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Enterprise Architecture for The Sensing Enterprise A Research Framework

Conference Paper (PDF Available)  · May 2018with130 Reads
DOI: 10.1109/ICoICT.2018.8528721}
Conference: Conference: 6th International Conference on Information and Communication Technology (ICoICT), At Bandung, West Java, INDONESIA
Abstract
Internet of Things (IoT) will change many things, open up opportunities and enabling something that was not possible before. IoT provides sensing capability so that enterprise has better global context awareness. This is the Sensing Enterprise, an enterprise that obtains multidimensional information from physical or virtual objects in a connected environment. This sensing capability is expected to increase the capacity and capability of the enterprise in responding to sustainability challenges. This paper proposes a research framework as an alternative guide for researchers to produce various artifacts or theories to realize The Sensing Enterprise for sustainability achievement. The method used in developing the framework is modification/adaptation of transdisciplinary research model and information system research model. This framework has three main area consist of scientific base, enterprise architecture research process and sustainability achievement.
Enterprise Architecture for The Sensing Enterprise
A Research Framework
Abstract—Internet of Things (IoT) will change many things,
open up opportunities and enabling something that was not
possible before. IoT provides sensing capability so that enterprise
has better global context awareness. This is the Sensing
Enterprise, an enterprise that obtains multidimensional
information from physical or virtual objects in a connected
environment. This sensing capability is expected to increase the
capacity and capability of the enterprise in responding to
sustainability challenges. This paper proposes a research
framework as an alternative guide for researchers to produce
various artifacts or theories to realize The Sensing Enterprise for
sustainability achievement. The method used in developing the
framework is modification/adaptation of transdisciplinary
research model and information system research model. This
framework has three main area consist of scientific base,
enterprise architecture research process and sustainability
achievement.
Keywords—Internet of Things; the sensing enterprise;
enterprise architecture; sustainability; enterprise
I.
I
NTRODUCTION
Sustainability is a new reality for enterprise. Designing an
enterprise to achieve sustainability is no longer an option but
rather a competitive factor and even an obligation that must be
met [1][2]. This reality increases the complexity faced by the
enterprise so that holistic adjustments, whether technical,
tactical, strategic, and philosophical are necessary to address
those challenges.
Internet of Things (IoT) will change many things, open up
opportunities and enabling something that was not possible
before. IoT is not just a technological advancement of physical
or hardware, moreover, IoT can change the way we think, the
way we work, the way we judge or perceive things.
One of the impacts that IoT promises against enterprise is
to provide "sensing" capability so that enterprise has a better
global context awareness and anticipates future decisions by
using multidimensional information obtained from physical or
virtual objects generated from a connected environment, this is
the so-called The Sensing Enterprise [3]. With these
capabilities, Enterprise is expected to be more empowered to
respond to sustainability challenges.
In the context of sustainability achievement, IoT adoption
by an enterprise needs to be done with a conceptual, planned
and measurable step. Enterprise Architecture (EA) is suitable
for that purpose, because the EA concept provides a guide in
adaptive and flexible enterprise design [1]. IoT adoption using
EA in the context of sustainability achievement is a complex
challenge faced by enterprise. For these purposes, the scope of
the EA needs to be expanded, from a self-oriented enterprise
perspective to a perspective considering the enterprise in-
environment ecosystemic perspective [4] [5], and it is
necessary to change the fundamental view of the enterprise
concept itself from the view of enterprise as a social entity [6]
transformed into enterprise as a smart complex entity [7].
There has been no EA concept that is deemed adequate to
deal with such complex challenges [4]. Previous studies
[8][9][10][11][1][12] between the EA and Sustainability
domains indicate the need for further study to ensure that the
sustainability aspects (economy, social and environmental)
[13] are considered more comprehensively within the concept
of EA. Some findings indicate that environmental aspect is
dominantly studied, there is no research that focus on social
aspect or focus on three aspects simultaneously, whereas
integration of these three aspects is needed [14]. While
previous studies between the domains of EA and IoT are more
dominantly focused on a set of standards, methods, tools and
devices or physical-oriented hardware [15], there is still less
research with a management perspective or strategic level. To
understand and address these complex challenges, a coherent
research framework that uses a transdisciplinary approach is
required [16]. A framework that allows research to be done
iteratively, multi-perspectively and integratively. An enterprise
architecture research framework that accommodates IoT
concept implementation in enterprise for sustainability
achievement. The context of the research framework can be
seen in Fig.1.
This paper proposes a research framework in Enterprise,
EA, IoT, and Sustainability domains that can serve as a
preliminary idea and guide a research topic that can be used
across disciplines (economics, social, natural and engineering)
by academics or practitioners. This research framework is
expected to address the problems encountered in
transdisciplinary research in the sustainability domain. The
issues are: (1)Lack of problem awareness and problem
framing, (2)Imbalance of problem ownership (3)Lack of
legitimacy from the team or actors involved in the research, (4)
Conflicts between methodological standards, (5) Lack of
integration across areas of knowledge, organizational structure,
communication style, or technical aspects, (6) discontinous
Erda Guslinar Perdana
School of Applied Science Telkom University;
and School of Electrical Engineering Informatics
Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB)
Bandung, Indonesia
erda.guslinar@gmail.com
Husni S Sastramihardja
Faculty of Computer Science
Esa Unggul University
Jakarta, Indonesia
husni@esaunggul.ac.id
Iping Supriana Suwardi
School of Electrical Engineering and
Informatics
Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB)
Bandung, Indonesia
iping@informatika.org
2018 6th International Conference on Information and Communication Technology (ICoICT)
ISBN: 978-1-5386-4571-0 (c) 2018 IEEE 353
Fig.1. Research Context of Enterprise, EA, IoT for Sustainability
Participation, (7) The ambiguous and unclear results study,
(8) Fear to fail, (9) Limited options of solution for specific
cases, (10)Lack of legitimacy from transdisciplinary outcomes,
(11) Copyright issues and capitalization of research results,
(12) The difficulty of tracking the scientific and social impact
of research.
II. T
HEORY
A. Sustainability
Sustainability is often associated with the concept of
sustainable development which means an effort to achieve
economic growth by considering environmental preservation
[17]. According to [18] Sustainable Development is a
development aimed at meeting current needs by not threatening
the ability of future generations to meet their needs, it’s a
change process where the activities of exploitation, direction of
investment, direction of technology development and
institutional change are in a harmony so as to increase the
current and future potential to meet all human needs and
aspirations.
Governments and the global community should be
concerned about sustainable development. To achieve it, the
government sets out sustainability goals at the national level,
which are derived in the form of regulations, policies,
incentives and various standards. The impact on the enterprise
will be reflected in the enterprise's efforts to fit in or comply
with the regulations, policies, incentives and standards set by
the government. Enterprise should respond concretely in the
form of Statutes-Bylaws, Strategic Plans, Programs,
Organizational Structure, Organizational Culture, standard
operating procedures and its Enterprise Architecture.
Sustainability is also known as the triple bottom line
concept covering economic, social and environmental aspects
[13]. Sustainability as a science (sustainability science) is a
growing field of research that examines the interaction between
nature and social systems as well as examines how the
interaction effect on sustainability achievement agenda, this
science covers various disciplines ranging from natural
sciences, social and technological [19]. Research in
sustainability requires a transdisciplinary approach, an
approach that focuses more on problem solving than on
disciplinary boundaries [20][16].
Sustainability can also be viewed as a quality of the
Enterprise Growth Process. The growth of enterprise is not just
about the ratios of growth, capital and efficiency, but also
considering how it develops and impacts on the issues of life
faced by society. As an enterprise grows and takes into
consideration the economic, social and environmental aspects,
the enterprise already has improved quality in its growth
process [17].
B. Enterprise Architecture
Enterprise Architecture can be defined as a set of
structured, harmonized and integrated plans for business and IT
landscape representation of an enterprise [21]. Enterprise
architecture can also be defined as a coherent principle, model,
and method of designing and realizing organizational
structures, business processes, information systems and
enterprise infrastructure [22]. EA provides a coherent and
consistent guide in enterprise design, determining how the
design-implementation process at the ontology level can be
operationalized at the implementation level [23]. EA can be
used as an instrument to articulate the future direction of an
enterprise, the mechanism of coordination and the actual
steering system for transformation, with key concepts
consisting of stakeholder concern, architectural principles,
architectural description, architectural decision, architectural
rational, models, views, viewpoints and Framework [24][25].
EA can be used also as a communication bridge between a
functional perspective and a constuction perspective [6].
C. Internet of Things (IoT) and The Sensing Enterprise
IoT is a paradigm where everyday objects are equipped
with the ability to identify, sense, process and connect to the
network so that the objects can communicate with other objects
or even with other services via the Internet to meet a certain
purpose [26]. IoT is an advancement of information
communication technology associated with Ubiquitous
communication-connectivity, Pervasive computing and
Ambient Intelligence [27]. IoT opens up a new opportunity that
will fundamentally change things. IoT also encourages
fundamental changes in how to exchange information between
entities.
At the enterprise level, IOT has the opportunity to
strengthen and transform enterprise into Sensing Enterprise, an
enterprise that anticipates future decisions by using
multidimensional information obtained from physical or virtual
objects and providing added value to the information. This will
be the profile of future Enterprise, enterprise in the internet era,
which has a new standard of Quality of Being (QB) consisting
of [7]; 1) Humanistic Enterprise, 2) Inventive Enterprise, 3)
Agile Enterprise, 4) Cognisant Enterprise, 5) Sensing
Enterprise, 6) Community-oriented Enterprise, 7) Liquid
Enterprise, 8) Glocal Enterprise, 9) Sustainable Enterprise.
354
D. Transdisciplinary and Information System Research
Kuhn states that research is an activity that contributes to
the understanding of a phenomenon. Phenomenon is an entity
behavior that attracts researchers interest, while understanding
is a knowledge that allows the prediction of the behavior of an
aspect in a phenomenon. Doing research means trying to find
answers to questions in our limited knowledge. The role of
research is to provide methods for obtaining answers by
studying facts using scientific method parameters [28].
Research is usually used to describe things or events, to seek a
connection between phenomena or to predict future events, or
in other words research aims to describe, explain or predict
[29]. Research in the field of information systems is a process
that aims to develop theory or artifact or justify the theory and
artifacts [30].Contribution in research can be [31]:
Invention
This research aims to find new solutions in new
problem domains. The real invention is a radical
breakthrough, an original step that is different from the
way of thinking and work that existed before. In the
invention process, there may be a condition in which
the problem domain understanding is minimal or even
the domain of the problem has not existed, and the
effective artifacts as a solution may not be available.
Researchers may only be guided by "interestingness".
In this context, the conceptualization of the problem
can be a key contribution
Improvement
Research that aims to develop new solutions to the
problem domain that already exist or known before.
The purpose of this type of research is to find a better
(more effective more efficient) solution.
Exaptation
Research that aims to try out existing solutions in a
context for use in other contexts. The context of this
issue can be closely related to its original context or
may not be related to its original context
Routine Design
Research that aims to apply existing solutions in
existing domains. This type of research has a very
minimal contribution to knowledge, although it is
possible to discover new things in the process
Transdisciplinary research is an approach involving various
disciplines that generally consists of 3 stages : (1)identification,
problem structuring, and problem framing in a collaborative
and multi perspective manner, (2)solution oriented problem
analysis and knowledge creation that is easy to transfer and, (3)
application, integration or utilization of research results in the
real world [16].
III. M
ETHODS
,
A
NALISYS AND
R
ESULT
The method used in building this research framework is
adaptation/modification of transdisciplinary research process
model [32], and an information system research framework
model [30]. This two model colaborate for bridging problem
solving and scientific innovation and emphasizing the rigor and
relevant aspects. Both models provide references related to
separation of concern, input, process, output, outcome and
utilization of research results in the real world. The
modification / adaptation process considers the relevance of the
various component models for the contextual needs of the
research framework. There are at least four relational
perspectives commonly found in cross-domain research, as
shown in Fig. 2.
Type 0
Type 0 indicates separate state between research
domains. Each domain develops research limited to
their respective concerns.
Type 1
Type 1 indicates intersection between research
domains where the concern-collaboration begin to
occur.
Type 2
Type 2 indicates an intersection involving more than 2
domains in context of a particular domain. There are x
and y zones that need to be integrated.
Type 3
Type 3 indicates a situation in which a research
domain tries to place another domain as part of its
ontology. Z zone illustrates that for the achievement of
sustainability, the enterprise ontology is enriched with
the concept of EA and IoT as part of itself.
The proposed Research Framework is within the
perspectives of type 2 and type 3 with sustainability as its main
context. The research framework consists of 3 main areas that
will be explained below (Fig. 3).
A. Scientific Base
This area contains a knowledge base of research-related
knowledge disciplines. This area is a rigor aspect that provides
the scope of consideration and concern of the research. This
area also accommodates various research results that have been
done before and will be updated by newest research result. This
area consist of:
Enterprise
Enterprise Architecture
Internet of Things
Sustainability
Other Domain
Corpus of Knowledge
Corpus of Knowledge contain translation of cross
discipline terminology-vocabulary. The purpose of this
component is bridging language gap between cross-
discipline to increase shared understanding.
355
Fig. 2 Perspective in Cross Domain Research
B. Enterprise Architecture Research Process
This area describes the steps of Enterprise Architecture
research process. Begin with problem framing, its an attempt to
understand and interpret the problem in a multiperspective
discipline. This process is expected to provide a sense of
comprehensive-whole and increase the problem awareness and
balancing the problem ownership. The second stage is to
determine the point of integration. Integration becomes a
crucial issue in transdisciplinary research. The following are
the types of integration in transdisciplinary research [33]:
(1)Integration through conceptual clarification and framing
theory, (2)Integration through research question and hypothesis
formulation, (3) Integration through the development and use
of a methodology, (4)Integration through assessment
procedures, (5)Integration through model development and
application, (6)Integration through artifacts, services, and
products as boundary objects, (7)Integration through
procedures and research organization's instruments. Each
research should choose one integration point. The next stage is
building/developing theories or artefact. Research output is
produced in this stage. Hevner [30] define artefact can be a
construct (vocabulary and symbols), models (abstraction and
representation), methods (algorithm and practice), and
instantiation (implemented and prototype system).
The next stage is justify/ evaluate the theories or artefact
that have been produced. This process can be done iteratively
until the certain level of truth achieved.
C. Sustainability Achievement
This area is the main context of the research. An area of
problems and opportunities in the domain of sustainability. The
content may be various agreements, rules, policies, goals,
reality gaps in the field or other forms.
Research results contribute as a problem solutions or
knowledge innovation. Strategy, measurement, concept, and
prototype are the contribution of research result to
sustainability achievement area. Generic insights, methodical,
theorical innovation, new research question, new corpus of
cross discipline are the contribution of research result to
scientific base.
356
Fig. 3 Proposed Research Framework
IV. C
ONCLUSION
This research framework is an attempt to systemically
articulate the ideas that arise in answering sustainability issues
from the enterprise architecture standpoint. All the components
in the research framework can be used experimentally,
meaning not rigidly binding as a stage or a prerequisite. Future
research prospects that can be done include detailing each
component of the three main areas of this research framework
and establishing a linkage map and developing a standardized
"language" as a foothold in documenting all inputs, processes
and research outcomes.
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