal

sensory quality of cooked meat and showed preference toward control samples (meat of “nor-
   
 58].


Quality of Chicken Meat
http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.72865
71
-
 -
59]. Border values reported by Karunanayaka et al. are slightly higher than
60]. According to Karunanayaka et al., the

60]. Table 3 presents border values
chicken meat, as reported by various authors.

63].




62]. In their research into the PSE chicken meat in further processing (marinating and cook-
64


61-

Condition  References
PSE pH24h 5.75
pH 5.83
pH 5.61

pH24h 5.77

pH 5.72
pH 5.76
61]
60]
57]
50]
62]
63]
64]
59]
Normal pH24h 5.94
pH 5.97
pH 5.96
pH 5.9–6.2
pH24h 5.93

pH 6.07
61]
60]
57]
50]
62]
63]
59]
 
pH > 6.1
pH 6.27
50]
63]
64]
Table 3.
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition72


Science on nutrition has developed over the years, and new analytical methods have enabled

health and that help to reduce the disease risks. Such ingredients, called nutricines, have an
65
mentioned in Japan in the 1980s. The project foods for s health uses (FOSHU) was

 66]. Ingredients in which consumers show interest are n-3
PUFA, Se, vitamin E, lutein and carnosine. Chicken meat can be enriched with n-3 PUFA if
10, 67, 68, 69]. The optimal ratio of n-6
70, 71



72

65
in endoplasmic reticulum, and further carried out by  and desaturase
    
76].
Quality of Chicken Meat
http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.72865
73
process is supported by the enzyme desaturase73
synthesized in mitochondrial membranes, while EPA and AA are synthesized in the endoplas-
74, 75].  presents the metabolism of n-3 and n-6 PUFA.


Reference Diet ALA EPA DHA

12] 



3.16
2.37
2.36
6.25
0.79
0.93
1.32
1.18
5.62
6.44
8.95
5.66
77] Control


0.72
0.37
0.61
0.75
1.18
0.62
0.87
2.03
0.75
78] Poultry fat 3%


Fish oil 3%
1.59
0.70
2.17
2.14
1.04
5.84
8.53
10.54
0.15
0.66
2.39
3.80
10] Linseed oil 6%


7.09
8.51
6.78
0.77
0.73
0.51
0.90
0.93
0.84
79] 


5.14
6.29
4.39
0.29
0.34
0.29
0.39
0.59
0.50
80] Corn oil 15%


Canola oil 15%
2.21
2.01
3.41
3.52
0.07
0.05
0.13
0.07
81]


0.33
0.86
0.98
0.15
0.50
0.98
0.43
0.88
1.77
11] 




0.23
0.92
3.23
5.02
4.60
0.17
0.25
0.63
1.74
2.72
0.23
0.63
1.47
3.51
5.76
S-starter diet.


Table 4.
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition74
   82]. The second reason is that fats
83, 84, 85
essential , however it is also proved that, if supplemented to chicken feed
86]. For that

11, 12, 77,
87]. In addition to oils, chicken feed can be supplemented also by extruded linseed or rapeseed
88
for the purpose of enriching broiler meat with n-3 PUFA are overviewed in Tables 4 and 5.
According to some researches, people have changed their dietary habits, so that over the past
-
able and wide ratio. There is also increased consumption of saturated fat originating from

  
91]. In developed countries, there is daily consumption of about 2.92 mg ALA, 48 mg EPA
92
             

93, 94]. At present times, our diet is richer in calories than the food
that man consumed in the Paleolithic. Nutrition in industrial societies is characterized by a

Reference Diet ALA EPA DHA

89] Fish oil 6%


Soybean oil 6%
1.01
1.80
2.27
3.37
5.66
3.83
1.94
-
6.27
4.72
2.84
0.72
80] Corn oil 15%


Canola oil 15%
1.97
2.13
3.55
3.67
0.01
0.09
0.08
0.14
0.03
10] Linseed oil 6%


6.75
11.90
8.28
0.17
0.26
0.17
0.17
0.18
0.19
90] 

4.755
5.692
0.107
0.100
0.107
0.127
81]


0.41
0.07
0.20
0.82
0.35
0.71
1.20
0.48
1.23

Table 5.
Quality of Chicken Meat
http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.72865
75
the same time, by reduced consumption of n-3 PUFA, as well as of fruits, vegetables, protein,
antioxidants and calcium. Table 6   
95].

Within conventional chicken feeding treatment, fat contained in chicken meat is dominated by


     


-
          
86]. 
-
tion of n-3 PUFA and to retain organoleptic properties that are acceptable to consumers. Zelenka
et al. concluded that broilers have limited capacity of desaturation and elongation of ALA into
9697]. Within the
   
-
ments, it was proven that the most
-
98].



  
13]. The authors

          

of
Period – area 
Paleolithic

Current Japan
Current India, rural
Current UK and Northern Europe
Current US
Current India, urban
0.79
1.00–2.00
4.00
5–6.1
15.00
16.74
38–50
Table 6.
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition76
ALA deposition was noticed in thighs than in breasts, and it was not depending on the feeding
treatment. These results can be explained by the fact that thigh meat has higher content of fat
than breast meat in all investigated groups. The content of fat in thighs was ranging from 8.97%

(7.5% linseed). Combination of linseed and rapeseed as dietary supplement proved to be the



higher oxidation of fat in meat of the mentioned group by the weak stability of n-3 PUFA.
9916], stated that there was a possibility of enriching
Table 7).



     
vitamin E to chicken feed in order to preserve oxidative stability and organoleptic traits. Yan

14].
4.3. The increase of carnosine in chicken meat
Carnosine is a dipeptide composed of ß-alanine and L-histidine, which is considered as a bioac-
tive food component because of its physiological role in an organism. As a dipeptide precursor,
L-histidine is important in the synthesis of carnosine (ß-alanine – L-histidine), homocarnosine
  -
    
concentration in chicken breast muscle for 64%, as well as the increase of anserine for 10%
100]. The authors concluded that higher amounts of histidine can cause the growth depres-
-
 
  101]. Experimental groups had higher weight of breast muscle and
           
pH values did not depend on the supplemented amount of carnosine to diets. Kopec et al.
 Control1  P
Ross2Cobb Ross Cobb Ross Cobb Breed Diet
EPA 7.5 6.9 17.4 20.0 27.2 30.8 NS
 39.6 38.6 54.9 64.3 118 126 NS 
1
2

Table 7.
white chicken meat.
Quality of Chicken Meat
http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.72865
77
determined that supplementation of histidine to turkey diet resulted in the increased diphenyl-

result in the increased histidine dipeptide concentration102]. The enzymatic antioxidant sys-
       

       
            

0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% histidine on the quality of meat and the content of carnosine in breast and
103



than Hubbard Classic chickens. Chicken breast muscle had higher content of carnosine than
18, 104, 105, 106


19, 100, 101, 107109]. In order to enrich
chicken meat with carnosine, Kralik et al. added to chicken feed, apart of 0.10% L-histidine,
  110]. The research results proved more



-

111, 112]. Poultry meat is susceptible to oxidative pro-
101]. Lipid oxidation can be controlled
during meat storage by means of antioxidants (vitamin C, selenium and carnosine).
4.4. Enrichment of chicken meat with selenium
In the food chain, plants are the main source of selenium for animals. Plants get selenium
from the soil, so it is important that soil is well supplied with this microelement. The sup-
ply of plant with selenium depends on its availability in the soil, therefore, plants from dif-
     
      
fertilizers that contain sulfur are used in agricultural production, then the selenium avail-

of selenium for plants. Instead of the inorganic form of selenium, scientists pointed out that
organic form of selenium produced in form of selenized yeast shall be introduced as an
17, 113, 114
been carried out in arable crop production in order to increase the availability of selenium
to plants, and to make them further available as a feed for animals, to consequently enrich
115, 116

Animal Husbandry and Nutrition78
15, 117, 118]. Wang and Hu determined
 
15]. Furthermore, they stated that the source
  
   

-
119].



  
120].


         
79
and 3% linseed oil). Experimental groups’ feed were supplemented by organic selenium Sel-
Plex®, produced by Alltech. The authors pointed out that breast muscle tissue in the group P3
groups P2


    
-
tion. The results that support the mentioned fact are also pointed out by Haug et al., as they

121]. This means that the increased content of selenium in


-

         

the portion of n-3 PUFA to equalize with the values recorded in the P1 group, which did
79]. The authors assumed that the surplus of sele-
nium in feed of the P3 group was required for saturation of various antioxidative selenoen-
zymes in cells, since it was noticed that the value of lipid oxidation in that group was the





122]. Wang et al.

123].
Quality of Chicken Meat
http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.72865
79

on human health

acids 
acid because it is found in vegetable sources (vegetable oils, seeds, nuts leafy vegetables).

124] or even

   
 

          
125
and it is especially represented in the brain tissue. When compared to EPA, the researches
-
126]. It was also


-
127
association with the prevention of heart and blood vessel diseases, which are usually caused

 128] and help to maintain good condition of heart and blood ves-


129130] determined a positive correlation between
-
den cardiac death after acute myocardial infarct and reduced heart failure occurrence. In


endothelial activation and improve blood vessel permeability, thus reducing the risk of car-
131
nerve cell membranes, where it is involved in the proper functioning of the nervous sys-
tem, it is considered to have a preventive role in the development of Alzheimer’s disease
132
acids on various diseases, there is further research required to determine the exact protec-

against some other diseases.
Carnosine
the action of the carnosine synthase enzyme. It is synthesized and present in large quantities

Animal Husbandry and Nutrition80
tract, penetrates through the blood and brain barrier, and with its great bioavailability it acts
133]. In general, carnosine is more concentrated in white muscle
  134     
within which it was determined that chicken breast muscle contained higher concentrations
   101    
carnosine,    
carbonyls scavenger, copper and zinc ions chelator, protein degradation stimulator, reaction
135].
Still, carnosine is the best known by its  activity in the organism. It is assumed that this
 activity is the reason for carnosine’s predominant association with white muscles in

produce lactic acid, within which the ability of carnosine to directly suppress the growth of
135]. As a chelator of metal ions (calcium,
copper and zinc), carnosine participates in regulation of their metabolism in muscle and brain
136]. Carnosine has also an important role in antioxidant protection, as it has the abil-

one. Hydroxyl radical is formed from hydrogen peroxide in the presence of bivalent ions,
such as copper. By catching and neutralizing the activity of free radicals, carnosine prevents
137]
138]. The activity of carnosine in the process of slowing down glyco-
sylation and protein networking is actually a consequence of its antioxidative activity, that
 133]. There is further research required to
determine the role of carnosine in physiological processes that occur in human organism.
Selenium is one of the important trace elements required for the normal functioning of a living

and serious disorders or illness may arise. The occurrence of Keshan (endemic cardiomyopa-
thy) and Kashin-Beck (endemic osteochondropathy) diseases are known to happen due to low
-
139]. Selenium concentration in tissues, plasma
or serum depends on the intake and varies by country. It is generally lower in Eastern Europe
140]. Selenium in the body is a part of selenoproteins that have a wide
-
      
140]. One
         
Lillico et al. showed that treatment with 200 μg selenium per day (as selenium yeast) for a mean

total (37%), prostate (67%), colorectal (58%) and lung (46%) cancers after a follow-up of 6.4 years
141]. Low selenium status is associated with poor immune function. Selenium supplementa-
tion enhances proliferation of activated T cells and increase total T cell count, hence boosting
142]. Selenium is also very important to human fertility and reproduction.

          
Quality of Chicken Meat
http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.72865
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
   
78
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         78 

 
enetic variability and relationship with growth and muscle char-
9
 -
66

 
     


 
        

33
 -


Quality of Chicken Meat
http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.72865
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      
13
  

            -
           -
41

          
144

             
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tion on concentration of carnosine and quality of broiler muscle tissue. The Journal of
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amjmed.2016.07.038
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition84
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onary artery disease. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics.
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 Te Morenga L, Mann J. The role of high-protein diets in body weight management and health.
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ajcn.111.018978
 
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E, Wilson EW. Progress in reducing the pale, soft and exudative (PSE) problem in pork
79
 

18

 
4
 -
78
 -
88
 
32
  
of chicken broiler raw and cooked meat depending on their sex. Acta Veterinaria Brno.
78
        -
seed enriched diet on physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of broiler meat.
33
   
     -
            
        
2013. pp. 755-759
 
        
53

 
     51   
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition86



 
-
ity parameter in breast muscles (m. pectoralis major) of broiler chickens. Procedia Food
5
 
51

 
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45
 
     60

 
     9

 
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26
 

21
         
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80
 -
tion and incidence of pale, soft, and exudative broiler meat in a commercial processing
81
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condition in chicken meat used for commercial meat processing and its effect on
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 
connections between the redox system inbalance, protein oxidation and impaired qual-
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
Quality of Chicken Meat
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 
84
 

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  


 Ashwell M. Concepts of Functional Foods. ILSI - International LIfe Sciences Institute,


              
   
     
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 

24
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 Konieczka P, Czauderma M, Smulikowska S. The enrichment of chicken meat with
  
       223  
anifeedsci.2016.10.023
 Simopoulos AP. Summary of the NATO advanced research workshop on dietary n-3 and
    
119
 
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
 Simopoulos AP. Historical perspectives, conference conclusions and recommendations,

      
3-29. Chapter 1
            

23
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition88
 

  168
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 
    
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  
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18
 

81
      
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2012000200007
 
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 

      -
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131
 
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 
81
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Quality of Chicken Meat
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89
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              -
seed meal supplemented diet on growth performance, oxidative stability and qual-
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 
       
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           
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40
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition90
 -
nosine and anserine following histidine supplementation of commercial broiler feed
58

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46
              
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95
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 -
gin of meats on the basis of the content of anserine balenine and carnosine in skeletal
45
jsfa.2740450109
          
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 

16

             
          
76
       
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

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 HC W, Shiau CY. Proximate composition, free amino acids and peptides contents in
           
10


 

         
           -
tics and tissue selenium concentration in Aseel cockerels. Indian Journal of Animal
.51
             -
mance of laying hens and their subsequent progeny. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica.
40
 
wheat in feed for laying hens on table eggs quality. Bulgarian Journal of Animal Science.
22
     
79
        
84
               
performance and meat quality of broiler chickens. Czech Journal of Animal Science.
51

 -
45

 
-
6
 
selenium sources on growth performance, breast muscle selenium, glutathione per-
oxidase activity and oxidative stability in broilers. Czech Journal of Animal Science.
53

Animal Husbandry and Nutrition92
 -

88

 
           -
       
32

 
-

93
           
          
-
31

 -

195
ajog.2006.04.009
 -
   



            
106

             


372
 

29
 
67
archneurol.2010.84
Quality of Chicken Meat
http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.72865
93
 


 Boldyrev A, Bulygina E, Leinsoo T, Petrushanko I, Tsubone S, Abe H. Protection of
neuronal cells against reactive weaned oxygen species by carnosine and related com-
137
j.cbpc.2003.10.008
 Hipkiss A. Carnosine and its possible roles in nutrition and health. Advances in Food
57
 Trombley PQ, Hornung MS, Blakemore LJ. Interactions between carnosine and zinc
       
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      -
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        379 
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             
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 -
rence of the pregnancy disease preeclampsia in women from the United Kingdom.
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     183 
cmaj.101095
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition94
... Poultry production continues to grow globally, both in developed and in the developing countries whereas, fresh chicken meat and chicken products is universally popular and become the consumers' first choice (Kralik et al., 2018). In Egypt, broilers are raised on deep litter, which can be easily contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms as L. monocytogenes (Dahshan et al., 2016). ...
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Up to now, there has been limited information regarding the circulation of pathogenic Listeria species in poultry and their contact handlers. The present study was, therefore, planned to evaluate the potential existence of Listeria spp. in different poultry species and their products as well as their contact workers at Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt and to address the antimicrobial profile of Listeria isolates using classical microbiological techniques and multiplex PCR targeting three virulence-associated genes (iap, hlyA, and actA). The study included cloacal swabs from different poultry species (n =200), poultry carcasses (n = 25), poultry products (25 samples each of chicken luncheon and frozen chicken breast fillets), chicken eggs (n = 50) and stool specimens from the contact workers (n = 25). Findings showed that 60 samples out of 350 (17.14%) were found to be positive to Listeria spp., which were identified as follow: L. innocua (28.3%), L. ivanovii (28.3%), L. monocytogenes (15%) and L. grayi (15%), L. seeligeri (10%) and L. welshimeri (3.3%). L. monocytogenes showed high resistance to nalidixic acid (100%) followed by neomycin (85.1%), streptomycin (80%), cefo-taxime (65%) and penicillin g (58.3%). Results could likely suggest that poultry and poultry products had a significant role in dissemination and transmission of virulent and multidrug resistant L. monocytogenes which represent a potential risk particularly in the absence of strict hygienic practices and preventive measures. A constant monitoring of pathogenic L. monocytogenes is thus urgently needed to avoid the dissemination of such pathogenic strains in food production chains.
... The increase in the consumption of chicken meat worldwide is due to factors such as low cost, a lack of religious limitations, ease of accessibility, ease of transformation into processed foods [8], and its sensory and nutritional properties [9]. Chicken meat is recognized for its various health benefits, such as its low contents of cholesterol, calories and fat [10]; chicken meat also has a high content of proteins with high biological value [11], as well as essential amino acids and unsaturated fatty acids necessary in the human diet [12]. ...
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Currently, one of the fastest growing industries in the world is the poultry industry; however, the increase in demand has generated the production of various byproducts, such as bones, and these byproducts have a negative impact on the environment. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of glycation on the increase in antioxidant compounds and the formation of indicators of advanced glycation end products (AGE) in chicken bone hydrolysates; it also aimed to maximize the protein content, degree of hydrolysis and antioxidant content. Through analysis of variance, the content of AGE products (HMF and furfural) formed in the glycation process was analyzed. The chicken bone hydrolysate had a protein content of 1.42 g/l, a degree of hydrolysis of 17.2% and an antioxidant capacity of 8334 and 10,343 μmol ETrolox/l according to ABTS and ORAC evaluations, respectively. The glycation process increased the ORAC by 6.57%. The presence of hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural was determined in the glycated samples and detected at values between 0.05 and 0.22 and 0 and 0.26 ppm, respectively. In conclusion, hydrolysis and glycation are suitable alternatives that enable the use of chicken bones in producing food ingredients with higher added value. Graphical abstract
... Poultry meat is one of the most consumed meats worldwide, mainly due to the affordable price and the perceived healthy nutritional profile by comparison to red meat [1]. Chicken meat is the source of high-value proteins, minerals, and vitamins [2]. Moreover, poultry meat consumption as part of a well-balanced diet is linked to a lower risk of certain diseases, including obesity, cardiovascular diseases or type 2 diabetes mellitus [3]. ...
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The incorporation of sustainable protein sources in animal feeding is a growing trend. So far, no study has investigated in vitro digestion of meat, from broilers fed microalgae, in a human model. This research aimed to evaluate the effect of incorporating Chlorella vulgaris in the broilers diet on human protein digestibility, and mineral bioaccessibility. The study used 240 male Ross 308 broilers randomly allocated to groups fed a control diet or a diet where soybean meal was replaced with 10% (CV10%), 15% (CV15%), or 20% (CV15%) of C. vulgaris for 40 days. The microalga supplementation increased the protein and lowered the fat content in the muscle. Results on the percentages of amino acids highlighted that arginine and threonine proportions increased and lysine and cysteine proportions decreased with microalga inclusion. CV15% and CV20% meat had higher amount of K, Ca, Mg, P, and Fe in raw breasts, improving the nutrient composition of the meat. Cooking caused a decrease in Na and K and an increase in other minerals. CV20% had higher bioaccessibility of K, Ca, Mg, P, and Mg, compared to the control. Replacing soybean meal in broiler feed with higher concentrations of C. vugaris could improve the digestibility of meat protein and minerals.
... Broiler chickens grow faster than any other meat source (Kralik et al., 2018), offering good value in terms of animal protein, which has been scientifically proved to be better than plant protein (Berrazaga et al., 2019).The meat is recognized because of its high quality nutrients, ease of preparation and delicious taste (Wahyono and Utami, 2018). In the modern intensive poultry production, feed constitutes up to 70% of the expenditure in intensive poultry enterprise (Thirumalaisamy et al., 2019). ...
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... Chicken meat is preferred over other meats because it contains more protein and less cholesterol (Kralik et al. 2018). Poultry meat, particularly broiler meat, is widely accepted in almost all the countries despite cultural taboos about meat consumption (Sudharsan et al. 2021). ...
... The majority of consumers prefer chicken meat due to its lower price in comparison to beef and pork meats. Chicken meat is characterized by high nutritional value due to its high protein content and low fat content, besides relatively high polyunsaturated fatty acids concentrations (Kralik et al., 2018). Moreover, chicken meat is suitable for processing different meat products than other types of meats due to its light color, good texture, and neutral flavor and consequently produce favorable flavor and texture profiles according to the consumer and market requirements (Barbut, 2012). ...
... Among different vitamins in chicken meat, niacin (vitamin B3) is contained in highest portion. Also, when compared to other types of meat, it contains more vitamins A and B6 [21]. Here, microbial culture, biochemical reactions, and molecular PCR method were used for identification of Yersinia enterocolitica. ...
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