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... Countries around the world experiencing rapid economic growth and development such as China are beginning to feel the effects of groundwater dependence and can benefit from low cost groundwater monitoring methods [49]. Groundwater telemetry technology has long existed, but pairing it with free and open source software to create scalable networks is a novel contribution with potential to lower the financial and technical barrier of entry into real-time groundwater monitoring. ...
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Population growth, climate uncertainties, and unsustainable groundwater pumping challenge aquifer sustainability worldwide. Efficient and data-driven groundwater supply management is a necessity to maintain essential water-dependent functions. Currently, managers lack the cost-effective, scalable, and reliable groundwater monitoring systems needed to collect vital groundwater data. Existing automated groundwater monitoring systems tend to be cost-prohibitive, and manual methods lack the spatial or temporal resolution to sufficiently meet critical water modeling, management, and policy objectives. In this study, we developed a fully automated, open source, low cost wireless sensor network (LCSN) for real-time groundwater data acquisition, processing, and visualization in the South American Subbasin Groundwater Observatory (GWO), located in California, USA. We demonstrate the steps taken to create the GWO, including field, hardware, software, and data pipeline components so that it may be easily reproduced in new areas. We find that the GWO is comparable in cost to manual measurements at a weekly measurement frequency, and costs between three and four times less than comparable commercially available telemetry and dashboard systems, largely due to the use of free open source software to acquire, clean, store, and visualize data. The open source-powered GWO thus lowers the financial and technical barrier of entry for real-time groundwater monitoring, creating the potential for more informed water management worldwide, particularly in regions whose managers are restricted by the high capital costs of commercial monitoring systems.
... At present, around 40% of the global agriculture and two-fifth of Indian agriculture is dependent on groundwater irrigation (Rodell et al. 2018;Thomas and Femiglietti 2019). The decline in the water table is the combined effect of a rapid increase in population, urbanization, industrialization, and overexploitation of groundwater for irrigation (Tiwari et al. 2009;Megdal, 2018, Wang et al. 2018. The regions of high population density, tube wells dependent on agricultural irrigation, and groundwater overdevelopment are facing a secular decline of groundwater table in the world (Shah et al. 2000). ...
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An increase in the human population, urbanization, industrialization, infrastructural development, and current agricultural practices acts as major factors leading to the decline of the groundwater table in the region. The present study analyzes the noticeable effect of anthropogenic pressure on the groundwater table in the Bist-Doab region in Punjab, India, from 1996 to 2016. Statistical techniques, viz., Mann-Kendall Z statistics and Sen’s slope, were used to estimate the water table decline in the area. The results indicate that there was a slight increase in the groundwater table in the Kandi belt of Siwalik foothills and south-western parts of the region. In the rest of the areas, a significant declining trend was observed in the groundwater table. The decline in the water table ranged from 56 to 149 cm per year in the pre- and post-monsoon seasons due to increasing in rice cultivated area, which is an alarming situation in the aquifer system of the region. Hence, to reduce the further decline of the groundwater table, water management practices need to be encouraged in the region. There is requiring immediate attention to change the present land-use/cover practices and to grow less water-consuming crops instead of high water-consuming crops to reduce the pressure on groundwater.
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A fractured karst aquifer polluted by petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) for several decades was selected to study the influences of PH on the hydrochemical environment. The research was implemented using the hydrochemical indicators (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na++K+, HCO3−, NO3−, Cl−, F−, and SO42−) and PH with the help of GIS and origin platforms, statistical analyses, and graphical methods. Results showed that PH had significant influences on the hydrochemical environment over the last several decades. The main principle elements influencing the evolution processes of hydrochemical environment were carbonates dissolution, leaking wastewater, and biodegradation processes from 1977 to 2019, and hydrochemistry types changed from HCO3–Ca–Mg and HCO3–Ca to HCO3–Cl–Ca–Mg and HCO3-Cl-Ca. The contribution rate of PH biodegradation to the representative ion increased at first, then decreased over time, which has a close relationship with the variation characteristics of PH. The dynamic evolution processes of hydrochemical environment have significances for indentifying the influencing mechanisms of hydrogeochemical reactions, which could provide valuable scientific suggestions for the local administrators to take effective efforts to optimize and protect the karst groundwater environment.
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