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In the present research paper an attempt has been made to know the present scenario of public library system in India and its Challenges and opportunities. It also covers the role of central government in development of public libraries in the country and current status of public libraries i.e. numbers, acts, provision made for financial resources, infrastructure facilities at the end few important suggestions are given for the further development of public libraries in India.
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THE PRESENT SCENARIO OF PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN INDIA: CHALLENGES
AND OPPORTUNITIES
SHIVANAND D. KAMBLE*
B. D. KUMBAR**
ROHIT R. PATIL***
*Junior Research Fellow (RGNF), Dept. of Library and Information Science Karnatak University, Dharwad, Karnataka, India
**Professor, Dept. of Library and Information Science Karnatak University, Dharwad, Karnataka, India
***Junior Research Fellow, Dept. of Library and Information Science Karnatak University, Dharwad, Karnataka, India
Abstract
In the present research paper an attempt has been made to know the present scenario
of public library system in India and its Challenges and opportunities. It also covers the role
of central government in development of public libraries in the country and current status of
public libraries i.e. numbers, acts, provision made for financial resources, infrastructure
facilities at the end few important suggestions are given for the further development of public
libraries in India.
Keywords: Public Library, Library Cess, ICTs, Central Government, RRRLF, Public Library Acts.
Introduction
Many libraries were established in ancient India by emperors and scholars. Famous
universities like Nalanda and Taxasila had magnificent libraries with a massive collection of
manuscripts covering the universe of knowledge. Though libraries exist from ancient times in
India, modern concept of public library has its origin in the provincial and British colonial
period when many public libraries were established across the country. After independence as
India doing economically well now its focus is on building knowledge society. Public
libraries can be very helpful in achieving this endeavor. Public library is most often called as
People’s University; it is an intellectual nucleus of the society. A public library has been
regarded as an integral part of the social framework from the very beginning. It is considered
as a social institution, charged with the responsibility of serving the information needs of the
society without any discrimination. In a developing country like India, special emphasis is
laid on literacy, adult education, formal and informal education. The UNESCO defines Public
Library as "the local gateway to knowledge, provides a basic condition for lifelong learning,
independent decision making and cultural development of the individual and social groups".
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Role of Central Government
The Central Government of India took important steps to boost up the public library
system in India after independence. At the time of independence, India was facing a host of
challenges on several fronts. Nevertheless, the public library scenario in India improved
considerably during the post independence period. The Delhi public library deserves special
mention. It was founded in 1951 as the first UNESCO Public Library Pilot Project under the
joint auspices of UNESCO and Government of India. The purpose of the library was to adapt
“modern techniques to Indian conditions” and to serve as a model public library for Asia.
Various Committees constituted by Central Government
1. The Government of India, Ministry of Education appointed an Advisory Committee
for Libraries in 1957, under the Chairmanship of Shri K P Sinha, former Director of
Public Instruction, Bihar. This committee recommended the need for library
legislation for each state.
The salient features of this Bill are:
Constitution of State Library Authority as an apex body to advise the
Government in the matter of library developments;
Establishment of State Library Directorate for direction and controlling of
Library services;
Constitution of District Library Committee in each district;
Treatment of employees as government servant;
Collection of library cess at the rate of 6 paise per rupee on house tax and
Property tax.
2. As a follow-up action of the Advisory Committee, the Ministry of Education,
Government of India appointed a committee under the Chairmanship of Dr. M D Sen.
The Committee drafted Model Public Libraries Bill in the year 1963.
3. During 4th Five year plan, the Planning Commission had appointed a working Group
on Libraries in 1964 with Dr. V. K. R. V. Rao as its Chairman.
4. National Policy on Library & Information System (NAPLIS) 1985, a committee was
set up under the chairmanship of Prof. D.P. Chattopadhya to formulate a National
Policy on Library & Information System (NAPLIS).
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5. National Mission on Libraries
National Mission on Libraries i.e. High Level Committee, has been set up by Ministry of
Culture, Government of India, dated 4th May, 2012 in pursuance of National Knowledge
Commission recommendations for sustained attention for development of Libraries and
Information Science Sector. National Mission on Libraries set up four working groups and
after deliberating on the recommendations of the working groups formulated the scheme
"National Mission on Libraries (NML) up gradation of libraries providing service to the
public.
Delivery of Book and News Paper Act
In 1954, the Delivery of Book Act was passed and later amended in 1956 to include
newspapers also. As per the Act every publisher in India obliged to deposit one copy each of
its publications to the National Library in Calcutta, the Asiatic Society Library, Mumbai,
Connemara Public Library, Chennai and Delhi Public Library, New Delhi. This act has
helped the national library and three other regional libraries to collect and deposit the Indian
publications.
National Knowledge Commission
The Commission headed by Mr. Sam Pitroda as its Chairman and there are other
5(five) members, who are renowned persons in different fields of knowledge. It is a high-
level advisory body to the Prime Minister of India, with a mandate to guide policy and
generate reforms. The Commission is the world’s first body of its kind. The prime focus of
the Commission is on five key areas of the knowledge paradigm, such as i) Access ii)
Literacy III) Language iv) Translation v) Libraries.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy Library Foundation
The year 1972 is a significant year in the history of library movement in India. The
country was celebrating the silver jubilee of independence. It was also the bicentenary year of
the birth of Raja Ram Mohan Roy, a pioneer social reformer who had stressed the need for
modern education for the progress of the nation. The year was also being celebrated as an
International Book Year with the slogan BOOKS FOR ALL. Emphasis was laid on
promotion of reading habit among the masses for betterment of their lives. It was in this
auspicious year that Raja Ram Mohan Roy Library Foundation (RRRLF) was established in
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May, 1972 by the Ministry of Culture, Govt. of India to spread library services all over the
country in cooperation with State Governments, Union Territory Administration and
Organization is working in the field.
The Foundation is an autonomous organization fully financed by the Ministry of
Culture, Government of India. It is registered under the West Bengal Societies Registration
Act, 1961. The basic idea behind establishing the foundation was to take the library
movement not only to small towns and villages but also to the remotest corner, in cooperation
with the state governments, union territory administrations and other organizations engaged
in the library service and mass education.
Objectives
RRRLF functions as a promotional agency, an advisory and consultancy organization,
a funding body for public library development in India. Some important objectives are:
o To promote library movement in the country.
o To enunciate a national library policy and to help build up a national library
system.
o To provide financial and technical assistance to libraries.
o To provide financial assistance to organisations, regional or national engaged
in the promotion of library development.
o To publish appropriate literature and to act as a clearing house of ideas and
information on library development in India and abroad.
o To promote research in problems of library development.
o To advise the government on all matters pertaining to the library development
in the country.
Financial Assistance
RRRLF promotes public library services rendering book and financial assistance to
the public libraries under different schemes of assistance in collaboration with Library
Department or Department in charge of Public Library Services. The scheme of
assistance is of two types, viz., Matching and Non-Matching schemes.
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Matching Schemes:
Assistance under these schemes are given from the resources shared on matching basis
with the States/Union Territory Administrations. For developed States 50: 50, Developing
and lagging states 60: 40 & North-Eastern States 90: 10.
1 Assistance towards building up of adequate stock of books and reading materials.
2 Assistance towards development of Rural Book Deposit Centers and Mobile Library
Services.
3 Assistance towards Organization of Seminars, Workshops, Training Courses
(Orientation / Refresher), Book Exhibitions and Library Awareness Programmes.
4 Assistance towards purchase of Storage Materials, Reading Room Furniture and Library
Equipment like Card Cabinet, Fire Extinguisher, Generator, Water Cooler etc. including
Photo Copier.
5 Assistance to Public Libraries towards Increasing Accommodation.
6 Assistance to Public Libraries to Acquire Computer with accessories for library
application and TV, CD Player, DVD Player for Educational Purposes.
Non-Matching:
Assistance under these schemes are given fully from the Foundation's own resources
1 Assistance towards building up of adequate stock of books through central selection.
2 Assistance to voluntary organizations (NGOs) providing public library services.
3 Assistance to develop Different Sections of General Public Libraries.
4 Assistance to public libraries towards Celebration of 50/60/75/100/125/150 years and
the like.
5 Assistance towards Organization of Seminar/Conference by Professional
Organisation, Local Bodies, and NGOs engaged in Public Library Development /
Library Movement and University Departments of Library Science.
6 Assistance towards collection and compilation of library statistics through official and
non-official agencies.
7 Assistance to centrally sponsored libraries.
8 Assistance towards Establishment of RRRLF Children's Corner.
9 Assistance towards providing facilities for Differently Abled Users in the libraries and
Establishment of RRRLF Differently Abled Corner.
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The Foundation has taken long strides in promoting library services in the country
during 11th Five Year Plan:
During the first year of the 11th Five Year Plan (2007-2012), the plan grant stepped
up to Rs. 2419.12 lakhs including a special grant of Rs. 219.12 lakhs for North-Eastern states
and contribution received from various state governments also reached Rs. 1212.37 lakhs. In
the 2nd Year of the 11th Five Year Plan the Foundation received Rs. 3000.00 lakhs including
a special grant of Rs. 350.00 lakhs for North-Eastern states and contribution received from
various state governments also reached Rs. 1524.76 Lakhs. Consequently the amount of
assistance rendered to the libraries during the 3rd year of the 11thFive Year Plan (2009-10)
was Rs. 4814.39 lakhs and the Foundation received Rs. 3500.00 lakhs including a special
grant of Rs. 350.00 Lakhs for North Eastern States and contribution received from various
State Governments also reached Rs. 1650.89 lakhs. During the 4th year of the 11th Five-year
plan the RRRLF had received Rs. 3500.00 lakh including a special grant of Rs. 350.00 lakh
for North-Eastern states and contribution received from various state governments also
reached Rs 2359.02 lakh. In 5th year of the 11th Five-Year Plan, Foundation has received Rs.
3200.00 Lakh under Plan, Rs. 300.00 Lakh for North-Eastern States and Rs. 50.00 Lakh for
Tribal Sub-Plan as well as State/UT Contribution of Rs. 2245.38. Over the last thirty two
years the Foundation has covered about a little over thirty-two thousand libraries at different
levels.
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Table 1: State-wise Number of Public Libraries Existing in India
Sl.
No
Name of States
State
Central
Libraries
District/
District
Central
Libraries
City/
City
Central/
Town
Libraries
Regional/
Divisional/
Sub
Divisional
Libraries
Urban/
Taluka/
Municipal/
Block/
Branch
Libraries
Rural
libraries
(Govt,
RRRLF,
NGO,
Grant in
aid)
Aided/
Grant In
Aid
Libraries
Others
(Mobile,
CLIC,
Circle,
Open to
public
after
School
Hours,
RSKL,
etc…)
Total
1 Andaman Nicobar
Island (UT) 1 - - - - 5 - - 6
2 Andhra Pradesh - 13 - - 887 252 - 1234 2386
3 Arunachal Pradesh 1 18 - 16 34 - - 38 107
4 Assam 1 21 - 14 4 313 - - 353
5 Bihar and Jharkand 1 26 69 5 - 4000 - - 4101
6 Chandigarh (UT) 1 - - 1 4 - - - 6
7 Chhattisgarh - 1 - - - - - 1609 1610
8 Dadra & Nagar
Haveli (UT) 1 1 1 - - - - - 3
9 Daman & Diu (UT) - - 2 - - - - - 2
10 Delhi (NCT) 1 - 114 - - - - 104 219
11 Goa 1 1 - 17 58 - 103 180
12 Gujarat 2 26 513 - 116 3587 - 232 4476
13 Haryana 1 6 43 - - - - 50
14 Himachal Pradesh 1 11 2 - - 207 - - 221
15 Jammu and Kashmir 1 14 44 1 - - - 60
16 Karnataka 1 29 26 - 590 5766 - 255 6667
17 Kerala 1 7 - - - 7648 - - 7656
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18 Lakshadweep (UT) 1 - - - - - - - 1
19 Madhya Pradesh 1 38 - 5 - - - 97000 97044
20 Maharashtra 1 35 - 6 - - 11998 1 12041
21 Manipur 1 10 - - - 44 - 356 411
22 Meghalaya 1 7 - - - - - 86 94
23 Mizoram 1 5 - - - 459 - - 465
24 Nagaland 1 8 - - - 600 - - 609
25 Odisha 1 17 - 1 312 600 - 69 1000
26 Puducherry 1 2 52 - - - - - 55
27 Punjab 1 11 68 - - 500 - - 580
28 Rajasthan 1 33 7 - 9 - - 228 278
29 Sikkim 1 3 - 5 - - 2 - 11
30 Tamil Nadu 1 32 - - 1925 1821 - 752 4531
31 Telangana 1 10 - 2 562 105 - - 680
32 Tripura 1 7 1 8 6 2 - 20 45
33 Uttarkhanda - 9 - - 16 - - 22 47
34 Uttar Pradesh 1 70 - - - 20 - 1981 2072
35 West Bengal 1 19 232 2209 7 2756 5224
Total
153291
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Though growth and development of public libraries in general has been remarkable.
But according to the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA)
standards, there should be one public library for every 3,000 people. Thus, with over one
billion people, India needs more than 343,000 public library units. As Table 1 depicts that,
there are 30 states and 6 union territories in India out of which 28 states and 4 UTs are having
state central libraries. In total there are approximately 153291 public libraries existing in
India. The data in the table clearly indicates that the fast developing country like India needs
more and more number of public libraries in each and every nook and corner of the country.
Then only each and every citizen can involve in the development of the nation.
Looking into the data presented in table, good number of public libraries established
only in the southern part of India as compared to remaining four parts. It is the high time for
the nation in general and RRRLF in particular they have to bring pressure on state
governments for the enactment of library legislation as well as to establish public libraries in
every nook and corner of the state. Then only the state can prepare and provide better and
fully knowledgeable citizens to its nation. The government of India also has to take up the
responsibility and help each and every state in planning and establishing the quality public
libraries throughout the country under digital India project.
Public Library Acts
In India ‘Public Libraries' included in Item 12 of the State List in the Seventh
Schedule of the Indian Constitution. It is a State subject, hence out of 30 states and 6 union
territories only 18 states and one Union Territory have been enacted (till 2009) public library
acts. But out of 19 only 10 state have made some progress in the growth and development of
public libraries in India (Table 2). Among them Karnataka state has made a lot of progress in
the field of public libraries in India.
Table 2: Public Library Acts in India
Sl. No. Name of States Year of Establishment Library Cess Collected
1 Tamil Nadu 1948 5 paise per rupee on property tax
2 Andhra Pradesh 1960 8 paise per rupee on property tax
3 Karnataka 1965 5 paise on land revenue and state
govt grants
4 Maharashtra 1967 No Library Cess
5 West Bengal 1979 No Library Cess
6 Manipur 1988 No Library Cess
7 Kerala 1989 Surcharge on property tax
8 Haryana 1989 Surcharge on property tax
9 Mizoram 1993 No Library Cess
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10 Goa 1993 Surcharge on IMFL @ 0.50 ps/ltr.
11 Gujarat 2001 No Library Cess
12 Odisha 2001 No Library Cess
13 Uttarakhand 2005 No Library Cess
14 Rajasthan 2006 No Library Cess
15 Uttar Pradesh 2006 No Library Cess
16 Lakshadweep (UT) 2007 No Library Cess
17 Bihar 2008 No Library Cess
18 Chhattisgarh 2009 No Library Cess
19 Arunachal Pradesh 2009 No Library Cess
Source: RRRLF website, Retrieved from http://rrrlf.nic.in/
Table 2 shows that in India only 18 states and one Union Territory have been enacted
library legislation Tamil Nadu is the first state to do so followed by Andhra Pradesh and
Karnataka etc. Out of these states only in six states library legislation provision has been
made for the collection of library cess, Viz., Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala,
Haryana and Goa. The remaining states do not have any provision for library cess in the
absence this they have to depend upon state government grants. This is one of the major
drawbacks for the overall development of the public library system in India.
Challenges
Though, India is fast developing country public libraries still remains largely
underdeveloped. There are good number of challenges ahead to achieve the goal of
‘information for all’. Some of the challenges are:
Uneven Development
The growth and development of public libraries in India is uneven. Some of the states
those they have been enacted library legislations they are doing extremely good in the
development of public libraries. Other states are lagging behind for example all the
south Indian states are having well structured public library system; whereas North
Indian states are having very poor infrastructure as well as less number of public
libraries. For Example UP.
Public Library Acts
In the growth and development of public library system the public library legislation
plays a very fundamental and crucial role. It gives framework for the system, but in
India out of 29 states and 6 Union Territories only 18 states and one Union territory
have been enacted public library acts. Even after completion of seven decades of
India’s independence, 11 states and 5 UTs yet to enact Public Library Acts.
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Organizational Structure
Public library is state subject in India therefore every state has its own organizational
structure. The public library system differs from one state to another, so there is no
uniformity in the organizational structure of public library system; each state is
practicing its own system. . For example some states are established only District
Libraries on the other hand few of the states are established District Central Library
and City Central Library in accordance with the provision made in the act.
Financial Resources
Finance is the biggest constraint in the development of public libraries. The financial
resources play an indispensible role in the growth and development of public libraries.
The present scenario of the public library system in India, the public libraries are not
receiving required funds from state government as well as from union government.
The current system of financing of public libraries in India are highly diverse. Even
among the states those they have been enacted library acts there is lot of variations
among the financial resources. For instance some of the states have introduced library
cess but in the majority of the states it is missing.
Supporting school education
One of the great challenges for public library is to provide library services to the
primary and secondary school children, because in India most of the schools do not
provide any library services especially schools which are runned by government. A
Public Library will be a great help for school going children in their formal as well as
informal education.
Low Literacy Rate
Even though literacy rate is increasing (52.21 in 1991, 64.83 in 2001, 74.04 in 2011)
in India still considerable percentage (25.96%) of the population is having low
literacy rate or illiterate, adding to that there is a minimum awareness about public
libraries among the people.
Changing Needs of Patrons
We are living in an internet era where the information needs of users are constantly
changing due to information explosion. It is a real challenge for public libraries keep
themselves updated and to attend the needs and requirements of every user in the
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knowledge society. For example young people are more tech savvy so they would like
to use technology oriented services in libraries.
Information and Communication Technology (ICTs)
ICT has made a huge impact in every aspects of human life. Public library is not an
exception to this. But unfortunately the majority of the Public libraries have lagging
behind in the use of Information and Communication Technologies. Gone were the
days when printed books and journals are only medium for getting knowledge. Its
prime challenge for the public libraries to use ICTs for spreading knowledge.
Access for All
Public library is a gate way to knowledge it must be open to all the citizens without
any discrimination or hindrances. UNESCO public library manifesto 1994 proclaims
that the services of the public library are provided on the basis of equality of access
for all, regardless of age, race, sex, religion, nationality, language or social status.
Indian public libraries are far behind in providing Knowledge access for all. Like,
differently abled, elderly people, ethnic minorities, etc.
Staff
The well trained and adequate number of staff can play a dominant role in providing
effective and efficient services to the users of the public library. At present there is
inadequacy of trained and competent staff to render effective public library services,
forcing most services to be operated by semi and non-professional staff, which
damages information organization and services. The problem of educated and
competent professionals preferring to work in special and academic libraries than
public libraries. The reason for this is the salary is very less as compare to academic
and special libraries.
Opportunities
Along with challenges there are many opportunities:
Strengthening Indian economy is a prime opportunity. It helps to flow in more finance
to public library system.
India’s population itself is a biggest opportunity for public libraries, if it is taken
positively.
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Increasing literacy rate among people in recent years is a major advantage as well as
positive point; it will definitely maximize the use of public libraries resources and
services.
Slowly but surely use of information and communication technology in libraries is
positive development. It helps in satisfying different needs of users also speed up
library functions and provides easy access to required information.
Supporting the formal and informal education especially among the school going
children because most of the government schools do not have libraries and library
services are very rare.
More than 60% of Indian population is residing in rural areas it is a great opportunity
for public libraries to establish and develop more and more rural libraries to
encourage and support rural elite.
Public libraries in India are having great opportunity to play a vital role in promoting
knowledge and skills in the society.
India is multi cultured country therefore; public libraries are the great prospect to
work as cultural agent.
Suggestions
Looking into the vast publications, size of the country, languages, and religions
etc…the country needs varieties of the public libraries to be established in every nook
and corner of the country. At present the number of public libraries in the country
according to IFLA Standard they are completely in adequate. Hence it is suggested to
the government of India as well as state governments on priorities basis importance
should be given to establish large number of public libraries. Then only nation can
expect the involvement of each and every public in the socio-economic and cultural
development of the nation.
All states should enact public library legislation, (Where it has not been enacted) and
also there should be provision made for collection of library cess in the legislation
itself, otherwise they have to fully depend upon state government grants.
The public library system in India should be modified while keeping in mind the latest
developments in the field of information and communication technology (ICT). Then
only it is possible to provide even minimum network based services for the urban and
rural elite.
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Finance is the only hurdle for the development of public libraries in India. Hence it is
suggested that the state government and local governments should ensure proper
financial support for the proper growth of public library system in India.
Authorities at the state level should take initiatives for the automation of public
libraries keeping in mind the recent developments in libraries to provide the optimum
level of services to the user community.
Public library system in India should give more emphasis for the acquisition of Non-
Book Materials like video, audio-books, Radio, tapes and films etc. to help illiterate
and neo-literates in the rural areas.
The state governments should make all-out efforts to strengthen rural libraries and
enable them to serve rural folk by creating minimum infrastructure facilities.
Public libraries must come forward to assist and render special services to the patrons
like differently abled, elderly people and ethnic minorities.
Use of ICT should be maximized in order to satisfy the changing needs of users.
Adequate number of trained and competent staff (Professional and Non-Professional)
should be appointed to render the effective services.
RRRLF should bring pressure on the state governments to enact the library legislation
in the states where it has not been enacted.
Conclusion
In India there has been uneven growth of public libraries among the different states or
regions and even with local library system. India is yet to achieve goal of information for all.
The regions that are economically backward are badly served. The public libraries in rural
areas are in bad shape as compared to urban areas. In addition to this the needs of special
groups like children, differently abled, elderly people, and ethnic minorities have been largely
left out and they are to be addressed on priority basis.
Central, state governments and RRRLF these three must come forward and take an
initiation for the proper development of public library system in India. It is the crucial time
for RRRLF to communicate a strong message to all the states those they have been not
enacted the library legislation, are to be enacted otherwise they are not eligible for the
foundation grants. The established fact is that the public libraries can play a vital role in the
development of states as well as a nation. Public libraries have a social mission and are
devoted to the development of the community. It has been providing information, education,
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leisure and entertainment for decades and will continues these functions for many more years
in future.
References
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2. Kumbar, B. D. (2005). Growth and Development of Public Library System in India
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http://www.nigd.org/libraries/mumbai/reports/article-4.pdf.
3. National Mission on Libraries, Ministry of Culture, Government of India, Retrieved
from http://www.nmlindia.nic.in
4. Public Libraries in India - Present Scenario by K.K.Banerjee Retrieved from
delnet.nic.in
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First Monday, 2009, 14 (7) retrieved from
http://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/2588
6. RRRLF website, Retrieved from http://rrrlf.nic.in/
7. UNESCO Public Library Manifesto, 1994, Retrieved from
http://www.unesco.org/webworld/libraries/manifestos/libraman.html Wani, Zahid
Ashraf. Development of Public Libraries in India. Library Philosophy and Practice
(e-journal).2008, Paper 165. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.un
... For the Indian team, the GL country grant presented the opportunity to launch the India Public library Movement (IPLM), moving beyond the period of funding and working to revitalize public libraries throughout the country. The main challenge here is one of scale: researchers (Kamble et al., 2016) have calculated that India has more than 153,000 public libraries (although they neglected to say how they arrived at this figure or when the data were collected). An indication of the size of the problem of galvanizing public libraries into PMM providing free public access to the internet is that if one of the states already involved with the IPLM, Uttar Pradesh, was a country, it would rank as the fifth largest in the world by population [2]. ...
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The Future Public Libraries are filled with Electronic resources. All the public libraries in India need to improve the e-resource to meet the user information needs. Implementation of Information Communication Technology in the district central public libraries have to instruct their subordinate public libraries in the district., The utilization of the Internet, and conduction of the Digitization process in the district central public libraries in the state. The Community has to give their support to the implementation of information communication technologies and develop the electronic resource in the Central Coastal district public libraries in Andhra Pradesh. Sometime in the future, a public library is a room with a bookshelf and a computer terminal per person. The shelves are mostly bare of books and instead stuffed with old conventional documents. The Indian government had initiated to development of the public library system. Chadavadam makistam (We Love Reading) concept was initiated by the government of Andhra Pradesh, to improve the reading habitation in school level children.
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Full-text available
The Future Public Libraries are filled with Electronic resources. All the public libraries in India need to improve the e-resource to meet the user information needs. Implementation of Information Communication Technology in the district central public libraries have to instruct their subordinate public libraries in the district., The utilization of the Internet, and conduction of the Digitization process in the district central public libraries in the state. The Community has to give their support to the implementation of information communication technologies and develop the electronic resource in the Central Coastal district public libraries in Andhra Pradesh. Sometime in the future, a public library is a room with a bookshelf and a computer terminal per person. The shelves are mostly bare of books and instead stuffed with old conventional documents. The Indian government had initiated to development of the public library system. Chadavadam makistam (We Love Reading) concept was initiated by the government of Andhra Pradesh, to improve the reading habitation in school level children.
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The Future Public Libraries are filled with Electronic resources. All the public libraries in India need to improve the e-resource to meet the user information needs. Implementation of Information Communication Technology in the district central public libraries have to instruct their subordinate public libraries in the district., The utilization of the Internet, and conduction of the Digitization process in the district central public libraries in the state. The Community has to give their support to the implementation of information communication technologies and develop the electronic resource in the Central Coastal district public libraries in Andhra Pradesh. Sometime in the future, a public library is a room with a bookshelf and a computer terminal per person. The shelves are mostly bare of books and instead stuffed with old conventional documents. The Indian government had initiated to development of the public library system. Chadavadam makistam (We Love Reading) concept was initiated by the government of Andhra Pradesh, to improve the reading habitation in school level children.
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Public libraries are plays a vital role in the society in terms of social, cultural and economic developments. Availability of public libraries in a society directly and indirectly reflects the knowledge of the people. By examining the historical movement of public libraries in different regions, we are better equipped to identify the existing gaps in the field of libraries and thereby provide valuable directions in the establishment of new libraries. The scope of this study is to give a bird’s eye view and critical analysis of age-old public libraries which existed in pre-independence India. Further it provides a detailed accounts of selected prominent public libraries during the same period. The existence of public libraries in pre-independence India can be broadly divided into three parts -ancient period (before 1200 AD), medieval period (1200 A.D. – 1757 A.D.) and the British period (1757 A.D. – 1947 A.D.). Hence, historical research of public libraries using perspective approach will help us understand the effectiveness and impact of public libraries in the society.
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